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Ice cream: Composition and health effects

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Deosarkar S.S., Kalyankar S.D., Pawshe R.D. and Khedkar C.D. (2016) Ice Cream: Composition and Health
Effects. In: Caballero, B., Finglas, P., and Toldrá, F. (eds.) The Encyclopedia of Food and Health vol. 3, pp. 385-
390. Oxford: Academic Press.

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Author's personal copy

I
Ice Cream: Composition and Health Effects
SS Deosarkar, College of Dairy Technology, Pusad, India
SD Kalyankar, Government College of Dairy Technology, Udgir, India
RD Pawshe, Satpuda Shikshan Sansthan, Jalgaon Jamod, Buldhana, India
CD Khedkar, College of Dairy Technology, Pusad, India
ã 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Introduction • Establishment of product standards


• Quality assurance in the ice cream industry
Ice cream is a frozen dairy product made by freezing the ice • Widespread academic programs, research, and extension
cream mix with agitation. It is composed of a mixture of food activities in ice cream technology
ingredients like milk products, sweetening materials, stabilizers, • Attractive packaging and efficient distribution network
colors, flavors, and egg products. Ice cream mix is the unfrozen • Extensive advertising and merchandising programs
mixture of the ingredients, consisting of all the ingredients of ice
In India, an initiative was taken by the Ministry of Food Pro-
cream with the exception of air and flavoring materials. The
cessing Industries (Goverment of India) by recommending the
composition of ice cream is usually expressed as a percentage
Cooperative and Public Sector milk plants to produce ice
of its constituents, for example, the percentage of milk fat, milk
cream. It enabled the production of a range of low-cost ice
solids not fat, sugar, egg solids, stabilizers (which are the com-
creams for those who cannot afford it and frozen novelties that
pounds added in very small quantities to strongly influence the
dominate the market. At the same time, this step widened the
formation and growth of ice crystal in the ice cream so as to
product mix of the cooperative dairy plants and improved their
render the product with desired body and texture), and the total
efficiency and viability. Already, encouraging results have been
solids. Ice cream and related products are classified as frozen
reported from field trials of ice cream production by the Coop-
desserts, which include ice cream, frozen custard, frozen confec-
erative Sector. The entry of the Cooperative Sector resulted into
tions, ice milk, sherbets, water ices, and mellowing products.
a boom in the production and sales of ice cream.
Ice cream had its origins in Europe and was introduced later in
the United States where it developed into an industry. It is widely
believed that ice cream evolved from iced beverages and water
ices. Ice cream probably came to the United States with the early Composition of Ice Cream
English colonists. In 1851, the first wholesale ice cream industry
in the United States was established in Baltimore, Maryland. Ice Ice cream is frequently considered as a ‘fun food,’ which is
cream plants were also established in New York, Saint Louis, undeserving consideration, and even was considered as a
Chicago, Washington, and Cincinnati. The development of con- ‘junk’ food. These depreciatory statements have affected indus-
densed and dried milks and the introduction of the pasteurizer trial development virtually from its inception. In reality, ice
and homogenizer, improved freezers, and other preserving equip- cream is a relatively well-balanced, wholesome, easily
ments accompanied a slow growth in the industry only after 1900. digestible, and delicious food. It is because ice cream is a nutri-
The ice cream soda was introduced in 1879, and ice cream cone tious element of the diet that is frequently used as a meal
and Eskimo Pie were introduced in 1904 and 1921, respectively. component for hospital patients. The energy value and nutrient
content of ice cream depends upon the food value of the prod-
ucts from which it is made. Ice cream contains about four times
Drivers of Extensive Development of the Ice Cream Industry as much carbohydrates as milk. The milk products that go into
the ice cream mix convey the constituents of milk, but in
It was around 1920 that the value of ice cream as an essential
different amounts. In developing a formulation of satisfactory
food was recognized and the product was immensely popular
composition, some of the factors that need to be considered are
since then. The following developments have made ice cream
personal preference of company management or customer
widely available to the consumer:
demands for flavor, body and texture, and color characteristics
• Improved manufacturing technologies and development of of the finished product, that is, natural or fortified flavor with
automated operating systems, refrigeration, and transportation artificial flavoring; chewy to heavy, higher overrun; or more
• Ingredients of better quality and enhanced knowledge of cooling body and texture characteristics. Composition stan-
their usage dards are also influenced by demands of customers, volume

Encyclopedia of Food and Health http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384947-2.00385-8 385


