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CHAPTER I: Basics of networking, advantages, usabilities<<<<<<<<..3 CHAPTER II: The history of the Internet and the DNS<<<<<<<<<..12 CHAPTER III: Connectors, switches and routers<<<<<<<<<<<...25 CHAPTER IV: Network topologies<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<...33 CHAPTER V: Building a simple network with several computers on Windows Operating System. Connecting a Linux based computer to a Local Area Network<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<43 APPENDIX I: Technical terms and explanations<<<<<<<<<<<<..57 APPENDIX II: The OSI Model<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<.66 APPENDIX III: Bibliography<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<70 APPENDIX IV: Editorial Staff<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<..72
CHAPTER I: Basics of networking, advantages, usabilities
1.1 Definition When thinking of a network the main word is ‚interconnected‛. That refers to the fact that a series of systems - meaning computers and other devices - are able to communicate among themselves and share resources using communication paths or channels. This concept was initially conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency that started funding the design of the first computer network in the world for the United States Department of Defense. The event happened in the beginning of the 1960s which led to the development of network, starting in 1969. 1.2. Connections between computers. Peer to Peer Vs. Client-Server networks Peer to Peer and Client-Server are the two basic concepts of networking, each describing a particular architecture. Because network access is not only needed, but required, a Network Operating System, or NOS is installed onto each PC in order to control the flow of information between users. Peer to Peer A peer to peer network allows 2 or more PCs to share tasks or work loads between peers. Peers are equally privileged and due to that, individual resources such as disk drives, CD-ROM drives and even printers, turn into shared devices that can be accessed from every PC, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts.
That means that all computers in the network can communicate directly to each other and share all the resources. Peer-to-peer networks are appropriate only for very small businesses or for home use because of the fact that they can only support about 10 clients properly before getting overloaded. The systems used in this type of network usually go up to Windows 2000 Professional. For example, a Linux system would be unnecessary because there isn’t a master computer. Therefore, each client functions both as a client and as a server simultaneously. Most NOSs allow each peer-to-peer user to determine which resources will be available for use by other users. That means that if one user's disk has been configured so that it is "shared", it will usually appear as a new drive to the other users. Since users are allowed to control access to the resources on their own computers, security becomes very risky in a peer-to-peer environment. There’s no central security or any way to control who shares what. Users are free to create any network share points on their computers. The only security on a peer-to-peer network is at the share level. When users create network shares, they may implement no security, which means that anyone can have full access to the share, or they may set a password on the share. Depending on which networking platform you use, a user may be able to set password to a share for read-only access and another password for full control over the share. Advantages: There are more resources available to serve each user than in a Client Server network; There is no need for a network administrator; Network is fast/inexpensive to setup & maintain; Each PC can make backup copies of its data to other PCs for security; Easiest type of network to build, peer-to-peer is perfect for both home and office use.
Drawbacks: The network isn’t as secure as it seems to be; The system is not centralised, making administration difficult; Viruses can easily infiltrate into the system; Backup has to be performed on each computer separately.
Client-server The Client Server type of network divides and distributes the tasks between servers, which provide resources or services, and clients, the service requesters. A server machine is a host that is running one or more server applications which share their resources with clients. A client does not share any of its resources, but requests the server's content or a service function. Often clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but both client and server may reside in the same system. A server machine is a host that is running one or more server programs which share their resources with clients The server component provides a function or service to one or many clients, which initiate requests for such services. Comparison to peer-to-peer architecture In peer-to-peer architectures, each host or instance of an application can simultaneously act both as a client and a server, and each has equal responsibilities and status. Both client-server and peer-to-peer architectures are widely used today.
