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§ 1926.450 29 CFR Ch.

XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

such as snow, ice, dust, or temperature Bricklayers’ square scaffold means a


extremes, are not a factor. supported scaffold composed of framed
Wet location. See ‘‘Location.’’ squares which support a platform.
Carpenters’ bracket scaffold means a
Subpart L—Scaffolds supported scaffold consisting of a plat-
form supported by brackets attached to
building or structural walls.
AUTHORITY: Section 107, Contract Work Catenary scaffold means a suspension
Hours and Safety Standards Act (Construc-
scaffold consisting of a platform sup-
tion Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333); Secs. 4, 6, 8,
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 ported by two essentially horizontal
(29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor’s and parallel ropes attached to struc-
Order No. 1–90 (55 FR 9033); and 29 CFR Part tural members of a building or other
1911. structure. Additional support may be
provided by vertical pickups.
SOURCE: 61 FR 46104, Aug. 30, 1996, unless
otherwise noted. Chimney hoist means a multi-point
adjustable suspension scaffold used to
§ 1926.450 Scope, application and defi- provide access to work inside chim-
nitions applicable to this subpart. neys. (See ‘‘Multi-point adjustable sus-
pension scaffold’’.)
(a) Scope and application. This sub-
Cleat means a structural block used
part applies to all scaffolds used in
at the end of a platform to prevent the
workplaces covered by this part. It
platform from slipping off its supports.
does not apply to crane or derrick sus-
Cleats are also used to provide footing
pended personnel platforms, which are
on sloped surfaces such as crawling
covered by § 1926.550(g). The criteria for
boards.
aerial lifts are set out exclusively in
Competent person means one who is
§ 1926.453.
capable of identifying existing and pre-
(b) Definitions. Adjustable suspension dictable hazards in the surroundings or
scaffold means a suspension scaffold working conditions which are unsani-
equipped with a hoist(s) that can be op- tary, hazardous, or dangerous to em-
erated by an employee(s) on the scaf- ployees, and who has authorization to
fold. take prompt corrective measures to
Bearer (putlog) means a horizontal eliminate them.
transverse scaffold member (which Continuous run scaffold (Run scaffold)
may be supported by ledgers or run- means a two- point or multi-point ad-
ners) upon which the scaffold platform justable suspension scaffold con-
rests and which joins scaffold uprights, structed using a series of inter-
posts, poles, and similar members. connected braced scaffold members or
Boatswains’ chair means a single- supporting structures erected to form a
point adjustable suspension scaffold continuous scaffold.
consisting of a seat or sling designed to Coupler means a device for locking
support one employee in a sitting posi- together the tubes of a tube and cou-
tion. pler scaffold.
Body belt (safety belt) means a strap Crawling board (chicken ladder) means
with means both for securing it about a supported scaffold consisting of a
the waist and for attaching it to a lan- plank with cleats spaced and secured to
yard, lifeline, or deceleration device. provide footing, for use on sloped sur-
Body harness means a design of straps faces such as roofs.
which may be secured about the em- Deceleration device means any mecha-
ployee in a manner to distribute the nism, such as a rope grab, rip-stitch
fall arrest forces over at least the lanyard, specially-woven lanyard, tear-
thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoul- ing or deforming lanyard, or automatic
ders, with means for attaching it to self-retracting lifeline lanyard, which
other components of a personal fall ar- dissipates a substantial amount of en-
rest system. ergy during a fall arrest or limits the
Brace means a rigid connection that energy imposed on an employee during
holds one scaffold member in a fixed fall arrest.
position with respect to another mem- Double pole (independent pole) scaffold
ber, or to a building or structure. means a supported scaffold consisting

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.450

of a platform(s) resting on cross beams Independent pole scaffold (see ‘‘Double


(bearers) supported by ledgers and a pole scaffold’’).
double row of uprights independent of Interior hung scaffold means a suspen-
support (except ties, guys, braces) from sion scaffold consisting of a platform
any structure. suspended from the ceiling or roof
Equivalent means alternative designs, structure by fixed length supports.
materials or methods to protect Ladder jack scaffold means a sup-
against a hazard which the employer ported scaffold consisting of a platform
can demonstrate will provide an equal resting on brackets attached to lad-
or greater degree of safety for employ- ders.
ees than the methods, materials or de- Ladder stand means a mobile, fixed-
signs specified in the standard. size, self-supporting ladder consisting
Exposed power lines means electrical of a wide flat tread ladder in the form
power lines which are accessible to em- of stairs.
ployees and which are not shielded Landing means a platform at the end
from contact. Such lines do not include of a flight of stairs.
extension cords or power tool cords.
Large area scaffold means a pole scaf-
Eye or Eye splice means a loop with or fold, tube and coupler scaffold, systems
without a thimble at the end of a wire
scaffold, or fabricated frame scaffold
rope.
erected over substantially the entire
Fabricated decking and planking work area. For example: a scaffold
means manufactured platforms made
erected over the entire floor area of a
of wood (including laminated wood, and
room.
solid sawn wood planks), metal or
other materials. Lean-to scaffold means a supported
scaffold which is kept erect by tilting
Fabricated frame scaffold (tubular
it toward and resting it against a
welded frame scaffold) means a scaffold
building or structure.
consisting of a platform(s) supported
on fabricated end frames with integral Lifeline means a component con-
posts, horizontal bearers, and inter- sisting of a flexible line that connects
mediate members. to an anchorage at one end to hang
Failure means load refusal, breakage, vertically (vertical lifeline), or that
or separation of component parts. Load connects to anchorages at both ends to
refusal is the point where the ultimate stretch horizontally (horizontal life-
strength is exceeded. line), and which serves as a means for
Float (ship) scaffold means a suspen- connecting other components of a per-
sion scaffold consisting of a braced sonal fall arrest system to the anchor-
platform resting on two parallel bear- age.
ers and hung from overhead supports Lower levels means areas below the
by ropes of fixed length. level where the employee is located
Form scaffold means a supported scaf- and to which an employee can fall.
fold consisting of a platform supported Such areas include, but are not limited
by brackets attached to formwork. to, ground levels, floors, roofs, ramps,
Guardrail system means a vertical bar- runways, excavations, pits, tanks, ma-
rier, consisting of, but not limited to, terials, water, and equipment.
toprails, midrails, and posts, erected to Masons’ adjustable supported scaffold
prevent employees from falling off a (see ‘‘Self-contained adjustable scaf-
scaffold platform or walkway to lower fold’’).
levels. Masons’ multi-point adjustable suspen-
Hoist means a manual or power-oper- sion scaffold means a continuous run
ated mechanical device to raise or suspension scaffold designed and used
lower a suspended scaffold. for masonry operations.
Horse scaffold means a supported scaf- Maximum intended load means the
fold consisting of a platform supported total load of all persons, equipment,
by construction horses (saw horses). tools, materials, transmitted loads,
Horse scaffolds constructed of metal and other loads reasonably anticipated
are sometimes known as trestle scaf- to be applied to a scaffold or scaffold
folds. component at any one time.

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§ 1926.450 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

Mobile scaffold means a powered or fall. It consists of an anchorage, con-


unpowered, portable, caster or wheel- nectors, a body belt or body harness
mounted supported scaffold. and may include a lanyard, decelera-
Multi-level suspended scaffold means a tion device, lifeline, or combinations of
two-point or multi-point adjustable these.
suspension scaffold with a series of Platform means a work surface ele-
platforms at various levels resting on vated above lower levels. Platforms
common stirrups. can be constructed using individual
Multi-point adjustable suspension scaf- wood planks, fabricated planks, fab-
fold means a suspension scaffold con- ricated decks, and fabricated plat-
sisting of a platform(s) which is sus- forms.
pended by more than two ropes from Pole scaffold (see definitions for
overhead supports and equipped with ‘‘Single-pole scaffold’’ and ‘‘Double
means to raise and lower the platform (independent) pole scaffold’’).
to desired work levels. Such scaffolds Power operated hoist means a hoist
include chimney hoists. which is powered by other than human
Needle beam scaffold means a platform energy.
suspended from needle beams. Pump jack scaffold means a supported
Open sides and ends means the edges scaffold consisting of a platform sup-
of a platform that are more than 14 ported by vertical poles and movable
inches (36 cm) away horizontally from support brackets.
a sturdy, continuous, vertical surface Qualified means one who, by posses-
(such as a building wall) or a sturdy, sion of a recognized degree, certificate,
continuous horizontal surface (such as or professional standing, or who by ex-
a floor), or a point of access. Exception: tensive knowledge, training, and expe-
For plastering and lathing operations rience, has successfully demonstrated
the horizontal threshold distance is 18 his/her ability to solve or resolve prob-
inches (46 cm). lems related to the subject matter, the
Outrigger means the structural mem- work, or the project.
ber of a supported scaffold used to in- Rated load means the manufacturer’s
crease the base width of a scaffold in specified maximum load to be lifted by
order to provide support for and in- a hoist or to be applied to a scaffold or
creased stability of the scaffold. scaffold component.
Outrigger beam (Thrustout) means the Repair bracket scaffold means a sup-
structural member of a suspension ported scaffold consisting of a platform
scaffold or outrigger scaffold which supported by brackets which are se-
provides support for the scaffold by ex- cured in place around the circum-
tending the scaffold point of attach- ference or perimeter of a chimney,
ment to a point out and away from the stack, tank or other supporting struc-
structure or building. ture by one or more wire ropes placed
Outrigger scaffold means a supported around the supporting structure.
scaffold consisting of a platform rest- Roof bracket scaffold means a rooftop
ing on outrigger beams (thrustouts) supported scaffold consisting of a plat-
projecting beyond the wall or face of form resting on angular-shaped sup-
the building or structure, the inboard ports.
ends of which are secured inside the Runner (ledger or ribbon) means the
building or structure. lengthwise horizontal spacing or brac-
Overhand bricklaying means the proc- ing member which may support the
ess of laying bricks and masonry units bearers.
such that the surface of the wall to be Scaffold means any temporary ele-
jointed is on the opposite side of the vated platform (supported or sus-
wall from the mason, requiring the pended) and its supporting structure
mason to lean over the wall to com- (including points of anchorage), used
plete the work. It includes mason tend- for supporting employees or materials
ing and electrical installation incor- or both.
porated into the brick wall during the Self-contained adjustable scaffold
overhand bricklaying process. means a combination supported and
Personal fall arrest system means a suspension scaffold consisting of an ad-
system used to arrest an employee’s justable platform(s) mounted on an

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.451

independent supporting frame(s) not a points that accept runners, bearers,


part of the object being worked on, and and diagonals that can be inter-
which is equipped with a means to per- connected at predetermined levels.
mit the raising and lowering of the Tank builders’ scaffold means a sup-
platform(s). Such systems include roll- ported scaffold consisting of a platform
ing roof rigs, rolling outrigger systems, resting on brackets that are either di-
and some masons’ adjustable supported rectly attached to a cylindrical tank or
scaffolds. attached to devices that are attached
Shore scaffold means a supported scaf- to such a tank.
fold which is placed against a building Top plate bracket scaffold means a
or structure and held in place with scaffold supported by brackets that
props. hook over or are attached to the top of
Single-point adjustable suspension scaf- a wall. This type of scaffold is similar
fold means a suspension scaffold con- to carpenters’ bracket scaffolds and
sisting of a platform suspended by one form scaffolds and is used in residen-
rope from an overhead support and tial construction for setting trusses.
equipped with means to permit the Tube and coupler scaffold means a sup-
movement of the platform to desired ported or suspended scaffold consisting
work levels. of a platform(s) supported by tubing,
Single-pole scaffold means a supported erected with coupling devices con-
scaffold consisting of a platform(s) necting uprights, braces, bearers, and
resting on bearers, the outside ends of runners.
which are supported on runners secured Tubular welded frame scaffold (see
to a single row of posts or uprights, and ‘‘Fabricated frame scaffold’’).
the inner ends of which are supported Two-point suspension scaffold (swing
on or in a structure or building wall. stage) means a suspension scaffold con-
Stair tower (Scaffold stairway/tower) sisting of a platform supported by
means a tower comprised of scaffold hangers (stirrups) suspended by two
components and which contains inter- ropes from overhead supports and
nal stairway units and rest platforms. equipped with means to permit the
These towers are used to provide access raising and lowering of the platform to
to scaffold platforms and other ele- desired work levels.
vated points such as floors and roofs.
Unstable objects means items whose
Stall load means the load at which
strength, configuration, or lack of sta-
the prime-mover of a power-operated
bility may allow them to become dis-
hoist stalls or the power to the prime-
located and shift and therefore may
mover is automatically disconnected.
not properly support the loads imposed
Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaf-
on them. Unstable objects do not con-
fold means a platform resting directly
stitute a safe base support for scaf-
on the rungs of step ladders or trestle
folds, platforms, or employees. Exam-
ladders.
ples include, but are not limited to,
Stilts means a pair of poles or similar
barrels, boxes, loose brick, and con-
supports with raised footrests, used to
crete blocks.
permit walking above the ground or
working surface. Vertical pickup means a rope used to
Stonesetters’ multi-point adjustable sus- support the horizontal rope in catenary
pension scaffold means a continuous run scaffolds.
suspension scaffold designed and used Walkway means a portion of a scaf-
for stonesetters’ operations. fold platform used only for access and
Supported scaffold means one or more not as a work level.
platforms supported by outrigger Window jack scaffold means a plat-
beams, brackets, poles, legs, uprights, form resting on a bracket or jack
posts, frames, or similar rigid support. which projects through a window open-
Suspension scaffold means one or ing.
more platforms suspended by ropes or
other non-rigid means from an over- § 1926.451 General requirements.
head structure(s). This section does not apply to aerial
System scaffold means a scaffold con- lifts, the criteria for which are set out
sisting of posts with fixed connection exclusively in § 1926.453.

