IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION, VOL. IECI-16, NO.

2, SEPTEMBER 1969

III

A

Dynamic Analysis of Magnetic Stepping Motors
D. J. ROBINSON AND C. K. TAFT,
MEMBER, IEEE

Abstract-A mathematical model of the permanent magnet stepping motor is developed and experimentally verified. Linearized equations which allow the motor to be expressed in terms of a damping ratio and natural frequency are developed for a single step response. Multistep motor operation, when driven by a current source, is analyzed using phase plane techniques. Failure of a stepping motor to follow a fixed stepping rate command is analyzed. Dimensionless curves showing maximum stepping rate as a function of motor parameters and applied load torque are derived and experimentally verified.
INTRODUCTION

N RECENT years the use of digital control has found increased application in the field of automatic control systems. One inherent problem in applying digital control is in selecting suitable digital actuators. One promising actuator is the magnetic stepping motor. The magnetic stepping motor is an incremental device that accepts discrete input pulses and responds to these pulses by rotating its output shaft in equal angular increments, one increment for each input pulse. MVagnetic stepping motors fall into two categories: variable reluctance motors and permanent magnet motors. The variable reluctance stepping motor consists of three or more stator phases and a rotor of soft magnetic iron. The stator phases are wound on salient poles forming electromagnetic structures. When a stator winding is energized, the rotor will seek a path of minimum magnetic reluctance between the stator salient poles and the rotor. The permanent magnet stepping motor consists of a stator containing phases wound on salient poles and a permanent magnet rotor. When a stator winding is energized, a magnetic flux pattern is set up which interacts with the permanent magnet rotor. The rotor will move in a manner such that the magnetic moment of the permanent magnet will align with the field set up by the stator winding current. Bailey [1], O'Donouhue [2], and Kieburtz [3] have analyzed magnetic stepping motors. In each case the stepping motor was approximated by a linear secondorder model. The model describes the response for small disturbances, but it only approximately describes the dynamics of the stepping motor for single step inputs and is unsuitable for multiple step inputs. In this paper the magnetic stepping motor is first examined on a single step basis, and linearized equations of motion are developed to characterize the motor in terms of a maximum developed torque, damping
Manuscript received July 18, 1968. D. J. Robinson is with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. C. K. Taft is at the University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H.

ratio, and natural frequency. An analysis of multistep operation is then presented using the characteristic parameters from the single step analysis. A constant current source is assumed. The analysis uses phase plane techniques to show conditions when the motor will fail to folloxv a set of input commands. The results are then generalized to give a plot of maximum stepping rate as a function of normalized damping ratio and applied load torque. The analysis in this paper is based on the permanent magnet stepping motor, although the variable reluctance stepping motor can be analyzed in a similar manner.
THE PERMANENT MXIAGNET STEPPING MOTOR The permanent magnet (PM) stepping motor consists of a stator containing two or more phases wound on salient poles, and a permanent magnet rotor. When a stator winding is energized, a magnetic flux is formed which interacts with the permanent magnet rotor. The rotor will move in a manner such that the magnetic moment of the permanent magnet rotor will align with the field set up by the stator winding currents. There are several different PA\ stepping motor configurations available commercially. The most common types are derived from two- or four-phase ac synchronous motor structures [4]- [7]. Fig. 1 shows a layout of a simplified synchronous inductor motor. The stator has a two-phase, foursalient-pole winding configuration. The rotor contains a cylindrical permanent magnet which is magnetized axially. The rotor is divided into two sections, as shown in Fig. l(b), forming north and south magnetic poles. Each section has five teeth. The two rotor sections are offset by one-half of a rotor tooth minimizing the air gap making a more efficient magnetic structure. For this motor the rotor tooth pitch angle is 720 while the salient poles are located every 90°. One step corresponds to one-quarter of the rotor tooth pitch or a rotor movement of 18°. Fig. 1(c) shows an expanded layout of the rotor and stator. Torque is produced on the rotor of the PM stepping motor as the result of an interaction between the flux created by the stator windings and the permanent magnet rotor. To obtain maximum torque while stepping, both phases are energized and stepping is accomplished by reversing the direction of current in one of the phases. For a two-phase four-salient-pole motor, the stator current direction can form four possible pole combinations. Fig. 2 shows the developed torque as a function of rotor position for these cases. (The curves of Fig. 2

Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. Downloaded on July 05,2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

rotor: oped that will tend to drive the rotor back to the point 0 = NRTO(1) of stable equilibrium. 2(b) shows tlhe developed torque against rotor (3) TD = Tma sin (0 -0) = . 2(c) shows that TD = Tmax sin (90° . The developed torque can be expressed by: If the rotor is moved to a point of unstable equilibrium. Downloaded on July 05. the rotor (6) TD = TInaX sin (2700 . 2(d) shows (5) TD = Tmax sin (1800 -0) = + Tmax sin 0. Unstable points of equilibrium are found midway between the points of stable equilibrium. (c) Expanded rotor-stator layout.0) = . 1.18° 1 L 1t _ _j. Points of stable equilibrium 90°. If the rotor is moved taken during each step by the number of teeth on the about a point of stable equilibrium. Restrictions apply.112 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION.Trnax Cos 0. equilibrium points will be shifted by one-quarter rotor Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. position with the field excited so that P1B and P2A are the resultant curves of Fig..Tmax sin 0. has shifted the developed torque against rotor position Step 2: PIB and P2B north magnetic poles one-quarter rotor tooth pitch when P1B and P2B are the developed torque north poles. (c) assume a sinusoidal torque variation. . If the rotor is moved about the unstable equilibrium point.) The developed torque for each step command can be Fig.0) = + Ti1ax cos 0. is experimentally verified later in this paper.---North magnetic section of rotor .-. the resultant developed torque oped torque will drive the rotor to a point of stable curves for each successive step can be expressed as: equilibrium. Reference position: PlA and P2A north magnetic poles Fig. 2 (a) north poles. 2. (a) Cross section. Fig. suclh that when the the stator when the stator windings are excited so that rotor moves one-quarter of a tooth pitch. it will theoretically stay at that position. (2) TD = Tinax sin 0. The angle 0 is related to the angle of rotation are found every rotor tooth pitch. If the motor is stepped by sequentially repeating the Step 3: P1A and P2B north magnetic poles stator current magnetic pole combinations. a torque is devel. the devel. Fig. against rotor position when P2B and PIA are north poles. (b) Axial view.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Comparing Step 1: PlB and P2A north magnetic poles and (b) shows that the equilibrium points have shifted (4) by one-quarter rotor tooth pitch. Simplified synchronous inductor motor. This assumption tooth pitch eaclh time the current is reversed in one stator winding. SEPTEMBER 1969 South magnetic disk North magnetic disk Salient poles1 (a) Stator pitch I (b) 3600 P2A PIB SJ P2 B - PIA I¶ Jf South magnetic section of rotor - _7 1 Step . 2(a) shows a plot of developed torque as a function of rotor position as the rotor is moved relative to generalized by defining an angle 0. 0 varies by 4 P1A and PIB are north poles.Referring to Fig. .72°9 Rotor tooth pitch Fig.

do(t) dt do(t) d sin 0(t) 0(1).2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. a. (7) Two synchronous inductor motors were used to experimentally verify the analytical model of the developed torque.1 Step number 2 Salient poles P1I and P21 are north magnetic poles. (1 1) (12) The induced voltage (E. F. oj .3r25- 5 a.8 . P. 3. Salient poles P1B and P2A are south magnetic poles. Salient poles P1A and P2B are south magnetic poles. 4.4A Stable equilibrium P2A PIB J P2B PlA L i~~~~~~~~~~~~~tator * Unstable equilibrium points points 1.F0 . 4.4 . (10) Ril(t) ++ EL Ri2(t) + L dii(t) dt dis(t) (8) The differential equations for the stator voltage in each = t dt + Ev.6 . 25 15 30 Experimental torque 20 10 developed TD =Tmax sin Motor B . 2. (e) Step number 4 Salient poles P1A and P2A are north magnetic poles. The voltage supplied to the windings is given by eo(t) e2(t) = using Maxwell's equations the induced voltage given by can be E. (9) el(t) e2(t) = Ril(t) + Ri2(t) + L di1(t) dl di2(t) + K. winding are = KV dO(t) N\TRT di sin 0(t). 3 shows a plot of developed torque as a function of rotor position for each motor. 8 80 90 (d) li Step number 3 Salient poles P2B and PIA are north magnetic poles.B and P2B are South Reference point "A" . Assuming the stator flux density distribution to be sinusoidal and SINGLE STEP LINEARIZED MIODEL OF THE PM STEPPING MJOTOR A schematic representation of the PM stepping motor stator winding is shown in Fig. Arrows indicate direction of developed torque about equilibrium points Fig.Tirsax sin (360° 0) = Tmrx sin 0._ Rotor shown in Rotor reference position RetEference position Salient poles P1A and P2A are north magnetic poles. Salient poles P1 and P2B are south magnelic poles.vlq-Y. Torque as a function of rotor position for two synchronous inductor motors. Fig. relative to the stator magnetic poles.) generated in the stator windings is due to the permanent magnet rotor moving = L + K0 dt cos dt Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. - T il(t} t X~~~el t- Fig. (b) Step number I Salient poles P1B and P2A are north magnetic poles.ROBINSON AND TAFT: ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC STEPPING MOTORS Salient pole Salient pole 113 Salient pole Salient pole 1. 05- (c) 0 0 20 40 60 Degree. Salient poles PIA and P2A are south magnetic poles. Restrictions apply. . RJ Step 4: P1A and P2A north magnetic poles TD.-i 2 (a) ax magnetic ples. Fig. Schematic representation of a PM stepping motor for a single step. Downloaded on July 05. Resultant torque as a function of rotor position for a four-step sequence.