Advantages Compared to peer to peer, client-server has a central server; In most of the cases, a client-server architecture enables the roles and responsibilities of a computing system to be distributed among several independent computers that are known to each other only through a network; It functions with multiple different clients of different capabilities. Disadvantages
As the number of simultaneous client requests to a given server increases,
the server can become overloaded; Can have a single point of failure; Generally more expensive and difficult to set up initially. Point-to-point The Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is a data link protocol commonly used in establishing a direct connection between two networking nodes. PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line, trunk line, mobile phones, specialized radio links, and fiber optic links such as SONET. Point-to-point and Client-Server are similar networks, but Client-Server is better because the connection is faster and easier to establish between hosts.
1.3. Classification of the Networks a) Depending on their scales, usage and purpose, networks can be classified: PAN (Personal Area Network) is used for communication between a computer and different devices in a restricted area, that can be wired or wireless, such as printers, scanners, fax machines, PDAs, telephones or video game consoles. The reach of PAN typically extends to 10 meters. LAN (Local Area Network) connects computers and devices that are placed in certain buildings such as home, schools, computer laboratories, office buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node. The connections can be also wired or wireless with a bandwidth of 100 Mbps. HAN (Home Area Network) is a residential LAN used for communication among a small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. It can also be referred as OAN (Office Area Network). CAN (Campus Area Network) consists of a connection between different Local Area Networks (LANs) within a restricted geographical area, like academic departments, military bases or industrial compounds. WAN (Wide Area Network) shares information on a larger scale using a communication channel that combines many types of media, such as telephone lines, cables, and air waves. Cities, countries and intercontinental distances limit the area expansion of this kind of network.
GAN (Global Area Network) is a network used for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas. It involves a succession of terrestrial wireless local area networks (WLAN). EPN (Enterprise Private Network) interconnects divers company sites, such as production sites, head offices, remote offices or shops for the purpose of sharing computer resources. VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network, like the Internet, instead of by physical wires. b) Depending on the connection method, the network can be classified: A. Wired: Computers are interconnected with cables. B. Wireless: You can connect 2 or more devices without any cables in numerous ways:
a) via Infrared: which can transmit signals between devices within small distances not more than 10 meters peer to peer or (face to face) without any body in the line of transmitting. b) Via Bluetooth: is an open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security.
c) Wi-Fi: A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a personal computer, video game console, mobile phone, MP3 player or personal digital assistant can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet. 1.6. Advantages File sharing - files and data can be directly shared using a network, with no need for CDs/DVDs or USB flash drives. The distance is not an obstacle, as the information from one PC to another can be easily sent. Software costs - the prices of lots of software are lower if bought for the entire network comparing to purchasing them individually. Upgrades are also easier because changes only have to be done once on the file server instead of on individual workstations. Security - certain folders can be protected by a password to limit the access to authorized users. Important files on a network can be designed as ‚copy inhibit‛ in order to avoid illegal copy of applications or other media resources. Resource Sharing - all the computers on a network can share the same resources, such as printers, fax machines, scanners or modems. Communication - using the electronic mail, those on the network can communicate with each other even outside of the internet. Speed - file transfer speed between those on the network is much higher. Flexible access - files from computers can be accessed by users throughout the network. A user can change computers in order to finish his work. Multiple users can collaborate on the same project through the network.
Workgroup Computing - workgroup software like Microsoft BackOffice enables many users to contribute to a document concurrently. This allows for interactive teamwork. 1.7. Usabilities Networks have various usabilities in different domains. 1.Education Units, characterized by academic networks (Campus Area Network) . In the case of a university campus-based campus, the network links a variety of campus buildings including; academic departments, the university library and student residence halls. CAN networks have been created to facilitate student access to the Internet and university resources. Same usability exists in the pre-university education. 2.In the private domain (home), in which a network is used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is the sharing of Internet access, often a broadband service through a CATV provider. 3.In the enterprise domain, in which a network built by an enterprise interconnects various company sites, e.g., production websites, head offices, remote offices, shops, in order to share computer resources.
