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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Execution of Ann Hibbins​. 1656. ​Landmark Events​, 2018,

landmarkevents.org/the-salem-witch-trial-executions-1692/. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.

In this image, a woman named Ann Hibbins is about to be executed for witchcraft. This

image shows how brutal the punishments were if one were considered a witch. We use

this image to depict the intensity of the trials and to draw attention to the heart of the

story. This source taught us that the town had no mercy for the accused and delivered the

punishment they thought the women deserved. We recommend this source to anyone

looking for images to use for projects about the Salem witch trials.

The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History​. New York Historical Society, 2017,

www.gilderlehrman.org/content/cotton-mather%E2%80%99s-account-salem-witch-trials

-1693. Accessed 12 Dec. 2017.

On this web page we found an article from 1693 written by Cotton Mather, an author and

preacher in Salem Village at the time of the trials. His account is from a preacher’s

perspective, discussing how he coped with the madness and how he could tell if someone

followed the devil or not. The website has an excerpt from the book which explains what

Mr. Mather felt during the trials. We use this source for the “heart of the story” portion of

our project, because it shows what life was like during those terrible times. We

recommend this source to people researching witch trials.


Guazzo, Francesco Maria. ​The Devil and Witches Trampling a Cross​. 1608. ​Encyclopedia

Britannica​, 22 Aug. 2016, www.britannica.com/topic/witchcraft. Accessed 13 Jan. 2018.

Prior to the Salem witch trials, Europe held witch hunts between the 14th and 18th

centuries. This source provides background information for the Salem witch trials and

shows how suspicion of witchcraft was present around the world. Francesco Maria

Guazzo, the author of Compendium Maleficarum, created this image depicting the devil

and witched trampling a cross. Compendium Maleficarum was a manual for

witch-hunters written in 1608. The image pulled from this book shows how people were

paranoid about witchcraft previous to the Salem witch trials.

In the British Library. ​A Witch and Her Familiars​. 1621. ​Encyclopædia Britannica​,

www.britannica.com/event/Salem-witch-trials/images-videos. Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.

Britannica’s article on the Salem witch trials provides this image only known as being ‘in

the British Library.’ The image, titled ​A Witch and Her Familiars​, shows a woman

surrounded by animals and what appears to be a demon. Familiars are known in

witchcraft as the spiritual pets of witches. In some contexts, familiars are inhabited by

demons. We need this image in our project because it shows how people characterized

witches during the time period of the Salem witch trials.


Lawson, Deodat. “A Further Account of the Tryals of the New-England Witches, sent in a Letter

from thence, to a Gentleman in London.” ​Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and

Transcription Project​, Benjamin Ray and The U of Virginia, 2010,

salem.lib.virginia.edu/letters/lawsons_london_letter.html. Accessed 14 Dec. 2017.

Deodat Lawson wrote in a letter to Nathaniel Higgenson “thorns also in like kind were

thrust into their flesh; the accusers were sometimes struck dumb, deaf, blind, and

sometimes lay as if they were dead for a while.” This letter explains the terrible things

that may happen to someone accused of witchcraft. This source provides evidence

regarding how bystanders felt and how the accused witches were treated.

​Library of Congress​. United States Legislative Information, 2017,

www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/march-01/. Accessed 6 Dec. 2017.

This website has articles about the Salem witch trials along with a picture of a letter from

a victim. It shows what the charges were against some of the citizens. We know this

source is credible because it is the Library of Congress which is a trusted site across the

United States. We use this website for the heart of the story because it is a primary source

and helps explain the charges. We recommend this source to anyone looking for a great

primary source.
​Library of Congress​. United States Legislative Information, 2017,

www.loc.gov/resource/rbpe.03304000/?sp=2. Accessed 11 Dec. 2017.

On this site we found a few primary resources, such as excerpts from books written by

citizens of Salem Village during the trials. They tell stories of the accused and the actions

that took place when someone was convicted. We use this source for background, heart

of the story, and short term impact because it shows that there were many outcomes and

consequences for those accused of witchcraft and how these changed and worsened over

time. We recommend this website to people looking for facts and images to use in a

project.

Sewall, Samuel. “The Diary of Samuel Sewall, 1674-1729.” ​Samuel Sewall​, vol. 5, no. 5, 1878,

pp. 358+. ​Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project​,

salem.lib.virginia.edu/home.html. Accessed 7 Dec. 2017.