SAO(S) S NRT R+LS (22) Combining (20). K2 c_ofJO[ZE2(S) + E20] AO (S) = R +LSL- si KY s_ [AE. can be expressed in terms of the magnetic flux density B produced in the stator and the magnetic moment Ml of the rotor [8]: (13) TD = B2M cos 0(t) .KTI1o sin 0.114 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION.AO(t) + = \A RT dt2 A RT dt Ael(t) Ae2(t) = d d KA ~~sin RAi1(t) ± L . (S) + ER±+LSL- si -LLS _ TL (S) (23) N P.A0(t). SEPTEMBER 1969 The torque developed by the stepping motor with both passes energized. The mechanical load includes: 1) The inertial torque-this torque includes the inertia of the motor and the inertia of any load imposed on the stepping motor shaft: Consider the transfer function of the PM stepping motor about an operating point when the motor is in equilibrium at the end of a step with both phases energized. The miagnetic moment of the rotor is a function of the geometry of the rotor and the strength of the permanent mnagnet in the rotor. Restrictions apply.Ai1(t) (17) D d J d2 ~~. and (19) become 2) The viscous damping torque-this torque includes KT cos 0o I2(S) .KT110 sin 00 = TL. The constraining equation is (16) KTI20 COS 00 . neglecting friction are . Thus the developed torque can be expressed by (14) TD = KTi2(t) cos 0(t) .T JS2 AT DS KTK7 T ATR+ NRT[R + LS [COS2 00 S N0RT IAR R 0(f) - sin2 00}S + KTI1o sin 00 + KTI20 COS 0o TD(t) - K i2(t) cos KTil(l) d0(t) dl sin 0(t) J d 20(t) dt2 D XRT Tf~ ANRT dt(t) dl d0(t)/dt Il (15) Using these assumptions.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore.K COS 0..K.zAil(t) + NRT 0o .KT sin 0d Xl (S) -A TL(S) the motor damping and any viscous damping on the motor shaft: (20) JS2 DS +KTI10O sin 00+ KTI 20 cos 0o NRT NRTJI D do(t) = K.KTil(t) sin 0(t). (14) becomes cos 0o sin 0o 0 = =Iio-I and that the initial load torque TLO is Equation (23) can be simplified by considering I20 zero. (25) Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. . the developed torque produced by the motor will have to overcome the mechanical load placed on the rotor. sin 0. The magnetic flux density is proportional to the number of stator turns and the current i(t) in the stator windings.Ai2(t) + AT COS 0o . (18). This operating point is chosen because the motor parameters can be easily obtained experimentally.AO(t) ± ATL(t) ___ . and (22) gives the resultant linearized equation for both phases energized about an Equating the mechanical torques to the stepping operating point at the end of a step: motors developed torque. d dt 3) Torque due to coulomb friction: Tf dc(t)/dt AE2(S) + - K.20(S) A12(S) AE1(S)+ AI1(S) (21) R+LS do(t)/dt TL(t) . In responding to a step command.O The linearized equations about the operating point.Ai2(t) . (19) dt dt NTRT d42(t) dt2 The Laplace transformation of (17).(t) + KT cos 0. 4) External load torque applied to the motor shaft: ElO . At the operating point the initial conditions of velocity and acceleration are considered to be zero.B1M sin 0(t).KTI20 cos O0z. (24) or = 450.z0(t) . Downloaded on July 05.KT sin 0.AO(t) (18) dt dt ~ d RAi2(t) + L . (21).

. and the damping ratio of (29) is The transient response of the stator current has a D significant effect on the stepping motor response as the ~~~(31) stepping rate is increased.77KT FE] AE.707KT AO(S) = R zAE2(S) + E20] si R±+LSLJS2 AT RT -I 0. and mechanical stiff. Downloaded on July 05. Even if the back EM\IF in2vV\.21. The measured damping ratio was 0. it displayed on an oscilloscope. ratio was determined to be 0. these parameters can easily be sured natural frequency was 420 rad/s and the damping determined experimentally. both stator ATL(S)NRT -J windings were energized. the response of the PMA The natural frequency obtained from (29) is stepping motor for a given load torque is governed by: 1) the rate of the input pulses. the current turn-on transient affects the maxilinearized model of the PM stepping motor can also be mum torque developed by the motor. The reduce to amount of load torque which the motor can step against is also reduced. The natural frequency and damping ratio of two equal to zero. Restrictions apply. For this motor the measured natural frequency 1 . The rotor was moved from the AS(S) = D equilibrium point and released. approaches the L/R time constant on the stator.ATL(S) was 860 rad/s. WVN= (30) 2) the current transients in the stator windings.as the lower trace in Fig. MULTISTEP OPERATION OF THE PM STEPPING MOTOR f For multistep operation. as was shown in The natural frequency and the damping ratio of the Fig.ROBINSON AND TAFT: ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC STEPPING MOTORS 115 Thus (23) can be written 0. the transfer function reduces to stepping motors were experimentally determined about 1 an equilibrium point. A potentiomJ J eter was used as a position transducer. evaluated by considering a small change in AO from the If the time between the application of step commands equilibrium point. and the and no applied load torque. 5(a)./ 2 JNR TKTI duced in the stator is not significant. 5(a) is a plot of the phase 1 rotor angle q5. 5(a). particular stepping motor: Fig. First. the Consider the linearized equations about the point of current will not reach its expected value. the output being The result is important for two reasons. 5(b) shows the resulting position response for motor B. damping ratio. The stator current oscillations are ap0 = NRTO. is shown natural frequency. [s + AG(0) In general.(S) + -I R +-LsLS + v/2 KTI - A~TL(S) (26) + DS N\TRT For load torque disturbances about the operating quency and damping ratio of the linearized model about point at the end of the step and the initial load torque the stable equilibrium point. stepping motor drive circuits are designed A O(S) (32) to compensate for stator current transients. From the trace the meaness constant. Second. The drive D V\2 KTINRT SI + -S + circuit tends to act as a current source by controlling the stator current independent of the inductance or S2+ D S+ J OF -] AO+(S) = N7TRTV2 KTI (29) ANALYSIS Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology.125. simulating a small -KTINRT S2 +-S + V\/2 change in AO from the equilibrium point. 3) the mechanical parameters of the rotor. Thus. (28) proximately 3 percent of the total dc value. Recalling that stator current. Equation (27) can also be expressed in terms of the The upper trace of Fig. The maximum stable equilibrium with the stator current held constant torque developed by the motor is reduced. .2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. To perform the test. The linearized equations natural frequency of the stepping motor is reduced. any effect of the position disturbance on the stator current (27) can be written in terms of the rotor angle for a can be neglected. allows the stepping motor to be described in terms of a The resulting position response for motor A.

