Lecture notes for Circuits Ulaby

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Ulaby Chapter 6 Lecture 3rd Edition

Lecture notes for Circuits Ulaby

© All Rights Reserved

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RLC CIRCUITS

CIRCUITS by Ulaby & Maharbiz

Overview

Second Order Circuits

A second order circuit is

characterized by a second order

differential equation

Resistors and two energy storage

elements

Determine voltage/current as a

function of time

Initial/final values of

voltage/current, and their

derivatives are needed

Initial/Final Conditions

Guidelines

instantaneously

Get derivatives dvC/dt

and diL/dt from iC , vL

Capacitor open, Inductor

short at dc

Example 6-2: Determine Initial/Final Conditions

Circuit V0 24 V

I0 4 A

R1 2

R2 4

R3 6

L 0 .2 H

C 8 mF

t = 0‒

Example 6-2: Initial/Final Conditions (cont.)

Given: V0 24 V

t = 0+

I0 4 A

R1 2

R2 4

R3 6

L 0 .2 H

C 8 mF

Example 6-2: Initial/Final Conditions (cont.)

t V0 24 V

I0 4 A

R1 2

R2 4

R3 6

L 0 .2 H

C 8 mF

Series RLC Circuit : General Solution

Solution Outline

Transient solution

Series RLC Circuit: Natural Response

Find Natural Response Of RLC Circuit

Natural response occurs when no active sources

are present, which is the case at t > 0.

0

Series RLC Circuit: Natural Response

Find Natural Response Of RLC Circuit

Solution of Diff. Equation

Assume:

It follows that:

Solution of Diff. Equation (cont.)

0

Circuit Response: Damping Conditions

s1 = s2

Damping coefficient

s1 and s2 are complex

Resonant frequency

Overdamped Response

s1, 2 a a 2 w0

2

a damping factor

w0 resonant frequency

R 1

a w0

2L LC

Overdamped, a > w0

Underdamped Response

Damping: loss of stored energy

s1, 2 a a 2 w0

2

a damping factor

w0 resonant frequency

R 1

a w0

2L LC

Underdamped a < w0

vt ea t D1 cos wd t D2 sin wd t

Critically Damped Response

s1, 2 a a 2 w0

2

a damping factor

w0 resonant frequency

R 1

a w0

2L LC

Critically damped a = w0

vt B1 B2t ea t

Total Response of Series RLC Circuit

Need to add Forced/Steady State Solution

vt vss vt t

Natural solution represents transient response, decays to 0 as t .

v() represents forced/steady state solution.

Overdamped (a > w0)

vt v A1e s1t A2e s2t

Critically Damped (a = w0)

vt v B1 B2t ea t

Now find unknown constants

Underdamped (a < w0)

from initial conditions v(0+)

vt v ea t D1 cos wd t D2 sin wd t and dv/dt at t = 0+

Example 6-7: Overdamped RLC Circuit

Cont.

Example 6-7: Overdamped RLC Circuit

Example 6-8: Pulse Excitation

Example 6-9: Determine Capacitor Response

Circuit

At t = 0 ‒ :

t = 0‒

Example 6-9: Capacitor Response (cont.)

t = 0+

voltage and its derivative will be

needed to evaluate constants D1

and D2

Example 6-9: Capacitor Response (cont.)

t>0 This is just a

series RLC circuit!

Example 6-9: Capacitor Response (cont.)

Parallel RLC Circuit

v dv

iC Is

R dt

di

vL

dt

d 2i 1 di i Is Overdamped (a > w0)

dt 2 RC dt LC LC

it i A1e s1t A2e s2t

Same form of diff. equation

Critically Damped (a = w0)

as series RLC

it i B1 B2t ea t

s1, 2 a a 2 w0

2

1 1

a w0 it i ea t D1 cos wdt D2 sin wdt

2 RC LC

Oscillators

RLC circuit, the circuit becomes

an oscillator

General Second Order Circuits

Setup differential

equation

Determine a, w

Natural solution

Forced solution

(steady state)

Unknowns from

initial conditions

Example 6-13: Op-Amp Circuit

i1 in i2 i3 0

VS v dv

0 out C out 0

R1 R2 dt

di

vout R3iL L L

dt

Substitute vout into KCL

expression, rearrange for

diff. equation in terms of iL

d 2iL 1 R3 diL R3 Vs 1 R R3

2

iL a 3 w0

dt R2C L dt R2 LC R1LC 2 R2C 2 L R2 LC

Example 6-13: Op-Amp Circuit (cont.)

d 2iL 1 R3 diL R3 Vs

i

dt 2 R2C L dt R2 LC

L

R1LC

1 R R3

a 3 w0

2 R2C 2 L R2 LC

Cont.

Example 6-13: Op-Amp Circuit (cont.)

Cont.

Example 6-13: Op-Amp Circuit (cont.)

Multisim Example of RLC Circuit

RFID Circuit

Tech Brief 12:

Micromechanical

Sensors and

Actuators

Tech Brief 13: Touchscreens and Active Digitizers

Summary

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