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Hisashi Futaki t Tomoaki Ohtsuki 3

iGraduate School of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science

$Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science

2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-85 10 Japan

Ahtract- Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a been applied to BPSK and 8PSK, and their fundamental perfor-

very attractive technique for high-hit-rate data transmission in multipath mance has been evaluated on an additive white Gaussian noise

environments. Many error-correcting codes have been applied to OFDM,

convolutional codes, Reed-Solomon codes, Turbo codes, and so on. Re- (AWGN) channel [5]. The performance of LDPC codes has

cently, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have attracted much atten- been also evaluated on a block fading channel, and it has been

tion particularly in the tield of coding theory. LDPC codes were proposed shown that the LDPC codes achieve a large gain with respect to

by Gallager in 1962 and the performance is very close to the Shannon limit

with practical decoding complexity like Turbo codes. We proposed the

convolutional codes for large packet length [6]. We proposed

LDPC coded OFDM (LDPC-COFDM) systems with BPSK and showed the LDPC coded OFDM (LDPC-COFDM) systems with BPSK

that the LDPC codes are effective to improve the hit error rate (BER) of to improve the BER of OFDM in multipath environments [ 11.

OFDM in multipath environments 111. LDPC codes can he decoded by We showed that LDPC codes are effective to improve the error

using a probability propagation algorithm known as the sum-product al-

gorithm or belief propagation. When the LDPC codes are used for the performance of OFDM in multipath environments.

OFDM systems, the properties of the iterative decoding, such as the dis- LDPC codes can be decoded by using a probability propa-

tribution of the number of iterations where the decoding algorithm stops, gation algorithm known as the sum-product algorithm or belief

have not been clarified. In mobile communications, a high bandwidth efti-

ciency is required, and thus the multilevel modulation is preferred. How- propagation [4][7]. When the LDPC codes are used for OFDM

ever, it has not been clarified how we can apply LDPC codes to the OFDM systems, the properties of the iterative decoding, such as the

systems with multilevel modulation. In this paper, tirst we investigate distribution of the number of iterations where the decoding al-

the distribution of the number of iterations where the decoding algorithm

gorithm stops, have not been clarified. In mobile communi-

stops in the LDPC-COFDM systems. Moreover, we propose the decoding

algorithm for the LDPC-COFDM systems with A{-PSK. From the simu- cations, a high bandwidth efficiency is required, and thus the

lation, we show that the LDPC-COFDM systems achieve good error rate multilevel modulation is preferred. However, it has not been

performance with a small number of iterations on both an AWGN and a clarified how we can apply LDPC codes to the OFDM systems

frequency-selective fading channels. We confirm that the algorithm for the

LDPC-COFDM systems with A{-PSK work correctly. with multilevel modulation.

In this paper, first we investigate the distribution of the num-

ber of iterations where the decoding algorithm stops in the

1. INTRODUCTION LDPC-COFDM systems. Moreover, we propose the algorithm

In the future mobile communication systems the high-bit- for the LDPC-COFDM systems with AI-PSK. From the simu-

rate transmission is required for high quality communications. lation, we show that the LDPC-COFDM systems achieve good

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), which error rate performance with a small number of iterations on

divides the wide signal bandwidth into many narrowband sub- both an AWGN and a frequency-selective channels. We con-

channels that are transmitted in parallel, is a very attractive firm that the algorithm for the LDPC-COFDM systems with

technique for the high-bit-rate data transmission in a multipath AI-PSK work correctly.

environment that causes intersymbol interference (ISI). The IS1

II. LDPC CODE

in OFDM can be eliminated by adding a guard interval. In

a multipath environment, some subcarriers of OFDM may be LDPC codes and their iterative decoding algorithm were pro-

completely lost because of the deep fades. Hence, even though posed by Gallager in 1962 [3][4]. LDPC codes have been al-

most subcarriers may be detected without errors, the overall bit most forgotten for about thirty years, in spite of their excel-

error rate (BER) will be largely dominated by a few subcarriers lent properties. However, LDPC codes are now recognized as

with small amplitudes. To avoid this domination by the weakest good error-correcting codes achieving near Shannon limit per-

subcarriers, forward-error correction coding is essential. Many formance [7].

error-correcting codes have been applied to OFDM, convolu- LDPC codes are defined as codes using a sparse parity-check

tional codes, Reed-Solomon codes, Turbo codes [2], and so on. matrix with the number of l’s per column (column weight) and

Recently, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have at- the number of l’s per row (row weight), both of which are very

tracted much attention particularly in the field of coding the- small compared to the block length. LDPC codes are classi-

ory. LDPC codes were proposed by Gallager in 1962 [3][4] and fied into two groups, regular LDPC codes and irregular LDPC

the performance is very close to the Shannon limit with practi- codes. Regular LDPC codes have a uniform column weight and

cal decoding complexity like Turbo codes. LDPC codes have row weight, and irregular LDPC codes have a nonuniform col-

1696

Bit nodemdcr /

Check nodes m propagation procedure.