(33) Normalizing the friction and load torque. |(42) Time can be made implicit in (42) by substituting -= dV dr (43) Rewriting (42). \IA o 0.(0(t) + 45°] AN/2 KTI or (36) can then be written (3 7) (38) (39) (40) (41) TT. D = W.450)] TL (34) + KTI sin [900 . Defining a normalized damping ratio. step 4 > dt pOsiti~on.(O(t) . The stator currents r = WNt. 75°/div number 2- Stator \ winding . The differential equation of rotor motion can then D be reduced to a second-order nonlinear differential 2 WNJ equation. . Schematic representation of rotor command positions. will be assumed to have magnitudes equal to +I or -I Also during each step.\ number 11 Rotor initial Lower trace Rotor command Sweep = 20 m s /div (a) Rotor command position. At the instant the next step command is applied the position and velocity of the rotor form initial conditions for the new equation of rotor motion. Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology.. the developed torque with current _ D magnitude stator currents is given by = 2v. Each step command requires that the rotor advance 90 electrical degrees. The developed torque generated by the motor to accomplish this step is given by TL = V2K~ TD = KTI sin [90°. Multistep operation. Fig. (a) Traces for motor A. /2 KTI sin [. SEPTEMBER 1969 Stator winding / Upper trace Stator current response I = 100 m A /div Position response o = 0. Equating (35) to the mechanical load. can be Equation a For the multistep analysis discussed it will be as./ IdO(t). Each step command calls for the rotor equilibrium position to shift by 900.\ Sweep 5 .±d D + dr dr2 dO dr _ dO/dr IdO/d. 6. Position and current variation with position disturbance about an equilibrium point. (b) Traces for motor B. (35) Equation (35) can be extended to include multistep operation. d20 .450] + KTI sin [9(t) + 450]. 5. By rewriting (14). Downloaded on July 05. TD = \/2 KTIcos O(t).2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore.m s/div Fig./dtI dO(t)/dt (36) time to compensate a stepping motor is presented by + TL (t) Zeller [9]. (b) Fig.vJ TD = KTI sin [f(t) . Restrictions apply. 6 shows a schematic representation of the rotor command positions during multistep operation.0(t)] J = ART d2f(t)+d±(t) D dt NRT di dS(t). 75'/div Position response -Stato r winding number 2 winding nomber 1-'\ Stator . dV VdO + TL.116 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION.parameter (36)terms ofsimplified by defining new in the natural frequency: sumed that a drive circuit is used which approximates a current source for stepping motors.dO sin [&c-0] =.