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§ 1926.451 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

(a) Capacity. (1) Except as provided in to fit around uprights when side brack-
paragraphs (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5) ets are used to extend the width of the
and (g) of this section, each scaffold platform).
and scaffold component shall be capa- (ii) Where the employer makes the
ble of supporting, without failure, its demonstration provided for in para-
own weight and at least 4 times the graph (b)(1)(i) of this section, the plat-
maximum intended load applied or form shall be planked or decked as
transmitted to it. fully as possible and the remaining
(2) Direct connections to roofs and open space between the platform and
floors, and counterweights used to bal- the uprights shall not exceed 91⁄2 inches
ance adjustable suspension scaffolds, (24.1 cm).
shall be capable of resisting at least 4 Exception to paragraph (b)(1): The re-
times the tipping moment imposed by quirement in paragraph (b)(1) to pro-
the scaffold operating at the rated load vide full planking or decking does not
of the hoist, or 1.5 (minimum) times apply to platforms used solely as walk-
the tipping moment imposed by the ways or solely by employees per-
scaffold operating at the stall load of forming scaffold erection or disman-
the hoist, whichever is greater. tling. In these situations, only the
(3) Each suspension rope, including planking that the employer establishes
connecting hardware, used on non-ad- is necessary to provide safe working
justable suspension scaffolds shall be conditions is required.
capable of supporting, without failure, (2) Except as provided in paragraphs
at least 6 times the maximum intended (b)(2)(i) and (b)(2)(ii) of this section,
load applied or transmitted to that each scaffold platform and walkway
rope. shall be at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide.
(4) Each suspension rope, including (i) Each ladder jack scaffold, top
connecting hardware, used on adjust- plate bracket scaffold, roof bracket
able suspension scaffolds shall be capa- scaffold, and pump jack scaffold shall
ble of supporting, without failure, at be at least 12 inches (30 cm) wide.
least 6 times the maximum intended There is no minimum width require-
load applied or transmitted to that ment for boatswains’ chairs.
rope with the scaffold operating at ei-
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (b)(2)(i): Pursuant to
ther the rated load of the hoist, or 2 an administrative stay effective November
(minimum) times the stall load of the 29, 1996 and published in the FEDERAL REG-
hoist, whichever is greater. ISTER on November 25, 1996, the requirement
(5) The stall load of any scaffold hoist in paragraph (b)(2)(i) that roof bracket scaf-
shall not exceed 3 times its rated load. folds be at least 12 inches wide is stayed
(6) Scaffolds shall be designed by a until November 25, 1997 or until rulemaking
qualified person and shall be con- regarding the minimum width of roof brack-
structed and loaded in accordance with et scaffolds has been completed, whichever is
later.
that design. Non-mandatory Appendix
A to this subpart contains examples of (ii) Where scaffolds must be used in
criteria that will enable an employer areas that the employer can dem-
to comply with paragraph (a) of this onstrate are so narrow that platforms
section. and walkways cannot be at least 18
(b) Scaffold platform construction. (1) inches (46 cm) wide, such platforms and
Each platform on all working levels of walkways shall be as wide as feasible,
scaffolds shall be fully planked or and employees on those platforms and
decked between the front uprights and walkways shall be protected from fall
the guardrail supports as follows: hazards by the use of guardrails and/or
(i) Each platform unit (e.g., scaffold personal fall arrest systems.
plank, fabricated plank, fabricated (3) Except as provided in paragraphs
deck, or fabricated platform) shall be (b)(3) (i) and (ii) of this section, the
installed so that the space between ad- front edge of all platforms shall not be
jacent units and the space between the more than 14 inches (36 cm) from the
platform and the uprights is no more face of the work, unless guardrail sys-
than 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide, except where tems are erected along the front edge
the employer can demonstrate that a and/or personal fall arrest systems are
wider space is necessary (for example, used in accordance with paragraph (g)

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.451

of this section to protect employees may be coated periodically with wood


from falling. preservatives, fire-retardant finishes,
(i) The maximum distance from the and slip-resistant finishes; however,
face for outrigger scaffolds shall be 3 the coating may not obscure the top or
inches (8 cm); bottom wood surfaces.
(ii) The maximum distance from the (10) Scaffold components manufac-
face for plastering and lathing oper- tured by different manufacturers shall
ations shall be 18 inches (46 cm). not be intermixed unless the compo-
(4) Each end of a platform, unless nents fit together without force and
cleated or otherwise restrained by the scaffold’s structural integrity is
hooks or equivalent means, shall ex- maintained by the user. Scaffold com-
tend over the centerline of its support ponents manufactured by different
at least 6 inches (15 cm). manufacturers shall not be modified in
(5)(i) Each end of a platform 10 feet or order to intermix them unless a com-
less in length shall not extend over its petent person determines the resulting
support more than 12 inches (30 cm) un- scaffold is structurally sound.
less the platform is designed and in- (11) Scaffold components made of dis-
stalled so that the cantilevered portion similar metals shall not be used to-
of the platform is able to support em- gether unless a competent person has
ployees and/or materials without tip- determined that galvanic action will
ping, or has guardrails which block em- not reduce the strength of any compo-
ployee access to the cantilevered end. nent to a level below that required by
(ii) Each platform greater than 10 paragraph (a)(1) of this section.
feet in length shall not extend over its (c) Criteria for supported scaffolds. (1)
support more than 18 inches (46 cm), Supported scaffolds with a height to
unless it is designed and installed so base width (including outrigger sup-
that the cantilevered portion of the ports, if used) ratio of more than four
platform is able to support employees to one (4:1) shall be restrained from tip-
without tipping, or has guardrails ping by guying, tying, bracing, or
which block employee access to the equivalent means, as follows:
cantilevered end. (i) Guys, ties, and braces shall be in-
(6) On scaffolds where scaffold planks stalled at locations where horizontal
are abutted to create a long platform, members support both inner and outer
each abutted end shall rest on a sepa- legs.
rate support surface. This provision (ii) Guys, ties, and braces shall be in-
does not preclude the use of common stalled according to the scaffold manu-
support members, such as ‘‘T’’ sec- facturer’s recommendations or at the
tions, to support abutting planks, or closest horizontal member to the 4:1
hook on platforms designed to rest on height and be repeated vertically at lo-
common supports. cations of horizontal members every 20
(7) On scaffolds where platforms are feet (6.1 m) or less thereafter for scaf-
overlapped to create a long platform, folds 3 feet (0.91 m) wide or less, and
the overlap shall occur only over sup- every 26 feet (7.9 m) or less thereafter
ports, and shall not be less than 12 for scaffolds greater than 3 feet (0.91 m)
inches (30 cm) unless the platforms are wide. The top guy, tie or brace of com-
nailed together or otherwise restrained pleted scaffolds shall be placed no fur-
to prevent movement. ther than the 4:1 height from the top.
(8) At all points of a scaffold where Such guys, ties and braces shall be in-
the platform changes direction, such as stalled at each end of the scaffold and
turning a corner, any platform that at horizontal intervals not to exceed 30
rests on a bearer at an angle other than feet (9.1 m) (measured from one end
a right angle shall be laid first, and [not both] towards the other).
platforms which rest at right angles (iii) Ties, guys, braces, or outriggers
over the same bearer shall be laid sec- shall be used to prevent the tipping of
ond, on top of the first platform. supported scaffolds in all cir-
(9) Wood platforms shall not be cov- cumstances where an eccentric load,
ered with opaque finishes, except that such as a cantilevered work platform,
platform edges may be covered or is applied or is transmitted to the scaf-
marked for identification. Platforms fold.

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§ 1926.451 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

(2) Supported scaffold poles, legs, suspension scaffold connections shall


posts, frames, and uprights shall bear be designed by an engineer experienced
on base plates and mud sills or other in such scaffold design.
adequate firm foundation. (ii) Counterweights shall be made of
(i) Footings shall be level, sound, non-flowable material. Sand, gravel
rigid, and capable of supporting the and similar materials that can be eas-
loaded scaffold without settling or dis- ily dislocated shall not be used as
placement. counterweights.
(ii) Unstable objects shall not be used (iii) Only those items specifically de-
to support scaffolds or platform units. signed as counterweights shall be used
(iii) Unstable objects shall not be to counterweight scaffold systems.
used as working platforms. Construction materials such as, but
(iv) Front-end loaders and similar not limited to, masonry units and rolls
pieces of equipment shall not be used of roofing felt, shall not be used as
to support scaffold platforms unless counterweights.
they have been specifically designed by (iv) Counterweights shall be secured
the manufacturer for such use. by mechanical means to the outrigger
(v) Fork-lifts shall not be used to beams to prevent accidental displace-
support scaffold platforms unless the ment.
entire platform is attached to the fork (v) Counterweights shall not be re-
and the fork-lift is not moved hori- moved from an outrigger beam until
zontally while the platform is occu- the scaffold is disassembled.
pied. (vi) Outrigger beams which are not
(3) Supported scaffold poles, legs, stabilized by bolts or other direct con-
posts, frames, and uprights shall be nections to the floor or roof deck shall
plumb and braced to prevent swaying be secured by tiebacks.
and displacement.
(vii) Tiebacks shall be equivalent in
(d) Criteria for suspension scaffolds. (1)
strength to the suspension ropes.
All suspension scaffold support devices,
such as outrigger beams, cornice (viii) Outrigger beams shall be placed
hooks, parapet clamps, and similar de- perpendicular to its bearing support
vices, shall rest on surfaces capable of (usually the face of the building or
supporting at least 4 times the load im- structure). However, where the em-
posed on them by the scaffold oper- ployer can demonstrate that it is not
ating at the rated load of the hoist (or possible to place an outrigger beam
at least 1.5 times the load imposed on perpendicular to the face of the build-
them by the scaffold at the stall capac- ing or structure because of obstruc-
ity of the hoist, whichever is greater). tions that cannot be moved, the out-
(2) Suspension scaffold outrigger rigger beam may be placed at some
beams, when used, shall be made of other angle, provided opposing angle
structural metal or equivalent tiebacks are used.
strength material, and shall be re- (ix) Tiebacks shall be secured to a
strained to prevent movement. structurally sound anchorage on the
(3) The inboard ends of suspension building or structure. Sound anchor-
scaffold outrigger beams shall be sta- ages include structural members, but
bilized by bolts or other direct connec- do not include standpipes, vents, other
tions to the floor or roof deck, or they piping systems, or electrical conduit.
shall have their inboard ends stabilized (x) Tiebacks shall be installed per-
by counterweights, except masons’ pendicular to the face of the building
multi-point adjustable suspension scaf- or structure, or opposing angle
fold outrigger beams shall not be sta- tiebacks shall be installed. Single
bilized by counterweights. tiebacks installed at an angle are pro-
(i) Before the scaffold is used, direct hibited.
connections shall be evaluated by a (4) Suspension scaffold outrigger
competent person who shall confirm, beams shall be:
based on the evaluation, that the sup- (i) Provided with stop bolts or shack-
porting surfaces are capable of sup- les at both ends;
porting the loads to be imposed. In ad- (ii) Securely fastened together with
dition, masons’ multi-point adjustable the flanges turned out when channel

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.451

iron beams are used in place of I- rity. Ropes shall be replaced if any of
beams; the following conditions exist:
(iii) Installed with all bearing sup- (i) Any physical damage which im-
ports perpendicular to the beam center pairs the function and strength of the
line; rope.
(iv) Set and maintained with the web (ii) Kinks that might impair the
in a vertical position; and tracking or wrapping of rope around
(v) When an outrigger beam is used, the drum(s) or sheave(s).
the shackle or clevis with which the (iii) Six randomly distributed broken
rope is attached to the outrigger beam wires in one rope lay or three broken
shall be placed directly over the center wires in one strand in one rope lay.
line of the stirrup. (iv) Abrasion, corrosion, scrubbing,
(5) Suspension scaffold support de- flattening or peening causing loss of
vices such as cornice hooks, roof more than one-third of the original di-
hooks, roof irons, parapet clamps, or ameter of the outside wires.
similar devices shall be: (v) Heat damage caused by a torch or
(i) Made of steel, wrought iron, or any damage caused by contact with
materials of equivalent strength; electrical wires.
(ii) Supported by bearing blocks; and (vi) Evidence that the secondary
(iii) Secured against movement by brake has been activated during an
tiebacks installed at right angles to overspeed condition and has engaged
the face of the building or structure, or the suspension rope.
opposing angle tiebacks shall be in- (11) Swaged attachments or spliced
stalled and secured to a structurally eyes on wire suspension ropes shall not
sound point of anchorage on the build- be used unless they are made by the
ing or structure. Sound points of an- wire rope manufacturer or a qualified
chorage include structural members, person.
but do not include standpipes, vents, (12) When wire rope clips are used on
other piping systems, or electrical con- suspension scaffolds:
duit. (i) There shall be a minimum of 3
(iv) Tiebacks shall be equivalent in wire rope clips installed, with the clips
strength to the hoisting rope. a minimum of 6 rope diameters apart;
(6) When winding drum hoists are (ii) Clips shall be installed according
used on a suspension scaffold, they to the manufacturer’s recommenda-
shall contain not less than four wraps tions;
of the suspension rope at the lowest (iii) Clips shall be retightened to the
point of scaffold travel. When other manufacturer’s recommendations after
types of hoists are used, the suspension the initial loading;
ropes shall be long enough to allow the (iv) Clips shall be inspected and re-
scaffold to be lowered to the level tightened to the manufacturer’s rec-
below without the rope end passing ommendations at the start of each
through the hoist, or the rope end shall workshift thereafter;
be configured or provided with means (v) U-bolt clips shall not be used at
to prevent the end from passing the point of suspension for any scaffold
through the hoist. hoist;
(7) The use of repaired wire rope as (vi) When U-bolt clips are used, the
suspension rope is prohibited. U-bolt shall be placed over the dead
(8) Wire suspension ropes shall not be end of the rope, and the saddle shall be
joined together except through the use placed over the live end of the rope.
of eye splice thimbles connected with (13) Suspension scaffold power-oper-
shackles or coverplates and bolts. ated hoists and manual hoists shall be
(9) The load end of wire suspension tested by a qualified testing labora-
ropes shall be equipped with proper size tory.
thimbles and secured by eyesplicing or (14) Gasoline-powered equipment and
equivalent means. hoists shall not be used on suspension
(10) Ropes shall be inspected for de- scaffolds.
fects by a competent person prior to (15) Gears and brakes of power-oper-
each workshift and after every occur- ated hoists used on suspension scaf-
rence which could affect a rope’s integ- folds shall be enclosed.