CHAPTER II: The history of the Internet and the DNS
What does the Internet mean? The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. When, how, why did the Internet appear? The start of internet development was the actual competition between two greatest powers of the XX century, U.S.A and U.R.S.S. In 1957, U.R.S.S launches the first artificial earth satellite into the outer space named Sputnik. This fact created a big concern on the U.S.A and that's why the president of U.S.A founded a special agency subordinated to the Pentagon (www.darpa.mil) . This agency of the department of defence was conducted by science men and has the mission of keeping the technological superiority of the U.S.A army by sponsoring the most revolutionary scientific discoveries and by the investment of unlimited founds for the creation of a bound between the scientific research and the military technological implementation of it.
What is DARPA? The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. DARPA has been responsible for funding the development of many technologies which have had a major effect on the world, including computer networking, as well as NLS, which was both the first hypertext system, and an important precursor to the contemporary ubiquitous graphical user interface. Its original name was simply Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), but it was renamed DARPA (for Defense) during March 1972, then renamed ARPA again during February 1993, and then renamed DARPA again during March 1996. DARPA was established during 1958 (as ARPA) in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik during 1957, with the mission of keeping U.S. military technology more sophisticated than that of the nation's potential enemies. From DARPA's own introduction. DARPA’s original mission, established in 1958, was to prevent technological surprise like the launch of Sputnik, which signaled that the Soviets had beaten the U.S. into space. The mission statement has evolved over time. Today, DARPA’s mission is still to prevent technological surprise to the US, but also to create technological surprise for its enemies. How did the ARPANET network function? After much work, the first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between Kleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas Engelbart's NLS system at SRI International (SRI) in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969. The third site on the ARPANET was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics centre at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the fourth was the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of future growth, there were already fifteen sites connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. All of these were coded in a protocol which could regulate the transmission of data. In it’s final form this was TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) created by Vint Cerf and
Robert Kahn in 1970 which still is the Internet basis. ARPANET, set out to create a separate commercial version after establishing "value added carriers" was legalized in the U.S. The network they established was called Telnet and began operation in 1975, installing free public dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. Telnet was the first packet-switching network open to the general public.
How was the information transmitted between the computers? Researcher Lawrence Roberts supports a solution for interconnection by packet switching in the so-called ‘‘client-server‛ model. Thus, the information was splitted into small pieces named packets in order to be transmitted. Every packet contained information about the receiver, so that he could be correctly introduced in the network . The whole information is reassembled, at the destination. The evolution of the Internet: The first form of Internet which was developed years ago was way different from the internet we are using today. Internet has taken many forms during its evolution. Many new innovations have been introduced into the Internet since then – And hence today we are experiencing the Internet which is more sophisticated and brims with higher speed, greater reliability, and larger bandwidth.
By the 1990s, the internet was being used by academic and research institutes only. A new technology named World Wide Web was invented by CERN physicist Tim Berners – Lee. The WWW brought a whole new revolution in the Internet and the Internet became extremely popular among non-academic users as well. Much of this progress was fuelled by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) which enabled the users to get connected to internet from their homes. Here’s a brief description of birth evolution of the Internet:
Prevalence of the Internet world is huge: on June 30, 2009 had access to the Internet about 1.67 billion inhabitants of the Earth.
