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Performance of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC)

Coded OFDM Systems


Hisashi Futaki t Tomoaki Ohtsuki 3
iGraduate School of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science
$Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science
2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-85 10 Japan

Ahtract- Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a been applied to BPSK and 8PSK, and their fundamental perfor-
very attractive technique for high-hit-rate data transmission in multipath mance has been evaluated on an additive white Gaussian noise
environments. Many error-correcting codes have been applied to OFDM,
convolutional codes, Reed-Solomon codes, Turbo codes, and so on. Re- (AWGN) channel [5]. The performance of LDPC codes has
cently, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have attracted much atten- been also evaluated on a block fading channel, and it has been
tion particularly in the tield of coding theory. LDPC codes were proposed shown that the LDPC codes achieve a large gain with respect to
by Gallager in 1962 and the performance is very close to the Shannon limit
with practical decoding complexity like Turbo codes. We proposed the
convolutional codes for large packet length [6]. We proposed
LDPC coded OFDM (LDPC-COFDM) systems with BPSK and showed the LDPC coded OFDM (LDPC-COFDM) systems with BPSK
that the LDPC codes are effective to improve the hit error rate (BER) of to improve the BER of OFDM in multipath environments [ 11.
OFDM in multipath environments 111. LDPC codes can he decoded by We showed that LDPC codes are effective to improve the error
using a probability propagation algorithm known as the sum-product al-
gorithm or belief propagation. When the LDPC codes are used for the performance of OFDM in multipath environments.
OFDM systems, the properties of the iterative decoding, such as the dis- LDPC codes can be decoded by using a probability propa-
tribution of the number of iterations where the decoding algorithm stops, gation algorithm known as the sum-product algorithm or belief
have not been clarified. In mobile communications, a high bandwidth efti-
ciency is required, and thus the multilevel modulation is preferred. How- propagation [4][7]. When the LDPC codes are used for OFDM
ever, it has not been clarified how we can apply LDPC codes to the OFDM systems, the properties of the iterative decoding, such as the
systems with multilevel modulation. In this paper, tirst we investigate distribution of the number of iterations where the decoding al-
the distribution of the number of iterations where the decoding algorithm
gorithm stops, have not been clarified. In mobile communi-
stops in the LDPC-COFDM systems. Moreover, we propose the decoding
algorithm for the LDPC-COFDM systems with A{-PSK. From the simu- cations, a high bandwidth efficiency is required, and thus the
lation, we show that the LDPC-COFDM systems achieve good error rate multilevel modulation is preferred. However, it has not been
performance with a small number of iterations on both an AWGN and a clarified how we can apply LDPC codes to the OFDM systems
frequency-selective fading channels. We confirm that the algorithm for the
LDPC-COFDM systems with A{-PSK work correctly. with multilevel modulation.
In this paper, first we investigate the distribution of the num-
ber of iterations where the decoding algorithm stops in the
1. INTRODUCTION LDPC-COFDM systems. Moreover, we propose the algorithm
In the future mobile communication systems the high-bit- for the LDPC-COFDM systems with AI-PSK. From the simu-
rate transmission is required for high quality communications. lation, we show that the LDPC-COFDM systems achieve good
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), which error rate performance with a small number of iterations on
divides the wide signal bandwidth into many narrowband sub- both an AWGN and a frequency-selective channels. We con-
channels that are transmitted in parallel, is a very attractive firm that the algorithm for the LDPC-COFDM systems with
technique for the high-bit-rate data transmission in a multipath AI-PSK work correctly.
environment that causes intersymbol interference (ISI). The IS1
II. LDPC CODE
in OFDM can be eliminated by adding a guard interval. In
a multipath environment, some subcarriers of OFDM may be LDPC codes and their iterative decoding algorithm were pro-
completely lost because of the deep fades. Hence, even though posed by Gallager in 1962 [3][4]. LDPC codes have been al-
most subcarriers may be detected without errors, the overall bit most forgotten for about thirty years, in spite of their excel-
error rate (BER) will be largely dominated by a few subcarriers lent properties. However, LDPC codes are now recognized as
with small amplitudes. To avoid this domination by the weakest good error-correcting codes achieving near Shannon limit per-
subcarriers, forward-error correction coding is essential. Many formance [7].
error-correcting codes have been applied to OFDM, convolu- LDPC codes are defined as codes using a sparse parity-check
tional codes, Reed-Solomon codes, Turbo codes [2], and so on. matrix with the number of l’s per column (column weight) and
Recently, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have at- the number of l’s per row (row weight), both of which are very
tracted much attention particularly in the field of coding the- small compared to the block length. LDPC codes are classi-
ory. LDPC codes were proposed by Gallager in 1962 [3][4] and fied into two groups, regular LDPC codes and irregular LDPC
the performance is very close to the Shannon limit with practi- codes. Regular LDPC codes have a uniform column weight and
cal decoding complexity like Turbo codes. LDPC codes have row weight, and irregular LDPC codes have a nonuniform col-