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§ 1926.451 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

(16) In addition to the normal oper- (iii) When hook-on and attachable
ating brake, suspension scaffold power- ladders are used on a supported scaffold
operated hoists and manually operated more than 35 feet (10.7 m) high, they
hoists shall have a braking device or shall have rest platforms at 35-foot
locking pawl which engages automati- (10.7 m) maximum vertical intervals.
cally when a hoist makes either of the (iv) Hook-on and attachable ladders
following uncontrolled movements: an shall be specifically designed for use
instantaneous change in momentum or with the type of scaffold used;
an accelerated overspeed. (v) Hook-on and attachable ladders
(17) Manually operated hoists shall shall have a minimum rung length of
require a positive crank force to de- 111⁄2 inches (29 cm); and
scend. (vi) Hook-on and attachable ladders
(18) Two-point and multi-point sus- shall have uniformly spaced rungs with
pension scaffolds shall be tied or other- a maximum spacing between rungs of
wise secured to prevent them from 163⁄4 inches.
swaying, as determined to be necessary (3) Stairway-type ladders shall:
based on an evaluation by a competent (i) Be positioned such that their bot-
person. Window cleaners’ anchors shall tom step is not more than 24 inches (61
not be used for this purpose. cm) above the scaffold supporting
(19) Devices whose sole function is to level;
provide emergency escape and rescue (ii) Be provided with rest platforms
shall not be used as working platforms. at 12 foot (3.7 m) maximum vertical in-
This provision does not preclude the tervals;
use of systems which are designed to (iii) Have a minimum step width of 16
function both as suspension scaffolds inches (41 cm), except that mobile scaf-
and emergency systems. fold stairway-type ladders shall have a
(e) Access. This paragraph applies to minimum step width of 111⁄2 inches (30
scaffold access for all employees. Ac- cm); and
cess requirements for employees erect- (iv) Have slip-resistant treads on all
ing or dismantling supported scaffolds steps and landings.
are specifically addressed in paragraph (4) Stairtowers (scaffold stairway/
(e)(9) of this section. towers) shall be positioned such that
(1) When scaffold platforms are more their bottom step is not more than 24
than 2 feet (0.6 m) above or below a inches (61 cm.) above the scaffold sup-
point of access, portable ladders, hook- porting level.
on ladders, attachable ladders, stair (i) A stairrail consisting of a toprail
towers (scaffold stairways/towers), and a midrail shall be provided on each
stairway-type ladders (such as ladder side of each scaffold stairway.
stands), ramps, walkways, integral pre- (ii) The toprail of each stairrail sys-
fabricated scaffold access, or direct ac- tem shall also be capable of serving as
cess from another scaffold, structure, a handrail, unless a separate handrail
personnel hoist, or similar surface is provided.
shall be used. Crossbraces shall not be (iii) Handrails, and toprails that
used as a means of access. serve as handrails, shall provide an
(2) Portable, hook-on, and attachable adequate handhold for employees
ladders (Additional requirements for grasping them to avoid falling.
the proper construction and use of (iv) Stairrail systems and handrails
portable ladders are contained in sub- shall be surfaced to prevent injury to
part X of this part—Stairways and employees from punctures or lacera-
Ladders): tions, and to prevent snagging of cloth-
(i) Portable, hook-on, and attachable ing.
ladders shall be positioned so as not to (v) The ends of stairrail systems and
tip the scaffold; handrails shall be constructed so that
(ii) Hook-on and attachable ladders they do not constitute a projection
shall be positioned so that their bot- hazard.
tom rung is not more than 24 inches (61 (vi) Handrails, and toprails that are
cm) above the scaffold supporting used as handrails, shall be at least 3
level; inches (7.6 cm) from other objects.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.451

(vii) Stairrails shall be not less than (v) Be provided with rest platforms at
28 inches (71 cm) nor more than 37 35-foot (10.7 m) maximum vertical in-
inches (94 cm) from the upper surface tervals on all supported scaffolds more
of the stairrail to the surface of the than 35 feet (10.7 m) high; and
tread, in line with the face of the riser (vi) Have a maximum spacing be-
at the forward edge of the tread. tween rungs of 163⁄4 inches (43 cm). Non-
(viii) A landing platform at least 18 uniform rung spacing caused by joining
inches (45.7 cm) wide by at least 18 end frames together is allowed, pro-
inches (45.7 cm) long shall be provided vided the resulting spacing does not ex-
at each level. ceed 163⁄4 inches (43 cm).
(ix) Each scaffold stairway shall be at (7) Steps and rungs of ladder and
least 18 inches (45.7 cm) wide between stairway type access shall line up
stairrails. vertically with each other between rest
(x) Treads and landings shall have platforms.
slip-resistant surfaces. (8) Direct access to or from another
(xi) Stairways shall be installed be- surface shall be used only when the
tween 40 degrees and 60 degrees from scaffold is not more than 14 inches (36
the horizontal. cm) horizontally and not more than 24
(xii) Guardrails meeting the require- inches (61 cm) vertically from the other
ments of paragraph (g)(4) of this sec- surface.
tion shall be provided on the open sides (9) Effective September 2, 1997, access
and ends of each landing. for employees erecting or dismantling
(xiii) Riser height shall be uniform, supported scaffolds shall be in accord-
within 1⁄4 inch, (0.6 cm) for each flight ance with the following:
of stairs. Greater variations in riser (i) The employer shall provide safe
height are allowed for the top and bot- means of access for each employee
tom steps of the entire system, not for erecting or dismantling a scaffold
each flight of stairs. where the provision of safe access is
(xiv) Tread depth shall be uniform, feasible and does not create a greater
within 1⁄4 inch, for each flight of stairs. hazard. The employer shall have a com-
(5) Ramps and walkways. (i) Ramps petent person determine whether it is
and walkways 6 feet (1.8 m) or more feasible or would pose a greater hazard
above lower levels shall have guardrail to provide, and have employees use a
systems which comply with subpart M safe means of access. This determina-
of this part—Fall Protection; tion shall be based on site conditions
(ii) No ramp or walkway shall be in- and the type of scaffold being erected
clined more than a slope of one (1) or dismantled.
vertical to three (3) horizontal (20 de- (ii) Hook-on or attachable ladders
grees above the horizontal). shall be installed as soon as scaffold
(iii) If the slope of a ramp or a walk- erection has progressed to a point that
way is steeper than one (1) vertical in permits safe installation and use.
eight (8) horizontal, the ramp or walk- (iii) When erecting or dismantling tu-
way shall have cleats not more than bular welded frame scaffolds, (end)
fourteen (14) inches (35 cm) apart which frames, with horizontal members that
are securely fastened to the planks to are parallel, level and are not more
provide footing. than 22 inches apart vertically may be
(6) Integral prefabricated scaffold ac- used as climbing devices for access,
cess frames shall: provided they are erected in a manner
(i) Be specifically designed and con- that creates a usable ladder and pro-
structed for use as ladder rungs; vides good hand hold and foot space.
(ii) Have a rung length of at least 8 (iv) Cross braces on tubular welded
inches (20 cm); frame scaffolds shall not be used as a
(iii) Not be used as work platforms means of access or egress.
when rungs are less than 111⁄2 inches in (f) Use. (1) Scaffolds and scaffold com-
length, unless each affected employee ponents shall not be loaded in excess of
uses fall protection, or a positioning their maximum intended loads or rated
device, which complies with § 1926.502; capacities, whichever is less.
(iv) Be uniformly spaced within each (2) The use of shore or lean-to scaf-
frame section; folds is prohibited.

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§ 1926.451 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

(3) Scaffolds and scaffold components unless they have been designed by a
shall be inspected for visible defects by registered professional engineer spe-
a competent person before each work cifically for such movement or, for mo-
shift, and after any occurrence which bile scaffolds, where the provisions of
could affect a scaffold’s structural in- § 1926.452(w) are followed.
tegrity. (6) The clearance between scaffolds
(4) Any part of a scaffold damaged or and power lines shall be as follows:
weakened such that its strength is less
Scaffolds shall not be erected, used,
than that required by paragraph (a) of
dismantled, altered, or moved such
this section shall be immediately re-
paired or replaced, braced to meet that they or any conductive material
those provisions, or removed from serv- handled on them might come closer to
ice until repaired. exposed and energized power lines than
(5) Scaffolds shall not be moved hori- as follows:
zontally while employees are on them,
Insulated lines Minimum distance Alternatives
voltage

Less than 300 volts .......................... 3 feet (0.9 m).


300 volts to 50 kv ............................ 10 feet (3.1m).
More than 50 kv ............................... 10 feet (3.1 m) plus 0.4 inches (1.0 cm) for 2 times the length of the line insulator, but
each 1 kv over 50 kv. never less than 10 feet (3.1 m).

Uninsulated lines Minimum distance Alternatives


voltage

Less than 50 kv ............................... 10 feet (3.1 m).


More than 50 kv ............................... 10 feet (3.1 m) plus 0.4 inches (1.0 cm) for 2 times the length of the line insulator, but
each 1 kv over 50 kv. never less than 10 feet (3.1 m).

EXCEPTION TO PARAGRAPH (f)(6): Scaffolds (10) Suspension ropes supporting ad-


and materials may be closer to power lines justable suspension scaffolds shall be of
than specified above where such clearance is a diameter large enough to provide suf-
necessary for performance of work, and only
ficient surface area for the functioning
after the utility company, or electrical sys-
tem operator, has been notified of the need
of brake and hoist mechanisms.
to work closer and the utility company, or (11) Suspension ropes shall be shield-
electrical system operator, has deenergized ed from heat-producing processes.
the lines, relocated the lines, or installed When acids or other corrosive sub-
protective coverings to prevent accidental stances are used on a scaffold, the
contact with the lines. ropes shall be shielded, treated to pro-
(7) Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, tect against the corrosive substances,
dismantled, or altered only under the or shall be of a material that will not
supervision and direction of a com- be damaged by the substance being
petent person qualified in scaffold erec- used.
tion, moving, dismantling or alter- (12) Work on or from scaffolds is pro-
ation. Such activities shall be per- hibited during storms or high winds
formed only by experienced and trained unless a competent person has deter-
employees selected for such work by mined that it is safe for employees to
the competent person. be on the scaffold and those employees
(8) Employees shall be prohibited are protected by a personal fall arrest
from working on scaffolds covered with system or wind screens. Wind screens
snow, ice, or other slippery material shall not be used unless the scaffold is
except as necessary for removal of such secured against the anticipated wind
materials. forces imposed.
(9) Where swinging loads are being (13) Debris shall not be allowed to ac-
hoisted onto or near scaffolds such that cumulate on platforms.
the loads might contact the scaffold, (14) Makeshift devices, such as but
tag lines or equivalent measures to not limited to boxes and barrels, shall
control the loads shall be used. not be used on top of scaffold platforms

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.451

to increase the working level height of (v) If the scaffold grounding lead is
employees. disconnected at any time, the welding
(15) Ladders shall not be used on scaf- machine shall be shut off; and
folds to increase the working level (vi) An active welding rod or
height of employees, except on large uninsulated welding lead shall not be
area scaffolds where employers have allowed to contact the scaffold or its
satisfied the following criteria: suspension system.
(i) When the ladder is placed against (g) Fall protection. (1) Each employee
a structure which is not a part of the on a scaffold more than 10 feet (3.1 m)
scaffold, the scaffold shall be secured above a lower level shall be protected
against the sideways thrust exerted by from falling to that lower level. Para-
the ladder; graphs (g)(1) (i) through (vii) of this
(ii) The platform units shall be se- section establish the types of fall pro-
cured to the scaffold to prevent their tection to be provided to the employees
movement; on each type of scaffold. Paragraph
(iii) The ladder legs shall be on the (g)(2) of this section addresses fall pro-
same platform or other means shall be tection for scaffold erectors and dis-
provided to stabilize the ladder against mantlers.
unequal platform deflection, and NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (g)(1): The fall protec-
(iv) The ladder legs shall be secured tion requirements for employees installing
to prevent them from slipping or being suspension scaffold support systems on
pushed off the platform. floors, roofs, and other elevated surfaces are
(16) Platforms shall not deflect more set forth in subpart M of this part.
than 1⁄60 of the span when loaded. (i) Each employee on a boatswains’
(17) To reduce the possibility of weld- chair, catenary scaffold, float scaffold,
ing current arcing through the suspen- needle beam scaffold, or ladder jack
sion wire rope when performing weld- scaffold shall be protected by a per-
ing from suspended scaffolds, the fol- sonal fall arrest system;
lowing precautions shall be taken, as (ii) Each employee on a single-point
applicable: or two-point adjustable suspension
(i) An insulated thimble shall be used scaffold shall be protected by both a
to attach each suspension wire rope to personal fall arrest system and guard-
its hanging support (such as cornice rail system;
hook or outrigger). Excess suspension (iii) Each employee on a crawling
wire rope and any additional inde- board (chicken ladder) shall be pro-
pendent lines from grounding shall be tected by a personal fall arrest system,
insulated; a guardrail system (with minimum 200
(ii) The suspension wire rope shall be pound toprail capacity), or by a three-
covered with insulating material ex- fourth inch (1.9 cm) diameter grabline
tending at least 4 feet (1.2 m) above the or equivalent handhold securely fas-
hoist. If there is a tail line below the tened beside each crawling board;
hoist, it shall be insulated to prevent (iv) Each employee on a self-con-
contact with the platform. The portion tained adjustable scaffold shall be pro-
of the tail line that hangs free below tected by a guardrail system (with
the scaffold shall be guided or retained, minimum 200 pound toprail capacity)
or both, so that it does not become when the platform is supported by the
grounded; frame structure, and by both a per-
(iii) Each hoist shall be covered with sonal fall arrest system and a guardrail
insulated protective covers; system (with minimum 200 pound top-
(iv) In addition to a work lead at- rail capacity) when the platform is sup-
tachment required by the welding proc- ported by ropes;
ess, a grounding conductor shall be (v) Each employee on a walkway lo-
connected from the scaffold to the cated within a scaffold shall be pro-
structure. The size of this conductor tected by a guardrail system (with
shall be at least the size of the welding minimum 200 pound toprail capacity)
process work lead, and this conductor installed within 91⁄2 inches (24.1 cm) of
shall not be in series with the welding and along at least one side of the walk-
process or the work piece; way.