Samuel Sewall was a judge during the Salem witch trials who kept a diary detailing his

experience. Sewall said, “About noon, at Salem, Giles Corey was pressíd to death for

standing Mute; much pains was used with him two days, one after another, by the Court

and Capt. Gardner of Nantucket who had been of his acquaintance: but all in vain.” This

quote puts into perspective why Sewall publicly apologized for his actions during the

trials by showing how Sewall’s feelings changed into regret. The Salem Documentary

Archive and Transcription Project contains detailed letters, court cases, maps, and more

referring to the Salem witch trials.


Unknown Writer to John Cotton. “To John Cotton DI/AAS August 5, 1692.” ​Salem Witch Trials

Documentary Archive and Transcription Project​, Benjamin Ray and the Rector and

Visitors of the U of Virginia, salem.lib.virginia.edu/home.html. Accessed 7 Dec. 2017.

Within this database is a letter written to John Cotton, a clergyman during the Salem

witch trials. In this letter, the man writing to Cotton said, “Our good God is working of

miracles. Five witches were lately executed, impudently demanding of God a miraculous

vindication of their innocency.” By reading the rest of this letter, we learn how people

felt. For example, the man is thanking God for sending witches to be killed. We use this

letter to add quotes to our site. Once again, the Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive

and Transcription Project provided necessary documents for researching and

understanding the Salem witch trials.

Words and Deed in American History​. Library of Congress, 1998,

memory.loc.gov/ammem/mcchtml/corhome.html. Accessed 6 Dec. 2017.

On this site, we found multiple documents and letters from people accused of witchcraft

in the 1690s who wrote home to their families about their innocence, guilt, and many

other topics. Each document has a small article accompanying it, explaining the image

which provided even more information. This source will be used for the short term

impact and background portions of our site. We recommend this website to students who

need primary sources on the Salem witch trials.


Zabel, Gary. “Witchcraft and the Occult, 1400-1700 Fra Francesco Maria Guazzo.” ​University

of Massachusetts Boston​, U of Massachusetts Boston, 2016,

www.faculty.umb.edu/gary_zabel/Courses/Phil%20281b/Philosophy%20of%20Magic/Ar

cana/Witchcraft%20and%20Grimoires/Guazzo.html. Accessed 30 Jan. 2018.

This website provides actual quotes from the Malleus Maleficarum, a witch hunter’s

manual from the 15th century. We needed to include what witchcraft looked like

throughout time, including the time periods before the Salem witch trials.

Secondary Sources

Baker, Emerson W. ​A Part of Proctor’s Ledge​. Jan. 2016. ​Salem State University History

Department​, w3.salemstate.edu/~ebaker/Gallows_Hill#gallowstop. Accessed 27 Jan.

2018.

During the Salem witch trials, those who were convicted of witchcraft were sentenced to

hanging on Proctor’s Ledge, a slope in Massachusetts. Nearly 250 years later, Salem

State University released this photograph of that hill today. The photo shows that people

still visit the location many centuries later. Salem State University recently presented new

details regarding the Salem witch trials on their database, which includes facts about

Proctor’s Ledge.
Brooks, Rebecca Beatrice. “Thomas Putnam: Ringleader of the Salem Witch Hunt?” ​History of

Massachusetts​, Rebecca Beatrice Brooks, 19 Nov. 2013,

historyofmassachusetts.org/thomas-putnam-ringleader-of-the-salem-witch-hunt/.

Accessed 30 Jan. 2018.

From this article, we found information about Thomas Putnam. Thomas Putnam was

involved in a rivalry with another family in Salem Village at the time of the Salem witch

trials. We learned that Thomas Putnam took part in 43 cases, while his daughter testified

in 62 cases. We needed this information because the buildup section of our project was

lacking effectiveness. We want to show that Thomas Putnam had a role in moving the

Salem witch trials forward.

Crafts, William A. ​Salem Witch Trials​. 1876. ​Encyclopædia Britannica​,

www.britannica.com/event/Salem-witch-trials. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.

Salem Witch Trials​, a lithograph created by William A. Crafts, displays what a trial

would look like if one were considered a ‘witch.’ In the image, a girl is lying on the

ground while the people around her are pointing at her. The surrounding citizens are

trying to convince the judge that the devil is within her. The image shows that the Salem

witch trials were tumultuous and uncivilized, thus we can prove that there was serious

conflict which connects our project to this year’s theme.


Holub, Joan. ​What Were the Salem Witch Trials​. Illustrated by Dede Putra, Grosset & Dunlap,

2015.

