Subgrade radial

© All Rights Reserved

6 views

Subgrade radial

© All Rights Reserved

- Lec11
- NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES.pdf
- Torsion
- Abaqus Analysis User's Manual
- Análisis dinámico con FLAC
- Electromagnetic Forces in COMSOL
- Mallet Construction of Artillery
- Exercise 7.1 Pt Bending HyperCrash
- Models.sme.Cohesive Zone Debonding
- Thin WalledStructures
- 0338.pdf
- iitb
- CAESARII_5_00
- 1292527243valley_06_strength_585283
- MaMePa2014CL
- 1 Stress and Strain
- Corps Brief Design History. Dick Ahlvin,1999. 6pp
- Shear Modulus of Gravel
- Statics Report 1
- Engg Mech and Strength of Materials

You are on page 1of 8

www.sciencedirect.com

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/sandf

tunnel in elastic ground

Dongming Zhanga, Hongwei Huanga,n, Kok Kwang Phoonb, Qunfang Huc

a

Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Minister of Education, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Tongji University,

Shanghai, China

b

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E1A, # 07-03, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576, Singapore

c

Shanghai Institute of Disaster Prevention and Relief, Shanghai, China

Received 16 May 2013; received in revised form 19 August 2013; accepted 2 October 2013

Available online 13 April 2014

Abstract

In models based on Winkler springs for tunnel lining design, designers always face the difﬁculty of selecting appropriate values for the radial

subgrade modulus (kr). The widely used solution kr for a circular tunnel in elastic ground proposed by Wood (1975) was found to be applicable

only when the tunnel radial deformation is oval-shaped. On the basis of the Wood's solution, this note presents a general solution for kr when the

radial deformation of the tunnel is described by a Fourier series. This modiﬁed Wood's solution of kr using compatible stress functions is

validated by a numerical example. The modiﬁed solution for the example shows good consistency with the original Wood's solution when the

tunnel becomes an oval shape with deformations. The example indicates that the magnitude of kr is signiﬁcantly affected by the distribution shape

of the tunnel radial deformation. The value of kr is no longer a constant value around the tunnel when the tunnel deforms into a general shape

described by a Fourier series. It is quite different from the value of kr for a distribution shape described by a single Fourier term, i.e. one involving

a single frequency. The application of a general solution for kr is illustrated by a design case using a bedded beam model.

& 2014 The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Tunnel lining; Winkler model; Radial subgrade modulus; Fourier series; Elastic analysis

1. Introduction

n

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ86 2165989273; fax: þ 86 2165985017. tunnel linings, the bedded beam model based on Winkler

E-mail addresses: 09zhang@tongji.edu.cn (D. Zhang), springs is widely used by tunnel design engineers (RTRI,

huanghw@tongji.edu.cn (H. Huang), kkphoon@nus.edu.sg (K.K. Phoon), 1997; ITA, 2004; JSCE, 2007). In this model, however, it is

huqunf@tongji.edu.cn (Q. Hu). not easy for engineers to determine the radial subgrade

Peer review under responsibility of The Japanese Geotechnical Society.

modulus (kr) appropriately (Duddeck and Erdmann, 1982;

Mair, 2008; Gruebl, 2012). Table 1 shows values for kr

recommended by Standards in China and Japan for shield-

driven tunnels. Table 1indicates that even when the soil is

of a speciﬁc type, engineers still have to select a value from

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2014.02.012

0038-0806 & 2014 The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

226 D. Zhang et al. / Soils and Foundations 54 (2014) 225–232

um weight of a general mode m in Fourier series

Am, Bm, Cm, Dm coefﬁcients in stress function r, r0, r1 radial coordinate, tunnel radius, radius of the large

am weight of the krm circle in FEM mesh

EC, v soil Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio sr soil radial stress changes

kr, krm radial subgrade modulus, the value for a general θ angle measured counterclockwise from the

mode m tunnel crown

m shape mode of the tunnel radial deformation

the wide range of kr based on their own experience. Unfortu- 2. Problem statement

nately, the structural behavior of the segmental lining and the

joints have been found to be quite sensitive to the selected Fig. 1 shows the problem geometry. A circular tunnel with

magnitude of kr (Lee et al., 2001). Hence, some analytical radius r0 is embedded in a homogeneous isotropic inﬁnite

solutions of kr have been put forward as a rational method to elastic ground. The tunnel is assumed to deform radially into

determine the magnitude of this parameter (Arnau and Molins, the shape described by a Fourier series due to tunneling. With

2011). the prescribed radial displacement and the calculated stress

To derive these analytical solutions for kr, the distribution change, the radial subgrade modulus (kr) can be obtained as

shape of the radial deformation of the tunnel (hereafter referred follows:

to as the distribution shape) must be prescribed. Usually this sr

distribution shape is assumed to be either circular (Sagaseta, kr ¼ ð2Þ

ur r ¼ r 0

1987) or oval (Wood, 1975). However, a single distribution

shape might not be sufﬁcient to describe the actual behavior of The assumptions made in this note are the same as those

the tunnel lining due to the complex soil-lining interactions. made by Wood (1975): (a) the plane strain condition is in a

