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Stress is expressed as the amount of force Compressive stress is state of stress wherein
applied to a certain area of an object. From the object’s length decreases or it contracts
the perspective of loading, it is the force along the direction of the applied force. By
applied to an object which causes it to be convention, compressive force is taken to be
deformed. There are three principal ways in negative leading to a negative stress.
which a load may be applied: namely, Furthermore, since the initial length of the
tension, compression, and shear. object is greater than its final length,
compressive strain also procures a negative
𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 (𝐹)
𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 (𝜎) = (1) value.
𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 − 𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 (𝐴)

Strain is defined as the ratio of the change in

length or elongation of the object and its
original length.
𝐶ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ (∆𝐿)
𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 (𝜀) = (2)
𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ (𝐿𝑜 )

Tensile stress is a state of stress in which the

applied force causes the object to increase in
Fig. 2: Compressive Stress
length parallel to the direction of the load.
Tensile stress is associated with a positive
value of strain since there is an increase in In this experiment, different materials were
length of the object. subjected to tensile load and compressive
load using a Universal Testing Machine.
Through the machine, a Force-Stroke graph
was procured from which the tensile strength
and compressive strength of the tested
materials can be determined.

The objectives of the experiment are to be

able to use a Universal Testing Machine in
the determination of amount of force
different materials can be subjected to and to
be able to interpret a Force-Stroke plot.

Fig. 1: Tensile Stress