THE HISTORY OF THE DNS What were the origins of the DNS? The Domain Name System was originally invented to support the growth of email communications on the ARPANET, and now supports the Internet on a global scale. Alphabetic host names were introduced on the ARPANET shortly after its creation, and greatly increased usability since alphabetic names are much easier to remember than semantically meaningless numeric addresses. Host names were also useful for development of network-aware computer programs, since they could reference a constant host name without concern about changes to the physical address due to network alterations. Of course, the infrastructure of the underlying network was still based on numeric addresses, so each site maintained a "HOSTS.TXT" file that provided a mapping between host names and network addresses in a set of simple text records that could be easily read by a person or program. Was the system efficient enough? It wasn't long before people realized that keeping multiple copies of the hosts file was inefficient and error-prone. Starting with a formal proposal for centralization in Host Names On-line, RFC 606, in December, 1973, proceeding through agreement in Host Names On-Line, RFC 608, and further discussions and comments on On-Line Host Name Service, RFC 623, it was settled by March, 1974 with On Line Hostnames Service, RFC 625, that the Stanford Research Institute Network Information Center (NIC) would serve as the official source of the master hosts file. This centralized system worked well for about a decade, approximately 1973 to 1983. However, by the early 1980's the disadvantages of centralized management of a large amount of dynamic data were becoming apparent. The hosts file was becoming larger, the rate of change was growing as the network expanded, more hosts were downloading the entire file nightly, and there were always errors that were then propagated network-wide. Change was required, but a spark was needed. A group of ARPANET researchers, principles, and related parties held a meeting in January, 1982, to discuss a solution for
email relaying. As described on the email addresses page, email was often originally sent from site to site to its destination along a path of systems, and might need to go through a half a dozen or more links that would connect at certain times of the day. For example, the following actual communication path shows individual systems separated by "!",with the destination user named "grg" tagged on at the end. utzoo!decvax!harpo!eagle!mhtsa!ihnss!ihuxp!grg. What is 'BIND'? The application that runs almost every DNS server on the Internet is called BIND, for Berkeley Internet Name Domain, first developed as a graduate student project at the University of California at Berkeley, and maintained through version 4.8.3 by the university's Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG).Versions 4.9 and 4.9.1 of BIND were released by then the number two computer company, Digital Equipment Corporation. The lead developer was Paul Vixie. After Vixie left to establish Vixie Enterprises, he sponsored the development of BIND Version 4.9.2, and became the application's principal architect. Versions 4.9.3 on have been developed and maintained by the Internet Systems Consortium. A major architectural update called Version 8 was codeveloped by Bob Halley and Paul Vixie and released in May 1997. Another major architectural rewrite called Version 9 with enhanced security support was developed and released in the year 2000. Did you know that… In 1971 the first e-mail was sent between two computers. Tomlinson was the one who created a program called SNDMSG who sent a simple email to a computer near the ARPAnet network. He was the one who put the @ in your email. The first e-mail address in the world was "Tomlinson @ bbn-tenexa. Tenexa was the name of operating system you use, and BBN were the initials of an employee's Tomlinson.
THE HISTORY OF WEB BROWSERS What is a Web Browser? A web browser is a software application whose aim is to download and present the www (World Wide Web) resources. The information on www are identified using URI (Uniform Resource Identifier). The best known browsers nowadays are Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Opera for Windows and Apple Safari, Mozilla Firefox and Opera for Mac.
How did the first Web Browser appear? The history of web browsers started around the 80s when a variety of technologies led to the first World Wide Web browser appearance. This browser was rolling on the NEXTSTEP platform and was renamed Nexus to avoid the confusion with World Wide Web. After that, ViolaWWW appeared. This was the most popular browser until 1993. It was the first browser to support embedded scriptable objects, stylesheets, and tables. Both projects were influenced a lot by the technological progress during the 80s when the appearance and development of the Internet took place.
How did the browsers evolve? Mosaic followed ViolaWWW. This browser was considered the first browser with a graphical interface. It went through the FTP, Usenet and Gopher protocols. The easily understood interface, the portability and the ease of installation led to the raise of the number of clients. It was also the first browser to show the pictures inside the page and not in other windows. The most popular browsers within the MAC users remain Apple Safari in the first place, followed by Firefox, Camino and Flock. Apart from that, one of the most popular browsers within the Unix users remains Lynx, the oldest browser until now. Google tried to create problems in this domain by launching Google Chrome by the end of 2008, a browser which attracted almost 4% of the web users, because of its ease and speed.