The Encyclopedia of Food and Health, (2016), vol. 3, pp. 385-390
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386 Ice Cream: Composition and Health Effects

Table 1 Composition of plain ice cream (per 100 g edible portion)

For different fat (%)

Constituents Good/average ice cream 10 12 16 Ice milk Ice cream cones Water ices

Water (%) 61.7 63.2 62.1 62.8 66.7 8.9 66.9


Food energy (Cal) 196.7 193.0 207.0 222.0 152.0 377.0 78.0
Protein (%) 4.1 4.5 4.0 2.6 4.8 10.0 0.4
Fat (%) 12.0 10.6 12.5 16.1 5.1 2.4 Trace
Total carbohydrates (%) 20.7 20.8 20.6 18.0 22.4 77.9 32.6
Wt./100 cal portion (g) 50.8 51.7 48.3 45.0 65.6 26.5 128.4

Source: Arbuckle, W. S. (1986). Ice cream (4th ed.). New York: AVI Publishing

Table 2 Nutritive value of commercial ice cream and related products

Product Weight (g) Fat (g) Protein(g) Carbohydrate (g) Total solids (g) Calories

Vanilla ice cream 100 12 4.0 20.7 38.3 204


Mango ice cream 100 10 3.5 21.2 36.3 188
Strawberry ice cream 100 8 3.6 21.2 40.8 194
Chocolate ice cream 100 13.1 3.6 25.8 42.1 221
Saffron pistachio 100 13.9 4.8 21.8 40.8 225
Ice milk 100 4.0 4.1 20.5 33.5 144
Low-calorie ice milk 100 2.0 4.2 23.5 28.9 91
Diabetic ice cream 100 9.0 4.3 20.6 28.6 152
Orange sherbet 100 1.5 1.3 13.2 30.5 124
Lemon sherbet 100 – – 27.3 29.1 113
Ice lolly 60 – – 27.6 14.5 54
Chocolate coated ice cream bar 60 10.4 1.8 14.1 23.1 142
Vanilla sandwich ice cream 50 3.7 3.5 10.7 24.0 115
Milk shake 100 3 3.9 16.6 24.5 104
Frozen yogurt 100 3.5 4.0 21.7 31.1 133

Source: Bhandari, V. (2001). Ice cream: manufacture and technology, pp. 6–18. New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company

of operation, quality of ingredients, and ingredient costs. tryptophan and lysine. Proteins in the diet supply the amino
Detailed composition of ice cream is given in Table 1. acids required for the growth of infants and children and for the
Ice cream contains three- to fourfold more fat than milk maintenance of tissues in adults. Not only are milk proteins
and about 15% more protein than milk. It also contains other known to be complete, but also the assimilation of ingested
food products such as fruits, nuts, eggs, dry fruits, and sugar, milk proteins is 5–6% more complete than other proteins in
which boost its nutritive value. The milk solids in ice cream are general. Milk proteins also have high chemical quality and high
usually subjected to higher heat treatments than those of pas- net protein utilization (NPU) values. The chemical quality of a
teurized milk, they are also subjected to lower temperatures in protein is determined by comparing its amino acid content with
the freezing process, and they are stored longer before con- that of hen’s egg protein, which is recommended as a reference
sumption. It is an excellent source of food energy due to its protein. It is difficult to obtain NPU values using man as a test
enhanced fat content than that of milk, and 50% of its total animal, but relatively easy using the rat. The values for protein are
solids content is sugar, including lactose, sucrose, and corn calculated from determinations of the nitrogen content in the
syrup solids. The fact that these constituents are almost food. Early analysis of proteins showed that they have close to
completely assimilated makes ice cream an especially desirable 16% nitrogen. The general practice then was to multiply the
food for growing children and persons who need to put on nitrogen content by 6.25, the conversion factor for the protein
weight. For the same reason, its controlled use finds a place in content. For milk proteins, the conversion factor is 6.38. The
the diet of persons who need to reduce or who do not wish to glycosylated proteins make the ice cream more compact and
gain weight. Like milk, ice cream is not a good source of iron smooth and tend to prevent a weak body and coarse texture.
and some of the trace elements. The nutritive value of com- However, excessive amounts result in a salty or cooked flavor
mercial ice cream and related products is depicted in Table 2. and soggy or sandy body and texture defect.