The explanation given by Joan Holub in ​What Were the Salem Witch Trials?​ puts

perspective on how dark the trials were and just how frantic people became. One prime

example of desperation that Holub wrote about was the witch cake incident of 1692. The

people of Salem Village were convinced two young girls, Betty and Abigail, were

performing witchcraft. One woman, Mary Sibley, took precautions to the extreme when

she gave the girls’ slaves a recipe for witch cake. This recipe called for rye flour and the

girls’ urine to be baked in the ashes of a fireplace. After cooking the cake, it was to be fed

to a dog in order for the witch to feel every painful bite. Joan Holub has over 60 books in

print. Although the books in this series are considered children’s books, there is still

ample information, primary paintings, and photographs.

“Massachusetts Clears 5 from Salem Witch Trials.” ​The New York Times​, The New York Times

Company, 2018,

www.nytimes.com/2001/11/02/us/massachusetts-clears-5-from-salem-witch-trials.html.

Accessed 4 Jan. 2018.

This website helped us gain information regarding why the victims of the Salem Witch

Trials were not fully exonerated until 2001. Twenty-two out of the thirty-three victims

were exonerated in 1957, which left 11 still guilty almost 250 years after the trials. The

descendants of the accused wanted justice for their ancestors and kept fighting for their

exonerations until the state of Massachusetts declared all 33 citizens innocent. We will
use this source to display how the trials affect us today. We recommend this resource to

students looking for the long term impact of the Salem Witch Trials.

Matteson, Thompkins H. ​Examination of a Witch​. 1853. ​Salem Witch Trials Documentary

Archive and Transcription Project​, salem.lib.virginia.edu/generic.html. Accessed 7 Dec.

2017.

The Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project provides not

only letters, maps, and diaries, but images as well. Thompkins H. Matteson

painted ​Examination of a Witch​ as a way to depict the harsh realities of the Salem witch

trials. In the painting, a girl is being stripped of her clothing in a courtroom to find

evidence of a witch’s mark, a symbol of the witch's presence. The image demonstrates

how the people of Salem became hysterical.

McGuire, Carolyn. Salem Witch Trials Memorial. 2016. ​The Salem Award Foundation​, Cabot

Wealth Management, 2016, salemaward.org/swtm/about-memorial/. Accessed 31 Jan.

2018.

This photograph is used to show the long term effect of the Salem witch trials, because it

shows a close-up of the memorial in Salem. In the picture, there are flowers on a stone

with ‘Sarah Wildes’ carved into it along with the date of her execution. This image

displays the impact that a single death had on history. Carolyn McGuire, the

photographer, wanted to capture the essence of those that were disturbed enough by the

trials to create a memorial.


A Pictorial History of the United States. ​Salem Witchcraft​. 1845. ​TIME​, Time,

time.com/3398176/salem-witch-trials/. Accessed 28 Jan. 2018.

TIME is a magazine dedicated to releasing news related to topics such as technology,

history, and politics. From this magazine’s online source, we were able to pull an image

that was not created until 1845, over 150 years after the Salem witch trials ended. This

will benefit our project because it shows what people still thought about the trials a

century later. In the illustration there is a woman hanging outside a window, surrounded

by people. Inside the room, two ladies sit calmly knitting; completely ignoring the

tragedy in their backyard.

Public Broadcasting Service. “Samuel Sewall.” ​Africans in America​, PBS Online, 1998,

www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p271.html. Accessed 7 Dec. 2017.

The Public Broadcasting Service, or PBS, has provided the United States with

trustworthy information for almost 50 years. PBS released a series of articles involving

Africans in America. While that may not directly tie in with the Salem witch trials,

Samuel Sewall does. In one of the articles, Sewall is featured as a judge who helped free

a slave named Adam. However, the article also mentioned the public apology he gave in

1697 regarding how he acted during the Salem witch trials.


Pyle, Howard. ​Arresting a Witch​. 1883. ​Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and

Transcription Project​, salem.lib.virginia.edu/generic.html. Accessed 14 Dec. 2017.

Howard Pyle created an eerie image of the arrest of a woman accused of being a witch. In

the painting, it clearly shows that the witch is an “old hag,” as said by the ​Salem Witch

Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project​. This database was published by

the University of Virginia in 2010, and their mission was to provide researchers and

students documents about the Salem witch trials. In addition to documents, there are

images, letters, and diaries provided on the website. The image shows both the reactions

of the so-called witch and of the accusers.

Rice, Earle, Jr. ​The Salem Witch Trials​. San Diego, CA, Lucent Books, 1997. Famous Trials

Series.