MK C(3) C(3) I

For binary codes, the sum-product algorithm can be per-

formed more efficiently in Log domain, where the probabil-

ities are equivalently characterized by the log-likelihood ra-

tios (LLRs): L(T~~~,+~)6 log &, L(yrTL-~) b log &,

(4 (b) likelihood tha?the lth bit is i.

Fig 1 (a) Factor graph and (b) notation of the sum-product algorithm

Initialization

umn weight. We describe an LDPC code defined by M x N Each bit node 1 is assigned an rr r~r%)~i LLR L(pl). In the

parity-check matrix H as (N,K) LDPC, where K = N ~ M case of equiprobable inputs on a memoryless AWGN channel

and the code rate is R = K/N. In the case that the H doesn’t with BPSK,

have full rank, K > N ~ M and the error performance of

an LDPC code becomes worse. Thus, when we construct the

parity-check matrix H, we ensure that all the rows of the ma-

trix are linearly independent. LDPC codes can be decoded by

using a probability propagation algorithm known as the sum-

product or belief propagation algorithm [4][7]. LDPC codes where .x’.!/ represent the transmitted bit and received bit, re-

have better block error performance than turbo codes, because spectively, and (T’ is the noise variance. For every position

the minimum distance of an LDPC code increases proportional (rn. I) such that H,,,l = 1, where HrTLfrepresents the element

to the code length with a high probability. Such a property is of the rrlth row and the lth column in the parity-check matrix

desirable for the high-bit-rate transmission that requires very H, L(qf+712.) and L(rTn+l) are initialized as:

low frame error probability.

L(%712.) = L(n)

LDPC codes can be represented by a Factor Graph that con-

tains two types of nodes: the “bit nodes” and the “check nodes” L(rm-1 ) = 0

[9]. Fig. 1 (a) shows an example of the Factor Graph. Each bit Ll. Checks to bits

node corresponds to a column of a parity-check matrix, which Each check node rn gathers all the incoming information

also corresponds to a bit in the codeword. Each check node cor- L(%712.) ‘s, and updates the belief on the bit 1 based on the

responds to a row of a parity-check matrix, which represents a information from all other bits connected to the check node rn.

parity-check equation. An edge between a bit node and a check

node exists if and only if the bit participates in the parity-check

equation represented by the check node. L(rm-1 ) = 2 tanllcl n tanh(L(ql,+,,,)/2)

i I’EC(VL)\I 1

111. SUM-PRODUCT ALGORITHM L2. Bits to checks

First, we describe the notations of the sum-product algorithm Each bit node I propagates its probability to all the check

in Fig. 1 (b). M(Z) denotes the set of check nodes that are con- nodes that connect to it.

nected to the bit node 1, i.e., positions of “1”s in the lth column

of the parity-check matrix. C(m) denotes the set of bits that

participates in the rrlth parity-check equation, i.e., the positions

of “1”s in the rrlth row of the parity-check matrix. C(rn)\Z rep- L3. Check stop criterion

resents the set C(m) with the lth bit excluded and M(Z)\rn The decoder obtains the total u postcrioriprobability for the

represents the set M(Z) with the rrlth check excluded. I$+~~, bit I by summing the information from all the check nodes that

where i = 0. 1, denotes the probability information that the connect to the bit 1.

bit node 1 sends to the check node rn, indicating P(.Q = i).

