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A force which produces a change in configuration of the object on It is defined as the ratio of normal stress to the longitudinal

applying it is called a deforming force. strain within the elastic limit.

Elasticity y = Normal stress / Longitudinal strain

Elasticity is that property of the object by virtue of which it Its unit is N/m2 or Pascal and its dimensional formula is [ML-1T-2].

regains its original configuration after the removal of the 2. Bulk Modulus of Elasticity

deforming force. It is defined as the ratio of normal stress to the volumetric strain

Elastic Limit within the elastic limit.

Elastic limit is the upper limit of deforming force upto which, if K = Normal stress / Volumetric strain

deforming force is removed, the body regains its original form Its unit is N/m2 or Pascal and its dimensional formula is [ML-1T-2].

completely and beyond which if deforming force is increased the 3. Modulus of Rigidity (η)

body loses its property of elasticity and get permanently It is defined as the ratio of tangential stress to the shearing

deformed. strain, within the elastic limit.

Perfectly Elastic Bodies η = Tangential stress / Shearing strain

Those bodies which regain its original configuration immediately Its urut is N/m2 or Pascal and its dimensional formula is [ML-1T-2].

and completely after the removal of deforming force are called Compressibility

perfectly elastic bodies. e.g., quartz and phosphor bronze etc. Compressibility of a material is the reciprocal of its bulk modulus

Perfectly Plastic Bodies of elasticity.

Those bodies which do not regain its original configuration at all on Compressibility (C) = 1 / k

the removal of deforming force are called perfectly plastic bodies, Its SI unit is N-1m2 and CGS unit is dyne-1 cm2.

e.g., putty, paraffin, wax etc. Steel is more elastic than rubber. Solids are more elastic and

Stress gases are least elastic.

The internal restoring force acting per unit area of a deformed For liquids: modulus of rigidity is zero.

body is called stress. Young’s modulus (Y) and modulus of rigidity (η) are possessed by

Stress = Restoring force / Area solid materials only.

2 -12 -2

Its unit is N/m or Pascal and dimensional formula is [ML T ]. Limit of Elasticity

Stress is a tensor quantity. The maximum value of deforming force for which elasticity is

Stress is of Two Types present in the body is called its limit of elasticity.

(i) Normal Stress If deforming force is applied normal to the area, Breaking Stress

then the stress is called normal stress. The minimum value of stress required to break a wire, is called

If there is an increase in length, then stress is called tensile breaking stress.

stress. Breaking stress is fixed for a material but breaking force varies

If there is a decrease in length, then stress is called compression with area of cross-section of the wire.

stress. Safety factor = Breaking stress / Working stress

(ii) Tangential Stress If deforming force is applied tangentially, Elastic Relaxation Time

then the stress is called tangential stress. The time delay in restoring the original configuration after removal

Strain of deforming force is called elastic relaxation time.

The fractional change in configuration is called strain. For quartz and phosphor bronze this time is negligible.

Strain = Change in the configuration / Original configuration Elastic after Effect

It has no unit and it is a dimensionless quantity. The temporary delay in regaining the original configuration by the

According to the change in configuration, the strain is of three elastic body after the removal of deforming force is called elastic

types after effect.

(1) Longitudinal strain= Change in length / Original length Elastic Fatigue

(2) Volumetric strain = Change in volume / Original volume The property of an elastic body by virtue of which its behavior

(iii) Shearing strain = Angular displacement of the plane becomes less elastic under the action of repeated alternating

perpendicular to the fixed surface. deforming force is called elastic fatigue.

Hooke’s Law Ductile Materials

Within the limit of elasticity, the stress is proportional to the The materials which show large plastic range beyond elastic limit

strain. are called ductile materials, e.g., copper, silver, iron, aluminum, etc.

Stress ∞ Strain Ductile materials are used for making springs and sheets.

or Stress = E * Strain Brittle Materials

where, E is the modulus of elasticity of the material of the body. The materials which show very small plastic range beyond elastic

Types of Modulus of Elasticity limit are called brittle materials, e.g., glass, cast iron, etc.

Elastomers Isothermal elasticity of a gas ET = ρ where, ρ = pressure

The materials for which strain produced is much larger than the of the gas.

stress applied, with in the limit of elasticity are called elastomers, Adiabatic elasticity of a gas Es = γρ

e.g., rubber, the elastic tissue of aorta, the large vessel carrying Where, γ = Cp / Cv ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and

blood from heart. Etc. at constant volume.