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§ 1926.451 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

(vi) Each employee performing (iii) When lanyards are connected to


overhand bricklaying operations from horizontal lifelines or structural mem-
a supported scaffold shall be protected bers on a single-point or two-point ad-
from falling from all open sides and justable suspension scaffold, the scaf-
ends of the scaffold (except at the side fold shall be equipped with additional
next to the wall being laid) by the use independent support lines and auto-
of a personal fall arrest system or matic locking devices capable of stop-
guardrail system (with minimum 200 ping the fall of the scaffold in the event
pound toprail capacity). one or both of the suspension ropes
(vii) For all scaffolds not otherwise fail. The independent support lines
specified in paragraphs (g)(1)(i) through shall be equal in number and strength
(g)(1)(vi) of this section, each employee to the suspension ropes.
shall be protected by the use of per- (iv) Vertical lifelines, independent
sonal fall arrest systems or guardrail support lines, and suspension ropes
systems meeting the requirements of shall not be attached to each other, nor
paragraph (g)(4) of this section. shall they be attached to or use the
(2) Effective September 2, 1997, the same point of anchorage, nor shall they
employer shall have a competent per- be attached to the same point on the
son determine the feasibility and safe- scaffold or personal fall arrest system.
ty of providing fall protection for em- (4) Guardrail systems installed to
ployees erecting or dismantling sup- meet the requirements of this section
ported scaffolds. Employers are re- shall comply with the following provi-
quired to provide fall protection for sions (guardrail systems built in ac-
employees erecting or dismantling sup- cordance with Appendix A to this sub-
ported scaffolds where the installation part will be deemed to meet the re-
and use of such protection is feasible quirements of paragraphs (g)(4) (vii),
and does not create a greater hazard. (viii), and (ix) of this section):
(i) Guardrail systems shall be in-
(3) In addition to meeting the re-
stalled along all open sides and ends of
quirements of § 1926.502(d), personal fall
platforms. Guardrail systems shall be
arrest systems used on scaffolds shall
installed before the scaffold is released
be attached by lanyard to a vertical for use by employees other than erec-
lifeline, horizontal lifeline, or scaffold tion/dismantling crews.
structural member. Vertical lifelines (ii) The top edge height of toprails or
shall not be used when overhead com- equivalent member on supported scaf-
ponents, such as overhead protection folds manufactured or placed in service
or additional platform levels, are part after January 1, 2000 shall be installed
of a single-point or two-point adjust- between 38 inches (0.97 m) and 45 inches
able suspension scaffold. (1.2 m) above the platform surface. The
(i) When vertical lifelines are used, top edge height on supported scaffolds
they shall be fastened to a fixed safe manufactured and placed in service be-
point of anchorage, shall be inde- fore January 1, 2000, and on all sus-
pendent of the scaffold, and shall be pended scaffolds where both a guardrail
protected from sharp edges and abra- and a personal fall arrest system are
sion. Safe points of anchorage include required shall be between 36 inches (0.9
structural members of buildings, but m) and 45 inches (1.2 m). When condi-
do not include standpipes, vents, other tions warrant, the height of the top
piping systems, electrical conduit, out- edge may exceed the 45-inch height,
rigger beams, or counterweights. provided the guardrail system meets
(ii) When horizontal lifelines are all other criteria of paragraph (g)(4).
used, they shall be secured to two or (iii) When midrails, screens, mesh,
more structural members of the scaf- intermediate vertical members, solid
fold, or they may be looped around panels, or equivalent structural mem-
both suspension and independent sus- bers are used, they shall be installed
pension lines (on scaffolds so equipped) between the top edge of the guardrail
above the hoist and brake attached to system and the scaffold platform.
the end of the scaffold. Horizontal life- (iv) When midrails are used, they
lines shall not be attached only to the shall be installed at a height approxi-
suspension ropes. mately midway between the top edge of

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.451

the guardrail system and the platform (xiii) Steel or plastic banding shall
surface. not be used as a toprail or midrail.
(v) When screens and mesh are used, (xiv) Manila or plastic (or other syn-
they shall extend from the top edge of thetic) rope being used for toprails or
the guardrail system to the scaffold midrails shall be inspected by a com-
platform, and along the entire opening petent person as frequently as nec-
between the supports. essary to ensure that it continues to
(vi) When intermediate members meet the strength requirements of
(such as balusters or additional rails) paragraph (g) of this section.
are used, they shall not be more than (xv) Crossbracing is acceptable in
19 inches (48 cm) apart. place of a midrail when the crossing
(vii) Each toprail or equivalent mem- point of two braces is between 20 inches
ber of a guardrail system shall be capa- (0.5 m) and 30 inches (0.8 m) above the
ble of withstanding, without failure, a work platform or as a toprail when the
force applied in any downward or hori- crossing point of two braces is between
zontal direction at any point along its 38 inches (0.97 m) and 48 inches (1.3 m)
top edge of at least 100 pounds (445 n) above the work platform. The end
for guardrail systems installed on sin- points at each upright shall be no more
gle-point adjustable suspension scaf- than 48 inches (1.3 m) apart.
folds or two-point adjustable suspen- (h) Falling object protection. (1) In ad-
sion scaffolds, and at least 200 pounds dition to wearing hardhats each em-
(890 n) for guardrail systems installed ployee on a scaffold shall be provided
on all other scaffolds. with additional protection from falling
(viii) When the loads specified in hand tools, debris, and other small ob-
paragraph (g)(4)(vii) of this section are jects through the installation of
applied in a downward direction, the toeboards, screens, or guardrail sys-
top edge shall not drop below the tems, or through the erection of debris
height above the platform surface that nets, catch platforms, or canopy struc-
is prescribed in paragraph (g)(4)(ii) of tures that contain or deflect the falling
this section. objects. When the falling objects are
(ix) Midrails, screens, mesh, inter- too large, heavy or massive to be con-
mediate vertical members, solid pan- tained or deflected by any of the above-
els, and equivalent structural members listed measures, the employer shall
of a guardrail system shall be capable place such potential falling objects
of withstanding, without failure, a away from the edge of the surface from
force applied in any downward or hori- which they could fall and shall secure
zontal direction at any point along the those materials as necessary to prevent
midrail or other member of at least 75 their falling.
pounds (333 n) for guardrail systems (2) Where there is a danger of tools,
with a minimum 100 pound toprail ca- materials, or equipment falling from a
pacity, and at least 150 pounds (666 n) scaffold and striking employees below,
for guardrail systems with a minimum the following provisions apply:
200 pound toprail capacity. (i) The area below the scaffold to
(x) Suspension scaffold hoists and which objects can fall shall be barri-
non-walk-through stirrups may be used caded, and employees shall not be per-
as end guardrails, if the space between mitted to enter the hazard area; or
the hoist or stirrup and the side guard- (ii) A toeboard shall be erected along
rail or structure does not allow passage the edge of platforms more than 10 feet
of an employee to the end of the scaf- (3.1 m) above lower levels for a distance
fold. sufficient to protect employees below,
(xi) Guardrails shall be surfaced to except on float (ship) scaffolds where
prevent injury to an employee from an edging of 3⁄4 × 11⁄2 inch (2 × 4 cm)
punctures or lacerations, and to pre- wood or equivalent may be used in lieu
vent snagging of clothing. of toeboards;
(xii) The ends of all rails shall not (iii) Where tools, materials, or equip-
overhang the terminal posts except ment are piled to a height higher than
when such overhang does not con- the top edge of the toeboard, paneling
stitute a projection hazard to employ- or screening extending from the
ees. toeboard or platform to the top of the

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§ 1926.452 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

guardrail shall be erected for a dis- § 1926.452 Additional requirements ap-


tance sufficient to protect employees plicable to specific types of scaf-
below; or folds.
(iv) A guardrail system shall be in- In addition to the applicable require-
stalled with openings small enough to ments of § 1926.451, the following re-
prevent passage of potential falling ob- quirements apply to the specific types
jects; or of scaffolds indicated. Scaffolds not
(v) A canopy structure, debris net, or specifically addressed by § 1926.452, such
catch platform strong enough to with- as but not limited to systems scaffolds,
stand the impact forces of the poten- must meet the requirements of
tial falling objects shall be erected § 1926.451.
over the employees below. (a) Pole scaffolds. (1) When platforms
are being moved to the next level, the
(3) Canopies, when used for falling ob-
existing platform shall be left undis-
ject protection, shall comply with the
turbed until the new bearers have been
following criteria: set in place and braced, prior to receiv-
(i) Canopies shall be installed be- ing the new platforms.
tween the falling object hazard and the (2) Crossbracing shall be installed be-
employees. tween the inner and outer sets of poles
(ii) When canopies are used on sus- on double pole scaffolds.
pension scaffolds for falling object pro- (3) Diagonal bracing in both direc-
tection, the scaffold shall be equipped tions shall be installed across the en-
with additional independent support tire inside face of double-pole scaffolds
lines equal in number to the number of used to support loads equivalent to a
points supported, and equivalent in uniformly distributed load of 50 pounds
strength to the strength of the suspen- (222 kg) or more per square foot (929
sion ropes. square cm).
(iii) Independent support lines and (4) Diagonal bracing in both direc-
suspension ropes shall not be attached tions shall be installed across the en-
to the same points of anchorage. tire outside face of all double- and sin-
gle-pole scaffolds.
(4) Where used, toeboards shall be:
(5) Runners and bearers shall be in-
(i) Capable of withstanding, without stalled on edge.
failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (6) Bearers shall extend a minimum
(222 n) applied in any downward or hor- of 3 inches (7.6 cm) over the outside
izontal direction at any point along the edges of runners.
toeboard (toeboards built in accord- (7) Runners shall extend over a min-
ance with Appendix A to this subpart imum of two poles, and shall be sup-
will be deemed to meet this require- ported by bearing blocks securely at-
ment); and tached to the poles.
(ii) At least three and one-half inches (8) Braces, bearers, and runners shall
(9 cm) high from the top edge of the not be spliced between poles.
toeboard to the level of the walking/ (9) Where wooden poles are spliced,
working surface. Toeboards shall be se- the ends shall be squared and the upper
curely fastened in place at the outer- section shall rest squarely on the lower
most edge of the platform and have not section. Wood splice plates shall be
more than 1⁄4 inch (0.7 cm) clearance provided on at least two adjacent sides,
above the walking/working surface. and shall extend at least 2 feet (0.6 m)
Toeboards shall be solid or with open- on either side of the splice, overlap the
ings not over one inch (2.5 cm) in the abutted ends equally, and have at least
greatest dimension. the same cross-sectional areas as the
pole. Splice plates of other materials of
[61 FR 46107, Aug. 30, 1996, as corrected and equivalent strength may be used.
amended at 61 FR 59831, 59832, Nov. 25, 1996] (10) Pole scaffolds over 60 feet in
EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 61 FR 59832, Nov. height shall be designed by a registered
25, 1996, § 1926.451(b)(2)(i) was amended and professional engineer, and shall be con-
certain requirements stayed until Nov. 25, structed and loaded in accordance with
1997, or until further rulemaking has been that design. Non-mandatory Appendix
completed, whichever is later. A to this subpart contains examples of

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.452

criteria that will enable an employer both the inside and outside posts at
to comply with design and loading re- level heights (when tube and coupler
quirements for pole scaffolds under 60 guardrails and midrails are used on
feet in height. outside posts, they may be used in lieu
(b) Tube and coupler scaffolds. (1) of outside runners).
When platforms are being moved to the (8) Runners shall be interlocked on
next level, the existing platform shall straight runs to form continuous
be left undisturbed until the new bear- lengths, and shall be coupled to each
ers have been set in place and braced post. The bottom runners and bearers
prior to receiving the new platforms. shall be located as close to the base as
(2) Transverse bracing forming an possible.
‘‘X’’ across the width of the scaffold (9) Couplers shall be of a structural
shall be installed at the scaffold ends metal, such as drop-forged steel, malle-
and at least at every third set of posts able iron, or structural grade alu-
horizontally (measured from only one minum. The use of gray cast iron is
end) and every fourth runner prohibited.
vertically. Bracing shall extend diago- (10) Tube and coupler scaffolds over
nally from the inner or outer posts or 125 feet in height shall be designed by
runners upward to the next outer or a registered professional engineer, and
inner posts or runners. Building ties shall be constructed and loaded in ac-
shall be installed at the bearer levels cordance with such design. Non-manda-
between the transverse bracing and tory Appendix A to this subpart con-
shall conform to the requirements of tains examples of criteria that will en-
§ 1926.451(c)(1). able an employer to comply with de-
(3) On straight run scaffolds, longitu- sign and loading requirements for tube
dinal bracing across the inner and and coupler scaffolds under 125 feet in
outer rows of posts shall be installed height.
diagonally in both directions, and shall (c) Fabricated frame scaffolds (tubular
extend from the base of the end posts welded frame scaffolds). (1) When mov-
upward to the top of the scaffold at ap- ing platforms to the next level, the ex-
proximately a 45 degree angle. On scaf- isting platform shall be left undis-
folds whose length is greater than their turbed until the new end frames have
height, such bracing shall be repeated been set in place and braced prior to re-
beginning at least at every fifth post. ceiving the new platforms.
On scaffolds whose length is less than (2) Frames and panels shall be braced
their height, such bracing shall be in- by cross, horizontal, or diagonal
stalled from the base of the end posts braces, or combination thereof, which
upward to the opposite end posts, and secure vertical members together lat-
then in alternating directions until erally. The cross braces shall be of such
reaching the top of the scaffold. Brac- length as will automatically square
ing shall be installed as close as pos- and align vertical members so that the
sible to the intersection of the bearer erected scaffold is always plumb, level,
and post or runner and post. and square. All brace connections shall
(4) Where conditions preclude the at- be secured.
tachment of bracing to posts, bracing (3) Frames and panels shall be joined
shall be attached to the runners as together vertically by coupling or
close to the post as possible. stacking pins or equivalent means.
(5) Bearers shall be installed trans- (4) Where uplift can occur which
versely between posts, and when cou- would displace scaffold end frames or
pled to the posts, shall have the in- panels, the frames or panels shall be
board coupler bear directly on the run- locked together vertically by pins or
ner coupler. When the bearers are cou- equivalent means.
pled to the runners, the couplers shall (5) Brackets used to support canti-
be as close to the posts as possible. levered loads shall:
(6) Bearers shall extend beyond the (i) Be seated with side-brackets par-
posts and runners, and shall provide allel to the frames and end-brackets at
full contact with the coupler. 90 degrees to the frames;
(7) Runners shall be installed along (ii) Not be bent or twisted from these
the length of the scaffold, located on positions; and