L(Q) = L(Pl) + c L(rm-1)

r”7n+1 denotes the probability information that the rrlth check

Mom

node gathers for the lth bit being i. In other words, r&-, is the

likelihood information for .x’f = i from the rrlth parity-check Hard decision is made on the L(q), and the resulting decoded

equation, when the probabilities for other bits are designated by input vector j, is checked against the parity-check matrix H. If

the L 71L.Therefore, r&+1 can be considered as the “extrin- H% = 0, the decoder stops and outputs 2. Otherwise, it repeats

sic” information for the lth bit node from the rrlth check node. the steps L 1-L3. The sum-product algorithm sets the maximum

The u postcriori probability for a bit is calculated by gathering number of iterations (max-iteration). If the number of iterations

all the extrinsic information from the check nodes that connect becomes the maximum number of iterations, the decoder stops

to it, which can be obtained by the following iterative belief and outputs 56

1697

IV. LDPC CODED OFDM

A. Construction ofLDPC Code

A column permutated version

Fig. 2 shows the way to construct an LDPC code in this pa- II- of the 1st submatnx

per, which is depicted in [3]. A parity-check matrix is divided A column permutated version

into three submatrices, each containing a single 1 in each col- of the 1 st submatrlx

umn. The first of these submatrices contains l’s in descending

Fig 2 ConstructIon of an LDPC code

order; i.e., the ith row contains l’s in the columns (‘i ~ l)k+ 1 to

&, where k:is the row weight. The other submatrices are merely

Info.

column permutations of the first submatrix. The permutations bits

of the 2nd submatrix and the 3rd submatrix are independently

selected.

B. System Model

In a multipath environment, some subcarriers of OFDM

may be completely lost because of the deep fades. Hence, in

this case, it is expected that lots of errors fix on continuous

Fig 3 LDPC-COFDM qyqtem model

some subcarriers and the two dimensional errors in both time

and frequency domains occur. That is why we apply LDPC

codes, which can compensate for the two dimensional errors, hf-PSK with Gray mapping. For the QPSK, we initialize the

to OFDM system. first likelihood of the received signal as:

Fig. 3 shows the model of the LDPC-COFDM system. At

the transmitter, information bits are encoded at the LDPC en-

coder and modulated at the modulator. After the serial-to-

parallel conversion, the OFDM sub-channel modulation is im- For the 8PSK, we initialize the first likelihood of the received

plemented by using an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) signal as:

and assigned to some OFDM symbols for the purpose of com-

pensating two dimensional errors in the OFDM system. On LgJ. (I = 3s ~ 2)

a frequency-selective fading channel the guard interval is in- L(pf) = L(p,;.2). (I = 3s ~ 1)

serted for the purpose of eliminating the ISI. At the receiver, the

{ L(&). (I = 3s)

guard interval is removed on a frequency-selective fading chan-

nel. After the serial-to-parallel conversion, the OFDM sub- After definig the initialization like this, the decoding is done in

channel demodulation is implemented by using a fast Fourier the same procedure as for BPSK, Ll - L3.

transform (FFT). The received OFDM symbols generated by

the FFT are demodulated at the demodulator. The demodulated V. SIMULATION RESULTS

bits are decoded with each LDPC encoded block and data bits We present the results of our computer simulation. TABLE 1

are restored. shows the simulation parameters. The multipath condition used

in our simulation is an equal power 2 path Rayleigh fading.

C. Proposed Algwithm fov iWPSK The delay interval is 0.125 ILsec (5 samples). Note that we

The decoding algorithm of the proposed system is based on use a (1080,525) LDPC code with column weight 3 and set the

the sum-product algorithm. We initialize the first likelihood of maximum number of iterations to 100.

the received signal as follows. We define the first likelihood Fig. 4 shows the probability distribution of the number of

corresponding to the tth bit of the sth received symbol as: iterations at which the decoder stops for the (1080,525) LDPC

coded OFDM system on an AWGN channel. We can see that

P(yy, 1.x’l = 1)

UPt..L)

= P(yy, 1.x’l = 0)

as the &/N~~ becomes larger, the number of iterations where

the probability takes its maximum other than loo-iterations be-

comes smaller and the peak value of the probability becomes

higher. Note that when the E~,/N~~is 2.1 or 3.1 dB, the probabil-

ity doesn’t take its maximum at loo-iterations, that is, the prob-

ability takes its maximum at loo-iterations only when &/N~~

is very small and LDPC codes cannot correct errors. We can

also see that 20-iterations are enough for the LDPC-COFDM

where .x’f.yys represent the lth transmitted bit and the sth re- system on an AWGN channel. Thus, we can say that when the

ceived symbol, respectively, and JL., represents the set of Al- E~,/N~~is not so small, the LDPC-COFDM systems achieve the

PSK symbols with the tth bit being i. Note that we use the good error performance with a small number of iterations on an

