Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar

Summer Research Fellowship Programme
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
By:
Nishant Kumar
B.Tech IV
Mechanical Engineering
S.V. National Institute of
Technology, Surat
Supervisor:
Dr. Vinod Narayanan
Department of Mechanical
Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology,
Gandhinagar
May-July, 2010
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
Abstract
The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are a new approach to analyse the streamwise
evolution of single or interacting Fourier modes in weakly nonparallel ﬂows such as boundary
layers. The concept rests on the decomposition of every mode into a slowly varying amplitude
function and a wave function with slowly varying wave number. The neglect of the small
second derivatives of the slowly varying functions with respect to the streamwise variable
leads to an initial boundary-value problem that is solved by numerical marching procedures.
The PSE approach is valid in convectively unstable ﬂows. The PSE codes have developed
into a convenient tool to analyse basic mechanisms in boundary-layer ﬂow. In this report, the
emphasis has been laid on the analysis of PSE concept in natural variables, along with the
underlying background and concepts. The implementation of the equations using FORTRAN
codes was done to analyse the solutions of the equations.
1 Background
The theoretical background required for understanding the concept of hydrodynamic stability and
analysis of ﬂuid ﬂows is presented here.
1.1 Navier Stokes Equations
The NSE, along with the continuity equation and well formulated boundary conditions, is used
to determine the ﬂow ﬁeld. The NSE is basically a statement of conservation of momentum. For
incompressible ﬂow of Newtonian ﬂuids, the NSE in vector form may be represented as
ρ

∂v
∂t
+v. v

= −p + µ
2
v (1)
The work deals basically with the axisymmetric ﬂows and hence it is beneﬁcial to represent
eqn. (1) in cylindrical coordinates systems in nondimensional form. A change in variables of the
cartesian form of the equation will yield the desired form in cylindrical coordinates r, θ, z
∂u
∂t
+ v
∂u
∂r
+
w
r
∂u
∂θ
+ u
∂u
∂u
= −
∂p
∂z
+
1
Re
¸
1
r

∂r

r
∂u
∂r

+
1
r
2

2
u
∂θ
2
+

2
u
∂z
2

(2)
∂v
∂t
+ v
∂v
∂r
+
w
r
∂v
∂θ
+ u
∂v
∂z

w
2
2
=
∂p
∂r
+
1
Re
¸
1
r

∂r

r
∂v
∂r

+
1
r
2

2
v
∂θ
2
+

2
v
∂z
2

v
r
2

2
r
2
∂w
∂θ

(3)
∂w
∂t
+ v
∂w
∂r
+
w
r
∂w
∂θ
+ u
∂w
∂z
+
v.w
r
= −
1
r
∂p
∂θ
+
1
Re
¸
1
r

∂r

r
∂w
∂r

+
1
r
2

2
w
∂θ
2
+

2
w
∂z
2
+
2
r
2
∂v
∂θ

w
r
2

(4)
where u, v, w represent the velocity components in z, r, θ directions respectively. We have used the
following vector transformations for the derivations
dˆ r

=
ˆ
θ and
d
ˆ
θ

= −ˆ r (5)
1.2 Orr Sommerfeld Equation (OSE)
Ampliﬁcation of disturbances: The ﬂow may consist of disturbances caused due to free stream
condition or surface roughness. Disturbances of a certain band of frequencies get damped by the
ﬂuid viscosity and some frequencies get ampliﬁed, which may cause turbulence downstream of the
ﬂow.
1
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
The OSE is an eigenvalue equation describing the linear two-dimensional modes of disturbance
to a viscous parallel ﬂow. The perturbed velocity ﬁeld is
u = (U(z) + u

(x, z, t), 0, w

(x, z, t)) (6)
where perturbed velocity component is determined from
ψ(x, y, t) = φ(y)e
iα(x−ct)
(7)
In non-dimensional form, OSE can be obtained from the linearised version of NSE. The ﬁnal form
of OSE can be represented as
(U −c)(φ

