GSM Frequency Hopping and Variable Interference Planning

RF Engineering Guideline
EG: GSMVIP

401-380-365 Issue 1.4 January 2001

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Notice
Every effort was made to ensure that the information in this information product was complete and accurate at the time of printing. However, information is subject to change.

Contents

1. ABOUT THIS GUIDE 2. INTRODUCTION TO FREQUENCY HOPPING
2.1. 2.2. Frequency hopping overview Why use frequency hopping

1 3
3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11

Multipath fading Interference 2.3. Hopping sequences

Cyclic hopping Random hopping 2.4. Hopping at the base station

Baseband hopping Synthesiser hopping 2.5. GSM network implementation

Sequence generation Common control channels Reception level measurements Quality measurements Frequency redefinition procedure General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) network Mobile stations 2.6. Key benefits

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GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline

Frequency diversity Impact on network planning Interference diversity Associated techniques Impact on network planning

11 16 16 18 23

3. INTRODUCTION TO VARIABLE INTERFERENCE PLANNING
3.1. VIPone

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25 28 28 29 29 30 31 31

VIPone properties VIPone examples 3.2. VIPtwo

VIPtwo properties VIPtwo examples 3.3. VIPone and VIPtwo compared

Combined plans

4. CONFIGURING FREQUENCY HOPPING
4.1. Base station hardware

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33 33 34 35 35 35 40 40 40 41 41 42 43

Base model Antenna coupling equipment 4.2. 4.3. Software release support Configuration

FHS configuration rules Other limitations 4.4. Feature activation and system parameters

BTS hopping mode BSS feature enabling OMC parameter configuration Feature activation 4.5. Fault management

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4 .3. Optimising performance Quality-based handovers Quality-based power control Issue 1. Collecting performance data Collection equipment Performance data types 5.5.January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page v . Planning the frequencies and the HSN VIPone VIPtwo VIPone/VIPtwo Microcells BCCH planning 5. Introduction 47 47 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 52 52 52 56 56 60 60 60 When to use VIP Implementation strategy 5. VARIABLE INTERFERENCE PLANNING DEPLOYMENT 5.6.2.4. Dynamic power control 5.6.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Baseband hopping 4. DTX 43 44 44 44 45 Uplink DTX Downlink DTX 4. Choosing the right plan More than three transceivers per cell Three or fewer transceivers per cell Large spectrum allocation Microcells Planning for future capacity 5. Deployment results Activating frequency hopping 5.7.1.

4 Scenario 4 Existing configuration Objectives VIP plan choice Planning the frequencies Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings 6.3 Scenario 3 Existing configuration Objectives VIP plan choice Planning the frequencies Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings 6. WORKED EXAMPLES 6.1 Scenario 1 63 63 63 64 64 64 65 66 66 66 66 66 67 69 69 69 69 69 70 71 71 71 71 71 72 73 73 73 Existing configuration Objectives VIP plan choice Planning the frequencies Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings 6.2 Scenario 2 Existing configuration Objectives VIP plan choice Planning the frequencies Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings 6.5 Scenario 5 Existing configuration Objectives vi Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.4 – January 2001 .GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Hopping over two frequencies Discontinuous Transmission measurement accuracy Other scenarios 60 60 61 6.

4 .GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline VIP plan choice Planning the frequencies Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings 73 73 74 7. LIST OF ACRONYMS 75 Issue 1.January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page vii .

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About this Guide This guide provides a detailed description of the Frequency Hopping and Variable Interference Planning (VIP) solutions offered by Lucent Technologies for GSM 900 and 1800 networks. Chapter 4 Configuring Frequency Hopping Describes how to configure and activate frequency hopping in a network. • • • • • Issue 1. Chapter 5 Variable Interference Planning Deployment Describes when and how to implement VIP into a network.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline About this Guide 1 1. and their benefits and network impacts. Chapter 7 List of Acronyms Definitions of the acronyms used in this guide. It contains the following chapters: • Chapter 2 Introduction to Frequency Hopping An overview of frequency hopping concepts and techniques. from the equipment point of view.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 1 . Chapter 3 Introduction to Variable Interference Planning An overview of VIP concepts and techniques. and their benefits and network impacts. Chapter 6 Worked Examples Examples of different scenarios and suggested implementations.

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Frequency hopping is the principal component of the Variable Interference Planning solutions offered by Lucent Technologies. Issue 1. which use several hops per symbol. This makes it much easier to recreate any lost transmission bits and preserve overall call quality. or 217 hops per second).4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 3 . GSM networks use “slow” frequency hopping. each call hops between a defined set of frequencies. 2.1.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Introduction to Frequency Hopping 2 2.615 millisecond. Frequency hopping overview In frequency hopping systems. a hop occurs before each time slot is transmitted (every 4. This distinguishes it from fast frequency hopping systems. Introduction to Frequency Hopping This chapter describes the main concepts of frequency hopping and its implementation in GSM. Poor signal quality on any specific frequency therefore affects only a small portion of the transmission. and is supported in both GSM 900 and GSM 1800 networks. This slow frequency hopping is illustrated in Figure 1.

GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline frequency time Figure 1: Slow frequency hopping in the time frequency domain Frequency hopping exploits two underlying GSM error correction techniques: • • Channel coding Interleaving These coding and interleaving techniques are shown in the following illustration.2 57 bits .. Tail 3 bits Information 57 bits SF 1 bit Normal GSM burst Figure 2: GSM coding and interleaving 4 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. Class 1 bits 182 bits P+T 3+4 Class 2 bits 78 bits Rate 1/2 convolutional coding 456 bits Segmentation and interleaving Normal burst ..8 57 bits Tail 3 bits Information 57 bits SF TS SF 1 bit 26 bits 1 bit Normal GSM burst Information 57 bits Tail 3 bits .1 57 bits Normal burst .. Normal burst ..4 – January 2001 .

When coupled with channel coding and interleaving. improves transmission quality . Splitting the bit stream in this way prevents errors occurring across entire code words. rather than some having very good quality and others having unacceptable quality. the interference across multiple calls (“interference diversity”). Control bits used to detect and correct transmission errors are applied to the start and end of each block. This multipath fading particularly impacts slow moving mobiles. With frequency hopping. Frequency hopping mitigates this effect by spreading. This interference has a continuous impact on transmissions because it exists for the duration of the interfering calls. as they may stay in one position and fade long enough to suffer information loss (interleaving can only spread a code word over a limited number of time slots). Transmissions on a frequency that is subject to multipath fading. to the specific call frequency. Issue 1.2.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Channel coding takes the digital message flow (speech or data) and divides the bit stream into blocks. Interleaving divides each code word into chunks of 57 bits at a time and mixes (interleaves) them with chunks from adjoining code words. For a given position the fading depends on the transmission frequency. because the frequencies change. Code words for speech are 456 bits long.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 5 . will move out of the fade at the next hop (“frequency diversity”). frequency hopping increases the probability that all calls will have acceptable quality. This improves channel coding correction rates. Frequency diversity. or averaging. combined with interleaving and channel coding.in particular for slow moving mobiles. 2. so do the fading patterns associated with them. they produce an interference pattern of fading. Why use frequency hopping Frequency hopping mitigates two problems with transmission quality over the air interface: • • Multipath fading Interference Multipath fading Usually a radio signal is received as scattered signals travelling over separate paths. Interference Any specific call may suffer interference because of calls on neighbouring cells transmitting on or close. as it is much easier to correct isolated bit errors than bursts of errors. Each block of message bits and control bits is known as a “code word”. When the signals combine. This prevents a situation where one call has unacceptable levels of interference and others have very good levels.

f4. according to the GSM air interface. … 2. f1. f4. f1. f3. Hopping at the base station Frequency hopping can be generated in two ways: • • Baseband hopping Synthesiser hopping Baseband hopping In baseband hopping.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Interference diversity has another advantage. Hopping sequences In frequency hopping systems. encryption. where N is the number of hopping frequencies. ….. f4. When using the same set of frequencies with random hopping. For example: Mobile Station 1: f1. f2. f2. For example: f1. f1. interleaving. f1. Transceivers perform both baseband signal processing (channel coding. f1. the probability of two calls using the same frequency in the same time slot is 1/N. f1. f4. f2. f4. f2.4. In Lucent transceivers (also known as TRXs or RTs) the DRCC (Digital Radio Codec and Control) unit does the baseband processing and the RFU (Radio Frequency Unit) does the RF processing.. f1. Mobile Station 2: f2. f2. f3. f2.4 – January 2001 . f3. Random hopping Frequencies are used in a pseudo-random sequence. . f4. f1. f2. f1. f3. f2.. A transceiver provides the functionality of eight channels. Cyclic hopping Frequencies are used in fixed rotation. each transceiver within a base station operates on fixed frequencies. f3. f3. f3. f1. f3. f2. For example: f2..3. f3. f4. 6 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.. f1. reducing the risk of large sequential information loss. f3. f2. It ensures that consecutive bursts of information are received under different interference conditions. and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) burst information) and RF signal processing (generation of RF signal and modulation of TDMA bursts). f2. f2. the hopping sequence between the frequencies assigned to a particular transmission can be either cyclic or random. f4. f3. f4. 2. f4. f4. f4.

or baseband. speech signal generated at the DRCC is switched between the RFUs of the transceiver before transmission.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 7 . unlike baseband hopping. D R C C D R C C R FU R FU f1 D R C C D R C C R FU R FU f2 Figure 3: Baseband hopping Synthesiser hopping With synthesiser hopping. Each frame of eight timeslots is input to a different RFU and so to a different frequency. This allows each transceiver to hop over as many frequencies as desired. but each channel effectively hops over the available frequencies. In this way the transceivers do not need to retune to different frequencies. regardless of the number of transceivers in the cell. D R C C D R C C R FU R FU f1 f2 f2 f1 D R C C D R C C R FU R FU Figure 4: Synthesiser hopping Issue 1.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline With baseband hopping. the digitised. the output of each baseband processing section is always connected to the same RFU. each RFU within a transceiver retunes to a different frequency (following a defined hopping sequence) before transmitting a frame. The primary limitation of baseband frequency hopping is that the number of hopping frequencies is limited to the number of RTs (Radio Terminals) in the cell. Therefore.

Frequency hopping occurs between time slots. all other values generate a pseudo random sequence MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset): defines the starting frequency. Because hybrid combiners have much higher insertion losses than filter combiners. this optimises the benefits of interference diversity. Value 0 defines cyclic hopping. Therefore. or offset. Sequence generation Each call has its time slots transmitted in sequence across a defined set of hopping frequencies. to avoid co-channel interference within the cell. Common control channels In order to ease initial synchronisation acquisition. traditional filter combiners (which are frequency specific) cannot be used with synthesiser hopping because they are too slow in changing frequency. a mobile station transmits or receives on a fixed frequency during one time slot. but with a different and non 0 HSN.02). as if the sequences were chosen randomly.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline However. the following common control channels must use a fixed frequency: 8 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.4 – January 2001 . If random hopping is used.5. The sequence is derived from an algorithm (see GSM Recommendation 05. will interfere in 1/Nth of bursts. Channels in the same cell using the same hopping frequency set should have the same HSN. The value can be 0 to N-1 where N is the number of allocated frequencies • Two channels with the same HSN but a different MAIO are the shift version each other. GSM network implementation This section describes how frequency hopping is implemented in GSM networks. they will never use the same frequency at the same time. by two network parameters: • HSN (Hopping Sequence Number): defines a number that is fed into the frequency hopping algorithm to generate the hopping sequence. the transmission will start on within a hopping sequence. Values can be 0 to 63. 2. and different MAIO. the maximum number of radios per cell is reduced. then changes frequency before the time slot on the next TDMA frame. Two channels using the same frequency list and the same time slot. The total number of available hopping sequences is 64 multiplied by the number of hopping frequencies (64xN). Hybrid combiners (which can operate across a frequency range and are therefore also known as wide-band combiners) must be used instead. each channel in distant cells using the same frequency set should have a different HSN. Hopping sequences are described per channel.