This book was our first source and gave us a foundation for our research. We learned

crucial information such as the starting point for the trials in 1648, which was much

earlier than we previously thought. Author Earle Rice Jr. has written over 30 historical

books. The Salem witch trials is part of a series that Rice helped create called ​Famous

Trials​. The series touches on famous courtroom debacles in history that include the trial

of Socrates and the Nuremberg trials. We also learned that prior to the Salem witch trials,

there was a witchcraft frenzy that prompted England and Scotland to proclaim witchcraft

a felony in 1542, as well as grant the death penalty to anyone using witchcraft to kill

someone in 1563. Information from this source helped us provide buildup to the Salem

witch trials.
Roach, Marilynne K. “Salem Witch Museum.” ​Salem Witch Museum​, 2016,

salemwitchmuseum.com/. Accessed 21 Nov. 2017.

From this source, we gathered information about the Salem witch trials that was not

included in other sources. This site promotes a museum in Salem, Massachusetts that is

dedicated to the trials. This source is credible because the author, Marilynne K. Roach,

has been researching the Salem witch trials for over four decades. She has written two

notable books on the topic. Moreover, she graduated with a BFA from Massachusetts

College of Arts. I would recommend this website to anyone who is trying to gain general

knowledge on the Salem witch trials.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton, and Ioan M. Lewis. “Witchcraft.” ​Encyclopædia Britannica​, 22 Aug.

2016, www.britannica.com/topic/witchcraft. Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.

We needed details on the background of the Salem witch trials, specifically the paranoia

that preceded the trials. In this Britannica article, we learned about the witch hunts that

occurred in Europe between the 14th and 18th centuries. This information supported the

assertion that beliefs about witchcraft transferred to America from Europe. Britannica

included this article for students and researchers seeking information regarding witchcraft

throughout time and across the world. We are confident this source is credible because

many schools, including ours, trust Britannica for reliable information on topics such as

history, science, and arts and culture.


The Salem Award Foundation. “About the Memorial.” ​The Salem Award Foundation​, Cabot

Wealth Management, 2017, salemaward.org/swtm/about-memorial/. Accessed 31 Jan.

2018.

This website shows pictures and facts about the memorial that was created by James

Cutler and Maggie Smith on August 5, 1992. On the stone memorial, victims’ protests

are written on the floor and the names of the victims are inscribed on it as well. The

website claims that this memorial “is designed to be a place of respect and reflection.”

This website is valuable to our Salem witch trials project because it shows the long term

effect by displaying the memorial that was created centuries after the event happened.

This proves that the Salem witch trials had a long term impact on history and people

today as the trials are ingrained in the minds of visitors.

​Salem Witch Trials​. U of Virginia, 2002,

salem.lib.virginia.edu/people?group.num=&mbio.num=mb22. Accessed 4 Dec. 2017.

This source is filled with the names of the victims from the Salem witch trials and

includes facts on each of them. It details the charges against each and whether or not they

plead guilty in court. Additionally, if they were sentenced, it explains their punishment.

We use this source to describe the short term impact as it shows how many innocent

citizens were convicted. We recommend this website to students looking for in-depth

information on the victims of the Salem witch trials.


​The Salem Witch Trials​. Faiza Shah, Apr. 2008, msu.edu/~shahfaiz/Salem/politics.html.

Accessed 5 Dec. 2017.

This webpage discusses the religious causes of the Salem witch trials, as well as some of

the conspiracy theories that correlate with events happening in the world today. This is

used to discuss long term impact, as these theories correlate with many real world

problems today. We also use this information for the background, because it discusses

why people became hysterical. We recommend this site to students studying the

background and impact of the Salem witch trials.

Salem Witch Trials​. 2017. ​Library of Congress​, United States Legislative Information, 2017,

www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92515055/. Accessed 13 Dec. 2017.

From this website, we used an image of a man’s court hearing. He was accused of

sorcery. In the picture, the man is “casting a spell” on the audience and judge, hoping to

manipulate them into giving him no sentence. We use this source to show that while

everyone accused did not have any actual powers, some thought they did. We

recommend this website to anyone looking for a credible source containing information

on narrow topics.

Salem Witch Trials Legal Documents Project​. C-SPan, 2017. ​C-Span​, National Cable Satellite

Corporation,

www.c-span.org/video/?429605-1/salem-witch-trials-legal-documents-project. Accessed

13 Dec. 2017.
This video is about the legal documents from the Salem Witch Trials. It contains pictures

of the actual documents, including the date and the charge. It is an interview with

Emerson Baker, in which he explains the content of each document. This document is

helpful to our short term impact. We recommend this video to people looking for detailed

information on the trials.

Salem Witch Trials 101​. C-Span, 2017. ​C-Span​, National Cable Satellite Corporation,

www.c-span.org/video/?429605-4/salem-witch-trials-101. Accessed 13 Dec. 2017.