0-7803-7400-2/02/$17.00 © 2002 IEEE


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Bit nodemdcr /
Check nodes m propagation procedure.
MK C(3) C(3) I
For binary codes, the sum-product algorithm can be per-
formed more efficiently in Log domain, where the probabil-
ities are equivalently characterized by the log-likelihood ra-
tios (LLRs): L(T~~~,+~)6 log &, L(yrTL-~) b log &,

L(pl) fi log $, L(Q) k log $. Note that ~1;represents the


(4 (b) likelihood tha?the lth bit is i.
Fig 1 (a) Factor graph and (b) notation of the sum-product algorithm
Initialization
umn weight. We describe an LDPC code defined by M x N Each bit node 1 is assigned an rr r~r%)~i LLR L(pl). In the
parity-check matrix H as (N,K) LDPC, where K = N ~ M case of equiprobable inputs on a memoryless AWGN channel
and the code rate is R = K/N. In the case that the H doesn’t with BPSK,
have full rank, K > N ~ M and the error performance of
an LDPC code becomes worse. Thus, when we construct the
parity-check matrix H, we ensure that all the rows of the ma-
trix are linearly independent. LDPC codes can be decoded by
using a probability propagation algorithm known as the sum-
product or belief propagation algorithm [4][7]. LDPC codes where .x’.!/ represent the transmitted bit and received bit, re-
have better block error performance than turbo codes, because spectively, and (T’ is the noise variance. For every position
the minimum distance of an LDPC code increases proportional (rn. I) such that H,,,l = 1, where HrTLfrepresents the element
to the code length with a high probability. Such a property is of the rrlth row and the lth column in the parity-check matrix
desirable for the high-bit-rate transmission that requires very H, L(qf+712.) and L(rTn+l) are initialized as:
low frame error probability.
L(%712.) = L(n)
LDPC codes can be represented by a Factor Graph that con-
tains two types of nodes: the “bit nodes” and the “check nodes” L(rm-1 ) = 0
[9]. Fig. 1 (a) shows an example of the Factor Graph. Each bit Ll. Checks to bits
node corresponds to a column of a parity-check matrix, which Each check node rn gathers all the incoming information
also corresponds to a bit in the codeword. Each check node cor- L(%712.) ‘s, and updates the belief on the bit 1 based on the
responds to a row of a parity-check matrix, which represents a information from all other bits connected to the check node rn.
parity-check equation. An edge between a bit node and a check
node exists if and only if the bit participates in the parity-check
equation represented by the check node. L(rm-1 ) = 2 tanllcl n tanh(L(ql,+,,,)/2)
i I’EC(VL)\I 1
111. SUM-PRODUCT ALGORITHM L2. Bits to checks
First, we describe the notations of the sum-product algorithm Each bit node I propagates its probability to all the check
in Fig. 1 (b). M(Z) denotes the set of check nodes that are con- nodes that connect to it.
nected to the bit node 1, i.e., positions of “1”s in the lth column
of the parity-check matrix. C(m) denotes the set of bits that
participates in the rrlth parity-check equation, i.e., the positions
of “1”s in the rrlth row of the parity-check matrix. C(rn)\Z rep- L3. Check stop criterion
resents the set C(m) with the lth bit excluded and M(Z)\rn The decoder obtains the total u postcrioriprobability for the
represents the set M(Z) with the rrlth check excluded. I$+~~, bit I by summing the information from all the check nodes that
where i = 0. 1, denotes the probability information that the connect to the bit 1.
bit node 1 sends to the check node rn, indicating P(.Q = i).
L(Q) = L(Pl) + c L(rm-1)
r”7n+1 denotes the probability information that the rrlth check
Mom
node gathers for the lth bit being i. In other words, r&-, is the
likelihood information for .x’f = i from the rrlth parity-check Hard decision is made on the L(q), and the resulting decoded
equation, when the probabilities for other bits are designated by input vector j, is checked against the parity-check matrix H. If
the L 71L.Therefore, r&+1 can be considered as the “extrin- H% = 0, the decoder stops and outputs 2. Otherwise, it repeats
sic” information for the lth bit node from the rrlth check node. the steps L 1-L3. The sum-product algorithm sets the maximum
The u postcriori probability for a bit is calculated by gathering number of iterations (max-iteration). If the number of iterations
all the extrinsic information from the check nodes that connect becomes the maximum number of iterations, the decoder stops
to it, which can be obtained by the following iterative belief and outputs 56