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§ 1926.452 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

(iii) Be used only to support per- form wales either bolted to the form or
sonnel, unless the scaffold has been de- secured by snap ties or tie bolts ex-
signed for other loads by a qualified en- tending through the form and securely
gineer and built to withstand the tip- anchored; or, for carpenters’ bracket
ping forces caused by those other loads scaffolds only, by a bolt extending
being placed on the bracket-supported through to the opposite side of the
section of the scaffold. structure’s wall.
(6) Scaffolds over 125 feet (38.0 m) in (2) Wooden bracket-form scaffolds
height above their base plates shall be shall be an integral part of the form
designed by a registered professional panel.
engineer, and shall be constructed and (3) Folding type metal brackets,
loaded in accordance with such design. when extended for use, shall be either
(d) Plasterers’, decorators’, and large bolted or secured with a locking-type
area scaffolds. Scaffolds shall be con-
pin.
structed in accordance with paragraphs
(h) Roof bracket scaffolds. (1) Scaffold
(a), (b), or (c) of this section, as appro-
priate. brackets shall be constructed to fit the
(e) Bricklayers’ square scaffolds pitch of the roof and shall provide a
(squares). (1) Scaffolds made of wood level support for the platform.
shall be reinforced with gussets on (2) Brackets (including those pro-
both sides of each corner. vided with pointed metal projections)
(2) Diagonal braces shall be installed shall be anchored in place by nails un-
on all sides of each square. less it is impractical to use nails. When
(3) Diagonal braces shall be installed nails are not used, brackets shall be se-
between squares on the rear and front cured in place with first-grade manila
sides of the scaffold, and shall extend rope of at least three-fourth inch (1.9
from the bottom of each square to the cm) diameter, or equivalent.
top of the next square. (i) Outrigger scaffolds. (1) The inboard
(4) Scaffolds shall not exceed three end of outrigger beams, measured from
tiers in height, and shall be so con- the fulcrum point to the extreme point
structed and arranged that one square of anchorage, shall be not less than one
rests directly above the other. The and one-half times the outboard end in
upper tiers shall stand on a continuous length.
row of planks laid across the next (2) Outrigger beams fabricated in the
lower tier, and shall be nailed down or shape of an I-beam or channel shall be
otherwise secured to prevent displace- placed so that the web section is
ment. vertical.
(f) Horse scaffolds. (1) Scaffolds shall (3) The fulcrum point of outrigger
not be constructed or arranged more beams shall rest on secure bearings at
than two tiers or 10 feet (3.0 m) in least 6 inches (15.2 cm) in each hori-
height, whichever is less. zontal dimension.
(2) When horses are arranged in tiers,
(4) Outrigger beams shall be secured
each horse shall be placed directly over
in place against movement, and shall
the horse in the tier below.
be securely braced at the fulcrum point
(3) When horses are arranged in tiers,
against tipping.
the legs of each horse shall be nailed
down or otherwise secured to prevent (5) The inboard ends of outrigger
displacement. beams shall be securely anchored ei-
(4) When horses are arranged in tiers, ther by means of braced struts bearing
each tier shall be crossbraced. against sills in contact with the over-
(g) Form scaffolds and carpenters’ head beams or ceiling, or by means of
bracket scaffolds. (1) Each bracket, ex- tension members secured to the floor
cept those for wooden bracket-form joists underfoot, or by both.
scaffolds, shall be attached to the sup- (6) The entire supporting structure
porting formwork or structure by shall be securely braced to prevent any
means of one or more of the following: horizontal movement.
nails; a metal stud attachment device; (7) To prevent their displacement,
welding; hooking over a secured struc- platform units shall be nailed, bolted,
tural supporting member, with the or otherwise secured to outriggers.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.452

(8) Scaffolds and scaffold components (4) Ladders used to support ladder
shall be designed by a registered pro- jacks shall be placed, fastened, or
fessional engineer and shall be con- equipped with devices to prevent slip-
structed and loaded in accordance with ping.
such design. (5) Scaffold platforms shall not be
(j) Pump jack scaffolds. (1) Pump jack bridged one to another.
brackets, braces, and accessories shall (l) Window jack scaffolds. (1) Scaffolds
be fabricated from metal plates and an- shall be securely attached to the win-
gles. Each pump jack bracket shall dow opening.
have two positive gripping mechanisms (2) Scaffolds shall be used only for
to prevent any failure or slippage. the purpose of working at the window
(2) Poles shall be secured to the opening through which the jack is
structure by rigid triangular bracing or placed.
equivalent at the bottom, top, and (3) Window jacks shall not be used to
other points as necessary. When the support planks placed between one win-
pump jack has to pass bracing already dow jack and another, or for other ele-
installed, an additional brace shall be ments of scaffolding.
installed approximately 4 feet (1.2 m) (m) Crawling boards (chicken ladders).
above the brace to be passed, and shall (1) Crawling boards shall extend from
be left in place until the pump jack has the roof peak to the eaves when used in
been moved and the original brace re- connection with roof construction, re-
installed. pair, or maintenance.
(3) When guardrails are used for fall (2) Crawling boards shall be secured
protection, a workbench may be used to the roof by ridge hooks or by means
as the toprail only if it meets all the that meet equivalent criteria (e.g.,
requirements in paragraphs (g)(4) (ii), strength and durability).
(vii), (viii), and (xiii) of § 1926.451. (n) Step, platform, and trestle ladder
scaffolds. (1) Scaffold platforms shall
(4) Work benches shall not be used as
not be placed any higher than the sec-
scaffold platforms.
ond highest rung or step of the ladder
(5) When poles are made of wood, the supporting the platform.
pole lumber shall be straight-grained, (2) All ladders used in conjunction
free of shakes, large loose or dead with step, platform and trestle ladder
knots, and other defects which might scaffolds shall meet the pertinent re-
impair strength. quirements of subpart X of this part—
(6) When wood poles are constructed Stairways and Ladders, except that
of two continuous lengths, they shall job-made ladders shall not be used to
be joined together with the seam par- support such scaffolds.
allel to the bracket. (3) Ladders used to support step, plat-
(7) When two by fours are spliced to form, and trestle ladder scaffolds shall
make a pole, mending plates shall be be placed, fastened, or equipped with
installed at all splices to develop the devices to prevent slipping.
full strength of the member. (4) Scaffolds shall not be bridged one
(k) Ladder jack scaffolds. (1) Platforms to another.
shall not exceed a height of 20 feet (6.1 (o) Single-point adjustable suspension
m). scaffolds. (1) When two single-point ad-
(2) All ladders used to support ladder justable suspension scaffolds are com-
jack scaffolds shall meet the require- bined to form a two-point adjustable
ments of subpart X of this part—Stair- suspension scaffold, the resulting two-
ways and Ladders, except that job- point scaffold shall comply with the re-
made ladders shall not be used to sup- quirements for two-point adjustable
port ladder jack scaffolds. suspension scaffolds in paragraph (p) of
(3) The ladder jack shall be so de- this section.
signed and constructed that it will bear (2) The supporting rope between the
on the side rails and ladder rungs or on scaffold and the suspension device shall
the ladder rungs alone. If bearing on be kept vertical unless all of the fol-
rungs only, the bearing area shall in- lowing conditions are met:
clude a length of at least 10 inches (25.4 (i) The rigging has been designed by a
cm) on each rung. qualified person, and

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§ 1926.452 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

(ii) The scaffold is accessible to res- of all blocks shall fit the size of the
cuers, and rope used.
(iii) The supporting rope is protected (4) Platforms shall be of the ladder-
to ensure that it will not chafe at any type, plank-type, beam-type, or light-
point where a change in direction oc- metal type. Light metal-type plat-
curs, and forms having a rated capacity of 750
(iv) The scaffold is positioned so that pounds or less and platforms 40 feet
swinging cannot bring the scaffold into (12.2 m) or less in length shall be tested
contact with another surface. and listed by a nationally recognized
(3) Boatswains’ chair tackle shall testing laboratory.
consist of correct size ball bearings or (5) Two-point scaffolds shall not be
bushed blocks containing safety hooks bridged or otherwise connected one to
and properly ‘‘eye-spliced’’ minimum another during raising and lowering
five-eighth (5⁄8) inch (1.6 cm) diameter operations unless the bridge connec-
first-grade manila rope, or other rope tions are articulated (attached), and
which will satisfy the criteria (e.g., the hoists properly sized.
strength and durability) of manila (6) Passage may be made from one
rope. platform to another only when the
(4) Boatswains’ chair seat slings shall platforms are at the same height, are
be reeved through four corner holes in abutting, and walk-through stirrups
the seat; shall cross each other on the specifically designed for this purpose
underside of the seat; and shall be are used.
rigged so as to prevent slippage which
(q) Multi-point adjustable suspension
could cause an out-of-level condition.
scaffolds, stonesetters’ multi-point adjust-
(5) Boatswains’ chair seat slings shall
able suspension scaffolds, and masons’
be a minimum of five-eight (5⁄8) inch
multi-point adjustable suspension scaf-
(1.6 cm) diameter fiber, synthetic, or
folds. (1) When two or more scaffolds
other rope which will satisfy the cri-
are used they shall not be bridged one
teria (e.g., strength, slip resistance, du-
to another unless they are designed to
rability, etc.) of first grade manila
be bridged, the bridge connections are
rope.
articulated, and the hoists are properly
(6) When a heat-producing process
sized.
such as gas or arc welding is being con-
(2) If bridges are not used, passage
ducted, boatswains’ chair seat slings
may be made from one platform to an-
shall be a minimum of three-eight (3⁄8)
other only when the platforms are at
inch (1.0 cm) wire rope.
the same height and are abutting.
(7) Non-cross-laminated wood boat-
swains’ chairs shall be reinforced on (3) Scaffolds shall be suspended from
their underside by cleats securely fas- metal outriggers, brackets, wire rope
tened to prevent the board from split- slings, hooks, or means that meet
ting. equivalent criteria (e.g., strength, du-
(p) Two-point adjustable suspension rability).
scaffolds (swing stages). The following (r) Catenary scaffolds. (1) No more
requirements do not apply to two-point than one platform shall be placed be-
adjustable suspension scaffolds used as tween consecutive vertical pickups,
masons’ or stonesetters’ scaffolds. and no more than two platforms shall
Such scaffolds are covered by para- be used on a catenary scaffold.
graph (q) of this section. (2) Platforms supported by wire ropes
(1) Platforms shall not be more than shall have hook-shaped stops on each
36 inches (0.9 m) wide unless designed end of the platforms to prevent them
by a qualified person to prevent unsta- from slipping off the wire ropes. These
ble conditions. hooks shall be so placed that they will
(2) The platform shall be securely fas- prevent the platform from falling if
tened to hangers (stirrups) by U-bolts one of the horizontal wire ropes breaks.
or by other means which satisfy the re- (3) Wire ropes shall not be tightened
quirements of § 1926.451(a). to the extent that the application of a
(3) The blocks for fiber or synthetic scaffold load will overstress them.
ropes shall consist of at least one dou- (4) Wire ropes shall be continuous
ble and one single block. The sheaves and without splices between anchors.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.452

(s) Float (ship) scaffolds. (1) The plat- support the scaffold in the event the
form shall be supported by a minimum suspension rope(s) fail.
of two bearers, each of which shall (2) Independent support lines and sus-
project a minimum of 6 inches (15.2 cm) pension ropes shall not be attached to
beyond the platform on both sides. the same points of anchorage.
Each bearer shall be securely fastened (3) Supports for platforms shall be at-
to the platform. tached directly to the support stirrup
(2) Rope connections shall be such and not to any other platform.
that the platform cannot shift or slip. (w) Mobile scaffolds. (1) Scaffolds shall
(3) When only two ropes are used be braced by cross, horizontal, or di-
with each float: agonal braces, or combination thereof,
(i) They shall be arranged so as to to prevent racking or collapse of the
provide four ends which are securely scaffold and to secure vertical mem-
fastened to overhead supports. bers together laterally so as to auto-
(ii) Each supporting rope shall be matically square and align the vertical
hitched around one end of the bearer members. Scaffolds shall be plumb,
and pass under the platform to the level, and squared. All brace connec-
other end of the bearer where it is tions shall be secured.
hitched again, leaving sufficient rope (i) Scaffolds constructed of tube and
at each end for the supporting ties. coupler components shall also comply
(t) Interior hung scaffolds. (1) Scaf- with the requirements of paragraph (b)
folds shall be suspended only from the of this section;
roof structure or other structural (ii) Scaffolds constructed of fab-
member such as ceiling beams. ricated frame components shall also
(2) Overhead supporting members comply with the requirements of para-
(roof structure, ceiling beams, or other graph (c) of this section.
structural members) shall be inspected (2) Scaffold casters and wheels shall
and checked for strength before the be locked with positive wheel and/or
scaffold is erected. wheel and swivel locks, or equivalent
(3) Suspension ropes and cables shall means, to prevent movement of the
be connected to the overhead sup- scaffold while the scaffold is used in a
porting members by shackles, clips, stationary manner.
thimbles, or other means that meet (3) Manual force used to move the
equivalent criteria (e.g., strength, du- scaffold shall be applied as close to the
rability). base as practicable, but not more than
(u) Needle beam scaffolds. (1) Scaffold 5 feet (1.5 m) above the supporting sur-
support beams shall be installed on face.
edge. (4) Power systems used to propel mo-
(2) Ropes or hangers shall be used for bile scaffolds shall be designed for such
supports, except that one end of a nee- use. Forklifts, trucks, similar motor
dle beam scaffold may be supported by vehicles or add-on motors shall not be
a permanent structural member. used to propel scaffolds unless the scaf-
(3) The ropes shall be securely at- fold is designed for such propulsion sys-
tached to the needle beams. tems.
(4) The support connection shall be (5) Scaffolds shall be stabilized to
arranged so as to prevent the needle prevent tipping during movement.
beam from rolling or becoming dis- (6) Employees shall not be allowed to
placed. ride on scaffolds unless the following
(5) Platform units shall be securely conditions exist:
attached to the needle beams by bolts (i) The surface on which the scaffold
or equivalent means. Cleats and over- is being moved is within 3 degrees of
hang are not considered to be adequate level, and free of pits, holes, and ob-
means of attachment. structions;
(v) Multi-level suspended scaffolds. (1) (ii) The height to base width ratio of
Scaffolds shall be equipped with addi- the scaffold during movement is two to
tional independent support lines, equal one or less, unless the scaffold is de-
in number to the number of points sup- signed and constructed to meet or ex-
ported, and of equivalent strength to ceed nationally recognized stability
the suspension ropes, and rigged to test requirements such as those listed

