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The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications
protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is named from two of the
most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet
Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard.
Today's IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that began to
evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely the Internet and LANs (Local Area Networks),
which emerged in the mid- to late-1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide
Web in the early 1990s.

The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, may be viewed as a set of layers.
Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a
well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some
lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract
data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be
physically transmitted.

The TCP/IP model consists of four layers (RFC 1122).[1][2] From lowest to highest,
these are the Link Layer, the Internet Layer, the Transport Layer, and the Application
Layer.

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TCP/IP is a protocol stack used for data transmission from source to destination.
In the physical layer all the physical connections like LAN cards, cables etc will b there
which will send data in the form of bits. layer 2 operates with frames where the switches
comes into picture.
in the network layer which operates on packets.routing takes places, routers are the
devices used for this.
transport layer is above the network layer and it uses mainly TCP/ UDP for transport of
data.
the application layers is on top of this layer.

application layer
|
transport layer[tcp/udp]
|
network layer[routers]
|
datalink layer[switches]
|
physical layer[Network Interface card, cables etc]

for any transfer of data between 2 systems this TCP/IP stack comes into picture,
whether it is file transfer or uploading something,sending an email etc. any application
based on web will use TCP/IP

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NWLink (Novell), NetBEUI, AppleTalk (Apple).

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A socket is an abstraction that represents an endpoint of communication. Most


applications that consciously use TCP and UDP do so by creating a socket of the
appropriate type and then performing a series of operations on that socket. The
operations that can be performed on a socket include control operations (such as
associating aport number with the socket, initiating or accepting a connection on the
socket, or destroying the socket) datatransfer operations (such as writing data through
the socket to some other application, or reading data from some other application
through the socket) and status operations (such as finding the IP address associated
with the socket).

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Ip is just a protocol which used to carry data,packets over the network in the manner
which the n/w components can understand.
ip is a identity of n/w devices .

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* OSI stands for = Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model


* TCP/IP stands for = Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol

  01!2.2 #20 2

PDU for Network Layer is: "Packet" and PDU for Data Link Layer is :"Frame"
128 bit in tcp ip

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They are really two different technologies. IPSec secures the TCP/IP communication and
protects the integrity of the packets. Certificate-based security ensures the validity of
authenticated clients and servers.

 
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You shouldn't use IP addresses that have been assigned to some


other organisation, because if knowledge of your network ever gets
leaked onto the Internet they may disrupt that innocent
organisation's activity. RFC 1918 provides a solution for this
problem by allocating several IP address ranges specifically for
use on private networks. These addresses will never be assigned
to any organisation and are never supposed to appear on the
Internet.

RFC 1918 is the official document on which IP addresses are to be used in a non-
connected or "private" network. There are 3 blocks of numbers set aside specifically for
this purpose.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the
following three blocks of the IP address space for private networks:

10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

We will refer to the first block as "24-bit block", the second as "20-bit
block", and the third as "16-bit" block". Note that the first block is
nothing but a single class A network number, while the second block is a set
of 16 continuous class B network numbers, and the third block is a set of 255
continuous class C network numbers.

For the record, my preference is to use the 192.168.0.0 network with a 255.255.255.0
Class-C subnet mask and thus this HOWTO reflects this. Any of the above private
networks are valid, but just be SURE to use the correct subnet-mask.

So, if you're using a Class-C network, you should number your TCP/IP enabled machines
as 192.168.0.1, 192.168.0.2, 192.168.0.3, .., 192.168.0.x
192.168.0.1 is usually set as the internal gateway or Linux MASQ machine which reaches
the external network. Please note that 192.168.0.0 and 192.168.0.255 are
the Network and Broadcast address respectively (theseaddresses are RESERVED). Avoid
using these addresses on your machines or your network will not function properly.

0.*

DNS uses both TCP or UDP or both. UDP can handle only 512bytes. If data size is withing
512 bytes UDP is used, otherwise, TCP is used.

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Transport layer.

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The IANA allocates and keeps track of all kinds of arbitrary


numbers used by TCP/IP, including well-known port numbers. The
entire collection is published periodically in an RFC called the
Assigned Numbers RFC, each of which supersedes the previous one in
the series. The current Assigned Numbers RFC is 56' /

 

Upper layer i.e. Application layer is closer to the user.

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By using "Telnet"

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OSI is a reference model and TCP/IP is an implementation of OSI model.

OSI has 7 layers whereas TCP/IP has only 4 layers The upper 3 layers of the OSI model
is combined on the TCP/IP model.

OSI has: physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer,
presentation layer andapplication layer TCP/IP has : Network layer, Internet layer,
transport layer and application layer.

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DNS, FTP, Telnet, http

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All of the protocols in the TCP/IP suite are defined by documents called Requests For
Comments (RFC's). An important difference between TCP/IP RFC's and other (say, IEEE
or ITU) networking standards is that RFC's are freely available online.

 #!!  %99 #% # 

All of them are devices and are used in network. Their differences are:

* Router: Layer 3 device, can work on physical, data and network layer.
* Switch: Layer 2 device, can work on data link layer
* Bridge: Layer 2 device, can work on data link layer.
* Hub: Layer 1device, just a multi-port repeater and works on physical layer

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OSI model is a reference model containing 7 layers such as physical layer, data link
layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer and application
layer.

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ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol. It helps to find the hardware address or MAC
address when IP address is known.

 

To communicate several networks, routers are used. Routers have both broadcast
domain and collision domain.

router is used to :-
-for path determination
-for forwarding information
-for call set up messages

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Outlook data files (.pst) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Local Settings\Application


Data\Microsoft\Outlook

Offline Folders file (.ost) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Local Settings\Application


Data\Microsoft\Outlook

Personal Address Book (.pab) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Local Settings\Application


Data\Microsoft\Outlook

Offline Address Books (.oab) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Local Settings\Application


Data\Microsoft\Outlook

Command bar and menu customizations (.dat) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application


Data\Microsoft\Outlook

Navigation Pane settings (.xml): This file includes Shortcuts, Calendar, and Contact links.
drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\Outlook.xml

Registered Microsoft Exchange extensions (.dat) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Local


Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook

Outlook contacts nicknames (.nk2) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application


Data\Microsoft\Outlook

Rules (.rwz) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook

. If you upgraded from a version of Outlook prior to Outlook 2002, you may have a
.rwz file on your computer hard disk drive. The file is no longer needed and the rules
information is now kept on the server for Microsoft Exchange e-mail accounts, and within
the personal folders file (.pst) for POP3 and IMAP e-mail accounts. You can delete the file.

Rules import or export (.rwz): If you use the rules import or export feature, the default
location for .rwz files is:
drive:\Documents and Settings\\My Documents.

Print styles (Outlprnt with no extension) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application


Data\Microsoft\Outlook

Signatures (.rtf, .txt, .htm) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application


Data\Microsoft\Signatures

Stationary (.htm) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application Data\Microsoft\Stationary

Custom forms drive:\Documents and Settings\\Local Settings\Application


Data\Microsoft\Forms

Dictionary (.dic) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application Data\Microsoft\Proof

Templates (.oft) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application Data\Microsoft\Templates

Send/Receive settings (.srs) drive:\Documents and Settings\\Application


Data\Microsoft\Outlook

Message (.msg, .htm, .rtf) drive:\Documents and Settings\\My Documents

Lotus notes configuration

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