What is WEB 2.0? The term web 2.0 is commonly associated with web applications that facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web. A web 2.0 site gives its users the free choice to interact or collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to websites where users are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them. Examples of Web 2.0 include social-networking sites, blogs, wikis, videosharing sites, hosted services, web applications, mashups and folksonomies. The term is closely associated with Tim O'Reilly because of the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004. Although the term suggests a new version of the World Wide Web, it does not refer to an update to any technical specifications, but rather to cumulative changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the Web. Whether Web 2.0 is qualitatively different from prior web technologies has been challenged by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee, who called the term a "piece of jargon", precisely because he intended the Web in his vision as "a collaborative medium, a place where we [could] all meet and read and write". He called it the 'Read/Write Web'.
CHAPTER III: Connectors, switches and routers
I. Cables and connectors A cable is represented by two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly. There are many categories of cables you can use, according to the transmission speed, the distances and the security you need to implement: Coaxial cable Twisted pair cable Optical fiber 1. a. Coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax, is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a flexible, tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. Like any electrical power cord, coaxial cable conducts electric current between locations. Like these other cables, it has two conductors, the central wire and the tubular shield. At any moment the current is traveling outward from the source in one of the conductors, and returning in the other. Short coaxial cables are commonly used to connect home video equipment, in ham radio setups, and in measurement electronics. They used to be common for implementing computer networks, in particular Ethernet, but twisted pair cables have replaced them in most applications except in the growing consumer cable modem market for broadband Internet access.
1. b. Coaxial connectors Coaxial connectors are designed to maintain a coaxial form across the connection and have the same well-defined impedance as the attached cable.
2. Twisted cables Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors (forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purpose of canceling out electromagnetic interference. Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded. 2. A. a. Unshielded twisted pair cable Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for school networks. The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely highspeed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supported transmission rate.
Cat1* Cat2* Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 6 Cat 7
Analog voice (POTS), ISDN (one Pair) – 1Mhz up to 1Mbits/s; Mainly used in Token Ring networks Bandwidth 16Mhz. Data carrying up to 10 Mbits/s Used in 16Mbit/s Token Ring. Not used much. A twisted pair high signal integrity cable. ‛Mostly unshielded‛ Standard provides performance up to 500Mhz and 10Gbit/s. Features more specifications for crosstalk and system noise then previous categories. Shielding was added for individual wire pairs and the cable as a whole. Frequency up to 1000Mhz. 10Gbit/s at 100 meters. 40Gbit/s possible at 50 meters. 100Gbit/s at 15 meters. *All categories are backwards compatible.
2. A. b Unshielded twisted pair connector The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45 connector. This is a plastic connector that looks like a large telephone-style connector. 2. B. Shielded twisted pair cable Although UTP cable is the least expensive cable, it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference (it should not be too close to electric motors, fluorescent lights, etc.). If you must place cable in environments with lots of potential interference, or if you must place cable in extremely sensitive environments that may be susceptible to the electrical current in the UTP, shielded twisted pair may be the solution. Shielded cables can also help to extend the maximum distance of the cables.
Shielded twisted pair cable is available in three different configurations: Each pair of wires is individually shielded with foil. There is a foil or braid shield inside the jacket covering all wires (as a group). There is a shield around each individual pair, as well as around the entire group of wires (referred to as double shield twisted pair).
3. Fiber optic cable Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials (See fig. 5). It transmits light eliminating the problem of electrical interference. This makes it ideal for certain environments that contain a large amount of electrical interference. It has also made it the standard for connecting networks in between. Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability to carry information at much higher speeds. This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services. There are two common types of fiber cables: single mode and multimode. Multimode cable has a larger diameter; however, both cables provide large bandwidth at high speeds. Single mode can transmit signals over a greater distance, but it is more expensive.