The indicator is sent to the mobile station at connection. varies with the propagation environment. To alleviate this problem. Note: Traffic channels on the rest of the time slots in BCCH transceivers can hop. estimated by backward coding the decoded bit sequence and comparing it to the received bit sequence. if the following conditions are met: • • • The channel hops on at least two frequencies One of those frequencies is the BCCH frequency Dynamic power control is in use on the downlink transmission Quality measurements Mapping Received Signal Quality (RXQUAL) measurements to subjective speech quality. Power control cannot be applied on the BCCH frequency. the measurements would not be accurate for the power control algorithm. This means that power control applies to a subset of bursts only. including the BCCH. Bursts that use the BCCH frequency are sent at fixed transmission power. This avoids the need to transmit their frequency organisation description on the BCCH. Issue 1.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 9 . and calls with different RXQUAL values can have the same speech quality.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline • • • • • FCCH SCH BCCH PAGCH RACH (Frequency Correction Channel) (Synchronisation Channel) (Broadcast Control Channel) (Paging Access Grant Channel) (Random Access Channel) Common channel extension sets must use the same fixed frequency as the primary group. the power control indicator tells the mobile station to ignore BCCH frequency slots in reception level estimations. This is because it is a measure of the raw bit error rate. reception level measurement accuracy is an issue in traffic channels that use this combination. and frequency hopping occurs on the BCCH frequency among other frequencies. If reception level measurements in the downlink were to be averaged on all frequencies. So under different conditions the same RXQUAL values can result in different actual speech quality. Reception level measurements If dynamic power control is in use. interleaving and bit error correction under different environmental conditions. Hence it does not consider the varying efficiency of channel coding. which must transmit at constant power in the downlink. Only the common channels cannot hop.

such as FER (Frame Erasure Rate) or subjective voice quality indicators. Frequency redefinition procedure This procedure is used dedicated mode. However. the base station and assigned mobile stations update their allocated frequencies and hopping sequences to match the new parameters.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline The interference diversity property of frequency hopping means that interference conditions vary from time slot to time slot. At the indicated time slot. calls with the same RXQUAL can have different speech quality and vice-versa. Frequency hopping will be supported on dual service channels in future releases. So. to minimise disruption to calls when channel frequencies and hopping sequence allocations change in the network. mobile allocation.4 – January 2001 . for a network which has frequency hopping. or have problems when using frequency hopping in conjunction with Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) on the downlink. This means that with frequency hopping. the operator should use other quality indicators. or with dynamic power control 10 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. some calls may be lost in the following circumstances: If the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) requests a handover channel. RXQUAL is not a reliable measurement of connection quality. even in the same propagation environment. Accordingly. These indicators are only available in drive test equipment. frequency hopping on dual service channels Packet Data Transfer Channel (PDTCH/TCH) is not supported. Since the BCCH frequency usually does not hop. No other functions are normally disturbed by the change. when frequency hopping is used. and the request is acknowledged with the actual channel information. Then. When this happens. However. allocating dual service channels on this carrier will not degrade frequency hopping performance. it is recommended that the dual service channels should be allocated to the BCCH frequency. the call is lost. This contains the new parameters and a start time indicator. this time slot is the first to use the new parameters.1. Mobile stations Currently there are some unresolved problems with certain types of older mobile station models: • • Some do not support the frequency redefinition procedure Some cannot hop on Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) channels. Therefore. and MAIO. if a redefinition procedure subsequently starts for that channel and the mobile station is handed over to the channel at the same time. the network sends a FREQUENCY_REDEFINITION message to the mobile stations that are currently in call. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) network GPRS is supported in Network Release 9. Parameters that can be updated are the cell channel description. Therefore to assess the quality of the network with frequency hopping.

C/No [dB] for BER=0. Figure 5 compares the required carrier to noise (C/No) ratio as a function of vehicle speed for a bit error rate (BER) of 0. Note: Slight degradation occurs with frequency hopping at very high vehicle speeds. the better the error correction mechanisms work and the lower the minimum signal to noise ratio must be to achieve a certain BER.6. With ideal frequency hopping (infinite number of frequencies and infinite separation between them). Issue 1. the same performance levels can be obtained for slow moving users. Ideal frequency hopping occurs when hopping takes place on uncorrelated frequencies. The high speed of some mobiles is enough to allow GSM error correction to overcome its effects. For slower moving users. However. optimum transmission quality is obtained at almost all vehicle speeds. That is.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 11 . This is caused by a significant change in the multipath profile at the time slot level that cannot be tracked by the equaliser. Key benefits This section describes in more detail the primary benefits of frequency hopping: • • Frequency diversity Interference diversity Frequency diversity Multipath fading is speed and frequency dependent. and then using ideal frequency hopping. by using frequency hopping. first at a fixed frequency allocation.5% (considered acceptable for speech) in the 900 MHz band. their fades are independent of each other. The faster the mobile.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 2.5%) – 900 MHz Without frequency hopping the performance of the system depends on the vehicle speed. the correction mechanisms are insufficient on their own.5% 14 12 10 8 6 4 0 50 100 v [km/h] 150 200 Without FH FH Figure 5: Required C/No against vehicle speed (BER 0.

4 – January 2001 . Figure 7 uses bit error curves to illustrate the likely performance losses at low vehicle speed (5 km/h). to achieve ideal frequency hopping. thus reducing the gain. Figure 6 compares the required carrier to interference (C/I) ratio in terms of current vehicle speed for fixed frequency. the hopping period must be at least as long as the interleaving depth (eight time slots for speech). If this is not the case. as in this situation the power of the interference signal also fluctuates with the speed. at least two of the time slots over which a code word is spread are transmitted at the same frequency. The fading effect is strongly correlated for them at low velocity. 12 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. Note that hopping over just four frequencies comes as close as 1dB to the gain of hopping over eight frequencies. With cyclic frequency hopping.5%) – 900 MHz Optimising frequency diversity Frequency diversity optimisation is governed by two factors: • • Number of frequencies Frequency spacing Number of frequencies Ideal frequency diversity requires that a different frequency is used for each time slot within an interleaved code word.5% 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 50 100 v [km/h] 150 200 Without FH FH Figure 6: Required C/I against vehicle speed (BER 0.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Similar improvements are gained in co-channel or adjacent-channel interference. The dependence is even more marked than for noise interference. A longer period does not provide additional frequency diversity gains. and ideal frequency hopping operation. 18 C/I [dB] for BER=0. This ensures a different frequency in each time slot.

where N is the number of frequencies in the hopping sequence. -2 Issue 1. This means that the fading decorrelation within one interleaving block is never optimal. Note that the frequency diversity gain with eight frequencies is 1 dB to 2 dB lower for random hopping than for cyclic.001 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 C/No [dB] Figure 7: Effect of number of frequencies on BER (v=5 km/h) With random hopping.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 1 0. the probability of using the same radio frequency channel within the interleaving depth is depth/N. The following table shows the C/No required for a BER of 10 using both cyclic and random frequency hopping over different numbers of frequencies.01 8 f reqs 0.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 13 .1 BER Without FH 2 f reqs 4 f reqs 0. Similar results would be expected with interference. regardless of the number of hopping frequencies.

5 4.5 8.0 2.0 4.5 5.0 Gain [dB] 0.4 – January 2001 . particularly in typical urban (TU) areas. 2 Frame Error Rate (FER) is the fraction of entire speech frames erased by the speech decoder because of irrecoverable bit errors. 1 Bits produced by the GSM encoder are ranked in importance as Class 1 and Class 2.5 5. thus cancelling out some of the fading impact. Class 1 bits are protected by redundancy codes.0 3. However.5 7.0 6. In normal environments the different paths arrive at different times.5 6.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 2. In most outdoor environments.0 4.5 7.0 4. of frequencies 1 2 3 4 8 12 Level [dB] 9. in TU environments. Note: Frequency hopping gains may be smaller than predicted.0 3. coherence bandwidths of less than 1MHz can be expected. The coherence bandwidth can be defined as the frequency separation required for propagation paths.5 6.5 9.0 3. and hence fading.0 Random hopping C/No for Gross Class 1 Level [dB] 9.5 8.0 5.5 Table 1: Frequency diversity gains The results in this table cannot be compared directly with the previous figures because different propagation conditions apply in different environments.5 3.0 2.5 4.0 Gain [dB] 0.5 Gain [dB] 0. due to the diminished severity of multipath propagation when compared to flat fading. to be considered totally independent.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Cyclic hopping C/No for Gross Class 11 No. Frequency spacing Frequency spacing must be sufficient to ensure that uncorrelated fading affects different frequencies.5 5.0 6.0 3.5 6.5 C/No for FER2=2% Level [dB] 11.0 5.5 C/No for FER=2% Level [dB] 11. 14 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.0 4.5 5. channel separation of 400kHz to 600kHz (2 to 3 GSM channels) is enough.0 3.5 7.0 7.0 6.0 5.5 7. so 1MHz (5 GSM channels) is recommended as the minimum frequency spacing for outdoor systems.0 Gain [dB] 0.5 8.

the gain in C/No is between 1. However. Like frequency hopping.0 Gain [dB] 0.7 dB and 3.8 Gain [dB] 7. it is still significant: Assuming 5 MHz bandwidth and an FER of 2%.8 Gain [dB] 0. Simulations show that although the gain achieved is smaller. as indoor users are generally slow moving.5 8. However. but since it uses space rather than frequency diversity.3 dB (compared to 5 dB in typical urban areas).5 5. antenna diversity gains are high in TU environments but drop in other test conditions such as rural areas and hilly terrain. Antenna diversity Antenna diversity is another technique used to combat multipath fading.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Indoor environments are generally characterised by large coherence bandwidths. Combining frequency hopping with antenna diversity produces significantly increased gains.7 Ideal FH Level [dB] 5. the total gain does not equal the sum of the individual gains.0 10. there is still potential for frequency diversity gains from frequency hopping. it achieves gains in conjunction with channel encoding and interleaving.2 12.0 7. Typically.5 1.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 15 .0 6.3 Table 2: Effects of antenna diversity Note: In tests. the gain is independent of vehicle speed. The following table illustrates the likely gain in C/No (in dB) for an FER of 2% when using antenna diversity with frequency hopping: C/No for FER of 2% No FH Level [dB] No diversity Ideal diversity 12.7 C/I for FER of 2% No FH Level [dB] 15. Issue 1.5 Ideal FH Level [dB] 7.3 3.2 Gain [dB] 8. an indoor frequency hopping system gives lower frequency diversity gains than an outdoor system with the same hopping bandwidth.

Potentially. but. where possible. the traffic channels on the BCCH frequency should be included in the hopping sequences. because the interfering mobile in cell B is very near to the border (Figure 8). different C/I requirements can be set in the frequency planning process (for example. Figures 8 and 9 show a GSM system with two sectors that use the same set of four frequencies. Similarly. the reduction in C/No that arises from frequency diversity does not translate into reduced sensitivity values for BCCH planning. Frequency hopping now enables GSM networks to exploit the benefits of interference diversity. At a given time there are four mobile stations communicating in each of the cells. The capacity increase depends primarily on the number of frequencies in the hopping sequences (as discussed earlier. unlike the mobile on f1. this affects the required C/I value). In cell A.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Impact on network planning Existing radio network planning is generally based on poor transmission conditions at slow vehicle speed. To maximise the benefits of frequency diversity. the mobile on f1 is suffering high interference levels. 16 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. The other mobiles in cell A are subject to lower interference levels (Figure 9).4 – January 2001 . planning gains are obtained for TCH carriers. Frequency hopping compensates for this degradation in transmission quality. the separation between frequencies assigned to a cell must be appropriate for the propagation environment. The actual interference level and resulting speech quality varies across the mobiles. Speech quality is poor as a result. However. interference diversity has been primarily associated with Spread Spectrum systems. Interference diversity To-date. In addition. However. Here. because the BCCH carrier cannot hop. no control channel (BCCH and CCCH) should be in the hopping sequence. by using TU50 values rather than TU3) allowing frequency diversity to be used to increase capacity. Example This section illustrates the principle of interference diversity. the smaller C/No and C/I values for medium speed vehicles can be used when planning for areas of significant pedestrian use. making it largely independent of vehicle speed. However. all yield acceptable speech quality. the improvement in C/I values does not translate into a tighter reuse pattern for BCCH carriers.

GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline

Figure 8: Example configuration without frequency hopping

Figure 9: Example configuration without frequency hopping

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Figure 10 shows the effect of switching on random frequency hopping between the four assigned frequencies. The mobile in cell A that previously had high interference levels, now has varying interference levels, because the interference from the mobiles in cell B varies with each time slot. The rest of the mobiles in cell A, which previously had better quality, are in a similar interference situation. This is interference diversity.

Figure 10: Effect of switching on random frequency hopping Because the GSM channel coding and interleaving algorithm can correct interference errors in time slots, the result is that all four mobiles in cell A now have acceptable speech quality. In summary, the previous peaks and troughs in quality within the system are averaged to produce acceptable quality across the whole system. Note: If cyclic frequency hopping was used in this scenario, there would be no interference diversity effect since the interfering mobile would always be the same.

Associated techniques
This section describes three techniques that can be used with frequency hopping to maximise the benefits of interference diversity:

• • •

Discontinuous transmission (DTX) Dynamic power control Fractional loading

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DTX Telephone traffic has alternating periods of silence and activity. The typical activity factor for telephone conversations (the fraction of time a given user is actually speaking) is around 40%. Data transmissions over switched circuits generally have an even lower activity factor. In certain GSM transmission modes (in particular speech and non-transparent data) DTX exploits this fact by inhibiting transmission of the radio signal when there is no information to send (voice or data). In the case of speech, the optimum goal is to encode speech at a bit rate of 13 kbps when the user is talking, and at around 500 bps during silences (sufficient to generate background noise so that the listener does not think the connection is broken). Low encoding rates during silences result in decreased radio transmissions with a corresponding reduction in channel interference levels, and improvement in quality. Using DTX alone, this improvement in quality levels cannot be translated into increased capacity since system planning must be done on a worst case basis. DTX is characterised by an on/off nature. Peaks in interference levels are the same whether or not DTX is used, and the rate of switching (between periods of activity and silence) is not high enough for channel coding and interleaving to average out the variations. However, when DTX is used with frequency hopping, the peaks in interference levels are levelled out. The quality increase produced by the lower interference levels can now be translated into tighter reuse and hence increased capacity. Dynamic power control Dynamic power control (or simply “power control”) regulates transmission power levels dynamically during a connection. The mobile station and the base station can independently reduce their power level when the received signal strength on the other end exceeds requirements. This conserves battery power in the mobile stations. But also, and importantly for frequency hopping, by reducing overall power levels it reduces channel interference. The following figure illustrates the typical situation in the downlink without power control. It shows the C/I ratio perceived by a mobile station as a function of the distance to the base station normalised to the distance between interfering base stations. To ensure acceptable quality at the cell borders, significant power is wasted when the mobile station is near the base station.

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70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 -10 d/D 0.2 0.4 0.6

W asted power

C/I

Cell edge Target C/I

Figure 11: C/I ratio as a function of normalised distance (without power control)

Interference in this situation depends on the location of the interferer mobile station (the mobile station to which the interfering base station transmits). This is illustrated in Figure 12, where the C/I ratio is plotted, again with and without power control, for different interferer locations. When the mobile station is at the cell border, base stations generally transmit at maximum power3, with or without power control (C in C/I remains the same). In systems with power control, a mobile station at the cell border only perceives the same C/I as without power control when the interferer mobile station is also at the cell border. In the other cases, interference is lower and the perceived C/I is higher. Mobile stations near the base stations receive a lower signal strength (C) than without power control. In some cases, this will result in a lower C/I ratio (when the interferer mobile station is not near its base station and the reduction of power is less). However, as these mobile stations had very good quality before, the degradation is not noticeable.

3 Power control parameters should generally be set so that mobiles at the cell edge transmit at full

power. This is to prevent unwanted interference effects that would take place if a mobile on the cell edge, which starts its transmission at full power, had to regulate. In the time the mobile would take to reduce its power, it would be causing high interference levels on mobiles that are already transmitting at the required power.

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Issue 1.4 – January 2001

When used with frequency hopping. at cell border PC. interf. power control generates more variation between the interference signals. but its effect might be noticeable with automatic planning tools that take power control into consideration.2 0. This is shown on page 23. Fractional loading changes this planning model by assigning more bandwidth (frequencies) to each base station than is strictly necessary. allowing tighter frequency reuse.4 d/D 0. When frequency hopping is used with a fractional load. the traffic/number of traffic channels that the assigned frequencies can hold. The effect of fractional loading on a frequency hopping system is illustrated in the following figure. even when the network is operating at maximum traffic level. The gain.8 without PC PC. This is because of channel coding and interleaving error correction algorithms that allow time slots on these frequencies to be used to correct errors in time slots that have interference. near base-station Figure 12: C/I ratio as a function of normalised distance (with power control) Something very similar happens in the uplink.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 80 60 C/I 40 20 0 -20 0 0. some frequencies will suffer from no interference at all. interf.6 0. Fractional loading Networks are typically planned for full load on the busy hour. improving the performance of the averaging properties of frequency hopping. The aim is to assign just sufficient resources to handle busy hour traffic. In summary. The figure shows a system hopping over four frequencies. The fractional load of a system is then defined as the average percentage of frequency usage. is not enough to allow a jump from a 4/12 reuse factor to a 3/9 reuse factor. however. Issue 1. The result is that the threshold C/I value (the C/I value for the given FER or BER required for marginal quality) is reduced. that is. but with only one call per cell. average PC.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 21 . to handle busy hour traffic. and no more (so that the minimum possible number of frequencies are needed). power control improves global quality (fewer calls suffer from bad C/I values) which can be translated into a capacity increase.

the admission control procedures could use these. the transceiver carrying the BCCH does not normally operate in hopping mode (because the BCCH frequency must transmit continuously on the downlink). suitable algorithms have not yet been found. by installing fewer transceivers than allocated frequencies. the network would respond to overload conditions by reducing the quality of all calls. 22 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. Fractional loading can be implemented by either of the following methods: • • Implementing an admission control procedure Installing fewer transceivers than allocated frequencies and using synthesiser frequency hopping Admission control procedures If the number of transceivers were to equal the number of allocated frequencies. However. and therefore fractional loading should be used only in conjunction with synthesiser frequency hopping. Admission control procedures could potentially minimise dropped calls by allowing more effective handling of local traffic peaks. rather than blocking calls. This could result in more dropped calls.4 – January 2001 .GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Figure 13: Fractional loading and frequency hopping Note: In frequency hopping systems. As a large number of channels are temporarily available in a sector (provided that the load in surrounding co-channel sectors is low). the effect of which is worse for subscribers than a blocked call.

6 0. the capacity of a cellular system is limited by the system’s own interference caused by frequency reuse. as it does not take into account the blocking of the system.8 0. However.9 0. The diagram on the right shows how a smaller deviation allows a lower average C/I value for the same planning objectives. Issue 1. By reducing the average C/I value in this way.8 0.3 0. therefore the system is planned on the basis that only a given small proportion of calls at the cell edge (usually around 10%) may suffer bad quality due to interference. Most systems aim to satisfy as many customers as possible.9 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 C/I [dB] 30 35 40 45 50 1 0.5 0. since it is simple to calculate and widely used.5 0.2 0. This is not the actual fractional load of the frequencies. With this “worst case” method.4 0. this definition of fractional load is used in this document. it averages quality across the network and decreases the deviation. Impact on network planning In high traffic areas such as large cities.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Fewer transceivers than frequencies In this case.7 0.2 0. network operators can plan for tighter frequency reuse. the capacity of a system increases if the statistical spread of the C/I around its mean value is as small as possible. finer granularity of the levels of fractional load can be achieved by disabling some time slots in the transceivers.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 C/I [dB] 30 35 40 45 50 12 dB 7 dB STANDARD DEVIATION 12 dB 7 dB Figure 14: Example of C/I distributions The diagram on the left shows the C/I distribution for systems with an equal average C/I value but different deviation. the fractional load is often calculated as the number of transceivers divided by the number of assigned frequencies. This is illustrated in the following figure: 1 0.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 23 .4 0.6 0. unless otherwise stated.7 0. Also.3 0. The interference diversity property of frequency hopping has exactly this effect.

4 – January 2001 . the interferers are different mobile stations assigned to the same cell. The higher the number the better. Variable interference planning techniques are described in the following chapters. in order to exploit fully the benefits of frequency hopping. In the same scenario. These techniques maximise levels of variable interference in the network. In the example in Figure 8. particularly in the downlink. different frequencies). Hence the correlation is high and the averaging effect is small. 24 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. This is illustrated in the following figure: Figure 15: No interference diversity in the downlink Variable interference planning solutions from Lucent Technologies are designed to counteract this problem. but in the downlink. interference variation) The number of hopping frequencies governs the first factor. the interference source is always the same (the same base station. The second factor depends partly on the locations of the interference sources. although the interfering communication is different in every time slot.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Two factors optimise the averaging effect of interference diversity: • • High numbers of interference sources for frequency hopping to switch over Low correlation between the interference they cause (that is.

each band containing a different number of separately planned carriers. Introduction to Variable Interference Planning Lucent offers two Variable Interference Planning (VIP) solutions for frequency hopping. A progressively tighter reuse is applied to the second and third TCH transceivers. a 12 reuse for the BCCH transceiver. Variable reuse patterns implement different reuse patterns within the same cellular network. and a 9 and 3 reuse for the second and third TCH transceiver respectively. For example. One or more frequencies from each sub-band is allocated to each sector.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 25 . The result gives a total average reuse of 8 ((12+9+3)/3 = 8)4. This chapter describes these two variable interference planning solutions: • • VIPone – based on variable reuse patterns VIPtwo – based on fractional loading 3. a loose reuse pattern such as 4/12. Typically. One way to implement variable reuse patterns is to divide the allocated spectrum into subbands. It is not achievable in a real network Issue 1.1. and so on.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Introduction to Variable Interference Planning 3 3. VIPone VIPone is based on variable reuse patterns. This reuse pattern is illustrated in the following figure: 4 This is an example. is used for the transceiver that holds the BCCH control channel.

a feature that cannot be implemented using regular reuse patterns... so that the averaging affect of frequency hopping can work. each tier corresponding to a different reuse pattern. with regular reuse patterns there is no interference variation in the downlink because the interfering source is always the same...4 – January 2001 . This produces interference diversity in the downlink. Each base station also belongs to a different “tier” of interferers. by planning each of the transceivers in a cell for progressively lower C/I threshold levels. 26 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. VIPone uses frequency hopping in conjunction with variable reuse patterns in order to: • • Produce the necessary interference variation in the downlink Improve the existing interference variation in the uplink Downlink As described in the previous chapter. Figure 16: Variable reuse pattern 12/9/3 Variable reuse patterns can also be accomplished by using automatic frequency planning tools such as Generalised Radio Network Design (GRAND). .GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline BCCH 12 TCH1 TCH2 9 3 . With variable reuse patterns the interfering base station is different for each time slot. The following figure illustrates downlink diversity. In this way network irregularities are catered for.

This results in a higher decorrelation of the interference signals.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Figure 17: Interference diversity with variable reuse . and again.downlink Uplink In the uplink.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 27 .uplink Issue 1. the effect of variable reuse patterns is that the interfering mobile stations are assigned to different base stations belonging to different tiers. a better averaging effect with frequency hopping than in a network with a regular reuse pattern Figure 18: Interference diversity with variable reuse .

