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6.

RLC CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS by Ulaby & Maharbiz
Overview
Second Order Circuits
A second order circuit is
characterized by a second order
differential equation
 Resistors and two energy storage
elements
 Determine voltage/current as a
function of time
 Initial/final values of
voltage/current, and their
derivatives are needed
Initial/Final Conditions

Guidelines

 vC, iL do not change


instantaneously
 Get derivatives dvC/dt
and diL/dt from iC , vL
 Capacitor open, Inductor
short at dc
Example 6-2: Determine Initial/Final Conditions

Circuit V0  24 V
I0  4 A
R1  2 
R2  4 
R3  6 
L  0 .2 H
C  8 mF

t = 0‒
Example 6-2: Initial/Final Conditions (cont.)

Given: V0  24 V
t = 0+
I0  4 A
R1  2 
R2 4 
R3 6 
L  0 .2 H
C  8 mF
Example 6-2: Initial/Final Conditions (cont.)
t V0  24 V
I0  4 A
R1  2 
R2 4 
R3 6 
L  0 .2 H
C  8 mF
Series RLC Circuit : General Solution

Solution Outline

Transient solution

Steady State solution


Series RLC Circuit: Natural Response
Find Natural Response Of RLC Circuit
Natural response occurs when no active sources
are present, which is the case at t > 0.
0
Series RLC Circuit: Natural Response
Find Natural Response Of RLC Circuit
Solution of Diff. Equation

Assume:

It follows that:
Solution of Diff. Equation (cont.)

Invoke Initial Conditions to determine A1 and A2


0
Circuit Response: Damping Conditions

s1 and s2 are real

s1 = s2

Damping coefficient
s1 and s2 are complex

Resonant frequency
Overdamped Response

s1, 2  a  a 2  w0
2

a  damping factor
w0  resonant frequency

R 1
a w0 
2L LC

Overdamped, a > w0

vt   A1e s1t  A2e s2t


Underdamped Response
Damping: loss of stored energy

s1, 2  a  a 2  w0
2

a  damping factor
w0  resonant frequency
R 1
a w0 
2L LC

Underdamped a < w0
vt   ea t D1 cos wd t  D2 sin wd t 

wd  w02  a 2 Damped natural frequency


Critically Damped Response

s1, 2  a  a 2  w0
2

a  damping factor
w0  resonant frequency

R 1
a w0 
2L LC

Critically damped a = w0
vt   B1  B2t ea t
Total Response of Series RLC Circuit
Need to add Forced/Steady State Solution
vt   vss  vt t 
Natural solution represents transient response, decays to 0 as t  .
v() represents forced/steady state solution.
Overdamped (a > w0)
vt   v  A1e s1t  A2e s2t
Critically Damped (a = w0)
vt   v  B1  B2t ea t
Now find unknown constants
Underdamped (a < w0)
from initial conditions v(0+)
vt   v  ea t D1 cos wd t  D2 sin wd t  and dv/dt at t = 0+
Example 6-7: Overdamped RLC Circuit

Cont.
Example 6-7: Overdamped RLC Circuit
Example 6-8: Pulse Excitation
Example 6-9: Determine Capacitor Response

Circuit

At t = 0 ‒ :

t = 0‒
Example 6-9: Capacitor Response (cont.)

t = 0+

Initial values of the capacitor


voltage and its derivative will be
needed to evaluate constants D1
and D2
Example 6-9: Capacitor Response (cont.)
t>0 This is just a
series RLC circuit!
Example 6-9: Capacitor Response (cont.)
Parallel RLC Circuit
v dv
iC  Is
R dt
di
vL
dt
d 2i 1 di i Is Overdamped (a > w0)
  
dt 2 RC dt LC LC
it   i  A1e s1t  A2e s2t
Same form of diff. equation
Critically Damped (a = w0)
as series RLC
it   i  B1  B2t ea t
s1, 2  a  a 2  w0
2

Underdamped (a < w0)


1 1
a w0  it   i  ea t D1 cos wdt  D2 sin wdt 
2 RC LC
Oscillators

If R=0 in a series or parallel


RLC circuit, the circuit becomes
an oscillator
General Second Order Circuits

 Setup differential
equation
 Determine a, w
 Natural solution
 Forced solution
(steady state)
 Unknowns from
initial conditions
Example 6-13: Op-Amp Circuit
i1  in  i2  i3  0
 VS v dv
 0  out  C out  0
R1 R2 dt
di
vout  R3iL  L L
dt
Substitute vout into KCL
expression, rearrange for
diff. equation in terms of iL

d 2iL  1 R3  diL R3  Vs 1 R R3
2
     iL  a  3 w0 
dt  R2C L  dt R2 LC R1LC 2 R2C 2 L R2 LC
Example 6-13: Op-Amp Circuit (cont.)

d 2iL  1 R3  diL R3  Vs
     i 
dt 2  R2C L  dt R2 LC
L
R1LC

1 R R3
a  3 w0 
2 R2C 2 L R2 LC

Cont.
Example 6-13: Op-Amp Circuit (cont.)

Cont.
Example 6-13: Op-Amp Circuit (cont.)
Multisim Example of RLC Circuit
RFID Circuit
Tech Brief 12:

Micromechanical
Sensors and
Actuators
Tech Brief 13: Touchscreens and Active Digitizers
Summary