−α
2
φ) = −
1
αRe

φ

−2α
2
φ

+ α
4
φ

(8)
Solution of OSE: For the OSE to give non-trivial solution, we must have
f(α, c, Re) = 0 (9)
It is assumed that the disturbances are temporally growing. Thus, depending on the value of c,
the α −Re plane can be divided into following domains
• c < 0, ﬂow is stable (i.e., disturbances decay),
• c = 0, ﬂow is neutrally stable, and
• c > 0, ﬂow is unstable (i.e., disturbances grow).
Squire’s Theorem: To each unstable three dimensional disturbance there corresponds a more
unstable two-dimensional one.
1.3 Boundary Layer Flow
Order of magnitude analysis: The inviscid solution gives u = U =constant everywhere, ∂p/∂x = 0
and the governing equations become
u
∂u
∂x
+ v
∂u
∂y
=
1
Re

2
u
∂x
2
(10)
∂u
∂x
+
∂v
∂y
= 0 (11)
For similarity solution of the above equations, we consider
u
U
= f

(η) (12)
where
η =
y
δ(x)
= y

U
νx
(13)
Blasius proﬁle: This equation is used to analyse ﬂow over a ﬂat plate at zero angle of attack. We
convert the NSE which is a PDE into an ODE which can be solved easily using numerical methods.
f

+
1
2
ff

= 0, (14)
f(0) = f

(0) = 0, f(∞) = 1 (15)
where the dash represents diﬀerentiation with respect to η.
2
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
Falkner-Skan equation: Here, we generalize the Blasius boundary layer by considering a wedge at
an angle of attack β from some uniform velocity ﬁeld
u
e
(x) = U
0

x
L

m
(16)
Thus,
f

+ ff

+ β

1 −f
2

= 0 (17)
where,
β =
2m
m + 1
(18)
2 Solution of Orr-Sommerfeld equation in cylindrical co-
ordinates
For axisymmetric ﬂows, to investigate the stability of the basic ﬂow, we study the evolutions of the
perturbations u, v and p requiring that the total ﬂow parameters satisfy the equations of motion
and that they are constrained by the same ﬂow-forcing boundary conditions as the basic ﬂow.
Here, we consider the perturbed ﬂow to be given as the combination of the unperturbed mean
ﬂow V,P and the perturbations v,p
u
z
= ¯ u = U + u, u
r
= ¯ v = V + v, u
θ
= ¯ w = W + w, ¯ p = P + p (19)
where ¯ denotes the total ﬂow parameter.
For the mean ﬂow, we apply the following boundary conditions
W = 0 and U, V = f(θ)
The disturbances are also assumed to be parallel ﬂows. Then the most general form for the 1-D
disturbance q is that of a travelling wave whose amplitude varies with r and which moves along
the boundary at an angle θ with respect to the z axis. In complex notation, the disturbances may
be represented as
q = ˆ q(r)exp[i(αx + nθ −βt)] (20)
All disturbances have wave number α and frequency β. They are referred to as Tollmein-Schlichting
waves which are indications of laminar-ﬂow instability.
The basic ﬂow satisﬁes the momentum equation. In vector form, the momentum equation may
be represented as
D

V
Dt
+ (

V .

∇)

V = −
1
ρ

∇P + ν.

2

V (21)
By suitable transformations, the N-S equations in non-dimensional form for the basic ﬂow can
be written in the cylindrical coordinate system for r,θ,z directions.
r momentum:
∂V
∂t
+ (

V .

∇)V −
1
r
W
2
= −
∂P
∂r
+
1
Re

2
V −
V
r
2

2
r
2
∂W
∂θ

(22)
θ momentum:
∂W
∂t
+ (

V .

