A. Bone Classification 1. The four classes of bone according to shape are long, short, flat, and irregular. 2.

Examples of long bones are forearm and thigh bones. 3. Short bones are shaped like cubes. 4. Examples of short bones are wrist bones and ankle bones. 5. Flat bones are platelike structures. 6. Examples of flat bones are some skull bones, ribs, and scapulae. 7. Irregular bones have a variety of shapes. 8. Examples of irregular bones are vertebrae and some facial bones. 9. Round bones are also called sesamoid bones. 10. Sesamoid bones are small and nodular and embedded in tendons. 11. An example of a sesamoid bone is the patella. B. Parts of a Long Bone 1. An expanded end of a long bone is an epiphysis. 2. An epiphysis articulates with another bone. 3. Articular cartilage is located on an epiphysis. 4. The shaft of a long bone is called a diaphysis. 5. Periosteum is a tough, vascular, fibrous membrane covering the diaphysis of a bone. 6. Periosteum functions to form and repair bone tissue. 7. Processes provide sites for attachments of tendons or ligaments. 8. The wall of the diaphysis is composed of compact bone. 9. Compact bone has a continuous matrix with no gaps. 10. The epiphyses are largely composed of spongy bone bone. 11. Spongy bone consists of bony plates called trabeculae. 12. A bone usually has both compact bone and spongy bone. 13. A canal called the medullary cavity runs through the diaphysis. 14. Endosteum lines the medullary cavity and spaces of spongy bone. 15. Endosteum contains bone-forming cells. 16. The tissue that fills the spaces of bone is called marrow. 17. The two forms of marrow are red and yellow. Bones can also be classified according to their general shapes (Fig. 6.2): A. Long bones are long and relatively slender, e.g., the femur, the humerus, and the phalanges. B. Short bones are boxy in shape, e.g., the carpals and tarsals. C. Flat bones are thin and broad in shape, e.g., the scapula, ribs, and the sternum. These bones either serve for protection or provide an extensive surface for muscle attachment. D. Irregular bones have complex shapes, and they do not fit the other categories. Examples are the vertebrae and sphenoid bone. CLASSIFICATION OF BONES ACCORDING TO THEIR SHAPE • LONG BONES-LONGER THAN WIDER. EACH LONG BONE HAS A SHAFT, UPPER (PROXIMAL END) AND A LOWER (DISTAL END) -MOST OF THE BONES OF THE LIMBS ARE LONG BONES (HUMERUS, FEMUR) -SHORT LONG BONES ARE PRESENT IN THE HAND AND FEET (PHALANGES) • SHORT BONES-THESE BONES ARE CUBE SHAPED (CARPAL BONES OF THE WRIST) -SESAMOID BONES ARE ANOTHER TYPE OF SHORT BONE; THEY ARE FORMED WITHIN A TENDON (PATELLA) • FLAT BONESTHIN FLAT AND CURVED BONES -SKULL BONES, RIBS, STERNUM (BREAST BONE) • IRREGULAR BONES-

THEY HAVE DIFFERENT SHAPES EXAMPLES ARE VETEBRAE. HIP BONES .

Bones • • • of the Head frontal bone mandible maxilla • occiptal bone • parietal bone • temporal bone • zygomatic bone Bones of the Neck and Chest • acromion • atlas • cervical vertebra • clavicle • false rib • floating rib • scapula • spine of scapula • sternum • thoracic vertebra • vertibral column Bones of the Abdomen • coccyx • ilium • ischium • lumbar vertebra • sacrum • vertibral column Bones of the Arm • carpus (carpals) • epicondyle • epitrochlea • head of humerus • humerus • metacarpus (metacarpals) • olecranon • phalanx (phalanges) • radius • ulna Bones of the Leg • calcaneus • condyle of femur • femur • fibula • head of femur • metatarsus (metatarsals) • neck of femur • patella • phalanx (phalanges) • talus • tarsus (tarsal) • tibia .

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the sternum body (corpus sterni) and the xyphoid process (processus xiphoideus). It consists of the manubrium (manubrium). the three elements of . which can differ in shape.The breastbone is a flat bone. In young age.

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