This means the effective reuse on the third sub-band will be higher than 3. an initial reuse factor of 16. different numbers of transceivers per cell).4 – January 2001 . roughly double the capacity of a standard 4/12 reuse pattern. Scenario 3: Freeing up frequencies for the microcell layer In another network. Another potential benefit of VIPone is to free up frequencies for the initial deployment of a microcell layer. This is illustrated in the next section. was tightened to a 14/10/6/2 configuration (average reuse of 12. VIPone can be used with both cyclic and random hopping. Scenario 2: VIPone plan in a real network Another illustration is a 12/8/6/4 frequency plan.87 and 32 carriers) and even to a 12/10/4/2 configuration (reuse 11. Variable reuse patterns can also be used to handle unevenly distributed traffic. VIPone can be implemented using baseband frequency hopping. Field tests in live networks show that an average frequency reuse factor of as low as 7.9 requiring 40 carriers. For small numbers of frequencies (such as two) cyclic hopping should be used because it achieves better spectrum use. Some degradation of perceived speech quality occurred in the second case. and location). VIPone examples Scenario 1: Unevenly distributed traffic In the previous 12/9/3 example. providing a progressively tighter average reuse without the need to recalculate the frequency plan.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline VIPone properties Since the number of hopping frequencies is always equal to the number of hopping transceivers. There was no change in the number of dropped calls. This allows an operator to assign up to 4 transceivers per cell.26 and 28 carriers). the operator might not initially need a third transceiver in all cells. The choice will generally depend on the number of hopping frequencies. By applying power control and DTX in the downlink. but this was identified as a result of interference in the tighter BCCH band. Additionally. the average reuse can be decreased below 7. (that is. the third transceiver can be installed in more cells. with an existing cell layout optimised for capacity (almost homogeneous antenna height. Note: All reuses quoted were achieved in capacity-limited networks. and there will be less interference in the network. requiring 30 carriers (already in use in commercial GSM networks). because interference diversity is already achieved simply by the difference in reuse.5 is possible without impacting network quality. orientation. But as capacity need increases. 28 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.

the maximum capacity per site was obtained for a sectorised base station and a frequency reuse factor of 1/3 with a real fractional load of 30% (no.see page 21). However.05). Field trials show that fractional loads of 15%-20% are possible with a 1/1 reuse. VIPtwo properties VIPtwo uses fractional loading and therefore requires synthesiser frequency hopping. VIPtwo The capacity of a GSM network is generally limited by one of the following: • • Number of traffic channels (hard blocking) Interference from neighbour cells (soft blocking) From a hard blocking viewpoint. networks have been planned to be limited by hard blocking. and fractional loading to introduce the required interference variation. Issue 1. allowing a higher fractional load. this is not the optimum way. various reuse schemes with frequency hopping in the traffic carriers have been simulated (COST 231). typically 1/3 or 1/1. That is. the frequency reuse has been set high so that only very few calls suffer from bad interference conditions.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 3. The soft blocking limit was set so that less than 10% of the calls were subject to an average C/I lower than 9 dB (as specified in GSM Recommendation 05. the maximum capacity will lie somewhere between a high and a low reuse factor. frequencies ≈ 38% . This means that they would need to be planned with a certain degree of fractional loading. As previously mentioned. particularly with interference diversity. and DTX with a voice activity factor of 50%. 1/3 reuses allow fractional loads of up to 50%.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 29 . “off-grid” placements. It consists of using very tight reuse patterns.2. and uneven traffic loads will produce additional interference variation. small reuse factors give better performance than higher factors (“trunking efficiency”). To illustrate. These results were obtained using a regular site lay out and homogeneous propagation conditions. small reuse factors are limited by soft blocking (interference) and cannot accept more than a given amount of traffic. Their maximum capacity has been identified as the minimum of the capacity that hard and soft blocking allow. Traditionally. For an operator with 36 TCH frequencies (9. irregular propagation conditions. of transceivers/ no. Fractional loads of up to 50% (with DTX and power control) have been used in real networks without a noticeable decrease in quality. In practice. The maximum capacity of the system is defined by the hard blocking limit set by the restricted number of frequencies. VIPtwo is based on these ideas.8 MHz). However. As a result. ideal power control.

1/1 reuses are also possible. with a 1/3 reuse at a 2-sector site (typically used for highway coverage) means that each sector can be assigned 8 hopping frequencies.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Like VIPone. taken from the total pool of 24. The rest of the frequencies could be planned with a 1/3 reuse.5%. Four traffic transceivers would therefore be allowed in all cells. This means that some of the frequencies on the pool will not be used. it can cater for unevenly distributed traffic. 4-4-4 configurations can then be achieved with 1 control transceiver and 3 traffic transceivers per sector. and only the control frequencies detailed careful planning The network can be planned with VIPtwo from the beginning. Quality will not be compromised as one of the advantages of frequency hopping is its ability to smoothly trade-off quality and capacity depending on the traffic load VIPtwo examples Scenario 1: 1/3 reuse An operator with 7.3 Erlangs: a 90% capacity increase. This means 8 hopping frequencies per sector and a spare frequency for optimisation. VIPtwo also provides the following benefits: • • It eases the planning effort. 30 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. supporting 14.5 MHz (37 frequencies) could achieve 3-3-3 configurations by using a typical 4/12 reuse factor. using a 4/12 reuse. It can also be used to free up frequencies to be used in a microcellular layer. Scenario 2: Greater capacity Increasing the fractional load to 50% increases the number of traffic transceivers to four. If VIPtwo were used. since the whole pool of frequencies is assigned to each site or each cell. by improving perceived quality levels. The result is 30 traffic channels and a traffic level per cell of 21. This means 37 traffic channels (2 dedicated control channels are now used) and a traffic level per cell of 28. simply by setting different fractional loads to different base stations. even if the number of transceivers required per cell is initially low. Further transceivers can be added as necessary without modifying the frequency plan. The interference averaging capabilities of frequency hopping allows the system to exploit this situation.4 – January 2001 . and up to five in selected cells. Scenario 4: Network irregularities The configuration in scenario 1. In the example. 12 frequencies would be assigned to the transceivers containing the control channels. Scenario 3: 1/1 reuse With lower fractional load. The fractional load is 3/8= 37.9 Erlangs: a 47% capacity increase.9 Erlangs/cell (2% blocking). this would involve hopping over 24 frequencies.

3. Issue 1. thereby preserving the coverage footprint while taking advantage of the system gain provided by frequency hopping. as the need arises. Reuse strategy can be set tight from the beginning. Initially. to cater for future traffic increases. Transceivers can be added to the sites as needed. by using fractional loading in conjunction with variable reuses. without changing the frequency plan. which will then be traded off for capacity.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 3. VIPone and VIPtwo compared The choice between VIPone and VIPtwo will be governed by spectrum allocation and the radio equipment in use. It allows the use of lower loss filter combiners at the base stations. Typically this might be used by operators with high spectrum allocation and wideband antenna coupling equipment. the low fractional load (transceivers/assigned frequencies) ensures high quality. For operators with a large spectrum allocation and a high number of transceivers per cell. VIPone is typically used by operators either with filter combiners in widespread use. for operators with a small amount of spectrum. This combined plan allows the operator to take into account future growth. because of the ease of frequency planning. or with a base station infrastructure already equipped with hybrid combiners.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 31 . or with a more generous spectrum allocation and a need for high configuration cells. Combined plans It is also possible to combine VIPone and VIPtwo. VIPone is the natural choice. VIPtwo is potentially a more flexible approach. In contrast.

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B denotes support for baseband hopping. and the parameters required to activate it.1.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 33 . - • • BTS-2000/2C supports synthesiser hopping only. SRFUs support both synthesiser and baseband hopping. The chapter also discusses DTX and dynamic power control deployment. S denotes support for both baseband and synthesiser hopping. Base station hardware Base model The base model contains the following components: • • RBS900 family (900 band) supports baseband hopping only. 4. BTS-2000 family (900 and 1800 bands) support both synthesiser and baseband hopping: RFUs.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Configuring Frequency Hopping 4 4. Issue 1. These vary depending on model type. Filter configurations (with TXFU09/TXFU18 filter combiners) support baseband frequency hopping only. as denoted by the second letter of the equipment code. Configuring Frequency Hopping This chapter details the hardware and software configurations required to support frequency hopping in a GSM network. and only in its second transceiver. FLEXENT family (900 and 1800 band) supports both synthesiser hopping and baseband hopping.

Hybrid and diplexer configurations (which use TXHU09/THDU18 hybrid combiners. When the optional hybrid combiner is used. Due to hybrid combiner losses (each hybrid layer introduces a 3 dB loss into the overall combining loss). hybrid configurations of up to 4 transceivers are available with two antennas.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Antenna coupling equipment • BTS 2000 family: Filter configurations (with TXFU09/TXFU18 filter combiners) support baseband frequency hopping only. - 34 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. there is an addition 3.5dB loss to the TRX that is connected to it. and 6 transceivers with two (with the optional hybrid combiner). hybrid configurations of up to 4 transceivers are available with two antennas. TXDU09/TXDU18 diplexers. Due to the hybrid combiner losses (each hybrid layer introduces a 3 dB loss into the overall combining loss). and 6 transceivers with three antennas. - - • FLEXENT family: Filter configurations (with TX4F09/TX4F18 filter combiners) support baseband frequency hopping only. Hybrid configurations (which use TX2H09/TX2H18/TX4H09/TX4H18 and TX4H19 hybrid combiners) support baseband and synthesiser hopping.4 – January 2001 . or both) support baseband and synthesiser hopping.

8.0 and 9. there should therefore be a separation of 2 or 3 GSM carriers between them.2. In a future release. • The maximum number of FHSs using the same frequency is 2 in BTS-2000 and 1 in RBS900 For the RBS-900 this means that either the transceiver holding the BCCH must be left to non-hopping.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 4. 4. Configuration Frequency hopping configuration in Lucent equipment is based on the concept of a Frequency Hopping System (FHS). FHS configuration rules To avoid adjacent channel interference within a cell. Value 0 generates a cyclic hopping sequence. • • The maximum number of FHS in a BTS is 8 The maximum number of FHS in a BSS is 48 Issue 1. or time slots 0 (and 2. the frequencies in an FHS should generally obey a minimum co-site spacing rule. hopping on up to 18 frequencies will be allowed in the case of synthesiser hopping. An FHS consists of: • • A set of hopping frequencies (from the pool of frequencies that are available at the cell) An HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) The HSN is used to generate the hopping sequence in which the set of allocated hopping frequencies is used.0. Additionally. The configuration must also comply with the following rules: • The maximum number of frequencies in an FHS is 8 This means that a channel can hop on a maximum of 8 frequencies. all other values generate a pseudo-random sequence. 4. The value can be 0 to N-1 where N is the number of hopping frequencies. Each channel (defined as a transceiver and time slot pair) must have an associated FHS that determines the frequencies the channel hops on and the hopping sequence.3. and 6 if additional CCCH channels are present) of all transceivers must be non-hopping.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 35 . Software release support GSM release 7.0 supports baseband and synthesiser hopping. the MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset) is automatically generated by the system to prevent Um interface collision (channels using the same frequency at the same time) between channels belonging to the same cell. Allowable values are 0 to 63.

baseband hopping BCCH frequency non hopping: CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH -- CCCH -- -- -- -- -- RT1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH0 no FH0 FH1 RT1. RT2.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Example 1: BTS with 4 RTs. RT2. RT3 36 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. RT2.4 – January 2001 . RT1. RT3 BCCH frequency hopping (RBS-900): CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH FH1 CCCH FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT1 -- FH1 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 -- FH1 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 -- FH1 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH0 no FH0 FH1 RT0. RT3 FH1 RT0.RT2. 1 additional CCCH. RT1. RT3 BCCH frequency hopping (BTS-2000/FLEXENT BTS): CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH FH1 CCCH FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT1 FH0 FH1 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 FH0 FH1 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 FH0 FH1 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH0 RT1.

RT5 Issue 1. RT5 BCCH frequency hopping (RBS-900): CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT1 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT4 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT5 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH0 no FH0 FH1 RT0. RT3. RT2. Example 2: BTS with 6 RTs. RT3. RT4.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 37 .GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline • The maximum number of physical channels using the same FHS is 42 In baseband hopping this restriction limits the maximum number of hopping frequencies even further. RT1. RT4. RT2. baseband hopping BCCH frequency non hopping: CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH -- -- -- -- -- -- -- RT1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT4 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT5 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH0 no FH0 FH1 RT1.