∇)W +
V.W
r
= −
1
r
∂P
∂θ
+
1
Re

2
W −
W
r
2
+
2
r
2
∂V
∂θ

(23)
3
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
z momentum:
∂U
∂t
+ (

V .

∇)U = −
∂P
∂z
+
1
Re

2
U (24)
Now, we substitute the perturbed velocity components given by eqn. (19) into the N-S equation
and subtract out the basic ﬂow

V and P equalities, as given by eqs. (22-24), and neglect higher
powers and product of p. The linearized disturbance equations may then be written as
∂u
∂t
+ u
∂U
∂z
+ U
∂u
∂z
+ V
∂u
∂r
+ v
∂U
∂r
= −
∂P
∂z
+
1
Re

2
u
∂r
2
+
1
r
∂u
∂r
+
1
r
2

2
u
∂θ
2
+

2
u
∂z
2

(25)
∂u
∂t
+ u
∂V
∂z
+ U
∂v
∂z
+ V
∂v
∂r
+ v
∂V
∂r
= −
∂P
∂r
+
1
Re

2
v
∂r
2
+
1
r
∂v
∂r
+
1
r
2

2
v
∂θ
2
+

2
u
∂z
2

v
r
2

2
r
2
∂w
∂θ

(26)
∂w
∂t
+ U
∂w
∂z
+ V
∂w
∂r
+
1
r
V.w = −
1
r
∂P
∂θ
+
1
Re

2
w
∂z
2
+
1
r
∂w
∂r
+
1
r
2

2
w
∂θ
2
+

2
w
∂z
2

w
r
2
+
2
r
2
∂v
∂θ

(27)
To eliminate the pressure terms appearing in the eqs. (25-27), at ﬁrst, we subtract the r-
derivative of eqn. (25) from the z-derivative of eqn. (26)

2
u
∂r∂t

2
v
∂z∂t
+

∂V
∂r
∂u
∂r
+ V

2
u
∂r
2
+
∂v
∂r
∂U
∂r
+ v

2
U
∂r
2
+
∂U
∂r
∂u
∂z
+
∂u
∂r
∂U
∂z
+ u

2
U
∂r∂z

∂U
∂z
∂v
∂r
+
∂u
∂z
∂V
∂r
+ u

2
V
∂z∂r
+ 2
∂V
∂z
∂v
∂z
+ V

2
v
∂z
2

2w
r
∂w
∂z

=
1
Re

1
r
2
∂u
∂r

1
r

2
u
∂r
2
+

3
u
∂r
3

2
r
3

2
u
∂θ
2
+
1
r
2

3
u
∂r∂θ
2
+

3
u
∂r∂z
2

1
Re

3
v
∂z∂r
2
+
1
r
2

3
v
∂z∂θ
2
+

3
v
∂z
3

1
r
2
∂v
∂z

2
r
2

2
w
∂z∂θ

Similarly, from the θ and z direction equations, the equation after eliminating pressure terms gives

2
w
∂z∂t

1
r

2
u
∂θ∂t
+

∂V
∂z
∂w
∂r
+ V

2
w
∂z∂r
+
∂V
∂z
∂w
∂z
+ U

2
w
∂z
2
+
V
r
∂w
∂z

w
r
∂V
∂z

1
r
∂V
∂θ
∂u
∂r
+
v
r

2
u
∂θ∂r
+
1
r
∂U
∂θ
∂u
∂z
+
U
r

2
u
∂θ∂z
+
1
r
∂v
∂θ
∂U
∂r
+
v
r

2
U
∂θ∂r
+
1
r
∂u
∂θ
∂U
∂z
+
u
r

2
U
∂θ∂z

=
1
Re

2
w
∂z∂r
+
1
r
2

3
w
∂z∂θ
2
+

3
w
∂z
3
+
2
r
2

2
v
∂z∂θ

1
r
2
∂w
∂z

1
Re

1
r

3
u
∂θ∂r
2
+
1
r
3

3
u
∂θ
3
+

3
u
∂θ∂z
2

We eliminate the axial velocity term from the above equations by using the continuity equation
and by incorporating the exponential disturbance equation from eqn. (20), we get
∂u
∂z
+
∂v
∂r
+
v
r
+
1
r
∂w
∂θ
= 0 (28)
⇒ ˆ u = −
1