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IV. LDPC CODED OFDM
A. Construction ofLDPC Code
A column permutated version
Fig. 2 shows the way to construct an LDPC code in this pa- II- of the 1st submatnx
per, which is depicted in [3]. A parity-check matrix is divided A column permutated version
into three submatrices, each containing a single 1 in each col- of the 1 st submatrlx
umn. The first of these submatrices contains l’s in descending
Fig 2 ConstructIon of an LDPC code
order; i.e., the ith row contains l’s in the columns (‘i ~ l)k+ 1 to
&, where k:is the row weight. The other submatrices are merely
Info.
column permutations of the first submatrix. The permutations bits
of the 2nd submatrix and the 3rd submatrix are independently
selected.

B. System Model
In a multipath environment, some subcarriers of OFDM
may be completely lost because of the deep fades. Hence, in
this case, it is expected that lots of errors fix on continuous
Fig 3 LDPC-COFDM qyqtem model
some subcarriers and the two dimensional errors in both time
and frequency domains occur. That is why we apply LDPC
codes, which can compensate for the two dimensional errors, hf-PSK with Gray mapping. For the QPSK, we initialize the
to OFDM system. first likelihood of the received signal as:
Fig. 3 shows the model of the LDPC-COFDM system. At
the transmitter, information bits are encoded at the LDPC en-
coder and modulated at the modulator. After the serial-to-
parallel conversion, the OFDM sub-channel modulation is im- For the 8PSK, we initialize the first likelihood of the received
plemented by using an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) signal as:
and assigned to some OFDM symbols for the purpose of com-
pensating two dimensional errors in the OFDM system. On LgJ. (I = 3s ~ 2)
a frequency-selective fading channel the guard interval is in- L(pf) = L(p,;.2). (I = 3s ~ 1)
serted for the purpose of eliminating the ISI. At the receiver, the
{ L(&). (I = 3s)
guard interval is removed on a frequency-selective fading chan-
nel. After the serial-to-parallel conversion, the OFDM sub- After definig the initialization like this, the decoding is done in
channel demodulation is implemented by using a fast Fourier the same procedure as for BPSK, Ll - L3.
transform (FFT). The received OFDM symbols generated by
the FFT are demodulated at the demodulator. The demodulated V. SIMULATION RESULTS