RT2. RT5 FH1 RT0. RT4. RT5 Example 3: BTS with 7 RTs. RT3.4 – January 2001 . RT6 38 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline BCCH frequency hopping (BTS-2000/FLEXENT BTS): CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT1 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT4 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT5 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH0 RT1. RT4. RT2. baseband hopping BCCH frequency non hopping: CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH -- -- -- -- -- -- -- RT1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT4 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 RT5 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 RT6 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH0 no FH0 FH1 RT1. RT3 FH2 RT4. RT1. RT2. RT3. RT5.

RT3 FH2 RT4. RT6 BCCH frequency hopping (BTS-2000/FLEXENT BTS): CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT1 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 FH0 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT4 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 RT5 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 RT6 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH0 no FH0 FH1 RT1. RT2. RT6 Issue 1.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 39 . RT3 FH2 RT4. RT5. RT5. RT2.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline BCCH frequency hopping (RBS-900): CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT1 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 -- FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT4 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 RT5 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 RT6 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH2 FH0 no FH0 FH1 RT1.

5 A notebook PC with dedicated software for BTS-2000 and BCF-2000 administration 40 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. but not from hopping channels For dual band operation. In the BTS-2000 family. frequency hopping is not supported on PDCH/TCH. frequency hopping must be configured and activated in the requisite network elements: BTS hopping mode In the RBS-900. 1 additional CCCH. the hopping mode (which is baseband only) is implicitly defined by the BTSHW configuration.4. In the case of mixed configurations (hopping and non-hopping channels) intra-cell handovers will take place between the non-hopping channels and from non-hopping channels to hopping channels. baseband hopping BCCH frequency non hopping: CHN0 CHN1 CHN2 CHN3 CHN4 CHN5 CHN6 CHN7 RT0 BCCH PDCH /TCH CCCH PDCH /TCH PDCH /TCH PDCH /TCH PDCH /TCH PDCH /TCH RT1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT2 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 RT3 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH1 FH0 no FH0 FH1 RT1.RT2.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline • In Network Release 9. The default value is baseband. Feature activation and system parameters Once the hopping configuration is defined.4 – January 2001 . RT3 Other limitations • Intra-cell handover is disabled when frequency hopping is active on a channel. Example 4: BTS with 4 RTs. frequency hopping is allowed only between frequencies belonging to the same band • 4. 6 PDCH/TCH. the hopping mode (baseband or synthesiser) is set via the RBT-2000 (Radio Base Station Tester) software in the IMW-20005. which allows both types of hopping.

4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 41 . the FLEXENT BTS can auto-detect the hardware configuration of the coupling equipment and set the appropriate hopping mode. Specify 0 for cyclic hopping. A maximum of 42 channels can be associated with the same FHS. FREQHOPREL) attribute. ALLOCFREQ): frequencies belonging to the hopping sequence must be defined here (entries must match the cellAllocation attribute of the BTS object). INITFREQ). the hopping mode can be set via the RBT-2000 software in the IMW2000.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline In the FLEXENT family. A CHN object with channelType (Channel Type) of CCCH cannot be defined as a hopping channel. Issue 1. and a factory access code is required to enable frequency hopping in a BSS. An MAIO will be generated internally for the channel (according to GSM Recommendation 05. However. HOPSEQNO): defines the HSN to be used by the hopping sequence generator. The following attributes must be defined for each FH object: • allocatedFrequencies (AllocatedFrequencies. The frequency is defined by the attribute initialFrequency (InitialFrequency. This specifies an associated FH object (hopping channels) or is left empty (for non-hopping channels). FH: A Frequency Hopping (FH) object must be created for each required hopping sequence. HSN (SequenceNumber. The feature is then enabled in the BSS Local Configuration Data. followed in brackets by the OMC GUI and AUI parameter names respectively). OMC parameter configuration The following Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC) objects must be created or modified (internal parameter names are used. or a number in the range 1 through 63 for random hopping.02). Therefore no manual setting is required. an RT (Radio Terminal) object must be created for each frequency to be used in an FHS. CELLALLOC) attribute of the BTS object. • CHN: Each channel (CHN) object must be defined as hopping or non-hopping via the freqHoppRelationship (FHRelationship. BSS feature enabling Frequency hopping is a purchased option. However the initialFrequency of the back-up RT should be set carefully to ensure the initial frequency of BCCH RT is transferred to the Backup RT if the BCCH RT fails. RT: For baseband hopping. For synthesiser hopping there is no relationship between the initialFrequency and the frequencies belonging to the FHS. BTS: Each frequency in the FHS must be defined in the cellAllocation (CellAllocation.

However. The reallocation procedure provides the BTS with the necessary information.5 minutes per hopping system.r78. via the Configuration Report Generator implemented in the OMC.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Automatic parameter update in the OMC All the necessary changes required to install frequency hopping in a selected BTS can be automated using the site independent OMC script inst-fhs. The script installs frequency hopping systems in the selected BTS depending on: • • • Number of RTs connected to the BTS Hopping type (baseband or synthesiser) Presence of CCCH(s) Additionally. and instructs it to reconfigure its hopping behaviour at a specified start time. Feature activation When the FHSs are activated. This feature allows the frequency planner to provide the OMC operator with frequency and frequency hopping plans in electronic format. The procedure is as follows: The OMC operator requests a frequency plan report in raw format.5 has automated the process of frequency replanning with frequency hopping. This report can be exported to an off-line PC where the frequency planner can modify the frequency plan.5. Note: Activation and deactivation of the FH takes time because as previously stated. and generates a set of AUI scripts that will update the existing OMC data to match the new plan. it involves a frequency redefinition procedure that takes up to 3. an AUI script is generated containing the modifications required to change the OMC data to the data specified in the file.OMC Release 4. and that is regardless of whether or not the system hops. this procedure has little impact on established calls (see Frequency redefinition procedure on page 10). Using the Receive Plan Option on the Expert AUI window. validates the data. refer to the OMC-2000 System Operator’s Guide . For more information. the Automatic Network Modification for Frequency Hopping feature (omc-cm093) of OMC-2000 release 4. Only modification of the RTs Initial Frequency produces RT downtime. 2. The scripts may be executed immediately or scheduled for later execution. The OMC operator can then import the data back to the OMC. The OMC reads the plan. The frequency redefinition procedure triggers the call handling function to start the frequency redefinition in the mobile stations (see Frequency redefinition procedure on page 10). that is.4 – January 2001 . 42 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. the reconfiguration process involves two steps: 1. it causes no down time of RTs or base stations.

4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 43 . prevents all the calls in the base station from being dropped when an RT fails. the lower the degradation.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 4. Note: The Frequency redefinition procedure (Page 10) triggered with the deactivation of frequency hopping. and is due to the way baseband frequency hopping is generated. Only calls served by the affected RT are dropped (as happens in a non-hopping system). irrespective of the vendor. The level of degradation depends on the number of hopping frequencies: the greater the number. The quality of the other calls will degrade for as long as the Frequency redefinition procedure takes place. the threshold should be set to 100% (the default) to avoid bad quality connections due to frequency loss.5. Fault management Frequency hopping is automatically disabled in the following situations: Baseband hopping If the number of available hopping frequencies used by the FHS falls below a given threshold due to severe RT faults. Issue 1. this threshold represents the percentage of frequencies in the cell that must still be operational before FH is switched to non-hopping. This behaviour is however typical of any baseband hopping system. As the BSS does not redefine the list of allocated frequencies when an RT fails. This percentage is defined in the LMB Enable/Disable CH options of the BSS Controller Equipment (BCE) or Base Station Controller Frame (BCF) local configuration area.

To do this. To do this. This applies to all the BSS supported by one MSC. The parameter can have three values: • • • May be used (0) Shall be used (1) Shall not be used (2) Downlink DTX Downlink DTX can be set independently for speech and for non-transparent. can be enabled and disabled in the corresponding windows of the Recent Change and Verify (RC/V) program. To do this the corresponding parameters must be set in the BSS. DTX Uplink DTX Uplink discontinuous transmission is set on a per-BTS basis.4 – January 2001 . the switch option Downlink DTX Mode in the WBOPM (Wireless Base Office Parameters Miscellaneous) view.6. To do this.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 4. and the InterWorking Function (IWF). The default setting is disabled. the MSC. the IWF option DTX Mode is set by changing the value in the IWF-2 menu. set the Downlink DTX Speech parameter in the BTS Detail View of the OMC (the AUI DownlinkDtx attribute of the managed object class BTS contains the boolean downlinkDtxSpeech). Data This feature is enabled or disabled on a per BTS basis via the OMC. To enable DTX in the IWF. set the Downlink DTX Data parameter in the BTS Detail View of the OMC (the AUI DownlinkDtx attribute of the managed object class BTS contains the boolean downlinkDtxData). If this parameter is enabled. In a Lucent MSC. the BTS acts according to the DTX commands issued by the IWF in the received RLP frames. The default setting is disabled (false). The default mode is disabled. Speech This feature is enabled or disabled on a per BTS basis. via the OMC. DTX is permitted for the connection if DTX is requested by the MSC and enabled by the OMC. set the Uplink DTX parameter in the BTS Detail View of the OMC GUI (AUI parameter DTX of the managed object class BTS). 44 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. The default setting is disabled (false).

A_QUAL_PC: defines the averaging window size for quality measurements.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 4.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 45 . U_RXQUAL_UL_P: defines the uplink lower (L) and upper (U) RX_LEV and RX_QUAL thresholds L_RXLEV_DL_P. Before applying this control the following parameters of the POWER object must be set to their proper values: • Maximum transmit power values: MS_TXPRWR_MAX: defines the maximum TX power an MS is permitted to use on a dedicated control channel or a traffic channel within the serving cell. L_RXQUAL_UL_P. Dynamic power control Power control for communications through a given BTS. U_RXQUAL_DL_P: defines the downlink lower (L) and upper (U) RX_LEV and RX_QUAL thresholds • Power step sizes: POW_INCR_STEP_SIZE. L_RXQUAL_DL_P.7. • Threshold levels: L_RXLEV_UL_P. • Averaging measurement parameters: A_LEV_PC: defines the averaging window size for receive power level measurements. U_RXLEV_DL_P. U_RXLEV_UL_P. POW_RED_STEP_SIZE: defines the step sizes used when increasing or decreasing the MS and BTS transmit power • Timer values: P_CON_ACK: defines the power control acknowledge time P_CON_INTERVAL: defines the minimum interval between successive modifications of the radio frequency power level Issue 1. W_QUAL_PC: defines the weighting factor to account for effects of DTX on power control signal quality measurements during averaging process. can be deployed independently in the downlink and the uplink via the parameters EN_MS_PC (uplink) and EN_BS_PC (downlink) of the POWER object associated with the BTS.