ˆ v

+
ˆ v
r
+
in
r
ˆ w

(29)
where

represents derivative in r direction
Considering the ﬂow to be invariable along θ, the above substitution leaves us with a linear
equation and its boundary conditions which are both homogeneous, it follows that the result-
ing equation is an eigenvalue problem. The problem can be represented in matrix form as (for
readability, we drop the cap on the perturbed velocity components)
4
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
¸
A
11
A
12
A
21
A
22
¸
v
w

= β
¸
B
11
B
12
B
21
B
22
¸
v
w

(30)
The values of the elements of the matrix are given as

here D →

∂r

A
11
= −
1
α
∂U
∂z

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

+
i
α

2
U
∂r∂z

D +
1
r

∂U
∂r

D +
1
r

−U

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

+
i
α
∂V
∂r

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

+
i
α
V

D
3
+
2
r
3

2
r
2
D +
D
2
r

+
∂V
∂r
D +

2
U
∂r
2
−iα
∂U
∂z
+ Uα
2
+
∂V
∂z

D +
1
r

2
V
∂z
2

D +
1
r

1
α
∂V
∂z

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

−iαV D −iα
∂V
∂r

2
V
∂z∂r
+

Re

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

2n
2
Re.r
3
i
α

D +
1
r

+
n
2
Re.r
2
i
α

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

1
Re
i
α

D
4

6
r
4
+
6D
r
3

3D
2
r
2
+
D
3
r

1
Re.r
i
α

D
3
+
2
r
3

2
r
2
D +
D
2
r

+
1
Re.r
2
i
α

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

+
1
Re
iαD
2
+

Re.r
D −
iαn
2
Re.r
2

1
Re

3

Re.r
2
A
12
= −
1
α
2
∂U
∂z

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

+
i
α

2
U
∂r∂z

in
r

∂U
∂r

in
r

−U

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

+
i
α
∂V
∂r

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

+
i
α
V

2in
r
3

2in
r
2
+
in
r
D
2

+
∂V
∂z

in
r

2
V
∂z
2

in
r

1
α
∂V
∂z

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

+

Re

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

in
2
α
2
Re.r
3

in
r

+
in
2
α
1
Re.r
2

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

i
α

6in
r
4
+
6in
r
3
D −
3in
r
2
D
2
+
in
r
D
3

1
Re.r
i
α

2in
r
3

2in
r
2
+
in
r
D
2

+
1
Re.r
2
i
α

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

2iα
r

in
r

B
11
=
β
α

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

−αβ
B
12
=
β
α

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

A
21
= −
n
r ∗ α

D +
1
r

+
i

2
U
∂θ∂z

D +
1
r

1
r
∂U
∂θ

D +
1
r

in
r
U

D +
1
r

+
1

∂V
∂θ

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

V n

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

+
in
r
∂U
∂r
+
1
r

2
U
∂θ∂r

Re.r

D +
1
r

n
3
Re.r
3
α

D +
1
r

n
Re.rα

D
3
+
2
r
3

2
r
2
D +
D
2
r

n
Re.r
2
α

D
2

1
r
2
+
D
r

2αn
Re.r
2
5
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
A
22
= −
n

∂U
∂z

in
r

+
i

2
U
∂θ∂z

in
r

1
r
∂U
∂θ

in
r

+
Un
2
r
2
+
i

∂V
∂θ

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

V n

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

−iα
∂U
∂z
+ Uα
2

∂V
∂z
D −iαV D −iα
V
r

1
r
∂V
∂z

Re.r

in
r

n
3
Re.r
3
α

in
r

+
n
Re.rα

2in
r
3

2in
r
2
+
in
r
D
2

+
n
Re.r
2
α

in
r
2
+
in
r
D

+

Re
D
2
+

Re.r
D −
iαn
2
Re.r
2

3
Re

Re.r
2
B
21
=
iβn
αr

D +
1
r

B
22
=
iβn
αr

1n
r

−αβ
The eqn. (30) has three parameters: α,c and ν. For a given proﬁle, only a certain continuous but