Proteins in Ice Cream


Carbohydrates in Ice Cream
The milk proteins contained in ice cream are of excellent biolog-
ical value, because they contain all the essential amino acids. Milk Carbohydrates provide a significant amount of energy in all
proteins are important sources of essential amino acids like human diets. These are synthesized by plants from carbon

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Ice Cream: Composition and Health Effects 387

dioxide and water with the liberation of oxygen under the unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol in ice cream, ice cream
influence of sunlight. The chief products are the sugars, cones, and ice milk is given in Table 3.
which are a convenient source of energy for the cells. These
include starch, dextrin, cellulose, pectin, gums, and related
substances. Sugars of several kinds may be used in the manu- Minerals in Ice Cream
facture of ice cream. The commonly used sugar is sucrose. It
A variety of inorganic elements are essential for growth and
may come from either cane or beet, as these are identical in
performance. Those needed in substantial amounts, such as
composition. Corn sugar, now used extensively, is predomi-
calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and
nantly glucose or is converted to maltose or fructose. Invert
sulfur, are termed as major minerals or macronutrients.
sugar, a mixture of equal amounts of the monosaccharide
Those needed in small amounts, such as copper, cobalt, iodine,
fructose and glucose, is used at times. Lactose constitutes over
manganese, zinc, fluorine, molybdenum, and selenium, are
one-third of the solid matter in milk and  20% of the carbo-
termed as trace elements. The inorganic nutrients are interre-
hydrates in ice cream, which makes this product suitable for
lated and should be in particular proportions in the diet.
lactose-intolerant people. Furthermore, it is readily hydrolyzed
Calcium and phosphorus are of vital concern, since they are
into glucose and galactose. It enhances the utilization of cal-
very closely related. Milk and products like ice cream are the
cium and phosphorus in the human body. Additionally, inges-
richest sources of calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals
tion of higher amounts of lactose is conducive to the growth of
essential in adequate nutrition. It has been proved by research
lactose-fermenting Lactobacillus acidophilus, which produces
workers that additional amounts of lactose in the diet favor the
acidic condition in the intestine, thereby creating unfavorable
assimilation of calcium. As ice cream is a rich source of lactose,
conditions for the growth of putrefactive bacteria. A sandy
it favors the assimilation of greater quantities of the calcium
body and texture defect is caused by a high concentration of
content of diet, which is needed by growing children and some
lactose.
adults. The calcium contents of milk and ice cream are 0.118
and 0.132 g/100 g, respectively; the corresponding phospho-
rus contents are 0.093 and 0.105 g/100 g, respectively. The
Fat in Ice Cream minerals impart a slightly salty taste, which rounds out
the flavor of the finished ice cream.
Fats are a rich source of energy. It is of major importance in ice
cream. It contributes a rich flavor and is a good carrier for
added flavor compounds and promotes desirable texture qual- Vitamins in Ice Cream
ities. It is essential to use the correct percentage of milk fat to
balance the mix properly as also to satisfy legal standards. Milk Vitamins are organic substances, which are required in small
fat is in the form of an emulsion; hence, it does not lower the amounts by the body for its metabolism and cannot be syn-
freezing point as it is not a true aqueous solution. It tends to thesized in sufficient quantities by the body. These do not
retard the rate of whipping. High fat content limits consump- contribute appreciable amounts of energy. Vitamins are
tion, will increase the cost, and increase calorific value. Gener- divided into two groups: fat-soluble and water-soluble vita-
ally, the fat content of a good average ice cream is considered to mins. The fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K; the
be 12%. The best source of milk fat is fresh cream. Other water-soluble vitamins include B1 or thiamine, B2 or ribofla-
sources are frozen cream, plastic cream, butter, butter oil, and vin, B6, and B12. Like milk, ice cream is a rich source of many of
condensed milk blends. Fats are present in foodstuffs and the essential vitamins without which normal growth and
storage depots of most animals, mainly in the form of triglyc- health cannot be maintained. A brief description of the
erides. Milk fats have both saponifiable matter and non- better-known vitamins may help to emphasize the importance
saponifiable matter. The saponifiable fraction includes the of milk and ice cream in the diet.
glycerides, phospholipids, and other esters, such as those of
cholesterol and minor acid components. Milk fat contains at Fat-soluble vitamins in ice cream
least 60 fatty acids. Milk fat contributes significantly to the Vitamin A: Ice cream is an excellent source of this anti-infective
nutritive value of ice cream. It is a rich source of energy, serves vitamin (492 IU 100 g1). It is the principal milk fat vitamin. It
as a carrier of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, and contains is essential for growth and normal functioning of the retina. Its
a significant amount of essential fatty acids, for example, lino- deficiency results in night blindness and follicular keratosis, a
leic and arachidonic acids. The amount of saturated and skin disorder.