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5. Introduction When to use VIP There are two main reasons why an operator might implement VIP and frequency hopping: • • To improve quality in an area with interference problems To increase capacity in an already saturated area (in terms either of a need for more transceivers to meet traffic loads.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Variable Interference Planning Deployment 5 5. or a need to free up frequencies in the existing spectrum for use in other layers) Frequency hopping should not be used to try to improve poor quality in networks where the underlying cause is poor coverage.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 47 .1. network planning or tuning. frequency hopping can cause further deterioration in performance. Issue 1. Variable Interference Planning Deployment This section describes the Variable Interference Planning (VIP) deployment rationale. In such cases.

the investment that the operator is prepared to make. Specific factors that might influence the final choice include: • VIPtwo has the big advantage of eliminating the need for frequency planning of the traffic carriers in a network. • • 48 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. we strongly recommend that the process of increasing capacity with frequency hopping and VIP should be implemented in stages as follows: 1. No two networks behave the same when frequency hopping is switched on. 3. with extensive data collection made at each stage in order to assess accurately the impact of the new plan on the network. which might not be in place. In particular they can be used to optimise the frequency plan and the radio link control parameter setting. implement DTX and power control. any decision to swap-out existing equipment should be carefully considered.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Implementation strategy The interference averaging effect of frequency hopping generally diminishes the number of interference problems in the network. For network areas with existing filter-type combining equipment. Each step should be deployed in a small trial area first.4 – January 2001 . as and when new capacity is needed. The main disadvantage of VIPtwo is that it requires hybrid or diplexer antenna combiner equipment. So a VIPtwo plan is very flexible when it comes to introducing new base stations. Choosing the right plan This section describes how to identify the appropriate VIP plan for the implementation area. For this reason. More than three transceivers per cell Areas with typical configurations of more than three transceivers per cell can use either VIPone or VIPtwo.2. However. This is because the increase in insertion losses can affect the performance of the network. The conclusions drawn from the initial deployment can then be used in the overall deployment to minimise the initial impact and the subsequent optimisation work. Tighten the frequency reuse or the fractional load step by step. those problems that remain will be more difficult to resolve. Switch on frequency hopping. and the operator’s requirements for flexibility and future growth. The choice will depend on the type of antenna coupling equipment already in place. When the capacity gains from frequency hopping have been exhausted (but not before). particularly for in-building coverage. 2. 5. so it is important that detailed results data is collected for each network.

remember that they should be introduced in stages. If VIPone has been chosen primarily for capacity gains. Planning the frequencies and the HSN VIPone In areas with an average number of transceivers per cell of more than three. Three or fewer transceivers per cell Areas with typical configurations of three or fewer transceivers per cell can use VIPtwo only. and the greater the improvement. Issue 1. Large spectrum allocation This is for areas where synthesiser frequency hopping is possible. However.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 49 . with no need to take into account interference from other micro cells. Planning for future capacity Implementing DTX and dynamic power control in the downlink can produce further capacity gains. The more irregular the existing frequency plan. VIPtwo allows frequency reuse from the macro layer. Microcells In microcellular environments (where configurations are normally low) VIPtwo is the best option for the non-BCCH transceivers. However. a quality increase in terms of interference can be expected just by switching on random frequency hopping over the existing assigned frequencies. if the fractional load is low enough. the calculation must be done as if all cells in the area under consideration were to be upgraded. it is best to either enable cyclic hopping or leave the cell as non-hopping. 5. a mixed VIPone/VIPtwo plan is therefore recommended. then VIPone is the appropriate plan. a high number of available frequencies means that 1/3 or 1/1 reuse patterns are not possible. the higher the levels of variable interference. not at the same time. These cells will still benefit from the interference diversity caused by surrounding interfering cells randomly hopping over the same frequency set. This means that capacity can be added to the micro layer with minimal impact on the existing frequency plan. For cells with only two transceivers.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline • If for whatever reason the use of hybrid combiners is not considered feasible. Even if additional capacity is needed in only a few cells. However. the first stage in the design process is to calculate the average reuse factor required to handle the proposed capacity increase.3. the gains may not be noticeable in networks with existing high quality levels.

a 1/1 reuse should be used. If the number of hopping frequencies is 2. ensuring that all values are evenly distributed across the area. or co-channel interference will be possible. regular antenna orientation and height) can support a reuse value of 12.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline For example. Microcells Each microcell that requires additional capacity must be allocated a set of eight frequencies from the traffic transceivers in the macro layer. 50 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. the HSN should be set to 0. The first step is to decide on the reuse factor (1/1 or 1/3).4 – January 2001 . taking into account the maximum number of hopping frequencies available. Reuse capability depends greatly on the reuses allowed by the network infrastructure. In other cases the operator can choose between the two options. ensuring that all values are evenly distributed across the area. Cells that belong to the same base station should use the same HSN but a different MAIO. For example: for three transceivers and 24 frequencies (average reuse of 24/3=8) a 12/8/4 plan would work better than a 12/6/6. whether it is implemented to achieve quality improvement or capacity gains. If the number of available frequencies is low and a 1/3 reuse would mean hopping over fewer than six frequencies. it should be set to an integer in the range 1 to 63. As in the case of VIPone. while others may require values as high as 15 or even 18. Once the average reuse factor is determined. only certain sites will be upgraded to 4-4-4. the HSN should be set to an integer in the range 1 to 63. VIPone/VIPtwo In mixed plans. Homogeneous networks (grid site locations. a variable reuse plan should be devised that spreads the reuse factors around the average value to as great an extent as possible (taking into account the number of transceivers within the plan). the number of hopping frequencies should be set to the maximum of eight. Calculations will be done as if all the sites would be upgraded to 4-4-4. In the case of a 1/1 reuse it is important to set the HSN of base stations to different values. VIPtwo VIPtwo always requires frequency re-planning. ensuring that it is different for base stations using the same set of hopping frequencies. and the VIPone plan should be designed assuming eight transceivers per cell. in a network with 3-3-3 configurations. A propagation prediction tool can be used to select the frequencies with the lowest probability of interference within the area covered by each given microcell. The HSN should be set to a value between 1 and 63. Otherwise. Random frequency hopping can then be activated.

ensuring that all values are evenly distributed across the microcell area. BCCH planning Unless the capacity of the network is already stretched to its limits. access. Capacity in existing cells can be increased without having to replan the BCCH • • • Generally the BCCH transceiver will only be set to hopping in the case of a VIPone plan. Base Transceiver Station Identity Code (BSIC) decoding on the SCH is especially important for handover performance (poor handover performance causes more dropped calls).4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 51 . The HSN should be set to an integer in the range 1 to 63. and paging activities. locating. Issue 1. (As the BCCH transceiver must transmit continuously. handover. dynamic power control and DTX cannot be applied to it). even when there is no information to transfer. the BCCH transceiver is best left to non-hopping. Gains from implementing dynamic power control and DTX elsewhere in the network are maximised. This is required to ensure successful cell selection. where the number of hopping frequencies would otherwise be less than three. This approach has the following benefits: • The high levels of interference generated by the BCCH transceiver downlink are limited to a specific band. using frequencies specifically set aside for the BCCH. Control channel behaviour is separated from the traffic load. In any case it is generally better if it is planned separately.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline The fractional load will ensure that interference from the macro and micro layer does not have an adverse impact on transmission quality.

the following equipment is required: • GSM drive test equipment: − − − − − • • • Test handsets Data collection kit. but drive test information should allow it. This has two purposes: • • To provide a data source for optimisation and tuning purposes. Collection equipment To collect the optimal range of performance data. Collecting performance data To assess the benefits of deploying a VIP plan into the network.4 – January 2001 . ideally the performance data should differentiate between BCCH and non-BCCH transceivers. 52 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. First collect performance data for the current network configuration and frequency. This may not be possible with global information. To provide a performance benchmark for comparison of data collected under the new plan. Each data type can be categorised as one of the following: • • Global information Drive test information Note: When frequency hopping is switched off.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 5. in cases where the BCCH is non-hopping. performance data must be collected before and after the deployment. preferably with reverse path measurement capability Scanner Post processing/analysis tool Voice quality measurement equipment Performance management tool (such as the OMC-PMS) Abis link monitor and protocol analyser Coverage prediction and frequency planning tool Performance data types This section details the various types of data that ideally should be collected for performance measurement purposes.4.

Issue 1. The ideal collection method is to collect the data on a per cell basis both for all cells within the deployment trial area and for cells surrounding the trial area. Global information includes both traffic-related and quality-related data: Traffic-related data As traffic load is a major factor in frequency hopping performance.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 53 .GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Global information This type of performance data is usually obtained via the OMC-PMS. Accurate analysis of the before and after performance data requires the following conditions for the data collection: • Values should be per Erlang wherever possible. This enables accurate analysis and comparison of subsequent quality measurement results. at a minimum for the busy hour. Lucent recommends that the following traffic data is collected. traffic data should be collected before and after frequency hopping is implemented. and ideally also on a daily and historical basis: • • • • • • • • • • • • Busy hour (the hour segment with the largest TCH traffic value) TCH seizure attempts TCH seizures TCH seizure blocks % TCH blocking TCH traffic in Erlangs Mean TCH holding time SDCCH seizures SDCCH seizure blocks % SDCCH blocking SDCCH traffic in Erlangs Mean SDCCH holding time Quality-related data Quality data is used to compare performance results before and after frequency hopping is implemented.

The traffic data described in the previous section should be used to ensure equivalent traffic.4 – January 2001 . at a minimum for the busy hour. and ideally also on a daily and historical basis: Dropped calls • • • • • • TCH seizures dropped for radio reasons % dropped TCH TCH dropped calls/Erlang SDCCH seizures dropped for radio reasons % dropped SDCCH SDCCH dropped calls/Erlang Handovers • • • • • • • • • • • • Total number of handover attempts Intracell handover attempts Intracell handover failures % intracell handover failures Intercell handover attempts Intercell handover failures % intercell handover failures Uplink quality handovers % uplink quality handovers Uplink level handovers % uplink level handovers Downlink quality handovers 54 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. Lucent recommends that the following quality data is collected.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline • Traffic conditions before and after the implementation should be sufficiently similar to ensure no significant variation in interference and GOS (Grade of Service) levels. Note: These conditions apply to both hopping and non-hopping cells. and to the cells surrounding the deployment area.

if possible.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 55 . Downlink co-channel and adjacent channel C/I (if this measurement is not available in the drive test equipment. Handover. BCCH frequency and TCH frequency of the serving cell. on the uplink. However. • • • Issue 1. and dropped call events and their causes (this requires call tracing capabilities in the Abis monitor). a scanner can be used). Drive test information Drive tests should be performed over the most significant routes. including the main traffic routes and. In the case of frequency hopping. all Abis links for base stations in both the deployment area and surrounding areas should be monitored. Ideally. Measurements should be performed at least over the busy hour. the drive tests should be performed during the busy hour (both before and after implementation). BSIC. The following data should be collected: • • • • BSIC. Voice quality on the downlink and uplink (in the uplink take care not to introduce external sources of quality degeneration). RXQUAL statistics should be obtained (this will require an Abis protocol analyser). If possible they should also be repeated a number of times to ensure no external events influence the results. power control. routes with known or potential conflict problems. FER on the downlink and.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline • • • % downlink quality handovers Downlink level handovers % downlink level handovers RXQUAL statistics If possible. if possible. BCCH frequency and RXLEV of neighbouring cells. the C/I should be obtained for each hopping frequency. Ideally. the equipment may restrict the number of links that can be monitored. In-building walk tests are also useful when assessing the impact of frequency hopping on in-building quality. Downlink RXLEV and RXQUAL measurements.

56 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. the percentage (and possibly absolute numbers) of quality based handovers will increase (see Figure 20).GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 5. FER and voice quality (as measured in the drive tests) will improve. Deployment results This section describes the results that can be expected at each VIP implementation stage: 1. but it is not the case with frequency hopping. Under normal circumstances (no frequency hopping) this would imply serious degradation of transmission quality. Implementing dynamic power control Activating frequency hopping The expected results of activating frequency hopping are: • • Dropped calls and failed handovers will decrease. The increase is generally about one unit. frequency hopping may reduce the number of dropped calls by about 20%. RXQUAL statistics will show an increase in the reported RXQUAL values (see RXQUAL behaviour below). The number of intra-cell handovers will be very small (mixed hopping and non-hopping configurations) or 0 (only hopping configurations). Tightening frequency reuse 3. should show significant quality improvement. Implementing DTX 4. The downlink will be the capacity-limiting link. As a consequence of the increase in RXQUAL values. particularly if the channel used belongs to a hopping transceiver. Activating frequency hopping 2. with better quality in the uplink than the downlink.5. FER/voice quality versus RXQUAL/carrier to interference ratio will show improvement but higher deviation. • • • • These improvements are expected to be higher in the uplink than in the downlink.4 – January 2001 . In a medium loaded network. Localised areas with previously bad interference problems but good coverage.

the measure of the speech quality TEMS equipment offer) measured by a TEMS piece of equipment before and after handing over between a channel that does not use frequency hopping and a channel that uses frequency hopping. FER and SQI (Speech Quality Indicator .4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 57 .GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Figure 20: Impact of frequency hopping on handover causes Figure 21 shows a typical drive test output when using frequency hopping. Figure 21: Output from TEMS when handing over between a non-hopping and a hopping channel Issue 1. It shows the RXQUAL.