bits are decoded with each LDPC encoded block and data bits We present the results of our computer simulation. TABLE 1
are restored. shows the simulation parameters. The multipath condition used
in our simulation is an equal power 2 path Rayleigh fading.
C. Proposed Algwithm fov iWPSK The delay interval is 0.125 ILsec (5 samples). Note that we
The decoding algorithm of the proposed system is based on use a (1080,525) LDPC code with column weight 3 and set the
the sum-product algorithm. We initialize the first likelihood of maximum number of iterations to 100.
the received signal as follows. We define the first likelihood Fig. 4 shows the probability distribution of the number of
corresponding to the tth bit of the sth received symbol as: iterations at which the decoder stops for the (1080,525) LDPC
coded OFDM system on an AWGN channel. We can see that
P(yy, 1.x’l = 1)
UPt..L)
= P(yy, 1.x’l = 0)
as the &/N~~ becomes larger, the number of iterations where
the probability takes its maximum other than loo-iterations be-
comes smaller and the peak value of the probability becomes
higher. Note that when the E~,/N~~is 2.1 or 3.1 dB, the probabil-
ity doesn’t take its maximum at loo-iterations, that is, the prob-
ability takes its maximum at loo-iterations only when &/N~~
is very small and LDPC codes cannot correct errors. We can
also see that 20-iterations are enough for the LDPC-COFDM
where .x’f.yys represent the lth transmitted bit and the sth re- system on an AWGN channel. Thus, we can say that when the
ceived symbol, respectively, and JL., represents the set of Al- E~,/N~~is not so small, the LDPC-COFDM systems achieve the
PSK symbols with the tth bit being i. Note that we use the good error performance with a small number of iterations on an

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TABLE 1
SIMULATION PAKAM~T~KS

Modulation BPSK, QPSK, XPSK


Amplifier Linear
Number of subcarriers 64
Number of FFT points 512
Bandwidth 40 MHz
Guard interval 0.25 psec
AWGN
Channel models
Frequency-selective fading
Maximum doppler frequency X0 Hz
Multipath condition Equal power 2 path Rayleigh fading
Delav interval 0.125 usec (5 samnlesj
0
0 20 40 hC 80 100

AWGN channel. We can also say that when the E~,/N~~ is very Number of ,tcrcit~m\

small, even if the maximum number of iterations increases, the Fig 4 Probablhty dl~tnbutlon of the number of Iteratlonq at whxh the decoder
qtopq on an AWGN channel
error rate performance of the LDPC-COFDM systems hardly
improve. Fig. 5 shows the probability distribution of the num-
ber of iterations at which the decoder stops for the (1080,525)
LDPC coded OFDM system on a frequency-selective fading
channel. Compared with the performance on an AWGN chan-
nel, we can see the similar trend: as the E~,/N~~ becomes larger,
the number of iterations where the probability takes its maxi-
mum other than loo-iterations becomes smaller and the peak
value of the probability becomes higher. We can also see that
the number of iterations where the probability takes its maxi-
mum other than loo-iterations becomes a little bit larger than
that on an AWGN channel. Thus, we can say that when the
E~l/N~~ is large, the LDPC-COFDM systems achieve the good
0 20 40 60 80 100
error rate performance with a small number of iterations on a Number uf ~tcrcitmn,
frequency-selective fading channel. Fig 5 Probablhty dl~tnbutlon of the number of Iteratlonq at whxh the decoder
qtopq on a frequency-qelectwe fading channel
Fig. 6 shows the BER of the LDPC-COFDM on an AWGN
channel for various numbers of iterations in the decoding algo-
rithm. We can see that as the number of iterations increases, the Fig. 9 shows the BER of the LDPC-COFDM with BPSK,
BER of the LDPC-COFDM is improved. We can also see that I-Q coded, QPSK, and 8PSK for the (1080,525) LDPC coded
the BER of the LDPC-COFDM converges at loo-iterations. OFDM system on an AWGN channel. In the case of the I-
This is because the errors that cannot be corrected with lOO- Q coded, two LDPC encoders I decoders are employed. The
iterations would not be corrected even if we increase the num- LDPC encoded bits from each encoder are mapped to the I-
ber of iterations more. Fig. 7 shows the BER of the LDPC- channel and the Q-channel, respectively, and transmitted as the
COFDM on a frequency-selective fading channel for various QPSK symbols. At the receiver the received bits of the de-
numbers of iterations in the decoding algorithm. Compared modulated QPSK symbols are decoded by the corresponding
with the performance on an AWGN channel, we can see the decoders, independently. Note that we set the maximum num-
similar trend: as the number of iterations increases, the BER of ber of iterations to 100. We also show the BER of Turbo coded
the LDPC-COFDM is improved. OFDM (TCOFDM) systems with BPSK on an AWGN channel.
Fig. 8 shows the average number of the iterations in the de- Note that we use a Turbo code of code rate R = l/2 with the
coding algorithm of the LDPC-COFDM systems on both an component interleaver of size NiIL1 = 512. We use the Log-
AWGN and a frequency-selective fading channels. Note that MAP algorithm as the decoding algorithm of the TCOFDM
we set the maximum number of iterations to 100. We can see systems and set the number of iterations to 8. We can see
that as the E~l/N~~ becomes larger, the average number of itera- that the BER of the LDPC-COFDM with I-Q coded is almost
tions becomes smaller: The average numbers of iterations on an identical to that of the system with BPSK and the BER of the
AWGN channel are 62 at E~,/N~~ = 1.1 dB and 5 at E~,/N~~ = 3.1 LDPC-COFDM with QPSK is better than that of the system
dB. The average numbers of iterations on a frequency-selective with BPSK at the same value of E~l/N~~. We can also see that
channel are 66 at E~l/N~~ = 3.1 dB and 7 at E~l/N~~ = 4.5 dB. the BER of the LDPC-COFDM with 8PSK is about 1.3 dB
Thus, when the E~,/N~~ is not small, the average numbers of it- worse than that of the system with BPSK. Note that the BER
erations is small on both an AWGN and a frequency-selective of the uncoded system with 8PSK is about 3 dB worse than that
fading channels. of the system with BPSK. Thus, we confirm that the algorithm