Table 3 Selected fatty acids and cholesterol in ice cream and related products (per 100 g edible portions)

Fatty acids

Item Total (g) Total unsaturated (g) Unsaturated oleic (g) Linoleic (g) Cholesterol (mg)

Ice cream 12.5 7.0 4.0 Trace 45.0


Ice cream cones 2.4 1.0 1.0 Trace 0.0
Ice milk 5.1 3.0 2.0 Trace 21.6

Source: Arbuckle, W. S. (1986). Ice cream (4th ed.). New York: AVI Publishing

The Encyclopedia of Food and Health, (2016), vol. 3, pp. 385-390


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388 Ice Cream: Composition and Health Effects

Vitamin D: Ice cream contains little quantities of this anti- properties, with the solids content of the mix, with the type
rachitic vitamin (4 IU 100 g1). Its deficiency results in of processing equipment, and other factors.
decreased growth rate and lowered calcium and inorganic Generally, stabilizers are added at the rate of 0.2–0.3% of
phosphorus levels in the blood. Vitamin D-enriched ice creams the mix. Stabilizers commonly used are sodium alginate,
can be prepared from fortified milk. sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), guar gum, locust
Vitamin E: Ice cream is a fair source of this antisterility bean gum, carrageenan, gelatin, and pectin. It is not necessary
vitamin, containing about 3 mg kg1. This vitamin helps to to age the mix when alginates are used. CMC produces a chewy
maintain normal health and reproductive organs in laboratory characteristic in the finished product. Gelatin produces a thin
animals. This vitamin is found in all cell membranes. It acts as mix and requires an aging period. Pectin is used alone or in
an antioxidant for polyunsaturated fatty acids and prevents a combination with gums as a sherbet or ice stabilizer. The addi-
large number of degenerative disorders. tion of excessive amounts of stabilizers results in soggy or heavy
Vitamin K: This vitamin has been found necessary for the body and high resistance to melting in the finished product.
formation of prothrombin, which prevents bleeding by clot-
ting the blood. The concentration of this vitamin is very low in
milk, and pasteurization and evaporation destroy it. Emulsifiers
Emulsifiers are used to produce ice cream with a smoother
body and texture, to impart dryness, and to improve whipping
Water-soluble vitamins
ability of the mix. Emulsifiers extensively used are monoglyc-
Vitamin B1 (thiamine): Ice cream contains an average
erides or diglycerides, sorbates, and polysorbates and are
of 0.48 mg kg1 of this vitamin, with a range of 0.38–0.65
added at the rate of 0.1–0.4% of the finished product. Egg
mg kg1, which is essential for proper metabolism and health.
yolk solids are also used as emulsifiers. Excessive amounts of
Its deficiency causes beriberi, which is manifested by loss of
emulsifiers produce slow melting characteristics and body and
appetite, anxiety, exhaustion, and irritability. In some cases, it
texture defects in the product.
can cause nervous disorders or dilation of the heart.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin): Riboflavin is a dietary essential vita-
min for humans. Ice cream is a fairly good source of riboflavin, Flavors
containing an average of 2.3 mg kg1, with a range of
2.0–2.6 mg kg1. Its deficiency causes lesions of the eye and Flavor is generally considered as one of the most important
mouth and reddening of the lips. characteristics of ice cream. The kind of flavoring material influ-
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): It is an important coenzyme in the ences the quality of the ice cream mix since slight off-flavor in it
metabolism of amino acids. Its deficiency can cause anemia, can obscure the delicate flavor of the flavoring material to be
convulsions, decreased growth rate, and dermatitis. Ice cream added. Local preference of the consumers determines the type
contains an average of 0.0047 mg kg1 of this vitamin, with a and intensity of flavor to be added. Natural and synthetic flavor
range of 0.0026–0.0078 mg kg1. substances are available for the flavoring of ice cream.
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin): It is one of the anemia-
preventing vitamins and is unique among vitamins, as it is not
Colors
found in any plants. This vitamin has the most complex structure
of all vitamins. It is an essential metabolite for a wide variety of Ice cream should have a delicate, attractive color that can be
organisms. Ice cream contains an average of 0.0047 mg kg1 of readily associated with the flavor. Most colors are of chemical
this vitamin, with a range of 0.0026–0.0078 mg kg1. Its defi- origin. Colors are available in liquid or powder form. Most ice
ciency can produce anemia and degeneration of the spinal cord. cream manufacturers prefer to purchase dry colors since these
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): It is widely distributed in the are more economical and can be dissolved in boiling water as
tissues of all plants and animals. It is abundantly found in needed.
fruits, fruit juices, and green leafy vegetables. These vitamins
act as an antiscorbutic factor in the prevention of scurvy. Fruit
ice creams are excellent sources of this vitamin. On an average, Digestibility and Palatability of Ice Cream
ice cream contains 3 mg kg1 of this vitamin, with a range of Ice cream is considered as an ideal food for people suffering
0–11 mg kg1. from stomach or throat ailments when other foods cannot be
taken. There are several reasons to support this viewpoint. Its
sweet, pleasant flavor, smooth texture, and characteristic cool-
ness make it a highly palatable food. Its high palatability
Stabilizers
stimulates the flow of digestive juices, which enhances diges-
Stabilizers are used to prevent the formation of objectionable tion. Moreover, homogenization employed in its manufacture
large ice crystals in ice cream. They have high water-holding facilitates digestion as it happens with homogenized milk, as
capacity; in addition, they prevent ice crystal formation in the digestive juices readily act upon the fat globules broken
storage, give uniformity of product, give desired resistance to into small globules. Many experiments show that homoge-
melting, and improve handling properties. The effect of stabi- nized milk is more digestible than milk not so treated. The
lizers on flavor is indirect. They increase viscosity, have no same holds true for the fat in ice cream mix when it is forced
effect on the freezing point, and generally decrease whipping through the homogenizer, as is now the practice in commercial
ability. The amount of stabilizers to use varies with its ice cream plants.