Installing Cables: It is always recommended to use more cables than you need. You should leave plenty of slack. Every time you install a new part of the network, you should test it first. There are problems that may occur even if that certain part is brand new. You should stay at least 1 meter away from sources of electrical interference and fluorescent light boxes. If the cable runs across the floor, cover it with cable protectors. Label both ends of each cable. In order to keep cables in the same location together, use cable ties. II.Routers A router represents the electronic device which is used for interconnecting and interchanging packets of data between two or more computer networks. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect. Routers connect two or more logical subnets, each having a different network address.
Routers come in all sizes and shapes and are used for companies, houses, businesses, ISPs themselves and many other things. The router is the only device that enables you to see every message sent between the network. For the router to decide where the package of data should go, it needs a configuration table, which is a collection of information: specifications on which connections lead to particular groups of addresses; priorities for connections; rules for handling both routine and special cases of traffic. The computer you'd like to receive the message has to be connected to a router to be able to communicate between the network. There are different types of routers such as wired and wireless. A wired router can only transmit data if you have an Ethernet cables. The advantage of using a wired connection instead of a wireless one is the fact that the security is higher, as well as the transfer rates. The wireless router has to be provided with a cable, from where the information comes and after that it is transmitted out by radio waves.
III.Switches A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects network segments. The term commonly refers to a network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3 and above) are often referred to as Layer 3 switches or multilayer switches. In some service provider and other environments where there is a need for a great deal of analysis of network performance and security, switches may be connected between WAN (Wide Area Network) routers as places for analytic modules. Some vendors provide firewall, network intrusion detection, and
performance analysis modules that can plug into switch ports and help to secure your network. Switches are similar to network hubs and are usually included as part of a router. However, switches prevent data packets from colliding with one another in the network, unlike the hubs do.
The above switch can establish a connection between 24 computers. A standard switch can have maximum 48 ports and is used in big enterprises.
CHAPTER IV: NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
Network topology is defined as the interconnection of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. There are two main categories of topologies: Physical- the design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation; Logical - how data is actually transferred in a network as opposed to its physical design.
BUS TOPOLOGY A bus topology is a network architecture in which a set of clients are connected via a shared communications line. A bus is usually referred as the cable that connects end to end and this is used to transmit the signals.
Advantages If one computer fails, the others are still not affected and they continue to work; It‘s easy to implement, to extend and to install; Well-suited for temporary or small networks: not requiring high speeds (quick setup); Cheaper than other topologies. Effective cost: only a single cable is used; Easy identification of cable faults.
Disadvantages If there is a problem with the cable, the entire network breaks down; Performance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traffic (shared bandwidth); Proper termination is required (loop must be in closed path); Significant Capacitive Load (each bus transaction must be able to stretch to most distant link). It works better with limited number of nodes. Passivity – the computers on the bus are not responsible for moving the signal along, they simply listen for a signal; When a device sends it’s packet out over the bus, every other network card on the bus sees and reads that packet; Only one packet can remain on the bus during one clock pulse; When two cards send packets at the same time, it results a collision, and the cards themselves arbitrate to decide which one will resend its packet first. STAR TOPOLOGY A star network consists of one central switch, hub or computer, which acts as a conduit to transmit messages. Thus, the switch, the leaf nodes, and the transmission lines between them, form a graph with the topology of a star.
Advantages: Higher performance: star topology prevents the passing of data packets through an excessive number of nodes. At most, 3 devices and 2 links are involved in any communication between any two devices. Although this topology places a huge overhead on the central switch, with adequate capacity, the switch can handle very high utilization by one device without affecting others; Isolation of devices: Each device is inherently isolated by the link that connects it to the switch. This makes the isolation of individual devices straightforward and amounts to disconnecting each device from the others. This isolation also prevents any non-centralized failure from affecting the network; Benefits from centralization: As the central switch is the bottleneck, increasing it’s capacity, or connecting additional devices to it, you can increase the size of the network very easily. Centralization also allows the inspection of traffic through the network. This facilitates analysis of the traffic and detection of suspicious behaviour; Simplicity: This topology is easy to understand, establish, and navigate. It’s simplicity obviates the need for complex routing or message passing protocols. Also, as noted earlier, the isolation and centralization it allows simplify fault detection, as each link or device can be probed individually; Easy to install, to wire, to detect faults and to remove parts; No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices. Disadvantages: The high dependence of the system on the functioning of the central switch. While the failure of an individual link only results in the isolation of a single node, the failure of the central hub switch the network inoperable, immediately isolating all nodes; The performance and scalability of the network also depend on the capabilities of the switch;
Network size is limited by the number of connections that can be made to the hub, and performance for the entire network is capped by it’s throughput; Wiring up of the system can be very complex and high costing. RING TOPOLOGY A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node, a ring. Data travels from node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet
Every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit data packets; Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load; Can create a much larger network using Token Ring; Does not require a network server to manage the connectivity between the computers.