Elastomers have no plastic range. Ratio between isothermal elasticity and adiabatic

Elastic Potential Energy in a Stretched Wire elasticity Es/ ET = γ = Cp / Cv

The work done in stretching a wire is stored in form of potential

energy of the wire. Explanation of Stress Strain Curve

Potential energy U = Average force * Increase in length

= 1 / 2 FΔl

= 1 / 2 Stress * Strain * Volume of the wire

Elastic potential energy per unit volume

U = 1 / 2 * Stress * Strain

= 1 / 2 (Young’s modulus) * (Strain)2

Elastic potential energy of a stretched spring = 1 / 2 kx2

where, k = Force constant of spring and x = Change in length.

Thermal Stress

When temperature of a rod fixed at its both ends is changed, then

the produced stress is called thermal stress.

Thermal stress = F / A = yαΔθ

Stress strain curve has different regions and points. These regions

Where, α = coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the and points are:

rod. (i). Proportional limit

When temperature of a gas enclosed in a vessel is changed, then (ii). Elastic limit

the thermal stress produced is equal to change in pressure (Δp)of (iii). Yield point

(iv). Ultimate stress point

the gas.

(v). Fracture or breaking point.

Thermal stress = Δ p = Ky Δ θ

where, K = bulk modulus of elasticity and (i). Proportional Limit: It is the region in the strain curve which

γ = coefficient of cubical expansion of the gas. obeys Hookes law i.e. within elastic limit the stress is directly

Interatomic force constant proportion to the strain produced in the material. In this limit the

K = Yro ratio of stress with strain gives us proportionality constant known

Where, ro = interatomic distance. as young’s modulus. The point OA in the graph is called the

proportional limit.

Poisson’s Ratio

When a deforming force is applied at the free end of a suspended

(ii). Elastic Limit: It is the point in the graph upto which the

wire of length 1 and radius R, then its length increases by dl but its material returns to its original position when the load acting on it is

radius decreases by dR. Now two types of strains are produced by completely removed. Beyond this limit the material cannot return

a single force. to its original position and a plastic deformation starts to appear in

(i) Longitudinal strain (ii) Lateral strain it. The point A is the Elastic limit in the graph.

∴ Poisson’s Ratio (σ) = Lateral strain / Longitudinal

(iii). Yield Point or Yield Stress Point: Yield point in a stress

strain

strain diagram is defined as the point at which the material starts

The theoretical value of Poisson’s ratio lies between – 1 and 0.5. Its

to deform plastically. After the yield point is passed there is

practical value lies between 0 and 0.5. permanent deformation develops in the material and which is not

Relation Between Y, K, η and σ reversible. There are two yield points and it is upper yield point

(i) Y = 3K (1 – 2σ) and lower yield point. The stress corresponding to the yield point is

(ii) Y = 2 η ( 1 + σ) called yield point stress. The point B is the upper yield stress point

(iii) σ = 3K – 2η / 2η + 6K and C is the lower yield stress point.

(iv) 9 / Y = 1 / K + 3 / η or Y = 9K η / η + 3K

(iv) Ultimate Stress Point: It is the point corresponding to the

Important Points

maximum stress that a material can handle before failure. It is the

Coefficient of elasticity depends upon the material, its maximum strength point of the material that can handle the

temperature and purity but not on stress or strain. maximum load. Beyond this point the failure takes place. Point D in

For the same material, the three coefficients of elasticity γ, the graph is the ultimate stress point.

η and K have different magnitudes.

(v). Fracture or Breaking Point: It is the point in the stress

strain curve at which the failure of the material takes place. The

fracture or breaking of material takes place at this point. The

point e is the breaking point in the graph.

Measurement of the Young modulus

The Young modulus may be measured for a material in the form of

a wire using the apparatus shown in Figure 1.

Two identical wires are hung from a beam; a scale is fixed to one

wire and a mass hung on the end to remove kinks in it. This wire is

used as a reference standard. The other wire has a small load

placed on it to straighten it and a vernier scale which links with the

scale on the reference wire.

The original length (L) of the test wire is measured and its

diameter is found for various points along its length and an average

diameter calculated. Hence its mean radius r

can be found.

the extension of the wire found for each

one. They should not be dropped, as this

would subject the wire to a sudden shock.

After each reading the load should be

removed to check that the wire returns to

its original length, showing that its elastic

limit has not been exceeded.

and from this the value of the Young modulus

may be found (this is the gradient of the line

i.e. F/A divided by e/L).

possible for a given load while retaining its elastic properties.

Two wires are used to eliminate errors due to changes of

temperature and sagging of the beam.

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