limited sequence of these parameters the eigenvalues will satisfy the relation. The mathematical
problem is to ﬁnd this sequence, which has a diﬀerent functional form for spatial versus temporal
growth of disturbances.
A FORTRAN program that takes the velocity proﬁle as input and evaluates the corresponding
eigenvalues from the relation given by eqn. (30) was used to analyse the ﬂow for stability.
3 Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) for Fluid Flow
3.1 Development
The laminar-turbulent transition of boundary layer ﬂows led to the linear stability theory, assuming
parallel ﬂow. The resulting eigenvalue problem, expressed as Orr-Sommerfeld (OSE) and Squire
equations, when used for boundary layer transition, showed deviations from the experimental
results for the neutral curve. These discrepancies were attributed to the local assumption of
parallel ﬂow and the consideration of no upstream development of boundary layer. Consequently,
this led to a more general analysis that takes into account both the streamwise development and
upstream data of the instability. This analysis further led to the PSEs, applicable to 2D-ﬂows (2D-
PSE). These equations are valid for convective instabilities and relax the assumption of parallel
ﬂow.
3.2 Introduction
The PSEs are used to analyze the streamwise evolution of Fourier modes in weakly non-parallel
ﬂows. It relies on the decomposition of each mode into a slowly varying amplitude function and
a wave function with slowly varying wave number. Analogous to the OSE, a BiGlobal stability
analysis generalises the ﬂow assumptions in 2D plane. This concept is inadequate in prediction of
breakdown as it neglects the axial gradients that may inﬂuence the vortex. This necessitates an
analysis technique that can account for velocity and pressure gradients. Thus, the 3D-PSE concept
originated which has an advantage of being able to solve for arbitrarily complicated basic states
in the x, y plane.
6
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
3.3 2D-PSE for Incompressible Flow
The continuity and non-linear momentum equations for an incompressible ﬂuid with constant
density and viscosity are given by
∇v = 0 (31)
∂v
∂t
+ (v.∇)v = −
1
ρ
∇p + ν∇
2
v (32)
In Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) we use velocity components ˆ v = (ˆ u, ˆ v, ˆ w) and
∇ =

∂x
ˆ
i +

∂y
ˆ
j +

∂z
ˆ
k (33)
We consider the stability of 2D steady laminar boundary-layer ﬂows neglecting the mean ﬂow
and derivatives in the spanwise z direction. For stability analysis, we decompose the total ﬂow
ﬁeld ˆ v, ˆ p into the steady laminar basic ﬂow V, P and the disturbance v, p.
ˆ v = V+v, ˆ p = P + p (34)
We introduce a term ε such that ξ = x, where is of order O(Re
−1
). This accounts for the slow
variation of variables with respect to the streamwise direction. Owing to uniformity in z, the steady
basic ﬂow takes the form V = [U(ξ, y), V (ξ, y), 0]. Here, Reynolds number is Re
x
=
U
r
x
ν
with a
proper reference velocity U
r
. Under boundary-layer approximation, the basic ﬂow is governed by
U
x
+ V
y
= 0 (35)
UU
x
+ V U
y
= −P
x
+
1
Re
U
yy
(36)
0 = −P
y
(37)
UW
x
+ V W
y
=
1
Re
W
yy
(38)
For disturbances v, p we obtain the stability equations
u
x
+ v
y
+ w
z
= 0 (39)
v
t
+ Uu
x
+ uU
x
+ V u
y
+ vU
y
+ Wu
z
+ p
x