1698

TABLE 1

SIMULATION PAKAM~T~KS

Amplifier Linear

Number of subcarriers 64

Number of FFT points 512

Bandwidth 40 MHz

Guard interval 0.25 psec

AWGN

Channel models

Frequency-selective fading

Maximum doppler frequency X0 Hz

Multipath condition Equal power 2 path Rayleigh fading

Delav interval 0.125 usec (5 samnlesj

0

0 20 40 hC 80 100

AWGN channel. We can also say that when the E~,/N~~ is very Number of ,tcrcit~m\

small, even if the maximum number of iterations increases, the Fig 4 Probablhty dl~tnbutlon of the number of Iteratlonq at whxh the decoder

qtopq on an AWGN channel

error rate performance of the LDPC-COFDM systems hardly

improve. Fig. 5 shows the probability distribution of the num-

ber of iterations at which the decoder stops for the (1080,525)

LDPC coded OFDM system on a frequency-selective fading

channel. Compared with the performance on an AWGN chan-

nel, we can see the similar trend: as the E~,/N~~ becomes larger,

the number of iterations where the probability takes its maxi-

mum other than loo-iterations becomes smaller and the peak

value of the probability becomes higher. We can also see that

the number of iterations where the probability takes its maxi-

mum other than loo-iterations becomes a little bit larger than

that on an AWGN channel. Thus, we can say that when the

E~l/N~~ is large, the LDPC-COFDM systems achieve the good

0 20 40 60 80 100

error rate performance with a small number of iterations on a Number uf ~tcrcitmn,

frequency-selective fading channel. Fig 5 Probablhty dl~tnbutlon of the number of Iteratlonq at whxh the decoder

qtopq on a frequency-qelectwe fading channel

Fig. 6 shows the BER of the LDPC-COFDM on an AWGN

channel for various numbers of iterations in the decoding algo-

rithm. We can see that as the number of iterations increases, the Fig. 9 shows the BER of the LDPC-COFDM with BPSK,

BER of the LDPC-COFDM is improved. We can also see that I-Q coded, QPSK, and 8PSK for the (1080,525) LDPC coded

the BER of the LDPC-COFDM converges at loo-iterations. OFDM system on an AWGN channel. In the case of the I-

This is because the errors that cannot be corrected with lOO- Q coded, two LDPC encoders I decoders are employed. The

iterations would not be corrected even if we increase the num- LDPC encoded bits from each encoder are mapped to the I-

ber of iterations more. Fig. 7 shows the BER of the LDPC- channel and the Q-channel, respectively, and transmitted as the

COFDM on a frequency-selective fading channel for various QPSK symbols. At the receiver the received bits of the de-

numbers of iterations in the decoding algorithm. Compared modulated QPSK symbols are decoded by the corresponding

with the performance on an AWGN channel, we can see the decoders, independently. Note that we set the maximum num-

similar trend: as the number of iterations increases, the BER of ber of iterations to 100. We also show the BER of Turbo coded

the LDPC-COFDM is improved. OFDM (TCOFDM) systems with BPSK on an AWGN channel.

Fig. 8 shows the average number of the iterations in the de- Note that we use a Turbo code of code rate R = l/2 with the

coding algorithm of the LDPC-COFDM systems on both an component interleaver of size NiIL1 = 512. We use the Log-

AWGN and a frequency-selective fading channels. Note that MAP algorithm as the decoding algorithm of the TCOFDM

we set the maximum number of iterations to 100. We can see systems and set the number of iterations to 8. We can see

that as the E~l/N~~ becomes larger, the average number of itera- that the BER of the LDPC-COFDM with I-Q coded is almost

tions becomes smaller: The average numbers of iterations on an identical to that of the system with BPSK and the BER of the

AWGN channel are 62 at E~,/N~~ = 1.1 dB and 5 at E~,/N~~ = 3.1 LDPC-COFDM with QPSK is better than that of the system

dB. The average numbers of iterations on a frequency-selective with BPSK at the same value of E~l/N~~. We can also see that

channel are 66 at E~l/N~~ = 3.1 dB and 7 at E~l/N~~ = 4.5 dB. the BER of the LDPC-COFDM with 8PSK is about 1.3 dB

Thus, when the E~,/N~~ is not small, the average numbers of it- worse than that of the system with BPSK. Note that the BER

erations is small on both an AWGN and a frequency-selective of the uncoded system with 8PSK is about 3 dB worse than that

fading channels. of the system with BPSK. Thus, we confirm that the algorithm

1699

1 I.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 I 2 3 4 5

E,, / .vo [dB] Eh i 1”” [dB]