One malfunctioning workstation or bad port in the MAU can create problems for the entire network;
Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the network; Network adapter cards and MAU's are much more expensive than Ethernet cards and switches; Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load.
HYBRID TOPOLOGY Hybrid networks use a combination of any two or more topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies (bus, star, ring, etc.). A hybrid topology is always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected.
Advantages: It can be designed in many ways for various purposes.
Disadvantages: It is costly.
TREE TOPOLOGY In tree network, the nodes are connected to each other to form a tree structure. Typically to form a tree network, multiple star and bus topologies are combined together. On tree topology the switches of each star topology are connected to the central switch that controls the entire network. However, some nodes can be directly connected to the central switch.
Advantages: The tree topology has the same advantages as star topology but it has some additional advantages. These are. Point-to-point wiring for individual segments; Supported by several hardware and software companies; It allows more devices to be connected to the central switch. Disadvantages: The tree topology also has the same disadvantages as star topology but it has some additional disadvantages such as: It is more expansive because more hubs are required to install the network; Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used; If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down; More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.
STAR-RING TOPOLOGY In the star-ring physical topology, individual devices are connected to a central switch, just as they are in a star or distributed star network. However, within each switch the physical connections form a ring. Where multiple switches are used, the ring in each switch is opened, leaving two ends. Each open end is connected to an open end of some other switch (each to a different switch), so that the entire network cable forms one physical ring. In the star-ring physical topology, the hubs are "intelligent." Currently, the star topology and its derivatives are preferred by most network designers and installers.
Advantages: If the physical ring is somehow broken, each switch is able to close the physical circuit at any point in it’s internal ring, so that the ring is restored. These topologies make it simple to add network devices anywhere on the network;
New computers can be easily added; Cable layouts are easy to modify (you can simply install one new cable between the central connection point). Disadvantages : Are susceptible to bottlenecking and single-point failure , however it could be remedied by providing a redundant backup of the switch node; Expanding the system can be costly; Uses a large amount of cable; Network reconfiguration disrupts operation. MESH TOPOLOGY The mesh topology incorporates a unique network design in which each computer on the network connects to every other, creating a point-to-point connection between every device on the network.
Eliminates traffic problems in links sharing; Point-to-point link make fault identification and fault isolation easy.; Provides redundant paths between devices; The network can be expanded without disruption to current users; It has multiple links, so if one route is blocked then other routes can be used for data communication;
Each connection can have it’s own data load, so the traffic problem is eliminated; It ensures the data privacy and security, because every message travels along a dedicated link; Troubleshooting of this topology is easy as compared to others; Its performance is not affected with heavy load of data transmission.
Disadvantages: Requires more cable than the other LAN topologies, for the wiring connection, and it can be difficult to manage; Complicated implementation, installation and reconnection; It is generally too costly and complex for practical networks.