1
Re
(u
xx
+ u
yy
+ u
zz
) = −(uu
x
+ vu
y
+ wu
z
) (40)
v
t
+ Uv
x
+ V v
y
+ vV
y
+ Wv
x
+ p
y

1
Re
(v
xx
+ v
yy
+ v
zz
) = −(uv
x
+ vv
y
+ wv
z
) (41)
w
t
+ Uw
x
+ uW
x
+ V w
y
+ vW
y
+ Ww
z
+ p
z

1
Re
(w
xx
+ w
yy
+ w
zz
) = −(uw
x
+ vW
y
+ ww
z
)
(42)
where we have neglected the small term u

V
x
in the y-equation. For a given basic ﬂow, this system
is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equations and hence of elliptic type.
For the instability study, we apply the following homogeneous boundary conditions
u = 0, v = 0, w = 0 at u = 0 (43)
u −→0, v −→0, w −→0 as y −→∞ (44)
as the inhomogeneous conditions are satisﬁed by the basic ﬂow. In non-linear problems, however,
the ﬂuctuating components of the disturbance also create a distortion of the steady mean ﬂow
7
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
(¯ u, ¯ v, ¯ w). Since the mean ﬂow and its distortion are governed by the boundary-layer equations, we
must admit ¯ v = 0 as y −→∞ with
v
y
−→0 as y −→∞ (45)
and ¯ p
x
= 0. In general, the nonlinear stability equations can be solved under inhomogeneous
boundary conditions to account for disturbances at the wall or in the free stream.
3.4 PSE Concept in Natural Variables
We maintain the decomposition of the disturbance q into an amplitude function q

and a wave
function χ and write the disturbance in the form
q(x, y, z, t) = q

(x, y)χ(x, z, t) (46)
χ = exp(iθ(x) + iβz −iΩt), θ
x
= α(x) (47)
We note that
q
x
= (iαq

+q

x
) χ (48)
q
xx
=

−α
2
q

+ 2iαq

x
+q

x
x + iα
x
q

χ (49)
and by substituting the components of eqns. (46 − 47) into the linearized eqns. (39 − 42), we
obtain in nondimensional form (Henceforth, the

from the amplitude function is dropped and

terms will represent the disturbances)
L
1
u + L
2
v + M
1
∂u
∂x
+ M
2
∂v
∂x
+

dx
N
1
u +

dx
N
2
v = 0 (50)
where the operators L, M and N act only in y and are given as follows
L
1
= −iΩD + iαU
y
+ iαUD + U
x
D + U
yx
+ V
y
D + V D
2
+ iβW
y
+ iβWD
+
α
2
Re
D −
1
Re
D
3

β
2
Re
D −
iαΩ
β
D
+

2
β
U
y
+

2
β
UD −W
x
D −W
xy
+
α
β
V
y
D
+
α
β
V D
2
+ iαW
y
+
α
3
βRe
D −
α
βRe
D
3
+
αβ
Re
D
L
2
= U
y
D + U
yy
−αΩ −αU
x
+ α
2
U −V
x
D −iαV D −iαV
y
−iβW
x
+ αβW −

3
Re
+

Re
D
2
−V
xy

iαβ
2
re
+ βΩ −αβU + iβV D + iβV
y
−β
2
W +

2
β
Re

Re
D
2

iV
β
D
3
−W
y
D −W
yy
+ W
y
D −

2
βRe
D
2
M
1
= U
y
+ UD −
2iα
Re
D −

β
D +

β
U
y
+
2Uα
β
D −
iV
β
D
2
+ W
y

iV
y
β
D −
3iα
2
βRe
D
+
i
βRe
D
3

Re
D
8
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
M
2
= iΩ −U
x
−2iαU −V D −V
y
−iβW −