Hence, a solution of kr based on the single circular or oval direction perpendicular to the cross section of the tunnel; (b)

shape would be ideal for tunnel designs. In this note, an

analytical solution for kr for a more general distribution shape σr

described by a Fourier series (Eq. (1)) is presented. σθ

m Fourier series deformation shape

ur=∑umcosmθ

Besides the solution for an oval shape, Wood (1975) also r=r1

presented a solution of kr for the distribution shape described

by a general term of the above Fourier series. However, the θ

Airy stress function used in the Wood (1975)'s solution of kr

r=r0

for the general term does not satisfy the strain compatibility

equation identically. Wood (1975)'s solution is thus revised

using compatible Airy stress functions to derive a complete uθ ur

solution of kr for a general distribution shape described in the Undeformed tunnel shape

form of a Fourier series. A numerical example presented by

Bobet (2001) is adopted to validate the proposed analytical

solution of kr. Finally, a design case is introduced to illustrate

Homogeneous linear elastic soil: EC, v

the applicability of the proposed solution of kr to the bedded

beam model. Fig. 1. Geometry of the problem.

Table 1

Parameter kr recommended by standards in China and Japan.

Very soft Soft Medium Stiff Very loose Loose Medium Dense

a

kr (MPa/m) 3–15 15–30 30–150 4150 3–15 15–30 30–100 4 100

(kr 2r0)b (MPa) 0–4 4–15 15–46 446 0–28 28–55

a

China Standard (Liu and Hou, 1997).

b

Japan Standard (RTRI, 1997): radial subgrade modulus (kr) tunnel diameter (2r0).

D. Zhang et al. / Soils and Foundations 54 (2014) 225–232 227

the interface between the tunnel lining and ground is assumed in Wood (1975)'s solution is not compatible for general values

to have a small coefﬁcient of friction, so that the shear stress at of m.

the interface can be neglected; and (c) the stress change and the This incompatibility of the Airy stress function adopted in

displacement of the ground at inﬁnity from the tunnel axis the Muir Wood's solution is further demonstrated when an

must be zero. FEM analysis is used with the commercial ﬁnite element code

ABAQUS™. This has been widely used for the numerical

3. Wood (1975)'s solution analysis for tunnels (Cui and Kimura, 2010). The ﬁnite

element mesh, shown in Fig. 2, is a half ring cut from the

On the basis of the work done by Morgan (1961), Wood inﬁnite problem domain. The linear elastic soil is simulated by

(1975) reﬁned a solution of kr for a distribution shape 3600 6-node quadratic triangle elements. The soil Young's

described by a general Fourier term (Eq. (3)), namely: modulus is assumed to be 20 MPa and different soil Poisson's

ratios are studied. The inner arc is the tunnel boundary at

ur ¼ um cos mθ; mZ1 ð3Þ r¼ r0 ¼ 3 m (BC-C) and the outer arc is the soil element at

To solve this two-dimensional problem, the Airy stress r¼ r1 ¼ 10 m (BC-A). The inﬁnite problem domain away from

function method is adopted. The Airy stress function should the outer arc is simulated by 90 5-node inﬁnite elements

satisfy both the differential equations of equilibrium and the provided by the ABAQUS/Standard program. The length d in

compatibility equation. Thus, the solution of this two-dimensional the inﬁnite direction for each inﬁnite element is set 2 times r1

problem is reduced to ﬁnding a compatible Airy stress function (shown in Fig. 2). The boundary BC-B is an axis of symmetry.

that only needs to satisfy the boundary conditions of the problem. The displacement boundary conditions calculated by Eqs. (5b)

The Airy stress function for Wood (1975)'s solution is and (5c) are applied on the tunnel boundary BC-C. With the

calculated stress changes and the prescribed displacements, kr

ϕ ¼ ðcr 2 þ dÞ cos mθ ð4Þ can be computed numerically from Eq. (2).

The respective solutions for the radial stress change, Fig. 3 compares the numerical values of kr derived from the

radial displacement and tangential displacement, satisfying the FEM with the analytical solutions (Eq. (6)) for different

equilibrium equations, the constitutive laws and the boundary Poisson's ratios. The numerical values do not match the

conditions, are: analytical solutions, except for the case where m ¼ 2. This

inconsistency is likely to be caused by an incompatible Airy

sr ¼ cr 4 ðm2 þ 2 3m2 r 2 r 0 2 Þ cos mθ ð5aÞ stress function, as noted previously. Hence, the Wood (1975)'s

solution of kr is correct only when the tunnel deforms into an

ð1þ vÞcr 3

ur ¼ 2 þ m2 þ vð4 m2 Þ oval distribution shape. Fortunately, this oval shape might be a