=360' These figures show a set of five sequential steps.92. the phase trajectory is devel. called isoclines. Restrictions apply. consider the previous step sequence clines. 7(b) from point A to point B. Tf and Step 5': T=3. The trajectory for the response to this command is shown in Fig. and stepping rate.AT = 1. The relationship for time is for Step 5 is applied. The trajectory for the response to this command trajectory is then drawn from the initial conditions is shown in Fig.31. .=2700 quential step commands for t\vo diff erent stepping rates. At point B the computed sin [06-6].0 = V. O = 1800 ability of the PMI stepping motor to follow a set of seStep 3': r=1. 7(a). At point C tions. 0.V-Tf -TL dV time is equal to 2. 0. 8(a) from malized stepping period of Ar = 1.24 and the command tally along the trajectory. consider a norThe response to Step 1' is shown in Fig. Time is computed incremen. Step 1':r=0.+ DV + Tf dV dO . 0. the response for the 4500 position command can be shown on Fig. The trasolution for all positive time. TL are assumed zero and D is given as 0. As a result. The slopes of equals 1. V(0) =0 and 0(0) to point A'.= 180° Step 3: T = 2.68. Step 1: T = 0. 7(c) from point B to point C.31 to Ar = 0. = 2700 Step 4: T=3. = 90° Step 2: T= 1. the at 0(0) = 0 and V(0) = 0. Thus.92 and _ _ the step commands are applied at the following ilormnalized times. The phase of 3600. Step 5 calls for a position command given by of 4500. At point using that set of isoclines. Step 4': T=2. 7(d) from point C to point D. but once the rotor falls behind by more than equals the stepping period becomes the initial condition 180°. The step commands are applied plication of the succeeding step command. 7(a) from point D to point E. the rotor tends to lag behind the The total time is the summation of the increments of command position until sufficient velocity is built up time along the trajectory. Using this method.=450°. V(0) to point A.25.76. O. Step 4 calls for a position command corresponds to the given step command. Downloaded on July 05.62 and the command for Step 3 is applied. This procedure can be continued for plotting the For a segment along the trajectory.92. This method at the following times.93 and the command oped by selecting one of the four sets of isoclines which for Step 4 is applied.31 and the command for Step 2 is applied.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. is continued for the given stepping sequence.= 4500. For the sequential step commands. The trajectory through this point gives the Step 1 calls for a position command of 90'. O.31. r=0. Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology.D the computed time is equal to 5. The rotor is assumed initially in equilibrium the method of isoclines [10]. (46) mand. 0. the motor cannot reach the correct command for the next step command.shown in Fig. On] Increasing the stepping rate decreases the amount of -l[O-lnl time in which the motor can respond to the step com+ 1/2[VUn+± V. set of initial condi. rotor can dynamically lag behind the command position the next step command in the sequence is applied.84.24. The trajectory for this step position. At point A. do V The trajectory for the response to this command is For a given stepping sequence. O. Step 3 calls for a position command of 270°. command is plotted using its corresponding set of isoAs an illustration. the trajectories is given by Step 2 calls for a position command of 1800.62.=360o Step 5: T=5. The phase plane solution is a plot of normalized velocity V against position 0.31. the normalized time trajectory slope (dV/dO). 7 and 8 show the effect of stepping rate on the Step 2': r =0.93. The initial conditions of velocity V(0) and position 0(0) locate a point in the phase plane. Time is computed again along the trajectory and with the normalized stepping period reduced from compared to the stepping period to determine the ap. Using Ar = 1. Thus by as much as 180° (two steps) and still follow the comthe point on the trajectory at which the computed time mand. jectory for the response to this command is shown in The phase trajectories can be constructed by using Fig. O =90° Figs.V - [TL L (44) The second order nonlinear differential equation obtained in (44) can be analyzed using phase plane techniques. At point A'. When the computed time to allow the rotor to reach the command position. This equation gives the same result as for the slope of the trajectory in response to the 900 step comr=f _-do.j mand. (46) can be approxitrajectory in response to any additional step commands mated by desired.ROBINSON AND TAFT: ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC STEPPING MOTORS 117 sin [0 . The trajectory is drawn from phase portrait is constructed from plots of constant 0(0). The equals the stepping period for the given command step.the computed time is equal to 3. G.

Multistep sequence for Ar = 1.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. SEPTEMBER 1969 (a) Phase plane portrait for response to step command 1 and step command 5.31.118 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION. Restrictions apply. 7. (b) Phase plane portrait for response to step command 2. Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. . Fig. Downloaded on July 05.

Restrictions apply. Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology.ROBINSON AND TAFT: ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC STEPPING MOTORS 119 (c) Phase plane portrait for response to step command 3. . Downloaded on July 05. (d) Phase plane portrait for response to step command 4. Fig. 7 (Cont'd).2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore.

Fig. Multistep sequence for Ar=0. Restrictions apply. (b) Phase plane portrait for response to step command 2'. . Downloaded on July 05.120 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION. 8. SEPTEMBER 1969 (a) Phase plane portrait for response to step command 1' and step command 5'. Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology.92.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore.

Downloaded on July 05. Restrictions apply.ROBINSON AND TAFT: ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC STEPPING MOTORS 121 (c) Phase plane portrait for response to step command 3'.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. 8 (Cont'd). Fig. (d) Phase plane portrait for response to step command 4'. Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. .

9(b) shows the developed motor torque for a normalized load torque of 0.84 and the step command for 2700 is applied. Fig. between points B' and C'. the rotor will fail to execute the step command if the stepping motor trajectory crosses the position axis before the desired command position is reached. Assume that the equilibrium position with no load torque before the step command is given is 00. (b) TL = 0. The rotor is more than 1800 behind the command position during the entire step. In general. r = 3. the motor cannot reach the desired command position of 4500. Clearly. If no further steps are applied the rotor will come to rest at 0 = 900 or four steps behind the desired command position. This can be accomplished by feedback but introduces more complications [1 ]. Restrictions apply.707. At point D'. TD i Ll:.76 and the 3600 step command is applied.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Fig. 8(a) shows the response to the 4500 step command points D' and E'. the motor will continue to lose steps.4. the Effect of Applied Load Torque on MVotor Performance equilibrium position has shifted 23. Thus. The steps that it loses are applied after the step commands have been completed. Motor cannot step. This forms the initial conditions for the next step.6°. This can only occur if the position of the rotor lags the step command by more than 1800. (C) TL=0. This is due to the causes an offset in the fact that some motor torque is required to hold the load The addition of load torque equilibrium position of the rotor. the rotor could still have reached the correct command position of 270°. At point C'. Load torque also slows torque. When the rotor reaches equilibrium. Notice that the value of velocity and position reached is considerably lower than that in the previous case for r=1.for step command step command / X//N \ ~- a A9ot initial Rotor position oj\900 Rotor final position (a) Usable torque for acceleration --Developed motor T torque versus position before step command / M r t--Jc /D -Developed motor torque for step " command t ves. If the rotor is moved about this point the motor develops a torque which tends to drive it back to the point of equilibrium. 9. Fig. (48) The equilibrium position is given by -sin 0 = 0 or 0 = 0°. At point B'. Notice that at this position no motor torque is developed. any step sequence or stepping rate can be considered by selecting the proper set of isoclines corresponding to the step sequence. At point D' the rotor is approximately 180° behind the command position. Once it is established that it will follow step commands at a given stepping rate. 8(c) shows the trajectory for the response to the 2700 step command. the rotor can still reach the proper command position of 360°. Note by examining the isoclines. With load torque applied. 69 _9f3 d\0-I A- ai Rotor initial position (b) Developed motor step command Rotor final position Developedmtorque ~ T iTD for L Developed motor torque step command . 8(b) that the rotor position at point B' is lagging the command position by more than 900. 8(d) shows the trajectory for the response to the 360° step command between points C' and D'.31. Failing to Execute the Desired Command In general. 707 5 position beforeT A3. For the previous step. once it has been established that it cannot follow a step command. . The effect of load torque on the developed motor torque for a step command. The previous step command required to reach this position is given by sin LU [0°-0]I = V ~dO + DV. torque versu = 0. r = 2. Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. As the rotor moves toward 900 the amount of available torque is reduced until the 900 position is reached. the initial position of the rotor is determined by the equilibrium point of the previous step. SEPTEMBER 1969 Usable torque for acceleration Developed motor torque versus _position before the 1800 step command is applied. Again during the step the rotor velocity decreases. (a) TL = 0.68 and the 450° step command is applied. r Developed motor torque 1.No torque available for acceler2ation. Fig. However. Also. the motor will follow the step commands at this rate regardless of the number of steps applied. The velocity of the rotor actually decreases during this step and the rotor lags further behind the command position. The failure analysis must be carried out using enough steps to show that either the motor fails to follow the desired command or that it reaches a steady-state condition for the given command rate. down the step response. Fig. that had the 3600 step command not been applied. 8(b) shows the trajectory for the response to the 1800 step command between points A' and B'.122 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION. Downloaded on July 05. any input step sequence from the PM stepping motor can be investigated by this method. 9(a) shows the developed motor torque when TL=O. At this point the developed torque is again 0. r= 1. (49) Fig. / / step \ comman 90 position 45' if Rotor initial Arrows indicate direction developed motor torque acts (c) Fig.4. Note on Fig.

The PM stepping motor is assumed to be initially at rest at a point of stable equilibrium for the given value of load torque.5 Single step damping ratio.decreases the maximum stepping rate that can be achieved.ROBINSON AND TAFT: ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC STEPPING MOTORS 123 e = -23. mum stepping rate.707 of the motor's maximum torque. Dimensionless parameter curves for the permanent magnetic stepping motor. Thus. and TL described earlier. . (50) -sinG = 0. yielding low values of damping Experimental Verification of the Dimensionless Curves Several PM stepping motors were used to experiratio.+ DV. But the motor cannot step a load torque that is equal to or greater than 0.707 = V dV -+ DV = 0. 10 shows the resulting computed dimensionless curves of maximum stepping rate against damping ratio current source. for a load torque of 0. maximum stepping rate is obtained by minimizing the damping ratio and maximizing the natural frequency. But mentally verify the dimensionless curves. The motor can be compensated to obtain a higher damping ratio and a better single step response. The maximum stepping rate is defined as the rate at which the motor can step with a given value of load torque and not miss a single step.. It was asraising the value of the damping ratio decreases the sumed tllat the L/R time constant could be neglected maximum stepping rate that can be obtained. the damping ratio can be lowered by decreasing the viscous damping or increasing the motor inertia or the natural frequency.6°.4.707. The behind the intended command position. Since the dimensionless curves assume a constant Fig. The natural frequency is given by WN = - WN = | V V/A KTI (54) If the natural frequency of the motor is increased. O .. The with small error and the drive circuit could be approximated by a current source. the time between steps can be decreased and the maximum stepping rate can be increased since minimum step period is determined by AT 1 = WNAt WN (55) (56) 'At At Thus. The torque that is available for acceleration is given by dV cos 0 -TL = V. The curves show that for a creased if the motor is driven from a voltage source.both of which cause the rotor position to further lag tion of the PM stepping motor to system design. DIMENSIONLESS CURVES FOR EXPRESSING PMA STEPPING MOTOR PERFORMANCE Using the parameters D. 2 TL=0. 9(c). Fig. ratios increase. increasing the load torque dimensionless curves can be developed to predict maxi. a set of for a given damping ratio. motion of the PM stepping motor for a single step is highly underdamped. D Fig.0 4 4 aL (52) 2 3 1 Normalized motor damping._ \-TL = 0.' 1. Restrictions apply.4 r- CL (51) TL=0 6 The amount of motor torque available for acceleration decreases with increasing load torque until T7 -0.5 1. damping ratio is given by Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. There is no motor torque available to accelerate the rotor and a step command cannot be accomplished. Downloaded on July 05. 10.0 . This has a direct bearing on the applica. From Fig. r. a normalized load torque greater or equal to 0. 2. dO 1.1 TL a. When the next step is commanded cos 45°-0. the maximum stepping rate will be defor various load torques. the maximum stepping rate stepping rate in this case will be decreased due to the of a given PM\I stepping motor decreases as the damping stator winding L/R time constant and induced EMF. By determining the maximum stepping rate for various D 2JWN (53) Thus. = 0 cn E E . The given value of load torque. dO E co /-TL = 0.707 will cause the PM stepping motor to fail to respond to a step command. The motor can statically hold a load torque equal in value to the maximum torque of the motor. 10 also shows that values of D and TL using phase plane analysis. for a given load torque. The shifted equilibrium position reduces the amount of motor torque that is available to accelerate the rotor to the next step.707 the rotor position offset is 45°.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. multistep analysis in the phase plane can be used to specify the maximum stepping rate for any given PMI stepping motor and desired value of load torque.

etc. A Experimental results =3- 6 4 Q. phase 1. the maximum stepping rate curves show that improving the single step response by adding damping will lower the maximum stepping rate that can be achieved. volts stator input voltage at an operating point. Thus. stator resistance per phase. Finally. For multiple steps a phase plane analysis allowed the PM stepping motor to be analyzed for failure as a function of applied load torque and stepping rate. volts change in stator input voltage. B D d/dt D A\el(t) e2(t) An analysis of the permanent magnet stepping motor Ae2(t) Elo can be used to study the effects of inertia. Fig. 0.2 Normalized load torque . phase 1. ohms to a single step command is R Stepping motor response i1(t) SYMBOLS flux density.4 . g cm2 a set of dimensionless curves which express maximum of normalized KU constant relating induced voltage and stator flux normalized stepping rate as a function density.707 of the motor's maximum amnperes torque. suming that the stator windings are supplied by a con. damping and normalized applied load torque. phase 1. phase 1. amperes a sequential set of step commands if. it was found that I Based on the phase plane analysis. Restrictions apply. M- . A E x . the rotor lags the command position by more 12(S) Laplace transformn of stator current. . volts stator current.18 . volts stator input voltage at an operating point. per seconid normalized motor damping stator input voltage. For a fixed damping ratio and natural frequency. tesla motor damping. The results show good agreement. This result is extended to develop J motor inertia. amperes change in stator current. D= 21. damping. However. Fig. Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. SEPTEMBER 1969 lFr p -Experimental results an c a.9. phase 2. Downloaded on July 05. amperes than 1800 (two steps).Ail (t) stant current drive circuit.. on the stepping motor response to a single step command. volts induced EMIF.6 of the PM stepping motor stall torque. amperes stator current at an operating point. the results represent i2(t) Ai2(t) an upper bound on stepping motor performance. amperes stator current. g. The experimental data shows reasonable agreement with the analytical data. phase 2. amperes change in stator current. curve for TL = ° -4 Computed curve . phase 1. la . E x IV a.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. during the sequence. Experimental verification of normalized stepping rate for various values of load torque with D = 0. the maximum stepping rate was determined for load torque of 0. watts per ampere curves allow the maximum stepping rate of L stator inductance per phase. phase 2. phase 2. and 0. phase 2. V . The analysis was carried out by as- el(t) E20 E. phase 2. the permanent magnet stepping motor cannot respond 110 to a step command wlhen the applied load torque be120 comes greater than 0. phase 1. amperes per meter or from manufacturer's measurements of its parameters NRT number of rotor teeth data. 4 .6 . amperes stator current per phase. current transients. phase 1. CONCLUSIONS usually highly underdamped. 11 shows a comparison of the experimental values obtained to the analytically derived values for 7TL=O.124 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION. 0.4. volts change in input voltage. 12. These a permanent KT inotor torque constant.8 Fig. amperes stator current at an operating point. volts stator input voltage. Fig. 11. phase 2. Experimental verification of dimensionless parameter curves for TL =0. The permanent magnet stepping motor cannot follow hI(S) Laplace transformi of stator current.N 2 F0 0 3 2 1 Normalized motor damping. 12 shows the comparison of the experimental data with the corresponding analytical points taken from the dimensionless curves. This result was experimentally verified.2. cm2/s time rate of change.s/deg. watts magnet stepping motor to be determined from simple Al mnagnetic moment.

AC-9. vol. 7. vol. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Great progress has been made during the last few years towards this end but more study is urgently needed. Liverpool. Bailey. Particular fuses can also be applied in a great variety of circuits. Morgan." Case Institute of Technology. IECI-16. L. WV. pp. "The step motor-The next advance in control systems. W. pp. Rept. 116-119.2010 at 09:23:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore. 97-102." vol. B. "Polyphase motors as digital-analog stepping devices.. Swonger. and peak voltage. when interrupting the circuit) against the passive withstand of the device which must remain unchanged. N nm Tf frictional torque. N m T. [31 R. vol. This presupposes that the behavior of both fuse and the device are known in like terms over the whole range of duties likely to be encountered. VOL. also. vol." IEEE Trans. J." Data Systems Engrg. 1961. pp. thesis. Part I-Stepping vs stepless control. Automatic Control. The successful application of fuses presupposes that fuse let-through and device withstand can be expressed in directly comparable terms. [10] D. January 1964." Trans. pp. 8. 7. "Part V-Interlocking steppers. pp. "Characteristics of a synchronous inductor motor. The author is with English Electrjc Fusegear Ltd. Graham and D.S. SEPTEMBER 1969 125 I time. 1966. March 1961. 143-146. 133135. [8] D. but also upon the degree to which the performance can be expressed in terms which are mutually meaningful. This paper was presenited Con-vention. Cambridge. AIEE (Applications and Industry). Analysis of Nonlinear Control Systems. defined as one-fourth rotor tooth pitch equal to 90° rotor command position. IEEE Abstract-The fundamental problem in applying fuses for the protection of semiconductor devices is that of ensuring that the fault energy let-through of the fuse comes within the withstand of the device under the circumstances in which both are used in service. The parameters on which semiconductor withstand is normally compared to fuse let-through are peak current... [2] J. 34. O'Donohue. 123-127. seconds TD developed torque. Zeller. November 1960. 18. January 1961. 1-5. June 1962. E. Protection can only be applied to the extent that the essential parameters and conditions to be met can be identified and specified in properly related terms. 2. F. degrees rotor position at an operation point. "Dynamic analysis of digital stepping motor actuators. . 1963. Downloaded on July 05. May 1961. "Transfer function for a stepper motor. degrees change in rotor position. pp. "Stepping motors move in. pp. vol. Kieburtz. Ohio.L load torque. Proctor. that the circumstances whiclh occur in service can be predicted with reasonable certainty. fuse comes within the withstand of the device under all the circumstances which can arise in service. N. 85-88. pp. pp. per second REFERENCES [1] S. Engrg.. July-August 1963. 8. A considerable measure of agreement is essential between fuse and device designers regarding the conventional terms to be adopted for this purpose. England." Plant Engrg. New York: Wiley. 8. J. vol. NO. [9] D. degrees. 12t let-through." Control Engrg. Snowden and E. P." vol. New York. rate of rise of current (di/dt). degrees normalized time change in normalized time normalized stepping rate rotor position in mechanical degrees change in rotor position in mechanical degrees natural frequency. March 1962. The problems involved are complex because it is necessary to compare the active and changing state of the fuse (i. "Part IV-Today's hardware." Control Engrg. [5] A. rad/s The Fundamental Behavior of High-Speed Fuses for Protecting Silicon Diodes and Thyristors ERIC JACKS. "Digital control of a stepping motor. 98104..IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION. December 1960. [6] N. 74-88.e. 1967. Other variables are introduced in Authorized licensed use limited to: Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology. Since the perfotmance of a fuse depends both on the physical changes in itself and equally upon the character and behavior of the circuit under highly transient conditions both aspects require careful scrutiny in any attempt made to rationalize fuse application data." vol. Cleveland. Robinson." M. pp. "Incremental servos. pp. Y. N*m Tmax maximum torque. Tll HE FUNDA-MENTAL problem in applying fuses for the protection of semiconductor devices is that of ensuring that the fault energy let-through of the at the 1968 IEEE International anulatnscript received July 29. The degree of protection achievable depends not only upon the performance of the fuse and of the device it protects. 103-104. [4] J. SENIOR MEMBER. February 4. EDC-7-67-15.. McRuer.. Individual circuits are subject to a great variety of conditions which are in turn imposed upon tlhe fuse. 81. Restrictions apply. "Part 1I-Operation and analysis. "Versatile inductor motor used in solving industrial control problems." Prod. 16. "Part 111-How they've been used. November 1961. 1968." vol. 8. All these parameters other than di/dt are functions of the mode of operation of the fuse as well as of the circuit. N-m Tf normalized frictional torque rz normalized load torque normalized rotor velocity V S Laplace operation. 52-56. vol. A 0 damping ratio 60 T Ar AO WNV change in a variable rotor position. [7] C. Madsen.

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