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1 I.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 I 2 3 4 5
E,, / .vo [dB] Eh i 1”” [dB]

Fig. 6. BER on an AWGN channel for various number of iterations Fig X Average number of iteration5 on both an AWGN and a frequency-
I 0” selective fading channel5
I I
I 0”

10~’
3 3.5 4 4.5
I” 1’
t,, i IV,, [dB] 0 05 I I5 2 25 3 3s 4

Fig. 7. BER on a frequency-selective fading channel for various number of L/l ’ 40 IdBl
iterations
Fig 9 BER of both the LDPC-COFDM with BPSK, I-Q coded, QPSK, XPSK,
for the LDPC-COFDM with IU-PSK works correctly. More- and TCOFDM with BPSK on an AWGN channel
over, we can see that when &/IVc 5 2.5 dB, the BER of the
[2] C. Berrou and A. Glavieux, “Near optimum error correcting coding and
LDPC-COFDM is worse than that of TCOFDM, while when decoding: Turbo-codes,” IEEE. “7~L7LS.
1 coIrurrLwr1., vol. 44, no. 10,
&/IVc > 2.5 dB, the BER of the LDPC-COFDM is better than pp. 1261 ~ 1271 Oct. 19%.
that of the TCOFDM. Thus, when Et,/IVc is not so small, the [3] R. G. Gallager, “Low density parity check codes,” IRE Y’~ans.
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VI. CONCLUSIONS check codes,” The 23rd SITA 2000, pp. 379 ~ 3X2, Oct. 2000.
[6] M. Chiani, A. Conti and A. Ventura, “Evaluation of low-density parity-
In this paper, we evaluated the performance of the LDPC- check codes over block fading channels,” IEEE. ICC’2000, ~01.3, pp.
COFDM systems. We showed that the LDPC-COFDM systems 11x3 ~ 11x7, 2000.
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low density parity check codes,” EZect7.m. L&t., vol. 32, no. IX, pp.
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the (1080,525) LDPC-COFDM with BPSK achieves the bet- trices,” IEEE y’,rms. I~nfo~rn. ~‘hemy, vol. 45, pp. 399 ~ 43 I, Mar.
1999.
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