CHAPTER V: Building a simple network with several computers on Windows Operating System. Connecting a Linux based computer to a Local Area Network
Building a network using computers with Windows operating system installed on them is quite simple due to the user-friendly interface you benefit from. You don’t need to have any advanced knowledge in networking either. You only have to know a few basic rules. It doesn’t even matter what network topology you want to use, because the software configuration is the same. First of all, all the computers in the network have to be in the same workgroup. You will learn how to set the workgroup name on a specific computer with Windows XP installed. It is almost the same story if you use Windows Vista or Windows 7. Please follow the steps below: 1. Click the Start button and enter the Control Panel:
2. If you have never accessed Control Panel, you should click on ‚Switch to Classic View‛ option:
3. Double click on the ‚System‛ icon:
4. Click on the ‚Computer Name‛ tab:
5. Click on the ‚Change‛ button. A window like the one below will pop-up:
You can change the workgroup name by editing the workgroup field. When you are done, click on the ‚OK‛ button. You will be asked to restart your system in order for the changes to take effect.
The next step is to set the computer IP addresses. Probably you’re now wondering what the IP addresses are. Well, there are unique numbers to identify computers within a network. Imagine them as being telephone numbers of computers. There are 2 types of IP addresses: public and private. Public IP addresses are those assigned to the computers when connected to the Internet. Private IP addresses are those in a home network, that are never used on the Internet.
Therefore, the computers in your network must have private IP addresses from the following ranges: 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255
It is recommended to use the third range.
You can set the IP address of a specific computer in the network by following the steps below: 1. Click the Start button and enter the Control Panel:
2. Click on the ‚Network Connections‛ icon:
3. Right click on the network connection you want to configure, and then choose ‚Properties‛:
4. A window like below will pop up:
5. Now check the ‚Use the following IP addresses‛ radio box. The ‚Use the following DNS server addresses‛ radio box will be checked automatically:
Now you have to decide what you are building the network for. You can build the network just for sharing files/and or printers between several computers, but if you want to establish an Internet connection on all of them, you have to set the Default gateway and the Preferred DNS server. The gateway is the computer that shares the Internet connection with the other computers in the same subnet. Almost always, the DNS server is the same computer. In conclusion, you have to complete the ‚Default gateway‛ field and the ‚Preferred DNS server‛ field with the IP address of that computer. You will learn how to share the Internet connection on the gateway later. Also, the ‚subnet mask‛ field will be completed automatically when you click on it. An example of IP configuration is shown below:
After configuring the IP addresses, click on the ‚OK‛ button.
To share files in the network you’ve just created, follow the steps below: 1. After clicking on ‚My Computer‛, right click on the folder or partition that you want to share, then choose ‚Properties‛:
2. A window like below should pop-up. Click on the ‚Sharing‛ tab, and then click on ‚If you understand the risks, but you still want to share the root of drive, click here‛:
3. Check the ‚Share this folder on the network‛ option. If you are on a network where you trust all the persons having access to it (ex. at home) and you want to allow the network user to change your files (edit them, move them, delete them,...), then check the ‚Allow network user to change my files‛ option:
Your shared folder / drive should now be accessible through ‚My network places‛ on all computers within your network:
To share the Internet Connection in the network you have created, you have to follow the steps below on the computer acting as a gateway: 1. After entering the control panel, click on the ‚Network Connections‛ icon:
2. Right click on the connection that you want to share, and then on ‚Properties‛:
3. A window like below should pop-up. Click on the ‚Advanced‛ tab:
4. Check the ‚Allow other network users to connect through this computer’s Internet connection‛. If you want to allow other users in the network to enable/disable the connection check the ‚Allow other network users to control or disable the shared Internet connection‛ checkbox. Remember that only on the other computers, you will have to input the IP of the computer that shares the Internet connection into the ‚Default gateway‛ and the ‚Preferred DNS server‛ fields on the General tab of Local Area Connection Properties.
Now you will learn how to connect a computer with GNU/Linux installed to a TCP/IP network. After installing GNU/Linux on a computer and assigning it the IP address, you will need to give it a secondary IP address which should share the same subnet with the main router if your network is part of a bigger LAN. 1. Go to ