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9781424434817/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE
Proceeding ofthe 6th International Symposium on Mechatronics and its Applications (ISMA09), Sharjah, UAE, March 2426,2009

is governed by a linear stochastic difference equation. As an
/1~/
extension to the same idea, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is
used if the dynamic of the system and/or the output dynamic is
nonlinear. EKF is based on linearization about the current

y ~
estimation error mean and covariance [11].
4.1. Definitions
ISMA092
Proceeding ofthe 6th International Symposium on Mechatronics and its Applications (ISMA09), Sharjah, UAE, March 2426,2009
A 13 =
aA = 21
ae T(rLWL + rRWR)
.
Sine Mobile
robot
afl 1 omega _c ,...._,
A 14 = arL = 2T WL cos 8
xhat
afl 1
A 15 = arR = 2T WR cos 8
A 23 = ae = 21
af2
T(rLWL + rRWR) cos 8
af2 1 .
A 24 = arL = 2T WL sin 8 Plot
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Proceeding ofthe 6th International Symposium on Mechatronics and its Applications (ISMA09), Sharjah, UAE, March 2426,2009
2.1
1.9
1.8
E
y ;; 1.7
c
1 0
:;: 1.6
.~
a. 1.5
x 1.4
1.3
1.2 ",,",~~""""""'~~.I'~""""""'~~...I''~~""""_
o 50 100 150 200 250 300
time(s)
Figure 7. Illustration ofusing AEKF to estimate the position x
Scope D
Scope 1 D
2.6
1 Posy
1 1 1
Scope 2 L AEKF estimate
2.4     t     1     t   ~
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
____ ..1 1 .L _ _____ L_
Figure 5. Block diagram of "Camera" as a subsystem 2.2 1 1 1
g
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2     "1     1     T     1
> 1 1 1
c 1
6. SIMULATION RESULTS
0
:;:
·00 1.8
0
a.
 : J rf'
~
1 1 1
1
1
1
:
1
~
1
~    
1
'
1
1
1
shows the trajectory estimation of AEKF for the mobile robot. To 1 1 1 1
1.4  1     r     r
evaluate the performance of AEKF, we plotted the estimated and 1 1 1
Figure 10 shows the estimation error of AEKF. These figures o 50 100 150 200 250 300
verify the performance of the designed AEKF using Simulink. time(s)
In addition, Figures 1113 illustrate the values of estimated Figure 8. Illustration ofusing AEKF to estimate the position y
parameters via the augmented filter.
2.6 3.5
1  true Trajectory 1 theta
1
____ .L ~ _ AEKF estimate 1 1 AEKF estimate
2.4 3 IL._ _ ~~~
1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2.2  1    ...,     r    1    2.5     +     1     +     l     
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
g
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
____ .L ...J _ L S     ...!     _1 .!... _ _ _ _ _ 1 _
2
1 ~ 1 _
2
> Jg, 1 1 1 1
c : : : ~ : <tS
1 1 1 1
: :
1 1 1 1
~ )( 
1 1 1 1 1
1.6     ~        
____ ..1 _ _ _ _
1 1
_ L
1
...J
1
1
1
_
1 1 1 1 1
~: 1 : :
0.5
1 1 1 1
r     ...,     
1
1.4 ~ T    1  ,     r    1   
    1     1    
1 1 1 1
rV
~ I I I
1 1 1 1
1 1 1
O'"'L''''
1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 o 50 100 150 200 250 300
position x (m) time(s)
Figure 6. Trajectory estimation ofAEKF Figure 9. Illustration ofusing AEKF to estimate the orientation
ISMA094
Proceeding ofthe 6th International Symposium on Mechatronics and its Applications (ISMA09), Sharjah, UAE, March 2426,2009
6
0.5 ,.....~___.___~___r______, 1   estimated d
  Estimation Error 1
1
x ____ l l J L _
5.8
& 1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1
150 200 250 300 5.6     +     1     +     l      I    
1 1 1 1 1
E 1 1
.8 1
> 0.5 : : : :
&
:1: ] "C 1 1 1 1 1
0  1 I  1 1 5.4  "T     1     T     ,      r    
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
0.5 . l . . .  _ _ ....1...._ _ L.._ _    '  '   _ _
1 1 1 1 1
o
1 1 1 1 1
~ 100 1~ ~ 250 300 1
    I"    
1 1
T   
1 1
5.2 1     I      1    
0.5 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
~ 0  1 _ 1 1 1 __ 1 __ 1 1 1 1 1
£ 1 1 1 1 1
5'....1......1...1...1...1.....1
1 1 1 1 1 o 50 100 150 200 250 300
0.5 time(s)
o 50 100 150 200 250 300
time(s) Figure 13. The estimated d by AEKF
Figure 10. Estimation error ofAEKF
7. CONCLUSIONS
2
1   estimated rL In this research, a new design of augmented extended kalman
1 1 1
1.8     t      1     +     I      I     filter for realtime simulation of mobile robots is presented. A
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Simulink® model is developed to localize mobile robots while
____ ..1 L _
1.6 1
1
1_ _ _ _ _ _
1
1
1
estimating a proper set of odometric parameters. The simulation
1
1 1 1 results verify the effectiveness of the new design. In the future we
1
1 1 1
1.4     "1     1         1     I     will conduct some experiments using the Khepera II mobile robot,
E 1 1 1 1
.8 1 1 1 1 manufactured by KTeam, to verify the simulations of this
,....J
1.2   I    1  
research. Furthermore, utilizing the AEKF in real time manner for
1 1
    _I
1
~ _
the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem
1 would be our future challenging task, where online odometry
1
1 1 1 1 calibration could playa very important role especially in solving
0.8    ,      1     T     I      r    
1 1 1 1 1 the data association problem.
1 1 1 1 1
0.6'....1....L.''....L....'
o 50 100 150 200 250 300
time(s) 8. REFERENCES
Figure 11. The estimated rL by AEKF
[1] Antonelli, G. and S. Chiaverini, 2006. Linear estimation of
the odometric parameters for differentialdrive mobile robots.
Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE/RSJ. International Conference
on Intelligent Robots and Systems. 9  15 October 2006,
2 Beijing, China. PRC. pp: 32873292.
1   estimated rR
____ l
1
L J _ [2] Antonelli, G. and S. Chiaverini, 2007. Linear estimation of
1.8 1 the physical odometric parameters for differentialdrive
1
1 1 1
r     ,     
1 1 mobile robots. Springer Netherlands, Auton. Robots, 23(1):
1.6     "1     1     1    
1 1 1 1 1 5968, 2007.
1.4     t 
1
  