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§ 1926.453 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

in paragraph (x) of Appendix A to this protected from damage due to contact


subpart (ANSI/SIA A92.5 and A92.6); with edges, corners, protrusions, or
(iii) Outrigger frames, when used, are other discontinuities of the supporting
installed on both sides of the scaffold; structure or scaffold components.
(iv) When power systems are used, (7) Tensioning of each wire rope used
the propelling force is applied directly for securing brackets in place or as an
to the wheels, and does not produce a anchorage for personal fall arrest sys-
speed in excess of 1 foot per second (.3 tems shall be by means of a turnbuckle
mps); and at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) in diameter, or
(v) No employee is on any part of the by equivalent means.
scaffold which extends outward beyond (8) Each turnbuckle shall be con-
the wheels, casters, or other supports. nected to the other end of its rope by
(7) Platforms shall not extend out- use of an eyesplice thimble of a size ap-
ward beyond the base supports of the propriate to the turnbuckle to which it
scaffold unless outrigger frames or is attached.
equivalent devices are used to ensure (9) U-bolt wire rope clips shall not be
stability. used on any wire rope used to secure
(8) Where leveling of the scaffold is brackets or to serve as an anchor for
necessary, screw jacks or equivalent personal fall arrest systems.
means shall be used. (10) The employer shall ensure that
(9) Caster stems and wheel stems materials shall not be dropped to the
shall be pinned or otherwise secured in outside of the supporting structure.
scaffold legs or adjustment screws. (11) Scaffold erection shall progress
(10) Before a scaffold is moved, each in only one direction around any struc-
employee on the scaffold shall be made ture.
aware of the move. (y) Stilts. Stilts, when used, shall be
(x) Repair bracket scaffolds. (1) Brack- used in accordance with the following
ets shall be secured in place by at least requirements:
one wire rope at least 1⁄2 inch (1.27 cm) (1) An employee may wear stilts on a
in diameter. scaffold only if it is a large area scaf-
(2) Each bracket shall be attached to fold.
the securing wire rope (or ropes) by a (2) When an employee is using stilts
positive locking device capable of pre- on a large area scaffold where a guard-
venting the unintentional detachment rail system is used to provide fall pro-
of the bracket from the rope, or by tection, the guardrail system shall be
equivalent means. increased in height by an amount equal
(3) Each bracket, at the contact point to the height of the stilts being used by
between the supporting structure and the employee.
the bottom of the bracket, shall be pro- (3) Surfaces on which stilts are used
vided with a shoe (heel block or foot) shall be flat and free of pits, holes and
capable of preventing the lateral move- obstructions, such as debris, as well as
ment of the bracket. other tripping and falling hazards.
(4) Platforms shall be secured to the (4) Stilts shall be properly main-
brackets in a manner that will prevent tained. Any alteration of the original
the separation of the platforms from equipment shall be approved by the
the brackets and the movement of the manufacturer.
platforms or the brackets on a com-
pleted scaffold. § 1926.453 Aerial lifts.
(5) When a wire rope is placed around (a) General requirements. (1) Unless
the structure in order to provide a safe otherwise provided in this section, aer-
anchorage for personal fall arrest sys- ial lifts acquired for use on or after
tems used by employees erecting or January 22, 1973 shall be designed and
dismantling scaffolds, the wire rope constructed in conformance with the
shall meet the requirements of subpart applicable requirements of the Amer-
M of this part, but shall be at least 5⁄16 ican National Standards for ‘‘Vehicle
inch (0.8 cm) in diameter. Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work
(6) Each wire rope used for securing Platforms,’’ ANSI A92.2–1969, including
brackets in place or as an anchorage appendix. Aerial lifts acquired before
for personal fall arrest systems shall be January 22, 1973 which do not meet the

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1926.453

requirements of ANSI A92.2–1969, may NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (b)(2)(v): As of Janu-


not be used after January 1, 1976, un- ary 1, 1998, subpart M of this part
less they shall have been modified so as (§ 1926.502(d)) provides that body belts are not
to conform with the applicable design acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest
system. The use of a body belt in a tethering
and construction requirements of ANSI system or in a restraint system is acceptable
A92.2–1969. Aerial lifts include the fol- and is regulated under § 1926.502(e).
lowing types of vehicle-mounted aerial
devices used to elevate personnel to (vi) Boom and basket load limits
job-sites above ground: specified by the manufacturer shall not
(i) Extensible boom platforms; be exceeded.
(ii) Aerial ladders; (vii) The brakes shall be set and when
(iii) Articulating boom platforms; outriggers are used, they shall be posi-
(iv) Vertical towers; and tioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel
(v) A combination of any such de- chocks shall be installed before using
vices. Aerial equipment may be made an aerial lift on an incline, provided
of metal, wood, fiberglass reinforced they can be safely installed.
plastic (FRP), or other material; may (viii) An aerial lift truck shall not be
be powered or manually operated; and moved when the boom is elevated in a
are deemed to be aerial lifts whether or working position with men in the bas-
not they are capable of rotating about ket, except for equipment which is spe-
a substantially vertical axis. cifically designed for this type of oper-
(2) Aerial lifts may be ‘‘field modi- ation in accordance with the provisions
fied’’ for uses other than those in- of paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this sec-
tended by the manufacturer provided tion.
the modification has been certified in (ix) Articulating boom and extensible
writing by the manufacturer or by any boom platforms, primarily designed as
other equivalent entity, such as a na- personnel carriers, shall have both
tionally recognized testing laboratory, platform (upper) and lower controls.
to be in conformity with all applicable Upper controls shall be in or beside the
provisions of ANSI A92.2–1969 and this platform within easy reach of the oper-
section and to be at least as safe as the ator. Lower controls shall provide for
equipment was before modification. overriding the upper controls. Controls
(b) Specific requirements—(1) Ladder shall be plainly marked as to their
trucks and tower trucks. Aerial ladders function. Lower level controls shall not
shall be secured in the lower traveling be operated unless permission has been
position by the locking device on top of
obtained from the employee in the lift,
the truck cab, and the manually oper-
except in case of emergency.
ated device at the base of the ladder be-
(x) Climbers shall not be worn while
fore the truck is moved for highway
travel. performing work from an aerial lift.
(2) Extensible and articulating boom (xi) The insulated portion of an aerial
platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be test- lift shall not be altered in any manner
ed each day prior to use to determine that might reduce its insulating value.
that such controls are in safe working (xii) Before moving an aerial lift for
condition. travel, the boom(s) shall be inspected
(ii) Only authorized persons shall op- to see that it is properly cradled and
erate an aerial lift. outriggers are in stowed position ex-
(iii) Belting off to an adjacent pole, cept as provided in paragraph
structure, or equipment while working (b)(2)(viii) of this section.
from an aerial lift shall not be per- (3) Electrical tests. All electrical tests
mitted. shall conform to the requirements of
(iv) Employees shall always stand ANSI A92.2–1969 section 5. However
firmly on the floor of the basket, and equivalent d.c.; voltage tests may be
shall not sit or climb on the edge of the used in lieu of the a.c. voltage specified
basket or use planks, ladders, or other in A92.2–1969; d.c. voltage tests which
devices for a work position. are approved by the equipment manu-
(v) A body belt shall be worn and a facturer or equivalent entity shall be
lanyard attached to the boom or bas- considered an equivalent test for the
ket when working from an aerial lift. purpose of this paragraph (b)(3).

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§ 1926.454 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

(4) Bursting safety factor. The provi- the procedures to control or minimize
sions of the American National Stand- those hazards. The training shall in-
ards Institute standard ANSI A92.2– clude the following areas, as applica-
1969, section 4.9 Bursting Safety Factor ble:
shall apply to all critical hydraulic and (1) The nature of any electrical haz-
pneumatic components. Critical com- ards, fall hazards and falling object
ponents are those in which a failure hazards in the work area;
would result in a free fall or free rota- (2) The correct procedures for dealing
tion of the boom. All noncritical com- with electrical hazards and for erect-
ponents shall have a bursting safety ing, maintaining, and disassembling
factor of at least 2 to 1.
the fall protection systems and falling
(5) Welding standards. All welding
object protection systems being used;
shall conform to the following stand-
ards as applicable: (3) The proper use of the scaffold, and
(i) Standard Qualification Procedure, the proper handling of materials on the
AWS B3.0–41. scaffold;
(ii) Recommended Practices for (4) The maximum intended load and
Automotive Welding Design, AWS the load-carrying capacities of the
D8.4–61. scaffolds used; and
(iii) Standard Qualification of Weld- (5) Any other pertinent requirements
ing Procedures and Welders for Piping of this subpart.
and Tubing, AWS D10.9–69. (b) The employer shall have each em-
(iv) Specifications for Welding High- ployee who is involved in erecting, dis-
way and Railway Bridges, AWS D2.0–69. assembling, moving, operating, repair-
NOTE TO § 1926.453: Non-mandatory Appen- ing, maintaining, or inspecting a scaf-
dix C to this subpart lists examples of na- fold trained by a competent person to
tional consensus standards that are consid- recognize any hazards associated with
ered to provide employee protection equiva- the work in question. The training
lent to that provided through the application shall include the following topics, as
of ANSI A92.2–1969, where appropriate. This applicable:
incorporation by reference was approved by
the Director of the Federal Register in ac- (1) The nature of scaffold hazards;
cordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part (2) The correct procedures for erect-
51. Copies may be obtained from the Amer- ing, disassembling, moving, operating,
ican National Standards Institute. Copies repairing, inspecting, and maintaining
may be inspected at the Docket Office, Occu- the type of scaffold in question;
pational Safety and Health Administration,
U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution
(3) The design criteria, maximum in-
Avenue, NW., room N2634, Washington, DC or tended load-carrying capacity and in-
at the National Archives and Records Ad- tended use of the scaffold;
ministration (NARA). For information on (4) Any other pertinent requirements
the availability of this material at NARA, of this subpart.
call 202–741–6030, or go to: http://
(c) When the employer has reason to
www.archives.gov/federallregister/
codeloflfederallregulations/ believe that an employee lacks the
ibrllocations.html. skill or understanding needed for safe
work involving the erection, use or dis-
[61 FR 46116, Aug. 30, 1996; 61 FR 59832, Nov.
25, 1996, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, mantling of scaffolds, the employer
2004] shall retrain each such employee so
that the requisite proficiency is re-
§ 1926.454 Training requirements. gained. Retraining is required in at
This section supplements and clari- least the following situations:
fies the requirements of § 1926.21(b)(2) (1) Where changes at the worksite
as these relate to the hazards of work present a hazard about which an em-
on scaffolds. ployee has not been previously trained;
(a) The employer shall have each em- or
ployee who performs work while on a (2) Where changes in the types of
scaffold trained by a person qualified scaffolds, fall protection, falling object
in the subject matter to recognize the protection, or other equipment present
hazards associated with the type of a hazard about which an employee has
scaffold being used and to understand not been previously trained; or

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor Pt. 1926, Subpt. L, App. A

(3) Where inadequacies in an affected (r) Catenary scaffolds.