3EC

fairly satisfactory assumption in cases characterized by an

þ 9r 2 r 0 2 ðv 1Þm2 cos mθ ð5bÞ absence of information about tunnel deformation. That

explains why the solution proposed by Wood in the 1970s is

ð1þ vÞcr 3 2 still widely used today, especially in the preliminary design

uθ ¼ m 16þ vð16 4m2 Þ

3E C m stage. However, the in-situ soil-lining interactions induced by

þ 9r 2 r 0 2 ð2v 1Þm2 sin mθ ð5cÞ tunneling can be highly complex due to various factors

(Koyama, 2003; Sung et al., 2006; Shahin et al., 2011;

By substituting Eqs. (5a) and (5b) into Eq. (2), the

corresponding kr is

3ðm2 1ÞE C

kr ¼ ð6Þ

ð1 þ vÞ½ð4m2 1Þ ð4m2 þ 2Þvr 0

From Eq. (6), Wood (1975) found that the parameter m has

little effect on the magnitude of kr. As a result, he concluded

that it is reasonable to assume kr is independent of the

distribution shape and the error introduced by this assumption

is acceptable when compared with the uncertainty associated

with other soil parameters.

However, by substituting the Airy stress function (Eq. (4))

into the strain compatibility equation,

2 2

∂ 1∂ 1 ∂2 ∂ φ 1 ∂φ 1 ∂2 φ

þ þ þ þ

∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂θ2 ∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂θ2

¼ cr 6 cos mθð2 mÞð2 þ mÞð16 m2 þ 3m2 r 2 r 0 2 Þ ¼ 0

ð7Þ

Eq. (7) cannot be identically satisﬁed except in special cases

where m ¼ 2. In other words, the Airy stress function adopted Fig. 2. Finite element mesh.

228 D. Zhang et al. / Soils and Foundations 54 (2014) 225–232

Huang et al., 2013). Even for the preliminary design in the ð1þ vÞC m

ur ¼ þ

mðm 1Þr 20 ðm þ 1Þ½m þ 2ð1 2vÞr 2

greenﬁeld, some of the analytical solutions (Bobet, 2001) have ðm þ 1ÞE C r 1 m

cos mθ ð9bÞ

the tunnel deformation. A single distribution shape (m ¼ 2)

may well be insufﬁcient to describe the actual behavior of the ð1þ vÞC m

tunnel lining. Hence, a solution of kr for a distribution shape uθ ¼ þ

mðm 1Þr 20 ðm þ 1Þ½m 4ð1 vÞr 2

ðm þ 1ÞEC r 1 m

described by a general term of a Fourier series should be

sin mθ ð9cÞ

helpful in the design of the tunnel lining. In this case, a

modiﬁed solution of kr found by adopting a compatible Airy By substituting Eqs. (9a) and (9b) into Eq. (2), the kr is

stress function for the general Fourier term is presented and given by

validated by the FEM results below. sr ðm2 1ÞEC

kr ¼ ¼ ð10Þ

ur r ¼ r0 ð1 þ vÞ½2mð1 vÞþ 1 2vr 0

4. Modiﬁed solution Eq. (10) is also validated using an FEM analysis. The ﬁnite

element mesh and the soil properties are the same as those

A compatible Airy stress function corresponding to Eq. (3) used in the FEM analysis for the validation of the Wood

is chosen from the general stress function proposed by (1975)'s solution in Fig. 2. Following the previous procedure,

Timoshenko and Goodier (1970) as follows: the displacements calculated by Eqs. (9b) and (9c) are ﬁrst

applied on the tunnel boundary BC-C. Then the stress changes

(

ðAm r m þ Bm rm þ C m r 2 m þ Dm r 2 þ m Þ cos mθ; m Z 2; are calculated and the numerical results of kr can be obtained

φ¼ 1Þ

ðA1 r 1 þ C 1 r ln r þ D1 r 3 Þ cos θ þ 2ðv

1 2v C 1 rθ sin θ; m ¼ 1; from Eq. (2).

Fig. 4 shows the results of kr both from the numerical

ð8Þ analysis and from Eq. (10). The numerical results are clearly in

The general case for m Z 2 is ﬁrst considered. Correspond- good agreement with the analytical solutions from Eq. (10),

ing to the Airy stress function for m Z2 in Eq. (8), the indicating that the modiﬁed solution of kr for the distribution

modiﬁed solutions of the stress change and the displacement of shape described by a general term of Fourier series is correct.

the ground are In Fig. 4, both the analytical and numerical results show a

signiﬁcant effect of the mode parameter m on the magnitude

sr ¼ ðm 1ÞCm r m ðr 2 r 0 2 1Þm 2 cos mθ ð9aÞ of kr.