2
Re
+
1
Re
D
2

β
2
Re
+ iβU +
2αβ
Re

iU
y
β
D −
iU
β
D
2

βRe
D
2
N
1
= −
i
Re
D +
U
y
β

3iα
βRe
D +
U
β
D
N
2
= iU −

Re

β
Re

1
βRe
D
2
where now D = ∂/∂y
The derivation of eqn. (60) from eqns. (31−32) ﬁrst involves the elimination of the pressure by
taking the curl of the momentum equations which provides the vorticity transport equations. The
Orr-Sommerfeld equation is obtained by subtracting the z derivative of the x-vorticity equation
from the x derivative of the z-vorticity equation and eliminating w, via continuity. The Squire
equation is the z derivative of the y-vorticity equation.
For a proper function α(x), the streamwise variation of q

is governed by the wave function
χ while the derivatives q
x
and α
x
are small. The PSE approximation assumes the variation of q
and α as suﬃciently small to neglect q
xx
, α
xx
, α
x
q
x
and their higher derivatives with respect to
x. The eqn. (50) is obtained after application of this approximation. Within PSE approximation,
the streamwise derivatives of q

take the form

k
q

∂x
k
= i
k
¸
α
k
q −ikα
k−1
∂q
∂x
−i
k(k −1)
2
α
k−2

dx
q

χ (51)
and hence, the operators may be related as,
M = −i
∂L
∂α
, N =
1
2
∂M
∂α
(52)
The operators deﬁned above have been found to comply with these relations.
3.5 Closure and Norm
Solving eqn. (50) as an initial boundary value problem is diﬃcult due to the appearance of dα/dx
which aﬀects the operators. In absence of any information regarding the streamwise changes, we
can impose the restriction
α
x
= 0 (53)
and absorb all streamwise changes into the amplitude function. This choice is most convenient
for the ﬁrst step of the numerical integration of eqn. (50) as application of the equation for all x
would maintain the error preventing convergence to the correct solution.
Alternatively, a streamwise independent norm can be imposed on q. Such a norm can be
applied at a ﬁxed position given by the maximum streamwise rms ﬂuctuation of the function |u|.
The deformation of this function may lead to jumps in value of location. We, thus, prefer an
integral norm.
From eqn. (49), we obtain
−i (lnq

)
x
= α −i
q
x
q
(54)
where the last term causes a dependence of the local wave number on y, except if q
x
= 0. To
remove this dependency, the equation is multiplied with the weight |q|
2
, integrated over the domain
Θ in y, and divided by the integral of |q|
2
. This yields
−i

Θ
|q|
2
(lnq

)
x
dy

Θ
|q|
2
dy
= α −i

Θ
q

q
x
dy

Θ
|q|
2
dy
(55)
9
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
where the dagger denotes the complex conjugate. We now choose

Θ
q

q
x
dy = 0 (56)
to normalize q and consider eqn. (55) as the deﬁnition of α(x).
Eqn. (56) minimises the streamwise change ∂q/∂x in a weighted sense across the y domain.
The deﬁnition of α(x) obtained from eqn. (55) by deleting pressure and replacing q by the vector
of velocity amplitudes v is of particular importance. The denominator then is the kinetic energy
integral, and the norm is

Θ
v

v
x
dy = 0 (57)
Equation (50) along with one of the conditions (56) and (57), or any suitable norm are the
closed system of parabolized stability eqquations (PSE). This system permits the simultaneous
calculation of α(x) and q(x, y) in a streamwise marching procedure. Diﬀerent norms lead to
diﬀerent partitions (46) of the solution q