employee’s work involving scaffolds in- (s) Float (ship) scaffolds.
dicate that the employee has not re- (t) Interior hung scaffolds.
(u) Needle beam scaffolds.
tained the requisite proficiency.
(v) Multi-level suspension scaffolds.
NON-MANDATORY APPENDICES (w) Mobile scaffolds.
(x) Repair bracket scaffolds.
(NON-MANDATORY) APPENDIX A TO SUB- (y) Stilts.
(z) Tank builders’ scaffolds.
PART L OF PART 1926—SCAFFOLD
SPECIFICATIONS 1. GENERAL GUIDELINES AND TABLES
This Appendix provides non-mandatory (a) The following tables, and the tables in
guidelines to assist employers in complying Part 2—Specific guidelines and tables, as-
with the requirements of subpart L of this sume that all load-carrying timber members
part. An employer may use these guidelines (except planks) of the scaffold are a min-
and tables as a starting point for designing imum of 1,500 lb-f/in2 (stress grade) construc-
scaffold systems. However, the guidelines do tion grade lumber. All dimensions are nomi-
not provide all the information necessary to nal sizes as provided in the American
build a complete system, and the employer is Softwood Lumber Standards, dated January
still responsible for designing and assem- 1970, except that, where rough sizes are
bling these components in such a way that noted, only rough or undressed lumber of the
the completed system will meet the require- size specified will satisfy minimum require-
ments of § 1926.451(a). Scaffold components ments.
which are not selected and loaded in accord- (b) Solid sawn wood used as scaffold planks
ance with this Appendix, and components for shall be selected for such use following the
which no specific guidelines or tables are grading rules established by a recognized
given in this Appendix (e.g., joints, ties, lumber grading association or by an inde-
components for wood pole scaffolds more pendent lumber grading inspection agency.
than 60 feet in height, components for heavy- Such planks shall be identified by the grade
duty horse scaffolds, components made with stamp of such association or agency. The as-
other materials, and components with other sociation or agency and the grading rules
dimensions, etc.) must be designed and con- under which the wood is graded shall be cer-
structed in accordance with the capacity re- tified by the Board of Review, American
quirements of § 1926.451(a), and loaded in ac- Lumber Standard Committee, as set forth in
cordance with § 1926.451(d)(1). the American Softwood Lumber Standard of
the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Index to Appendix A for Subpart L (i) Allowable spans shall be determined in
1. General guidelines and tables. compliance with the National Design Speci-
2. Specific guidelines and tables. fication for Wood Construction published by
(a) Pole scaffolds: the National Forest Products Association;
Single-pole wood pole scaffolds. paragraph 5 of ANSI A10.8–1988 Scaffolding-
Independent wood pole scaffolds. Safety Requirements published by the Amer-
(b) Tube and coupler scaffolds. ican National Standards Institute; or for 2×10
(c) Fabricated frame scaffolds. inch (nominal) or 2×9 inch (rough) solid sawn
(d) Plasterers’, decorators’ and large area wood planks, as shown in the following table:
scaffolds.
(e) Bricklayers’ square scaffolds. Maximum per- Maximum per-
missible span
(f) Horse scaffolds. missible span
Maximum intended nominal using full thick- using nominal
(g) Form scaffolds and carpenters’ bracket load ness un- thickness
scaffolds. (lb/ft2) dressed lumber
lumber
(h) Roof bracket scaffolds. (ft)
(ft)
(i) Outrigger scaffolds (one level).
(j) Pump jack scaffolds. 25 ....................................... 10 8
(k) Ladder jack scaffolds. 50 ....................................... 8 6
(l) Window jack scaffolds. 75 ....................................... 6
(m) Crawling boards (chicken ladders).
(n) Step, platform and trestle ladder scaf- (ii) The maximum permissible span for 11⁄4
folds. × 9-inch or wider wood plank of full thick-
(o) Single-point adjustable suspension scaf- ness with a maximum intended load of 50 lb/
folds. ft.2 shall be 4 feet.
(p) Two-point adjustable suspension scaf- (c) Fabricated planks and platforms may
folds. be used in lieu of solid sawn wood planks.
(q)(1) Stonesetters’ multi-point adjustable Maximum spans for such units shall be as
suspension scaffolds. recommended by the manufacturer based on
(2) Masons’ multi-point adjustable suspen- the maximum intended load being calculated
sion scaffolds. as follows:

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Pt. 1926, Subpt. L, App. A 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

Rated load Intended load


capacity

Light-duty ................... • 25 pounds per square foot applied uniformly over the entire span area.
Medium-duty .............. • 50 pounds per square foot applied uniformly over the entire span area.
Heavy-duty ................. • 75 pounds per square foot applied uniformly over the entire span area.
One-person ................ • 250 pounds placed at the center of the span (total 250 pounds).
Two-person ................ • 250 pounds placed 18 inches to the left and right of the center of the span (total 500 pounds).
Three-person ............. • 250 pounds placed at the center of the span and 250 pounds placed 18 inches to the left and right of
the center of the span (total 750 pounds).

NOTE: Platform units used to make scaf- 11⁄4 inch × 11⁄4 inch structural angle iron; or
fold platforms intended for light-duty use 1 inch × .070 inch wall steel tubing; or
shall be capable of supporting at least 25 1.990 inch × .058 inch wall aluminum tub-
pounds per square foot applied uniformly ing.
over the entire unit-span area, or a 250-pound (iv) Posts shall be equivalent in strength
point load placed on the unit at the center of to 2 inch by 4 inch lumber; or
the span, whichever load produces the great- 11⁄4 inch × 11⁄4 inch × 1⁄8 structural angle
er shear force. iron; or
(d) Guardrails shall be as follows: 1 inch × .070 inch wall steel tubing; or
(i) Toprails shall be equivalent in strength 1.990 inch × .058 inch wall aluminum tub-
to 2 inch by 4 inch lumber; or ing.
11⁄4 inch × 1⁄8 inch structural angle iron; or
(v) Distance between posts shall not exceed
1 inch × .070 inch wall steel tubing; or 1.990
8 feet.
inch × .058 inch wall aluminum tubing.
(e) Overhead protection shall consist of 2
(ii) Midrails shall be equivalent in strength
inch nominal planking laid tight, or 3⁄4-inch
to 1 inch by 6 inch lumber; or
plywood.
11⁄4 inch × 11⁄4 inch × 1⁄8 inch structural
angle iron; or (f) Screen installed between toeboards and
1 inch × .070 inch wall steel tubing; or midrails or toprails shall consist of No. 18
1.990 inch × .058 inch wall aluminum tub- gauge U.S. Standard wire one inch mesh.
ing.
2. SPECIFIC GUIDELINES AND TABLES.
(iii) Toeboards shall be equivalent in
strength to 1 inch by 4 inch lumber; or (a) Pole Scaffolds.

SINGLE POLE WOOD POLE SCAFFOLDS


Light duty up to Light duty up to Medium duty up to Heavy duty up to
20 feet high 60 feet high 60 feet high 60 feet high

Maximum intended load (lbs/ft 2) ................... 25 ......................... 25 ......................... 50 ......................... 75


Poles or uprights ........................................... 2×4 in ................... 4×4 in ................... 4×4 in ................... 4×6 in.
Maximum pole spacing (longitudinal) ............ 6 feet ................... 10 feet ................. 8 feet ................... 6 feet
Maximum pole spacing (transverse) ............. 5 feet ................... 5 feet ................... 5 feet ................... 5 feet
Runners ......................................................... 1×4 in ................... 11⁄4×9 in ............... 2×10 in ................. 2×10 in.
Bearers and maximum spacing of bearers:
3 feet ............................................... 2×4 in ................... 2×4 in ................... 2×10 in. or 3×4 in 2×10 in. or 3×5 in.
5 feet ............................................... 2×6 in. or 3×4 in .. 2×6 in. or 3×4 in. 2×10 in. or 3×4 in 2×10 in. or 3×5 in.
(rough).
6 feet ............................................... .............................. .............................. 2×10 in. or 3×4 in 2×10 in. or 3×5 in.
8 feet ............................................... .............................. .............................. 2×10 in. or 3×4 in
Planking ......................................................... 11⁄4×9 in ............... 2×10 in ................. 2×10 in ................. 2×10 in.
Maximum vertical spacing of horizontal 7 feet ................... 9 feet ................... 7 feet ................... 6 ft. 6 in.
members.
Bracing horizontal .......................................... 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 1×6 in. or 11⁄4×4 in 2×4 in.
Bracing diagonal ............................................ 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 2×4 in.
Tie-ins ............................................................ 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in.
NOTE: All members except planking are used on edge. All wood bearers shall be reinforced with 3⁄16×2 inch steel strip, or the
equivalent, secured to the lower edges for the entire length of the bearer.

INDEPENDENT WOOD POLE SCAFFOLDS


Light duty up to Light duty up to Medium duty up to Heavy duty up to
20 feet high 60 feet high 60 feet high 60 feet high

Maximum intended load ................................ 25 lbs/ft2 .............. 25 lbs/ft2 .............. 50 lbs/ft2 .............. 75 lbs/ft2.
Poles or uprights ........................................... 2×4 in ................... 4×4 in ................... 4×4 in ................... 4×4 in.
Maximum pole spacing (longitudinal) ............ 6 feet ................... 10 feet ................. 8 feet ................... 6 feet.
Maximum (transverse) ................................... 6 feet ................... 10 feet ................. 8 feet ................... 8 feet.
Runners ......................................................... 11⁄4×4 in ............... 11⁄4×9 in ............... 2×10 in ................. 2×10 in.
Bearers and maximum spacing of bearers:

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor Pt. 1926, Subpt. L, App. A

INDEPENDENT WOOD POLE SCAFFOLDS—Continued


Light duty up to Light duty up to Medium duty up to Heavy duty up to
20 feet high 60 feet high 60 feet high 60 feet high

3 feet ............................................... 2×4 in ................... 2×4 in ................... 2×10 in ................. 2×10 in. (rough).
6 feet ............................................... 2×6 in. or 3×4 in .. 2×10 in. (rough) or 2×10 in ................. 2×10 in. (rough).
3×8 in.
8 feet ............................................... 2×6 in. or 3×4 in .. 2×10 in. (rough) or 2×10 in .................
3×8 in.
10 feet ............................................. 2×6 in. or 3×4 in .. 2×10 in. (rough) or ..............................
3×3 in.
Planking ......................................................... 11⁄4×9 in ............... 2×10 in ................. 2×10 in ................. 2×10 in.
Maximum vertical spacing of horizontal 7 feet ................... 7 feet ................... 6 feet ................... 6 feet.
members.
Bracing horizontal .......................................... 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 1×6 in. or 11⁄4×4 in 2×4 in.
Bracing diagonal ............................................ 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 2×4 in.
Tie-ins ............................................................ 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in ................... 1×4 in.
NOTE: All members except planking are used on edge. All wood bearers shall be reinforced with 3⁄16×2 inch steel strip, or the
equivalent, secured to the lower edges for the entire length of the bearer.

(b) Tube and coupler scaffolds.

MINIMUM SIZE OF MEMBERS


Light duty Medium duty Heavy duty

Maximum intended load .......... 25 lbs/ft2


................................. 50 lbs/ft2................................. 75 lbs/ft2.
Posts, runners and braces ...... Nominal 2 in. (1.90 inches) Nominal 2 in. (1.90 inches) Nominal 2 in. (1.90 inches)
OD steel tube or pipe. OD steel tube or pipe. OD steel tube or pipe.
Bearers .................................... Nominal 2 in. (1.90 inches) .... Nominal 2 in. (1.90 inches) .... Nominal 21⁄2 in. (2.375 in.).
OD steel tube or pipe and a OD steel tube or pipe and a OD steel tube or pipe and a
maximum post spacing of 4 maximum post spacing of 4 maximum post spacing of 6
ft.×10 ft.. ft.×7 ft. or. ft.×6 ft.
Nominal 21⁄2 in. (2.375 in.).
OD steel tube or pipe and a
maximum post spacing of 6
ft.×8 ft.*.
Maximum runner spacing 6 ft. 6 in .................................. 6 ft. 6 in .................................. 6 ft. 6 in.
vertically.
* Bearers shall be installed in the direction of the shorter dimension.
NOTE: Longitudinal diagonal bracing shall be installed at an angle of 45° (±5°).

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF PLANKED LEVELS


Maximum number of addi-
tional planked levels Maximum
height of
Me- scaffold
Light Heavy
dium (in feet)
duty duty
duty

Number of Working Levels:


1 ...................................................................................................................... 16 11 6 125
2 ...................................................................................................................... 11 1 0 125
3 ...................................................................................................................... 6 0 0 125
4 ...................................................................................................................... 1 0 0 125

(c) Fabricated frame scaffolds. Because of Maximum intended load: 50 lb/ft.2*


their prefabricated nature, no additional Maximum width: 5 ft.
guidelines or tables for these scaffolds are Maximum height: 5 ft.
being adopted in this Appendix. Gussets: 1 × 6 in.
(d) Plasterers’, decorators’, and large area Braces: 1 × 8 in.
scaffolds. The guidelines for pole scaffolds or Legs: 2 × 6 in.
tube and coupler scaffolds (Appendix A (a)
and (b)) may be applied. * The squares shall be set not more than 8
(e) Bricklayers’ square scaffolds. feet apart for light duty scaffolds and not
more than 5 feet apart for medium duty scaf-
folds.

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Pt. 1926, Subpt. L, App. A 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)
Bearers (horizontal members): 2 × 6 in. (h) Roof bracket scaffolds. No specific guide-
(f) Horse scaffolds. lines or tables are given.
Maximum intended load (light duty): 25 lb/ (i) Outrigger scaffolds (single level). No spe-
ft.2 ** cific guidelines or tables are given.
Maximum intended load (medium duty): 50 (j) Pump jack scaffolds. Wood poles shall not
lb/ft.2 ** exceed 30 feet in height. Maximum intended
Horizontal members or bearers: load—500 lbs between poles; applied at the
Light duty: 2 × 4 in. center of the span. Not more than two em-
Medium duty: 3 × 4 in. ployees shall be on a pump jack scaffold at
Legs: 2 × 4 in. one time between any two supports. When 2
Longitudinal brace between legs: 1 × 6 in. × 4’s are spliced together to make a 4 × 4 inch
Gusset brace at top of legs: 1 × 8 in. wood pole, they shall be spliced with ‘‘10
Half diagonal braces: 2 × 4 in. penny’’ common nails no more than 12 inches
(g) Form scaffolds and carpenters’ bracket center to center, staggered uniformly from
scaffolds. the opposite outside edges.
(1) Brackets shall consist of a triangular- (k) Ladder jack scaffolds. Maximum in-
shaped frame made of wood with a cross-sec- tended load—25 lb/ft2. However, not more
tion not less than 2 inches by 3 inches, or of than two employees shall occupy any plat-
11⁄4 inch × 11⁄4 inch × 1⁄8 inch structural angle form at any one time. Maximum span be-
iron. tween supports shall be 8 feet.
(2) Bolts used to attach brackets to struc- (l) Window jack scaffolds. Not more than
tures shall not be less than 5⁄8 inches in di- one employee shall occupy a window jack
ameter. scaffold at any one time.
(3) Maximum bracket spacing shall be 8 (m) Crawling boards (chicken ladders).
feet on centers. Crawling boards shall be not less than 10
(4) No more than two employees shall oc- inches wide and 1 inch thick, with cleats
cupy any given 8 feet of a bracket or form having a minimum 1 × 11⁄2 inch cross-sec-
scaffold at any one time. Tools and materials tional area. The cleats shall be equal in
shall not exceed 75 pounds in addition to the length to the width of the board and spaced
occupancy. at equal intervals not to exceed 24 inches.
(5) Wooden figure-four scaffolds: (n) Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaf-
folds. No additional guidelines or tables are
Maximum intended load: 25 lb/ft.2 given.
Uprights: 2 × 4 in. or 2 × 6 in.
(o) Single-point adjustable suspension scaf-
Bearers (two): 1 × 6 in.
folds. Maximum intended load—250 lbs. Wood
Braces: 1 × 6 in.
seats for boatswains’ chairs shall be not less
Maximum length of bearers (unsupported): 3 than 1 inch thick if made of non-laminated
ft. 6 in. wood, or 5⁄8 inches thick if made of marine
(i) Outrigger bearers shall consist of two quality plywood.
pieces of 1 × 6 inch lumber nailed on opposite
(p) Two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.
sides of the vertical support.
(1) In addition to direct connections to build-
(ii) Bearers for wood figure-four brackets
ings (except window cleaners’ anchors) ac-
shall project not more than 3 feet 6 inches
ceptable ways to prevent scaffold sway in-
from the outside of the form support, and
clude angulated roping and static lines. An-
shall be braced and secured to prevent tip-
gulated roping is a system of platform sus-
ping or turning. The knee or angle brace
pension in which the upper wire rope sheaves
shall intersect the bearer at least 3 feet from
or suspension points are closer to the plane
the form at an angle of approximately 45 de-
of the building face than the corresponding
grees, and the lower end shall be nailed to a
attachment points on the platform, thus
vertical support.
causing the platform to press against the
(6) Metal bracket scaffolds: face of the building. Static lines are separate
Maximum intended load: 25 lb/ft.2 ropes secured at their top and bottom ends
Uprights: 2 × 4 inch closer to the plane of the building face than
Bearers: As designed. the outermost edge of the platform. By draw-
Braces: As designed. ing the static line taut, the platform is
(7) Wood bracket scaffolds: drawn against the face of the building.
Maximum intended load: 25 lb/ft.2 (2) On suspension scaffolds designed for a
Uprights: 2 × 4 in or 2 × 6 in working load of 500 pounds, no more than
Bearers: 2 × 6 in two employees shall be permitted on the
Maximum scaffold width: 3 ft 6 in scaffold at one time. On suspension scaffolds
Braces: 1 × 6 in with a working load of 750 pounds, no more
than three employees shall be permitted on
the scaffold at one time.
** Horses shall be spaced not more than 8 (3) Ladder-type platforms. The side string-
feet apart for light duty loads, and not more er shall be of clear straight-grained spruce.
than 5 feet apart for medium duty loads. The rungs shall be of straight-grained oak,