Corresponding to the Airy stress function for the case

6 where m ¼ 1 in Eq. (8), solutions of the stress change and

v=0 (Wood(1975)) v=0 (FEM) the displacement of the ground are

5 v=0.35 (Wood(1975)) v=0.35(FEM) 2

v=0.49 (Wood(1975)) v=0.49(FEM) r 0 ð1 2vÞþ r 2 ð3 2vÞ C 1

sr ¼ cos θ ð11aÞ

Dimensionless k r

4

r 3 ð2v 1Þ

k rr0 /E

3

C 1 ð1 þ vÞ 2 2

ur ¼ r 0 r ð1 2vÞþ ln rð8v 6Þ cos θ ð11bÞ

2 2ð1 2vÞE C

1 C 1 ð1 þ vÞ 2 2

uθ ¼ r 0 r ð1 2vÞþ 2½ ln rð3 4vÞþ 1 sin θ

0 2ð1 2vÞE

2 3 4 5 6 7

Mode parameter m ð11cÞ

Fig. 3. Validation of Wood (1975)'s solution of kr. It is interesting to note that the solutions of soil displacement

(Eqs. (11b) and (11c)) have a term expressed by the logarithm

7

of the radial coordinate. In this case, the amount of displace-

v=0 (Modified) v=0 (FEM) ment increases as the distance from the tunnel axis increases,

6 v=0.35 (Modified) v=0.35 (FEM) which is in conﬂict with the assumption (c). Mathematically,

v=0.49 (Modified) v=0.49 (FEM)

5 this is a consequence of the unbalanced boundary condition

Dimensionless k r

4 when the tunnel deforms into the mode shape when m ¼ 1, but

k rr0 /E

3

Bobet (2001) introduced a characteristic dimension to make

2 the displacement of the ground arbitrarily equal to zero for

1 rZ characteristic dimension. The adoption of the character-

0

istic dimension is reasonable because in actual cases there is

2 3 4 5 6 7 always a stiff layer below the tunnel where displacement

Mode parameter m

should be zero. The effect of the depth of the stiff layer on the

Fig. 4. Validation of modiﬁed solution of kr. soil stress is not signiﬁcant as long as the depth of the layer is

D. Zhang et al. / Soils and Foundations 54 (2014) 225–232 229

In addition, the arching effect of the soils for a deep tunnel

also makes the ground behavior insigniﬁcant above the tunnel The following distribution shape presented by Bobet (2001)

for a distance of characteristic dimension (Chevalier and Otani, is adopted to validate the analytical solution presented in

2011). Based on Bobet's suggestion, the characteristic dimen- Eq. 16:

sion in this note is considered to be 10 times the tunnel radius. ur0 ¼ u0 u1 cos θ u2 cos 2θ þ u3 cos 3θ ð17Þ

Eqs. (11a) and (11b) is modiﬁed as follows (r r characteristic

dimension): A speciﬁc Bobet's shape is chosen and plotted in Fig. 5(a).

Fig. 5(b)–(e) are the shapes corresponding to a single mode

C parameter m (m ¼ 0, 1, 2 and 3) in Bobet's shape. The Young's

sr ¼ ð1 2vÞr 20 r 3 ð10r 0 Þ 3

2v 1 modulus of the soil is assumed to be 20 MPa and its Poisson's

þ ð3 2vÞ½r 1 ð10r 0 Þ 1 cos θ ð12aÞ ratio is assumed to be 0.3. The tunnel radius is 3.0 m.

For comparison purposes, both Wood (1975)'s solution

Cð1 þ vÞ (Eq. (6)) and the modiﬁed solutions developed in the present

ur ¼ ð1 2vÞr 20 r 2 ð10r 0 Þ 2

2ð1 2vÞE study (Eqs. (10) and (13)) are used to formulate the krm in

Eq. (16). The analytical solutions of kr for the Bobet's shape

þ ð8v 6Þln ½rð10rÞ 1 cos θ ð12bÞ

are obtained by using Eq. (16) and plotted against the angle θ

Cð1 þ vÞ in Fig. 6. The validations of these analytical solutions are

uθ ¼ ð1 2vÞr 20 r 2 ð10r 0 Þ 2 carried out by using a similar approach adopted for the

2ð1 2vÞE

validation of Eqs. (6) and (10). The displacements for each

þ 2ð3 4vÞln ½rð10r 0 Þ 1 cos θ ð12cÞ

u0 u1

By substituting Eqs. (12a) and (12b) into Eq. (2), the Bobet (2001)'s general shape

solution of kr for m ¼ 1 then becomes u0:u1 :u2 :u3 =190:77:83:1

9ð411 422vÞE C u0

kr ¼ ð13Þ

5ð1 þ vÞ½99 þ 600 ln 10 ð198 þ 800 ln 10Þvr 0

u0 u1

The case in which the mode parameter m is equal to zero,

which represents a circular distribution shape, also needs to be m=0 m=1

considered to cover all the terms in a Fourier series. The

solution of kr for this circular shape has already been solved

u2 u3

(Sagaseta, 1987) and is given by

r0

sr EC

kr ¼ ¼ ð14Þ u2 u3

ur r ¼ r0 ð1þ vÞr 0

has only been described by a single term of the Fourier series. u3

u3

However, because of the complexity of real tunnel deforma- Underformed shape

m=2 m=3

tions, the Fourier series (Eq. (1)) is preferred to describe the Bobet (2001)'s shape

change corresponding to Eq. (1) is

Fig. 5. The Bobet (2001)'s distribution shape.

sr ¼ kr0 u0 þ k r1 u1 cos θ þ ⋯þ krm um cos mθ þ ⋯

1

¼ ∑ krm um cos mθ ð15Þ 2.0

Modified solution

m¼0 Wood(1975)'s solution

FEM (Modified solution)

By substituting Eqs. (1) and (15) into Eq. (2), it follows that 1.5 FEM (Wood (1975)'s solution)

the solution of kr for any arbitrary distribution shape described

Dimensionless k r

by a Fourier series is

k rr0/Ec

1.0

1

∑ krm um cos mθ

sr 1

¼ m ¼10

Modified Solution

kr ¼ ¼ ∑ am krm ð16Þ 0.5

ur r ¼ r 0 m¼0 min krr0/E (Single m=1)

∑ um cos mθ

m¼0

0.0

where krm is the kr for the distribution shape described by a 0.0 22.5 45.0 67.5 90.0 112.5 135.0 157.5 180.0

The angle θ

general Fourier term (Eqs. (10), (13) and (14)), and am is the

weight of krm, expressed by (um/ur)cos mθ. Fig. 6. kr for Bobet (2001)'s distribution shape.

230 D. Zhang et al. / Soils and Foundations 54 (2014) 225–232

tunnel boundary. The numerical values of kr are calculated and

plotted in Fig. 6. q1 q1

In Fig. 6, the modiﬁed solutions are consistent with the

corresponding numerical results. Wood (1975)'s solutions do pg

not agree with the corresponding numerical results. It is also

interesting to ﬁnd that the kr at the tunnel springline (θ ¼ 90º) r0

calculated by Wood (1975)'s solution are exactly the same as

those calculated by modiﬁed solutions. The reason is that cos θ Tunnel Lining

and cos 3θ vanish when θ is equal to 90º. The deformation

shape (Eq. (17)) is made up of two terms (i.e. u0 and u2 cos 2θ)

at tunnel springline. As mentioned in relation to Fig. 3, Wood, q2 Spring q2

(1975)'s solution is correct for the case where m ¼ 2. Hence,

the same value of kr is calculated by these two solutions only

p2

at the tunnel springline (i.e. θ ¼ 90º) in Fig. 6. However, the

modiﬁed solution presented in this note should be used to Fig. 7. The bedded beam model (BBM) for the application case.

determine the kr for an arbitrary distribution shape described

by a Fourier series. The results from Fig. 6 also show that kr

for the distribution shape described by a Fourier series will not in the form of Eq. (17), for which the mode weights (u0, u1, u2

be constant around the tunnel, which is different from the kr for and u3) need to be determined.

the shape described by a single Fourier term (see the dash lines Fig. 8 shows the iterative process of determining the mode

in Fig. 6). The variation of kr can be attributed to the fact that weights um and the kr in the form of the results against the

the weight (am) varies with the angle θ around the tunnel angle θ around the tunnel perimeter. In total, ten iterative steps

according to the deﬁnition of am in Eq. (16). are conducted for this case. For each step, the radial displace-

ments ur and the corresponding kr are plotted in the left and

6. Application to a design case right panels of Fig. 8, respectively. From the left panel of

Fig. 8, it is evident that the trial Fourier series (Eq. (17))

It is well recognized from the numerical example that the kr describes the “true” distribution shape calculated by BBM with

can be signiﬁcantly affected by the mode parameter m and the remarkable accuracy. The coefﬁcient of determination (R2) for

corresponding weight um in the Fourier series. However, the the trial Fourier series is 1.00 for each step. The ur and kr

values for the parameters m and um are usually unknown at the obtained at step 10 are regarded as the object values for this

design stage. In that case, the values for m and um can be design case. From a visual inspection, it is found in Fig. 8 that

determined by an iterative process of applying the bedded the difference between the results of step 2 and the object

beam model (BBM) repeatedly. Following the traditional results (step 10) are not signiﬁcant. It implies that error can be

calculation procedure of the BBM, the lining displacements accepted even at step 2 in engineering practice. From the

are ﬁrst calculated and then are best ﬁtted by a trial Fourier results of ur shown in step 10, the ellipse mode shape (m ¼ 2) is

series. Then from Eq. (16), this best ﬁtted Fourier series can be the dominant mode with 68% in the Fourier series. However, it

used to determine the kr for next step of calculation. The only is also obvious that this single shape (m ¼ 2) does not describe

difference between calculation steps is the kr used in the BBM. the true distribution shape accurately. It is possible that the

The iterative process can be stopped until the error between error may be in the range of 50% when compared with the true

two successive steps is below the tolerance level. Note that the ur at the crown and invert, as shown in Fig. 8. Correspond-

soil loads acting on the lining should remain unchanged during ingly, the kr at step 10 shown in Fig. 8 is quite different from

the iterative process, which is also the basic assumption when the kr for the single mode shape (m ¼ 2). It is also interesting to

using the BBM. ﬁnd that singular points for kr were observed near the location

A simple design case has been chosen to demonstrate this where ur is close to zero. In that case, calculated negative kr

iterative process. In this application case, the tunnel lining has around a singular point should be set to zero due to the non-

a density of 2.5 kg/m3, an outer radius r0 of 6 m and a negativity for kr. The effect of the subgrade reaction at these

thickness of 0.50 m. The cover depth from the ground surface points on the results is negligible due to the small magnitude

to the tunnel crown is 20 m. The water table is at the ground of ur.

surface. The saturated soil gravity is 18 kN/m3. The soil has a The convergence of the error between two successive steps

Young's modulus of 40 MPa and a Poisson's ratio of 0.33. The is analyzed for these ten steps. The relative error for ur and kr

lateral earth pressure coefﬁcient is 0.7. The corresponding at the tunnel crown are both plotted against the step number N

bedded beam model for this case is illustrated in Fig. 7. The in Fig. 9. Numerically, it is evident that convergence occurs

loads acting on the lining, e.g., vertical total pressure (p1, p2), rapidly. In this case, the error of the results at the 3rd step is

lateral total pressure (q1, q2) and dead load (pg), are determined smaller than 10% and at the 6th step it is smaller than 0.1%.

by following the ITA guideline (ITA, 2004). The kr around the This proves that the iteration method is very efﬁcient to

tunnel at the initial step is set to zero. The trial Fourier series is determine the values for mode parameters um and the kr.

D. Zhang et al. / Soils and Foundations 54 (2014) 225–232 231

100 2.00

BBM kr

75 Fourier (R2=1.00

Object (Step 10)

Object (Step 10) 1.50

50

ur (mm)

krr0/Ec

25

The angle θ

0 1.00

0.0 22.5 45.0 67.5 90.0 112.5 135.0 157.5 180.0

-25

-50 0.50

-75

u0:u1:u2:u3=2 : -4 : 84 : -10 The angle θ

-100 0.00

0.0 22.5 45.0 67.5 90.0 112.5 135.0 157.5 180.0

30 2.00

BBM kr

20 Fourier

Object (Step 10) Object (Step 10)

1.50

10

ur (mm)

krr0/Ec

The angle θ

0 1.00

0.0 22.5 45.0 67.5 90.0 112.5 135.0 157.5 180.0

-10

0.50

-20

u0:u1:u2:u3=5 : -9 : 66 : -20 The angle θ

-30 0.00

0.0 22.5 45.0 67.5 90.0 112.5 135.0 157.5 180.0

30 2.00

BBM

20 Object (Step 10) Object (Step 10)

m=2 1.50

10

ur (mm)

krr0/Ec

The angle θ

0 1.00

0.0 22.5 45.0 67.5 90.0 112.5 135.0 157.5 180.0 m=2

-10

0.50

-20

u0:u1:u2:u3=5 : -9 : 68 : -18 The angle θ

-30 0.00

0.0 22.5 45.0 67.5 90.0 112.5 135.0 157.5 180.0

Fig. 8. The ur and kr during the iterative process for the application case.

1.0E+00 Ur_Error example demonstrates that apart from parameters of the elastic

kr_Error properties (Ec, ν) and tunnel radius (r0), kr can also be

1.0E-01

signiﬁcantly affected by the mode parameter m, the weight

1.0E-02 um of the corresponding mode m in Fourier series and the angle

Error

constant around the tunnel when the distribution shape is

1.0E-04

described by a Fourier series. This is different from the value

1.0E-05 Errorn=(Rn-Rn-1)/Rn of kr for a distribution shape described by a single Fourier

1.0E-06 term, which is independent of θ. Finally, a simple design case

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

was presented using the bedded beam model to show the

Iterative Step N applicability of the proposed solution of kr.

Fig. 9. The convergence of the relative error for ur and kr. It should be noted that this modiﬁed solution, like other

elastic solutions, is restricted to certain geotechnical situations

where the soil deformation is relatively small. Fortunately, the

7. Conclusion lining deformation for tunnels driven by modern shield techni-

ques tends to be quite small. This allows for the application of

To determine the analytical solution of kr, it is necessary to elastic solutions of kr over a wider range of ground conditions.

prescribe the distribution shape of tunnel radial deformation. In

this note, a general distribution shape, described by a Fourier Acknowledgments

series, is considered for the solution of kr. The Wood (1975)'s

solution of kr is found to be applicable in cases where the This study was substantially supported by the National Basic

deformation shape is oval only (one special Fourier term). Research Program of China (2011CB013800), Natural Science

A modiﬁed solution using a compatible Airy stress function is Foundation Committee Program (51278381) and Shanghai

232 D. Zhang et al. / Soils and Foundations 54 (2014) 225–232

Outstanding Academic Leaders Program (12XD1405100). Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), 2007. Standard Speciﬁcations for

The authors would like to acknowledge this support and express Tunneling-2006, Shield Tunnels, Tokyo, Japan.

Koyama, Y., 2003. Present status and technology of shield tunneling method in

their appreciation.

Japan. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol. 18 (2–3), 145–159.

Lee, K.M., Hou, X.Y., Ge, X.W., Tang, Y., 2001. An analytical solution for a

References jointed shield driven tunnel lining. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech.

25, 365–390.

Arnau, O., Molins, C., 2011. Experimental and analytical study of the Liu, J.H., Hou, X.Y., 1997. Excavation Engineering Handbook. China

structural response of segmental tunnel linings based on an in situ loading Construction Industry Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese).

test. Part 2: numerical simulation. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol. 26 (6), Mair, R.J., 2008. Tunneling and geotechnics: new horizons. Géotechnique 58

778–788. (9), 695–736.

Bobet, A., 2001. Analytical solutions for shallow tunnels in saturated ground. Morgan, H.D., 1961. A contribution to the analysis of stress in a circular

J. Eng. Mech. – ASCE 127 (12), 1258–1266. tunnel. Géotechnique 11 (1), 37–46.

Chevalier, B., Otani, J., 2011. Arching observation in three-dimensional Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), 1997. Design Standard for

trapdoor problem with X-ray CT and discrete element method. Soils Railway Structures (Shield-Driven Tunnel), Maruzen, pp. 47–61 (in

Found. 51 (3), 459–469. Japanese).

Cui, Y., Kimura, M., 2010. Model test and numerical analysis methods in Sagaseta, C., 1987. Analysis of undrained soil deformation due to ground loss.

tunnel excavation problem. Soils Found. 50 (6), 915–923. Géotechnique 37 (3), 301–320.

Duddeck, H., Erdmann, J., 1982. Structural design models for tunnels. In: Shahin, H.M., Nakai, T., Zhang, F., Kikumoto, M., Nakahara, E., 2011.

Proceedings of the Tunnelling '82, Brighton, pp. 83–91. Behavior of ground and response of existing foundation due to tunneling.

Gruebl, F., 2012. Segmental ring design new challenges with high tunnel Soils Found. 51 (3), 395–409.

diameters (ITA-AITES Muir Wood Lecture 2012), ITA World Tunnel Sung, E., Shahin, H.M., Nakai, T., Hinokio, M., Yamamoto, M., 2006. Ground

Congress 2012, Bankok. behavior due to tunnel excavation with existing foundation. Soils Found.

Huang, X., Schweiger, H.F., Huang, H.W., 2013. Inﬂuence of deep excava- 46 (2), 189–207.

tions on nearby existing tunnels. Int. J. Geomech. – ASCE 13 (2), Timoshenko, S.P., Goodier, J.N., 1970. Theory of Elasticity. Mc-Graw-Hill,

170–180. New York.

International Tunneling and Underground Space Association (ITA), 2004. Wood, M., 1975. The circular tunnel in elastic ground. Geotechnique 25 (1),

Guidelines for the design of shield tunnel lining. Tunn. Undergr. Space 115–127.

Technol. 15 (3), 303–331.

- Lec11Uploaded byDaniyal Aslam
- NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES.pdfUploaded bycatalinx2014
- TorsionUploaded byMahmud Muhammad
- Abaqus Analysis User's ManualUploaded byAbhishek Shrivastava
- Análisis dinámico con FLACUploaded byHennry Vargas
- Electromagnetic Forces in COMSOLUploaded byAlkalin
- Mallet Construction of ArtilleryUploaded byed-699127
- Exercise 7.1 Pt Bending HyperCrashUploaded byBita Mohajernia
- Models.sme.Cohesive Zone DebondingUploaded byAlireza Azarioon
- Thin WalledStructuresUploaded byMysara Mohsen
- 0338.pdfUploaded byAnonymous NyeLgJPMb
- iitbUploaded byAnand Mandal
- CAESARII_5_00Uploaded byZoran
- 1292527243valley_06_strength_585283Uploaded bybendung69
- MaMePa2014CLUploaded byaliensyq
- 1 Stress and StrainUploaded bycikmon
- Corps Brief Design History. Dick Ahlvin,1999. 6ppUploaded byTim Lin
- Shear Modulus of GravelUploaded bySajjad
- Statics Report 1Uploaded byAxel Lee
- Engg Mech and Strength of MaterialsUploaded byClaire Vega Necesito
- Yadav Et Al_2017Uploaded byAnupEkbote
- pile foundationUploaded byJagadeesh Sundaram
- Mathcad - Pembebanan Pondasi Circuit BrakerUploaded byandre novan
- 01_GeoStrucAnal__Cylinder_Elastic_.pdfUploaded bySiddhant Kaushik
- StressUploaded byRoyston Shieh
- Amp03 - Copy.txtUploaded byKhasha Nmjl
- Abaqus_2008_Parteder_Kainz_Paper.pdfUploaded byMallikarjunachari G
- Bahtiar-2011.pdfUploaded byWiryanto Dewobroto
- FEM GunnUploaded bymanzur
- report.docxUploaded bySayed Javid

- Strand7 Student Version ApplicationUploaded bykjhkjh
- e012474655Uploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- 108-400-2-PBUploaded byejvdh
- ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL-Shear Strength of Steel Fiber ReinforcedUploaded byMuchtar Sufaat
- vii-00094.01.en__102.1-r-247_wtc2012_singapore-_2012 (1)Uploaded byjack21ab
- 139C-Modelling of reinforced concrete structures-KAMIŃSKI-2011Uploaded byZiyad12
- Lecture 4 SF and BM Full PageUploaded byAlexZa
- Chap 3Uploaded byFarid Zuan C L
- Snap Through of Large Shield Driven TunnelsUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- Design philosophy of concrete linings for tunnels in soft soils.pdfUploaded byFelipe Pérez Pérez
- Effect of TBM Advance in the Structural Response of Segmental Tunnel LiningUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- Evaluation of the Effect of Axial Load on the Structural Behavior of Segmentes TunnelsUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- Design of Concrete Structures for DurabilityUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- hefnyUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- An Equivalent Beam Model for the Analysis of Tunnel-building InteractionUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- A Modified Solution of Radial Subgrade Modulus Dor a Circular Tunnel in Elastic GroundUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- TW Groeneweg - Shield Driven Tunnels in UHSCUploaded bySérgio Bernardes
- S04L07 Fritz-Gruebl DdsUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- STAL9781614996569-1603Uploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- 1-s2.0-S1365160915001203-mainUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- An Improved Numerical Model of Shield Tunnel With Doublçe Lining and Its ApplicationsUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- AISCUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- DesignofshieldtunnelliningtakingfluctuationsofriverstageintoaccountUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- Paper Hanoi Metro ToSEAGS-AGSSEA VDDUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo
- The Effect of Soil Stiffness Variations on Tunnel Lining Internal Forces Under Seismic LoadingUploaded byFelipe Pérez Pérez
- HDE 153.CT.07.a DistribucionesParametrosGeotecnicosUploaded byIngrid Irreño Palomo

- Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of a Double Strap Joint Between Steel Plates and Normal Modulus CFRPUploaded byVietnhut Phan
- Paper of Research_rkUploaded byrkumar_235758
- MEC 222 EXP-Lab-SOMUploaded byAbhijeeth Nagaraj
- Recovery, Recrystallization, And Grain GrowthUploaded bystevenwhittl
- Asme Section II a Sa-194 Sa-194mUploaded byAnonymous GhPzn1x
- National Transportation Safety Board safety recommendations in connection with Millersville, Pa. house explosionUploaded byPennLive
- Support System Design of Power House and Transformer Caverns in DUploaded byGaddam Padmaja Reddy
- Ch-27.9 Elastomer, Cearmic & CompositeUploaded byJyotilal Sahu
- BEAMS IN REINFORCED CONCRETE_CourseEC2-Chap4.docUploaded bypetermac
- vpi-18Uploaded by55312714
- En STAS 10111-2-87 PART 1_suprastructuri_betonUploaded byFantana Adrian
- ~ INELASTIC ~ ANALYSIS ~ OF ~ SEMIRIGID ~ FRAMEWORKS ~Uploaded bytt3340
- Kiu Chi 1995Uploaded byAyan Martins Pereira
- Strength Design Methods for Glass StructuresUploaded byامين الزريقي
- IH July 2016.pdfUploaded bybnkadia
- Failure of Springs.pdfUploaded byMilind Chimurkar
- ENF Mode 2Uploaded byNipun Dahra
- A Review Study of Mechanical Fatigue Testing Methods for Small-Scale Metal MaterialsUploaded byAlexander Decker
- WB-Mech_120_WS_09.1Uploaded byAnonymous lrZuN8GY
- 1-s2.0-S0013794408003536-main.pdfUploaded byPriyanka Dhurvey Singh
- Reinforced Concrete DesignUploaded byAKAM MOHAMMED SALEH
- Analysing The Composite Structure Of Riverted ,Hybrid And Bonded JointsUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Advances in Modern Woven Fabrics TechnologyUploaded byJosé Ramírez
- Strength of Materials by Sk MondalUploaded byrahul_patil85
- Concepts in Beam DesignUploaded byAyaz Malik
- 200928Uploaded byKago Cheung
- Tissue Healing and Wound CareUploaded byPatricia Andrea Acevedo Arancibia
- Cold Formed Steel design.Uploaded byShivaji Sarvade
- Manhole CoversUploaded byAlaa
- Some Mechanical Properties of SiC-Treated Recycled HDPEUploaded byFatai Olufemi Aramide