. The physical solution q

, however, is the same to within
small eﬀects of the norm on the PSE approximation.
3.6 Solution Procedure
Before solving eqns. (50) and (57), we need to specify initial and boundary conditions. We specify
Re, β, Ω and V, provide the same estimates α
0
for the eigenvalue and q
0
for the eigenfunction as
initial conditions at x
s
, and apply the homogeneous boundary conditions (43 −44).
To solve the PSE, the diﬀerential operators (52) and boundary conditions are converted into
algebraic form by any method suitable for the Orr-Sommerfeld problem. We use a spectral collo-
cation method with Chebyshev polynomials, together with a domain transformation.
The streamwise derivative is in the simplest case approximated by the two-point ﬁnite diﬀerence
q
x

1
x
j

q
j+1
−q
j

(58)
where j ≥ 0 is the step index and q
j
= q
j
(y) = q(x
j
, y). Since α appears in the diﬀerential opera-
tors, the system is nonlinear, and a predictor-corrector approach is employed to ﬁnd the solution at
x
j+1
. the explicit forward diﬀerence formula leads to numerical instability. Although second-order
accurate, the central diﬀerence formula has not been found advantageous in comparison with the
ﬁrst-order accurate backward diﬀerence
(q
x
)
j+1

1
x
j

q
j+1
−q
j

(59)
Eqn. (50) then assumes the form

x
j
L
n
j+1
+ M
n
j+1
+ (α
x
)
n
j+1
N
n
j+1

q
n
j+1
= M
n
j+1
q
j
(60)
where the subscripts 1, 2 have been dropped from the operators L, M, N and (α
x
)
n
j+1
= α
n
j+1
−α
j
,
n being the iteration count. Starting with α
n
j+1
= α
j
according to eqn. (53), we obtain q
n
j+1
and
exploit eqn. (55) to obtain an updated wavenumber
α
n+1
j+1
= α
n
j+1

2i
x
j

Θ
(q
n
j+1
)

(q
n
j+1
−q
j
)dy

Θ
|q
n
j+1
|
2
dy
(61)
The integration-update cycle is continued until eqn. (56) is satisﬁed within a given error limit and
the solution has converged to α
j+1
, q
j+1
(y). We then proceed to the next step in x where a better
estimate for α and α
x
is known. The marching procedure terminates if the convergence criterion
is not satisﬁed within a given number of iterations.
The use of marching technique for solving the PSE is permitted only if the stability problem
is governed by downstream propagating information. The PSE approach is valid for convectively
unstable ﬂows which consist of pipe and channel ﬂows; entrance ﬂows; and boundary layers, mixing
layers, and far wakes.
10
Analysis of PSE for Perturbed Flows
Conclusion
The parabolized stability equations have developed into a mature approach to analyse the receptiv-
ity, linear, and nonlinear stability of convectively unstable ﬂows into the late stages of transition.
The applications of the PSE approach for transition analysis in aerodynamic ﬂows aim towards
disturbance environment and location of the transition point based on the nonlinear changes in
skin friction. The methods discussed here in the report will be useful in better documentation of
the disturbance environment.
References
[1] Michael S. Broadhurst and Spencer J. Sherwin. The parabolised stability equations for 3d-
ﬂows: Implementation and numerical stability. Applied Numerical Mathematics, 58:10171029,
2008.
[2] Thorwald Herbert. Parabolized stability equations. Special Course on Progress in Transition
Modelling, AGARD REPORT 793:4/1–34, 1994.
[3] Thorwald Herbert. Parabolized stability equations. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 29:245–
283, 1997.
[4] Fei Li and Mujeeb R. Malik. Spectral analysis of parabolized stability equations. Computers
& Fluids, Vol. 26:pp. 279–297, 1997.
[5] S.S. Motsa and P. Sibanda. On the chebyshev spectral collocation method in channel and jet
ﬂows. Journal of Pure Applied Mathematics, 1(1):36–47, 2001.
[6] Helen L. Reed. Parabolized stability equations: 2-d ﬂows. NATO, RTO-EN-AVT-151:4/1–26.
[7] Vassilios Theoﬁlis. Advances in global linear instability analysis of nonparallel and three-
dimensional ﬂows. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 39:249315, 2003.
11