Fig. 6. BER on an AWGN channel for various number of iterations Fig X Average number of iteration5 on both an AWGN and a frequency-

I 0” selective fading channel5

I I

I 0”

10~’

3 3.5 4 4.5

I” 1’

t,, i IV,, [dB] 0 05 I I5 2 25 3 3s 4

Fig. 7. BER on a frequency-selective fading channel for various number of L/l ’ 40 IdBl

iterations

Fig 9 BER of both the LDPC-COFDM with BPSK, I-Q coded, QPSK, XPSK,

for the LDPC-COFDM with IU-PSK works correctly. More- and TCOFDM with BPSK on an AWGN channel

over, we can see that when &/IVc 5 2.5 dB, the BER of the

[2] C. Berrou and A. Glavieux, “Near optimum error correcting coding and

LDPC-COFDM is worse than that of TCOFDM, while when decoding: Turbo-codes,” IEEE. “7~L7LS.

1 coIrurrLwr1., vol. 44, no. 10,

&/IVc > 2.5 dB, the BER of the LDPC-COFDM is better than pp. 1261 ~ 1271 Oct. 19%.

that of the TCOFDM. Thus, when Et,/IVc is not so small, the [3] R. G. Gallager, “Low density parity check codes,” IRE Y’~ans.

LDPC-COFDM achieves the better BER with a small number I~nfo~rn. Y’heo~y, vol. IT ~ X, pp. 21 ~ 2X, Jan. 1962.

[4] R. G. Gallager, Low Dmsity Pa,r&y CI~eck Codes, no. 21 in Re-

of iterations than the TCOFDM. search Monograph Series. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1963

[5] T. Wadayama, “A coded modulation scheme based on low density parity

VI. CONCLUSIONS check codes,” The 23rd SITA 2000, pp. 379 ~ 3X2, Oct. 2000.

[6] M. Chiani, A. Conti and A. Ventura, “Evaluation of low-density parity-

In this paper, we evaluated the performance of the LDPC- check codes over block fading channels,” IEEE. ICC’2000, ~01.3, pp.

COFDM systems. We showed that the LDPC-COFDM systems 11x3 ~ 11x7, 2000.

achieve the good error rate performance with a small number [7] D. .I. C. MacKay and R. M. Neal, “Near Shannon limit performance of

low density parity check codes,” EZect7.m. L&t., vol. 32, no. IX, pp.

of iterations on both an AWGN and a frequency-selective fad- 1645 ~ 1646, Aug. 1996.

ing channels. We also showed that when E~l/N~~ > 2.5 dB, [X] D. .I. C. MacKay, “Good error-correcting codes based on very sparse ma-

the (1080,525) LDPC-COFDM with BPSK achieves the bet- trices,” IEEE y’,rms. I~nfo~rn. ~‘hemy, vol. 45, pp. 399 ~ 43 I, Mar.

1999.

ter BER than the TCOFDM with BPSK on an AWGN chan- [o] F. R. Kschischang, B. .I. Frey and H. A. Loeliger, “Factor graphs and

nel, while when E~l/N~~ 5 2.5 dB, the LDPC-COFDM has the sum-product algorithm,” IEEE. Y’,’I om,s. 171f07.111. rl’heoTy, vo1.47,

the worse BER. We also showed that the BER of the LDPC- no. 2, pp. 49X ~ 519, Feb. 2001.

COFDM with QPSK is better than that of the system with [IO] Y. Kou, S. Lin and M. P.C. Fossorier, “Low density parity check codes:

construction based on finite geometries,” IEEE GLOBECO~f’2000,

BPSK at the same value of E~,/N~~. We confirmed that the de- ~01.2,pp. X25 ~ X29, 2000.

coding algorithm for the LDPC-COFDM systems with hf-PSK [II] D. Hoah, E. Svensson and D. Arnold, “High-rate low-density parity-

works correctly. check codes: construction and application:’ 271d I~rhmatimaZ

syrrLposi~urrL cm rl’udo Codes, pp. 447 ~ 450, 2000.

[12] J. Hou, P. H. Siegel, and L. B. Milstein, “Performance analysis and code

REFERENCES optimization of low density parity-check codes on Rayleigh fading chan-

[I] H. Futaki and T. Ohtsuki, “Low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded nels,” IEEE .JSAC, vol. 19, no.5, pp. 924 ~ 934, May. 2001.

OFDM systems,” IEEE VY’C2001 fall, vol. I, pp. X2 ~ X6, Oct. 2001.

1700

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