This video is an interview with Mr. Emerson Baker, a professor who has studied the

Salem Witch Trials for over forty years and has written two books about the topic. He

explains the basics of the witch trials in Salem including how and why it happened. He

also gives details on the court cases and journal entries from citizens. We will use this

video to gain knowledge on the background of the trials. We recommend this source to

anyone looking for a basic overview of the Salem Witch Trials.

Shea, Andrea. Proctor’s Ledge Memorial. July 2017. ​The ARTery​, WBUR, 19 July 2017,

www.wbur.org/artery/2017/07/19/proctors-ledge-memorial-salem. Accessed 27 Jan.

2018.

The long term effect of the Salem witch trials, centuries later, is easily seen in this image

of the memorial that was created. Proctor’s Ledge was a hill used during the Salem witch

trials for hanging those convicted of witchcraft. Near the base of the hill is a new

memorial with the inscribed names of those who were executed.


Slatterwhite Noble, Thomas. ​Witch Hill (The Salem Martyr)​. 1869. ​Salem Witch Trials

Documentary Archive and Transcription Project​, salem.lib.virginia.edu/generic.html.

Accessed 13 Dec. 2017.

Thomas Slatterwhite Noble won the silver medal at the 1869 Cincinnati Industrial

Exposition for ​Witch Hill​, or sometimes known as ​The Salem Martyr​. This oil painting

depicts the fear and treatment of the accused during the Salem witch trials. Witch Hill

was the location where witches were sent to their deaths, which is depicted in this image.

We use this painting to show how the accused were handled.

Tilney, Stacy, and Rachel Christ. Telephone interview. 25 Jan. 2018.

We conducted an interview with Rachel Christ and Stacy Tinley during which we gained

valuable information relating to specific details of the Salem witch trials. Tinley is

the Director of Communications at the Salem Witch Museum, and she told us how laws

today may not be directly tied to the trials. However, she reminded us that it is human

nature for lawmakers to think about previous instances of disaster trials. Christ, another

expert at the Salem Witch Museum, also provided facts that will support us when we

explain the long and short-term impact of the Salem witch trials. The Salem Witch

Museum is dedicated to remembering the 20 innocent people that were killed during the

trials.
Upham, W.P. ​Map of Salem Village 1692​. 1866, Charles W. Upham’s Salem Witchcraft, With

an Account of Salem Village and a History of Opinions on Witchcraft and Kindred

Spirits, Salem, Massachusetts.

Charles Upham was the author of ​Salem Witchcraft Volumes I & II​ and decided to create

a map of 1692 Salem, Massachusetts. The map includes landmarks, sectors, and bodies of

water located in Salem village. Including a map provides setting and more context to our

information. We are confident this source is credible because the Salem Witch Trials

Documentary Archive and Transcription Project is partnered with the Scholars’ Lab of

the University of Virginia Library. The Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and

Transcription Project provides transcripts of all the court cases as well as maps and

images for students researching the Salem witch trials.

Van der Linde, Laurel. ​The Devil In Salem Village​. Laurel van der Linde, 1992.

This book was filled with facts not commonly found. The information helps us build our

background, because it has information regarding the events leading up to the trials. For

example, the slave of the minister who babysat his children would put egg whites into a

glass of water and tell the girls stories of witchcraft from her native land, kick-starting the

abnormal behavior in the kids. We recommend this book to anyone looking for

information on the background of the trials.


Walker, George H. ​Witch Trial in Salem, Massachusetts​. 1892. ​Encyclopædia Britannica​,

www.britannica.com/event/Salem-witch-trials. Accessed 24 Jan. 2018.

George H. Walker created this lithograph in order to depict what a witch trial might have

looked like in the late 1600’s. However, ​Witch Trial in Salem, Massachusetts​ was not

created until 1892, making this a secondary source. Using this in our website shows

exactly what a trial would consist of; a worried jury and wild accusations. This image

was found on Britannica, a trusted source many students and researchers use for articles

and pictures that apply to a variety of categories such as science, history, and arts and

culture.

Wallenfeldt, Jeff. “Salem Witch Trials.” ​Britannica School​, Encyclopædia Britannica, 26 Jan.

2016, school.eb.com/levels/high/article/Salem-witch-trials/65052. Accessed 26 Nov.

2017.

Using this website we were able to analyze the impact the Salem witch trials had on

today. Britannica gives details regarding the aftermath and how the trials contributed to

later change is our court systems. For example, the right to guarantee legal representation,

the right to cross-examine one’s accuser, and the presumption of innocence rather than

guilt. The author, Jeff Wallenfeldt, works for Britannica as an editor, manager, and writer

for geography and history. Britannica is an online source valued and designated credible

by historians, researchers, and students.