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Ice Cream: Composition and Health Effects 389

Health Effects of Ice Cream neutral pH. The high total solids level in ice cream including
the fat and milk solids provides protection for the probiotic
To combat osteoporosis
bacteria. Because the efficiency of added probiotic bacteria
Dairy products like ice cream contain 0.122 g calcium per
depends on dose level, type of dairy foods, presence of air,
100 g. It is beneficial for strong and healthy bones. According
and low temperature, their viability must be maintained
to the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), 99% of the body’s
throughout the product’s shelf life and they must survive the
calcium can be found in the bones and teeth where it is used to
gut environment. Live probiotic bacteria are more than unvi-
help function and structure. When the body is not receiving a
able cells; therefore, the International Dairy Federation (IDF)
sufficient amount of calcium daily, it can take calcium from
recommends that a minimum of 107 probiotic bacterial cells
where it is stored. Regular calcium intake from ice cream and
should be alive at the time of consumption per gram of prod-
other dairy products can also reduce the risk of osteoporosis, a
uct. Studies indicate, however, the bacteria may not survive in
disease related to an increase in bone fractures. Not only is
high enough numbers when incorporated into frozen dairy
calcium good for the bones and teeth, but also it plays a part in
products unless a suitable method is used against freeze injury,
weight loss. Studies have shown a correlation between reduced
and oxygen toxicity represents factors affecting probiotic sur-
weight and weight gain prevention with an adequate daily
vival in ice cream.
intake of calcium. When the body is not receiving an adequate
Another way is to adjust the conditions of production and
amount of calcium, it causes fat cells to enlarge by storing fat.
storage for more survival rates. The physical protection of
The lack of calcium is correlated to the creation of fat-
probiotics by microencapsulation is a new method for increas-
producing hormones and a slowing effect of fat breakdown
ing the survival of probiotics. Encapsulation helps to isolate
leading to weight gain.
the bacterial cells from the adverse environment of the product
and gastrointestinal tract, thus potentially reducing cell loss.
In women’s reproductive health Selecting suitable probiotic strains depends on their ability to
It is very strongly advocated by the researchers that ice cream is survive simulated conditions of ice cream (high sucrose con-
helpful in maintaining the reproductive health of women. A centrations, high oxygen, freezing, and storage temperatures),
recent investigation comprising 18 000 women of 24–42 years acidic (to simulate gastric conditions) and alkaline conditions
suggests eating ice cream increases chances of ovulating. The (to simulate intestinal conditions). Microencapsulation of pro-
study looked at the eating habits of the women under the biotics can further protect these bacteria from the mentioned
feeding trials. After accounting for other factors, like smoking conditions.
and drinking, the researchers found that women who ate full- During the last two decades, several studies have shown
fat ice cream two more times a week had a 38% lower risk of that ice cream has a good ability as a medium for delivery of
ovulation-related infertility. That is compared to women who probiotics into the human gut. Frozen dairy products create
had full-fat ice cream less than once a week. So what about low- ideal conditions for probiotic bacteria to survive for a long
fat foods? The study found that women who ate at least two term of production, distribution, and storage. Ice cream pro-
servings of low-fat milk products a day were 85% more likely to vides good conditions for probiotic growth in large numbers
have problems ovulating than women who only ate one serv- and their survival during storage. Low-fat ice cream in compar-
ing. The researchers suggest women trying to get pregnant keep ison with regular ones provides better conditions for the sur-
a careful eye on calories, but eat full-fat until conception. vival of probiotics. Incorporation of probiotic bacteria in ice
cream does not create any problem because ice cream pH
Improvement of immunity (6.6–6.5) is ideal for survival of these microbes.
As ice cream is rich in lactoferrin and cytokines, it improves the It could be concluded from the ongoing discussion that ice
immunity against various diseases, including influenza. Ironi- cream is particularly valuable for its content of high-quality
cally, there is a misapprehension that ice cream is regarded as a protein and easily assimilated calcium. It provides many nutri-
cause of colds and coughs. In fact, when we eat ice cream, ents and can make a useful and enjoyable contribution to the
melting ice cream that goes into the mouth is affected by daily intake of energy in a healthy and balanced diet. The
body temperature, so at that point, the temperature of ice future success of functional probiotic ice creams in market-
cream is not so low any longer. place depends on its consumer acceptance. The development
of probiotic ice cream is a key research priority for food design
Ice cream as a delivery medium for probiotics and a challenge for both industry and science sectors.
Probiotics are distinct live microorganisms that, when admin- Especially, ice cream is a good vehicle to transfer probiotics to
istered in sufficient amounts, exert a health benefit on the host. the human intestinal tract. An additional way to keep the levels
In recent years, probiotic bacteria have increasingly been incor- up of the probiotic cells in the gut is to consume this frozen
porated into dairy foods as dietary adjuncts. This is an ideal dessert on a regular basis. More studies are needed to further
way to reestablish the balance of intestinal microbiota. Probi- investigate the probiotic survival in harsh conditions of ice
otic ice cream can be produced by the incorporation of probi- cream formulation and manufacturing.
otic bacteria in both fermented and unfermented mixes. Ice
cream is an ideal vehicle for the delivery of these organisms in
the human diet. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most See also: Carbohydrate: Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism; Ice
common species of lactic acid bacteria used as probiotics for Cream: Uses and Method of Manufacture; Milk: Role in the Diet;
this purpose. Among the frozen dairy products with live pro- Nutrition and Infection; Osteoporosis; Probiotics; Protein: Digestion,
biotics, probiotic ice cream is also gaining popularity for its Absorption and Metabolism; Vitamins: Overview.

The Encyclopedia of Food and Health, (2016), vol. 3, pp. 385-390


Author's personal copy
390 Ice Cream: Composition and Health Effects

Further Reading Relevant Websites


Arbuckle WS (1986) Ice cream, 4th ed. New York: AVI Publishing. http://www.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2012/02/14/ajcn.111.027003 – The
Aziz H, Aslan A, Mina J, Solmaz M, and Hanie E (2012) Factors influencing probiotic American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
survival in ice cream: A review. International Journal of Dairy Science 7: 1–10. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-5945/12/13 – BioMed Central.
Bhandari V (2001) Ice cream: Manufacture and technology, pp. 6–18. New Delhi, India: http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target¼ijor:
Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. jfeb&volume¼3&issue¼1&article¼001 – Indian Journals.
Marshall RT and Arbuckle WS (1996) Ice cream, 5th ed. New York: Chapman and Hill http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/scientists-turn-unsaturated-fats-healthier-
Publishers. ice-cream/ – Scientific American.
Passmore R and Eastwood MA (1986) Human nutrition and dietetics, 8th ed. Edinburgh: http://www.symptomfind.com/nutrition-supplements/health-benefits-of-ice-cream –
Churchill Livingstone. Office of the Dietary Supplements.
Tait MJ, Finney DJ, and Narhan SK (1993) Ice cream: Dietary importance.
Encyclopaedia of food science, food technology, and nutrition, vol. 4,
pp. 465–2468. London: Academic Press.
Umesh AR, Atmaram K, and Jayaprakasha HM (1989) Utilization of Vanaspati in the
preparation of filled soft serve ice cream. Cheiron 18(3): 118.

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