Important: Some trial implementations of frequency hopping have reported performance degradation in cells that hop over only two frequencies. 6.25 0. Instead it increases with its logarithm (RXQUAL increases by one unit if the BER is doubled or decreases by two units if the BER is divided by four). 0 0. 0.00 1. 7. 1. 0. In the channel with frequency hopping (shown right of the first marker in the figure) even worse RXQUAL values than before translate into no FER and a very slight degradation of the SQI. 0. 2.50 1.50 0. the BER (for unprotected bits) for the different hopping sequence frequencies are averaged and then mapped into an RXQUALFH value for the hopping channel. To do this. 0. 0.50 5.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline It can be seen that in the channel with no frequency hopping (shown left of the first marker in the figure) bad RXQUAL values translate into an increasing FER (in red) and a decreasing SQI (in grey). 4. This means the RXQUALFH value is not calculated as the arithmetical average of the RXQUALTRXi values of the individual TRX transceivers in non-hopping mode (as illustrated in the table above).4 – January 2001 . 5. 0 0. 5 0. The following table shows RXQUAL values obtained in a cell after frequency hopping was activated over four transceivers: RXQUALFH 5 5 4 2 1 1 0 RXQUALTRXi i=1. 58 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.n 0. 1 3.25 Potential speech quality good fair excellent excellent excellent excellent excellent Table 3: Example RXQUAL values with frequency hopping With frequency hopping active. 0 Average RXQUALTRXi 2. RXQUAL behaviour The increase in reported RXQUAL values is caused by the following reason: The RXQUAL parameter does not increase linearly with the error rate of unprotected bits. 0. 0. aggregate the performance results according to the number of hopping transceivers in the cell and compare the performance with the results obtained when the cells were non-hopping. Such cells should be monitored for this effect. 2 0. This logarithmic behaviour means that RXQUALFH ≥ average(RXQUALTRXi). 1 5.75 0. 5.

GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline As the values in the previous table show. some channel slots may not be used for transmission. This should be investigated first. The BTS and the mobile station must report two distinct sets of measurements concerning the connection: • − “full” measurements for all slots that may be used for transmission in the reporting period. This allows the processes using the measurements (power control and handover) to discard the “full” measurements in cases when discontinuous transmission was used. For speech.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 59 . in terms of dropped calls. Specifically in the case of frequency hopping. Issue 1. However. This affects quality measurements in particular. These bursts mirror the systematic use of the SACCH (four bursts constitute a coding block) plus eight bursts on the TCH itself. GSM Recommendations specify the following requirements: • At least 12 bursts (a Slow Access Control Channel [SACCH] superframe) must be sent within each reporting period. this unreliability causes an increase in reported RXQUAL values with a corresponding increase in dropped call rates. Tightening the reuse The expected result of tightening the average reuse is that the performance of the system. performance begins to deteriorate rapidly. the number of dropped calls may increase. they are more sensitive to the statistical unreliability introduced by subset measuring. At that point. with frequency hopping there is no direct mapping or correlation of actual speech quality to RXQUAL. To avoid this problem. these bursts contain silence description frames (SIDs). then careful optimisation of the allocation in this band may produce further capacity gains. the performance deterioration may be due to interference just in the BCCH band. − “sub” measurements for the mandatory sent bursts and blocks only. and corresponding bad quality. Results based on “sub” measurements are less accurate due to the reduced number of input values for the averaging process (reception level is averaged on 12 bursts instead of more than 100 bursts). which represents the capacity limit of the system and the current configuration. DTX implementation When DTX is switched on. This is because. remains constant up to a certain point. by the nature of DTX. Measurements on these slots will obviously report a low reception level. • Both the BTS and the mobile station must report for each measurement period. whether or not discontinuous transmission was used. Because they are based on estimated error probabilities before channel decoding. If the deterioration is identified as being due to BCCH interference.

Hopping over two frequencies Performance may deteriorate in cells that hop over only two frequencies. Discontinuous Transmission measurement accuracy A weighting algorithm has been devised in Lucent equipment that overcomes the potential measurement inaccuracies introduced by DiscontinuourDTX. Full measurements are given a higher weight than the “sub measurements” (which are more likely to be inaccurate) in the average RXQUAL value calculation used in the power control and handover processes. even though they do not hop. 60 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. 5. Setting the averaging parameters in this manner will improve performance in systems that use DTX. If the percentage of quality based handovers remains high. frequency hopping should be switched off in the affected cells. That is.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Dynamic power control implementation The RXQUAL behaviour described means that an increase in RXQUAL reported handovers (intercell and intracell) can be expected. If this happens.6.4 – January 2001 . there should be an improvement in their performance compared with a non-hopping network. If the number of such cells is small. The easiest way to avoid this effect is to increase the handover quality thresholds by approximately the same amount as the increase in the average RXQUAL value. increase the power control quality thresholds by approximately the same amount as the increase in the average RXQUAL value. the RXQUAL averaging window should be increased. Quality-based power control A similar solution can be used to counteract the effect of increased RXQUAL based power control commands following power control implementation. since the effect is probably due to statistical nature of the measurements. Optimising performance Quality-based handovers The increase in reported RXQUAL values leads to an unwanted increase in the percentage of quality-based handovers.

Then. taken out of the deployment area. − Very poor quality in the network before frequency hopping was implemented In this situation. However the bad quality mobiles will remain bad. such sites should be treated separately in terms of frequency planning and. − Strong interferers exist in the network Depending on location. some base stations can produce much higher interference levels than the others in the network. With frequency hopping. − Locally high interference conditions The cell may suffer localised interference from a very strong interferer. To avoid this effect. drive tests can be used to scan the BCCH frequency of these base stations to determine whether received levels from them are high enough to cause interference. this often happens with base stations at a higher than average height. The best indicator of an offending base station is a permanently high measured level of interference when it is scanned in drive tests. This situation is indicated by unusually high percentages of mandatory handovers (good coverage networks should show a majority of power budget handovers) both with and without frequency hopping. or even increases. or even increases. For example. this interference is spread across all channels. There could be three reasons for this: − Poor coverage conditions It has been reported that frequency hopping can aggravate problems arising from poor coverage (as yet the reasons are unclear). • The number of dropped calls and failed handovers in a particular cell either does not reduce.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Other scenarios The following situations may also require investigation and optimisation: • The global number of dropped calls and failed handovers either does not reduce. The few good quality mobiles will decrease their quality in an attempt to improve the bad quality mobiles. in extreme situations. both with and without frequency hopping. Issue 1. The propagation prediction tool can be used to pinpoint the possible interferers. This situation is indicated by existing high numbers of dropped calls and failed handovers before frequency hopping is implemented. the averaging effect of frequency hopping will degrade quality further. The possible reasons are: − Poor coverage conditions This situation is indicated by unusually high percentages of mandatory handovers in the cell.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 61 .

because they transmit continuously. the frequency plan should be modified to prevent the two cells (the interferer and the cell suffering the interference) being used as co-channels. even if this reduces the number of hopping frequencies available.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline If a strong interferer is found. which can be done either manually or with a frequency planning tool. The same average reuse or fractional load must be maintained. Note: This situation often arises with BCCHs that are included in the hopping sequences . These changes may involve rearranging of frequencies.4 – January 2001 . In VIPtwo implementations. 62 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. if frequency rearrangement is not possible. frequency hopping cannot take advantage of traffic variations. the frequencies suffering high interference should be taken out of the hopping sequences in the affected cell.

1 Scenario 1 Existing configuration • • • • • • • Operator working in the 1800 band Wide-band combiner equipment 48 frequencies allocated Network still growing with an irregular network layout that is mainly coverage ridden To maintain good quality in the existing network.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 63 . 6. current BCCH planning requires a reuse of 7/21 Configurations are mostly 2-2-2 Microcells in use for “cold-spot” coverage with plans to develop them into a continuous microcell layer Issue 1. and the planning and design requirements. the objectives of the implementation.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Worked Examples 6 6. Each example describes the current network configuration. Worked Examples This chapter provides examples of VIP implementations.

18. The BCCH in the macro layer will be planned using a 7/21 reuse that is already known to give adequate performance in the current network conditions. VIP plan choice • • Since the existing combiner equipment is already wide-band. Planning the frequencies • The frequency band will be divided into three subsets of 21.4 – January 2001 . and the third for micro BCCH. will not require modifications to the BCCH frequency plan. or addition of new microcells. assigning 18/3=6 frequencies per sector and switching on synthesiser frequency hopping. Because the network is still growing. especially in localised areas where propagation conditions cause high interference levels. However: Ideally. That is. grid locations. the frequency plan will need to be changed because a fractional load of 50% is too close to the maximum limit beyond which network quality may degrade. The first sub-band will be used for macro BCCH planning. VIPtwo is the easiest and most flexible solution to implement. This ensures that future capacity expansion in existing base stations. The BCCH in the micro layer. and 9 frequencies. (Reuse of 1/1 is not possible in current releases because it would imply hopping over 18 frequencies). will be planned using a 9 reuse. once continuous coverage is achieved. it will be necessary to upgrade base stations to 3-3-3 configurations. similar antenna height and orientation) • • • • • 64 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. which is known to be adequate in a micro-cellular environment. The additional TCH transceiver in the existing 2-2-2 configurations will be planned using a 1/3 reuse. the second for macro TCH. by this time network growth in terms of base stations will have stabilised and the network layout will have been rationalised into a more homogeneous layout (for example. To generate a frequency plan that is able to cope with the rapid pace of change and growth in the network. The frequency plan will not need to be changed since a 1/3 reuse can easily accept fractional loads of 2/6=33% without noticeable impact on the quality of the network If even more capacity is required in the macro-layer. If additional capacity is subsequently required in the macro layer. it is recommended that the macrocell base station BCCHs are planned on a separate sub-band.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Objectives • • To improve quality in the network.

To do this. the OMC process will be the same. 4. Issue 1. Set the initial frequency of the second RT (and the third RT if using 3-3-3 configurations) to one of the hopping frequencies. no additional capacity gains will be possible until this is done Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings As stated earlier. The ID attribute can be set to any value in the range 0 through 7. the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute is left empty. The TCH transceivers will be assigned 24/3=8 hopping frequencies. Set the attribute sequenceNumber to an integer in the range 1 through 63. 2. fFH6. 24. ….GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline If this is the case. this must be corrected. Add frequencies fFH1. To do this: 1. the BCCH will allow a much tighter reuse: probably around 15. …. 4-4-4 configurations would therefore be possible If the eventual network layout is insufficiently homogeneous. Note: If the frequency plan is later rearranged and additional capacity introduced to support 44-4 configurations. As the eight CHN (Channel) objects belonging to this RT are non-hopping.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 65 . 5. each cell will be assigned one BCCH frequency fBCCH and 6 hopping frequencies. Set the initialFrequency attribute of the RT (Radio Terminal) object that will hold the BCCH channel to fBCCH. Set the eight CHN objects belonging to the second RT (and the third RT if using 3-3-3configurations) to hopping. 6. …. except that eight hopping frequencies rather than six are added to the cell allocation. and a new FH object is created with those 8 frequencies. 3. fFH6. Create an FH (Frequency Hopping) object with attribute allocatedFrequencies equal to fFH1. set the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute to match the ID of the FH object created in the previous step. which can accept a load of 3/8=37.5%. and 9. fFH6 to the cellAllocation attribute of the BTS object that relates to the cell. fFH1. Make sure this value is different from the values used by FH objects of surrounding cells that have been assigned the same set of hopping frequencies. The spectrum allocation can then be split into three bands of 15.

The new macrocell plan will therefore use only 32 frequencies. the BCCH transceiver will be included in hopping sequences. VIPone is the choice for the initial solution.9. the planning assumes that all configurations are 4-4-4. Since the maximum configuration is 4-4-4. without any additional investment. 66 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.48=12.4 – January 2001 . Cells with only one transceiver will be left to non-hopping. Since the number of transceivers per cell is relatively low.2 Scenario 2 Existing configuration • • • • • • • Operator working in the 900 band Existing combiner equipment is all filter type 40 frequencies allocated Network already stabilised Average of 2. Frequency plan obtained by spreading around 8: 14/10/6/2.48 transceivers per cell.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 6. It is not possible to add another carrier in the area with conventional frequency planning Microcellular layer will be added for capacity increase Objectives • To free enough frequencies to be able to plan the BCCH of the microcell layer. Average reuse: 32/4=8. Planning the frequencies • • • • • • It is envisaged that eight frequencies will be sufficient for the microcell layer. VIP plan choice • • Since the existing combiner equipment is filter type and the operator is not willing to invest in swapping combiners. Actual average reuse: 32/2.13. actual configurations vary between one and four transceivers per cell Average reuse of 16.

fn to the cellAllocation attribute of the BTS object that relates to the cell. Otherwise set it to an integer in the range 1 through 63. The CHN objects not included in step 3 should be defined as hopping. 4. ensuring that all the values are used evenly across the area. 2. fn where n is the number of transceivers in that cell (in this scenario a value between 1 and 4). … fn. f1 belongs to the sub-band of 14 frequencies. leave the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute blank. The attribute sequenceNumber should be set to 0 if n=2. If n>1. To do this. Set the ID attribute to a value in the range 0 through 7. Add frequencies f1. Set the initial frequency of each of the four RTs to fI where i is the number of the RT. These channels belong to air interface time slot 0 (or 2. If the base station is of type RBS-900 or if n=2: 3. 4. or 6 if CCCH channels are present in these time slots of the BCCH transceiver) to non-hopping. Issue 1. The other FHS will be hopping on all traffic channels of all transceivers. Create an FH object with attribute allocatedFrequencies set to f1. set the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute to the ID of the FH object created in the previous step. Cells with more than two transceivers will need two FHS. 4. ….4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 67 . but using cyclic hopping sequences.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline • • Cells with only two transceivers will be hopping. the following steps are required: 1. f3 belongs to the sub-band of 6 frequencies and f4 to the sub-band of 2 frequencies. Set all CHN objects that have a CHN object ID attribute of 0 (or 2. In this scenario. f2 belongs to the sub-band of 10 frequencies. One FHS will be hopping on the control channel TS of non-BCCH transceivers. or 6 if CCCH channels are present in these time slots of the BCCH transceiver). Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings Each cell will be assigned n frequencies f1. …. 5. To do this.

or 6 if CCCH channels are present in these time slots of the BCCH transceivers) to hopping. then the only RT object will be assigned an initial frequency belonging to the sub-band of 14 frequencies. 4. 4. Otherwise set it to an integer in the range 1 through 63. 6) are non-hopping. The CHN objects not included in step 3 should be defined as hopping. In the case of base stations of type RBS-900. set the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute to the ID of the FH object created in the previous step. This is because they are using frequencies with a very tight reuse.4 – January 2001 .GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline If base station is of type BTS-2000 (RBS-918) and n>2: 3. but different to the one of the FH object created in step 3. 4. … fn. Set all CHN objects in the non-BCCH transceivers that have a CHN object ID attribute of 0 (or 2. Set the ID attribute to a value in the range 0 through 7. because all channels in time slot 0 (or 2. particularly those using frequencies from the sub-bands of 6 and 2 frequencies. If n=1. Set the ID attribute to a value in the range 0 through 7. ensuring that all the values are used evenly across the area. Create an FH object with attribute allocatedFrequencies set to f2. they should be shut down. 6. the increase in capacity provided by the frequencies that have been freed for the micro-layer will more than compensate for this. To do this. they can potentially suffer from unacceptable interference levels. … fn. set the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute to the ID of the FH object created in the previous step. This will imply a small loss in the macro layer capacity. To do this. (create the second FHS) The attribute sequenceNumber should be set to 0 if n=2. Create an FH object with attribute allocatedFrequencies set to f1. 5. However. Otherwise set it to an integer in the range 1 through 63. (Create the first FHS) The attribute sequenceNumber should be set to 0 if n=3. ensuring that all the values are used evenly across the area. 68 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. Performance on these channels should be closely monitored and if quality is unacceptable.

For each microcell.3 Scenario 3 Existing configuration • • • • Operator working in the 900 band 50 frequencies allocated Underlay microcell layer using BTS-2000/2C (CUBE) base stations. VIPtwo is the most appropriate plan Planning the frequencies • • In order to minimise disruption to the existing frequency plan. the suggested frequencies will belong to the macrocells with the lowest probability of interfering with that microcell Issue 1.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 69 . Continuous coverage and 1 transceiver per micro Frequencies divided in three subsets: 18 for the macro BCCH. The GRAND tool allows the probability of interference matrices to be calculated between the macrocells and the microcells. 19 for the macro TCHs and 9 for the micro BCCH Objectives • To add one transceiver to all cells in the micro layer VIP plan choice • As CUBEs support synthesiser hopping. or with a propagation prediction tool. Frequencies should be selected from the TCH transceivers of the macrocells that cause the least interference to the microcell This information can be obtained by using a scanner and doing a drive-test of the area (if it is small enough).GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 6. the frequencies belonging to the macro TCH sub-band will be reused A set of eight frequencies will be chosen for each microcell.

Set attribute sequenceNumber to an integer in the range 1 through 63. 5.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings Each microcell will be assigned one BCCH frequency fBCCH and eight hopping frequencies. Make sure as far as possible that all values are used and that they are spread evenly across the whole microcell layer. fFH8. fFH8. …. 2.4 – January 2001 . To do this: 1. fFH8 to the cellAllocation attribute of the BTS object that relates to the micro-cell. Add frequencies fFH1. Set the initialFrequency attribute of the RT that will hold the BCCH channel to fBCCH. 70 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. 6. Set the initial frequency of the second RT to any of the hopping frequencies. 4. fFH1. Set the eight CHN objects belonging to this RT as non-hopping (leave the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute empty). …. Set the ID attribute to any value in the range 0 through 7. Create a FH object and set attribute allocatedFrequencies equal to fFH1. 3. Set each of the eight CHN objects belonging to the second RT as hopping. To do this. set the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute to match the ID of the FH object created in the previous step. ….

GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 6. subsequent extra capacity can be added to selective locations without significant impact on quality. One alternative would be to add a third transceiver in all locations. However. thanks to the averaging properties of frequency hopping. Hence the 1800 band spectrum allocation will be divided in two bands. VIPtwo is the most appropriate solution Planning the frequencies • The regular network layout and low antenna heights mean that the network can support 4/12 reuses on the BCCH.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 71 . and reasonably low antennas 20 new frequencies acquired in the 1800 band Collocated 900 and 1800 base stations Wide-band combiners available in the 1800 band equipment Objectives • To maximise capacity in the small 1800 band VIP plan choice • Since the existing combiner equipment is already wide-band. but to activate only some of the channels (up to a maximum of 3 or 4) • • • Issue 1. This is below the 15-20% threshold for 1/1 patterns Widespread 3-3-3 configurations are unlikely to be possible. With maximised cell splitting.5% (1/8). regular layout. one of 12 frequencies to plan the BCCH. even with DTX and dynamic power control switched on (2/8 gives a fractional load of 25%). and one of 8 frequencies for the extra TCHs A 1/1 reuse is most appropriate given the small number of frequencies available for the TCHs 2-2-2 configurations imply a fractional load of 12.4 Scenario 4 Existing configuration • • • • • Operator working in the 900 band Network already stabilised.

Set the initialFrequency attribute of the RT that will hold the BCCH channel to fBCCH. 3. Set each of the eight CHN objects belonging to this RT as non-hopping (leave the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute empty). fFH8 to the cellAllocation attribute of the BTS object that relates to the 1800 cell. 5. To do this: 1. fFH1. …. Add frequencies fFH1. 6. fFH8. …. …. set the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute to match the ID of the FH object created in the previous step. Set the initial frequency of the second RT to any hopping frequency. Set each of the eight CHN objects belonging to the second RT as hopping.4 – January 2001 . 2. 72 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings Each cell in the 1800 band will be assigned one BCCH frequency fBCCH and eight hopping frequencies. To do this. fFH8. Create an FH object with attribute allocatedFrequencies equal to fFH1. Set the ID attribute to any value in the range 0 through 7. Set attribute sequenceNumber to an integer in the range 1 through 63. 4. Ensure so far as possible that all values are used and that they are spread evenly across the whole 1800 layer.

5 Scenario 5 Existing configuration • • • • • • Operator working in the 1800 band Combiner equipment is wide-band 40 frequencies allocated Mature network that is already stabilised Average of 3. This leaves 28 remaining frequencies The plan will assign 6 hopping frequencies. since it has already been proven that the network can support that reuse. which is not possible with Lucent equipment. VIPtwo is the most appropriate solution However. so average reuse has been set to 12 Objectives • To increase capacity in the network to allow four transceivers per cell VIP plan choice • • Since the existing combiner equipment is wide-band.3 transceiver per cell Antenna height is quite low.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline 6. Accordingly.6 Frequency plan obtained by spreading around 4. a mixed VIPone/VIPtwo solution is chosen Planning the frequencies • • • • • 12 frequencies are set aside for the BCCH.6: 9/6/6/3/3/1 Actual reuse: 28/4=7 Issue 1. leaving 12 frequencies for the BCCH means a 1/3 reuse would require hopping over more than 9 frequencies.4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 73 . a high enough number to benefit from frequency hopping Average reuse: 28/6=4.

6. fFH6 to the cellAllocation attribute of the BTS object that relates to the cell. Set attribute sequenceNumber to an integer value between 1 and 63.GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Mapping the frequency plan to OMC settings Each cell will be assigned one BCCH frequency fBCCH and 6 hopping frequencies. Set the ID attribute to any value in the range 0 through 7. and fourth RT as hopping. …. Set each of the eight CHN objects belonging to the second. fFH6. 5. Set the eight CHN objects belonging to this RT as non-hopping (leave the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute empty). 74 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1. …. 4. fFH1. Set the initial frequency of the second. Set the initialFrequency attribute of the RT that will hold the BCCH channel to fBCCH. set the freqHoppRelationship (FH ID) attribute to match the ID of the FH object created in the previous step. Add frequencies fFH1. and fourth RT to a hopping frequency belonging to one of the looser reuses. third. 2. …. 3. Ensure so far as possible that all values are used and that they are spread evenly. To do this: 1.4 – January 2001 . fFH6. Create a FH object and set the allocatedFrequencies attribute equal to fFH1. To do this. third.

4 – January 2001 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page 75 .GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline Acronyms 7 7. List of Acronyms The following acronyms are used in this document: AUI BCCH BCE BCF BER BSS BSIC BTS CCCH DRCC DTX FCCH FER GUI GPRS GSM ASCII User Interface Broadcast Control Channel BSS Controller Equipment Base Station Controller Frame Bit Error Rate Base Station Subsystem Base Transceiver Station Identity Code Base Transceiver Station Common Control Channel Digital Radio Codec and Control Discontinuous Transmission Frequency Correction Channel Frame Erasure Rate Graphical User Interface General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobile Communications Issue 1.

GSM Frequency Hopping and VIP Engineering Guideline HSN MAIO MSC OMC PAGCH PDCH PDTCH PWRC RACH RFU RXQUAL SACCH SCH SDCCH SID TCH TDMA TRX VIP Hopping Sequence Number Mobile Allocation Index Offset Mobile Switching Centre Operations and Maintenance Centre Packet Access Grant Channel Packet Data Channel Packet Data Traffic Channel Power Control Indicator Random Access Channel Radio Frequency Unit Received Signal Quality Slow Associated Control Channel Synchronisation Channel Standalone Dedicated Control Channel Silence Information Descriptor Traffic Channel Time Division Multiple Access Transceiver Variable Interface Planning 76 Lucent Technologies – Proprietary See Notice on first page Issue 1.4 – January 2001 .

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