1
1    
1
+    
1
l    
1
 1     [3] Borenstein, 1. and L. Feng, 1996.Measurement and
E 1 1 1 1 1
Correction of Systematic Odometry Errors in Mobile Robots.
.8 1 1 1 1 1
,CI:.
1.2
_ _ _ _ ..l 1 L ...J 1 _
IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., 12(6): 869880, 1996.
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 [4] Doh, N.L., H. Choset, and W.K. Chung, 2006. Relative
1 1 1 1
"'.r"'I"V""",,,I·V" '\.    I localization using path odometry information. Springer
1 1 1
1
1 1
Netherlands. Auton. Robots, 21(2): 143154, September
0.8     "1     1     t"     ""1     1    
2006.
1 1 1 1 1
1
0.6 '_ _....L...._ _1..._ _'_ _1
1 1 1 1
'_'
[5] Grewal, M.S. and A.P. Andrews (2001). Kalman Filtering:
o 50 100 150 200 250 300 Theory and Practice Using Matlab. 2nd Edition, John Wiley
time(s) & Sons Inc., New York.
Figure 12. The estimated rR by AEKF [6] Larsen, T.D, K.L. Hansen, N.A. Andersen and O. Ravn,
1999. Design of Kalman filters for mobile robots; evaluation
of the kinematic and odometric approach. IEEE. Int. Conf.
Control Applications, 2: 10211026.
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Proceeding o/the 6th International Symposium on Mechatronics and its Applications (ISMA09), Sharjah, UAE, March 2426,2009
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