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor Pt. 1926, Subpt. L, App. A
ash, or hickory, at least 11⁄8 inches in diame- washers on both ends. The flooring strips
ter, with 7⁄8 inch tenons mortised into the shall be spaced not more than 5⁄8 inch apart,
side stringers at least 7⁄8 inch. The stringers except at the side rails where the space may
shall be tied together with tie rods not less be 1 inch. Ladder-type platforms shall be
than 1⁄4 inch in diameter, passing through constructed in accordance with the following
the stringers and riveted up tight against table:

SCHEDULE FOR LADDER-TYPE PLATFORMS

Length of Platform ................................ 12 feet .............. 14 & 16 feet ...... 18 & 20 feet.
Side stringers, minimum cross section
(finished sizes):
At ends .......................................... 13⁄4 × 23⁄4 in ...... 13⁄4 × 23⁄4 in ...... 13⁄4 × 3 in.
At middle ....................................... 13⁄4 × 33⁄4 in ...... 13⁄4 × 33⁄4 in ...... 13⁄4 × 4 in.
Reinforcing strip (minimum) ................. A1⁄8 × 7⁄8 inch steel reinforcing strip shall be attached
to the side or underside, full length.
Rungs ................................................... Rungs shall be 11⁄8 inch minimum diameter with at
least 7⁄8 inch in diameter tenons, and the maximum
spacing shall be 12 inches to center.
Tie rods:
Number (minimum) ........................ 3 ....................... 4 ....................... 4
Diameter (minimum) ...................... ⁄ inch ..............
14 ⁄ inch ..............
14 ⁄ inch
14

Flooring, minimum finished size ........... 1⁄2 × 23⁄4 in ........ 1⁄2 × 23⁄4 in ........ 1⁄2 × 23⁄4 in.

SCHEDULE FOR LADDER-TYPE PLATFORMS

Length of Platform ............................................................... 22 & 24 ft .......... 28 & 30 ft.


Side stringers, minimum cross section (finished sizes):
At ends ......................................................................... 13⁄4×3 in ............ 13⁄4 × 31⁄2 in.
At middle ...................................................................... 13⁄4 × 41⁄4 in ...... 13⁄4 × 5 in.
Reinforcing strip (minimum) ................................................ A1⁄8 × 7⁄8-inch steel reinforcing strip
shall be attached to the side or
underside, full length.
Rungs .................................................................................. Rungs shall be 11⁄8 inch minimum
diameter with at least 7⁄8 inch in
diameter tenons, and the max-
imum spacing shall be 12 inches
to center. Tie rods.
Number (minimum) ....................................................... 5 ....................... 6.
Diameter (minimum) ..................................................... 1⁄4 in .................. 1⁄4 in.

Flooring, minimum finished size .......................................... 1⁄2 × 23⁄4 in ........ 1⁄2 × 23⁄4 in.

(4) Plank-Type Platforms. Plank-type plat- flat and set into the upper edge of the string-
forms shall be composed of not less than ers with a snug fit, at intervals of not more
nominal 2 × 8 inch unspliced planks, con- than 4 feet, securely nailed to the cross
nected together on the underside with cleats beams. Floor-boards shall not be spaced
at intervals not exceeding 4 feet, starting 6 more than 1⁄2 inch apart.
inches from each end. A bar or other effec- (q)(1) Multi-point adjustable suspension scaf-
tive means shall be securely fastened to the folds and stonesetters’ multi-point adjustable
platform at each end to prevent the platform suspension scaffolds. No specific guidelines or
from slipping off the hanger. The span be- tables are given for these scaffolds.
tween hangers for plank-type platforms shall (2) Masons’ multi-point adjustable suspension
not exceed 10 feet. scaffolds. Maximum intended load—50 lb/ft2.
(5) Beam-Type Platforms. Beam platforms Each outrigger beam shall be at least a
shall have side stringers of lumber not less standard 7 inch, 15.3 pound steel I-beam, at
than 2 × 6 inches set on edge. The span be- least 15 feet long. Such beams shall not
tween hangers shall not exceed 12 feet when project more than 6 feet 6 inches beyond the
beam platforms are used. The flooring shall bearing point. Where the overhang exceeds 6
be supported on 2 × 6 inch cross beams, laid

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Pt. 1926, Subpt. L, App. C 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)
feet 6 inches, outrigger beams shall be com- (3) A taut wire or synthetic rope supported
posed of stronger beams or multiple beams. on the scaffold brackets shall be installed at
(r) Catenary scaffolds. (1) Maximum in- the scaffold plank level between the inner-
tended load—500 lbs. most edge of the scaffold platform and the
(2) Not more than two employees shall be curved plate structure of the tank shell to
permitted on the scaffold at one time. serve as a safety line in lieu of an inner
(3) Maximum capacity of come-along shall guardrail assembly where the space between
be 2,000 lbs. the scaffold platform and the tank exceeds 12
(4) Vertical pickups shall be spaced not inches (30.48 cm). In the event the open space
more than 50 feet apart. on either side of the rope exceeds 12 inches
(5) Ropes shall be equivalent in strength to (30.48 cm), a second wire or synthetic rope
at least 1⁄2 inch (1.3 cm) diameter improved appropriately placed, or guardrails in ac-
plow steel wire rope.
cordance with § 1926.451(e)(4), shall be in-
(s) Float (ship) scaffolds. (1) Maximum in-
stalled in order to reduce that open space to
tended load—750 lbs.
less than 12 inches (30.48 cm).
(2) Platforms shall be made of 3⁄4 inch ply-
wood, equivalent in rating to American Ply- (4) Scaffold planks of rough full-dimen-
wood Association Grade B-B, Group I, Exte- sioned 2-inch (5.1 cm)×12-inch (30.5 cm) Doug-
rior. las Fir or Southern Yellow Pine of Select
(3) Bearers shall be made from 2×4 inch, or Structural Grade shall be used. Douglas Fir
1×10 inch rough lumber. They shall be free of planks shall have a fiber stress of at least
knots and other flaws. 1900 lb/in2 (130,929 n/cm2) and a modulus of
(4) Ropes shall be equivalent in strength to elasticity of at least 1,900,000 lb/in2
at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter first grade (130,929,000 n/cm2), while Yellow Pine planks
manila rope. shall have a fiber stress of at least 2500 lb/in2
(t) Interior hung scaffolds. (172,275 n/cm2) and a modulus of elasticity of
Bearers (use on edge): 2×10 in. at least 2,000,000 lb/in2 (137,820,000 n/cm2).
Maximum intended load: Maximum span (5) Guardrails shall be constructed of a
25 lb/ft.2: 10 ft. taut wire or synthetic rope, and shall be sup-
50 lb/ft.2: 10 ft. ported by angle irons attached to brackets
75 lb/ft.2: 7 ft. welded to the steel plates. These guardrails
(u) Needle beam scaffolds. shall comply with § 1926.451(e)(4). Guardrail
supports shall be located at no greater than
Maximum intended load: 25 lb/ft.2
10 feet 6 inch intervals.
Beams: 4×6 in.
Maximum platform span: 8 ft.
Maximum beam span: 10 ft.
(NON-MANDATORY) APPENDIX B TO SUB-
(1) Ropes shall be attached to the needle PART L OF PART 1926—CRITERIA FOR
beams by a scaffold hitch or an eye splice. DETERMINING THE FEASIBILITY OF
The loose end of the rope shall be tied by a PROVIDING SAFE ACCESS AND FALL
bowline knot or by a round turn and a half PROTECTION FOR SCAFFOLD EREC-
hitch. TORS AND DISMANTLERS [RE-
(2) Ropes shall be equivalent in strength to
SERVED]
at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter first grade
manila rope.
(v) Multi-level suspension scaffolds. No addi- (NON-MANDATORY) APPENDIX C TO SUB-
tional guidelines or tables are being given PART L OF PART 1926—LIST OF NA-
for these scaffolds. TIONAL CONSENSUS STANDARDS
(w) Mobile Scaffolds. Stability test as de-
scribed in the ANSI A92 series documents, as ANSI/SIA A92.2–1990 Vehicle-Mounted Ele-
appropriate for the type of scaffold, can be vating and Rotating Aerial Devices
used to establish stability for the purpose of ANSI/SIA A92.3–1990 Manually Propelled Ele-
§ 1926.452(w)(6). vating Aerial Platforms
(x) Repair bracket scaffolds. No additional ANSI/SIA A92.5–1990 Boom Supported Ele-
guidelines or tables are being given for these vating Work Platforms
scaffolds. ANSI/SIA A92.6–1990 Self-Propelled Elevating
(y) Stilts. No specific guidelines or tables Work Platforms
are given. ANSI/SIA A92.7–1990 Airline Ground Support
(z) Tank builder’s scaffold.
Vehicle-Mounted Vertical Lift Devices
(1) The maximum distance between brack-
ANSI/SIA A92.8–1993 Vehicle-Mounted Bridge
ets to which scaffolding and guardrail sup-
ports are attached shall be no more than 10 Inspection and Maintenance Devices
feet 6 inches. ANSI/SIA A92.9–1993 Mast-Climbing Work
(2) Not more than three employees shall Platforms
occupy a 10 feet 6 inch span of scaffold plank-
ing at any time.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor Pt. 1926, Subpt. L, App. E

(NON-MANDATORY) APPENDIX D TO SUB- • access and platforms


PART L OF PART 1926—LIST OF • erection/dismantling procedures
TRAINING TOPICS FOR SCAFFOLD • rolling scaffold assembly
• putlogs
ERECTORS AND DISMANTLERS • Tube and Clamp Scaffolds
This Appendix D is provided to serve as a • specific regulations and standards
guide to assist employers when evaluating • components
the training needs of employees erecting or • parts inspection
dismantling supported scaffolds. • erection/dismantling planning
The Agency believes that employees erect- • guys, ties and braces
ing or dismantling scaffolds should be • fall protection
trained in the following topics: • general safety
• General Overview of Scaffolding • access and platforms
• regulations and standards • erection/dismantling procedures
• erection/dismantling planning • buttresses, cantilevers, & bridges
• PPE and proper procedures • System Scaffolds
• fall protection • specific regulations and standards
• materials handling • components
• access • parts inspection
• working platforms • erection/dismantling planning
• foundations • guys, ties and braces
• guys, ties and braces • fall protection
• Tubular Welded Frame Scaffolds • general safety
• specific regulations and standards • access and platforms
• components • erection/dismantling procedures
• buttresses, cantilevers, & bridges
• parts inspection
• erection/dismantling planning Scaffold erectors and dismantlers should
• guys, ties and braces all receive the general overview, and, in ad-
• fall protection dition, specific training for the type of sup-
• general safety ported scaffold being erected or dismantled.

(NON-MANDATORY) APPENDIX E TO SUBPART L OF PART 1926—DRAWINGS AND


ILLUSTRATIONS
This Appendix provides drawings of particular types of scaffolds and scaffold components,
and graphic illustrations of bracing patterns and tie spacing patterns.
This Appendix is intended to provide visual guidance to assist the user in complying with
the requirements of subpart L, part 1926.

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HOISTS MUST BE ELECTRONICALLY ISOLATED FROM SCAFFOLD

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§ 1926.500 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–10 Edition)

[61 FR 46122, Aug. 30, 1996; 61 FR 59832, Nov. 25, 1996]

Subpart M—Fall Protection § 1926.500 Scope, application, and defi-


nitions applicable to this subpart.
AUTHORITY: Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours (a) Scope and application. (1) This sub-
and Safety Standards Act (Construction part sets forth requirements and cri-
Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333); Sec. 4, 6, 8, Occu- teria for fall protection in construction
pational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 workplaces covered under 29 CFR part
U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor’s Or- 1926. Exception: The provisions of this
ders Nos. 1–90 (55 FR 9033), 6–96 (62 FR 111);
subpart do not apply when employees
and 3–2000 (65 FR 50017), as applicable, and 29
CFR Part 1911. are making an inspection, investiga-
tion, or assessment of workplace condi-
SOURCE: 59 FR 40730, Aug. 9, 1994, unless tions prior to the actual start of con-
otherwise noted.
struction work or after all construc-
tion work has been completed.

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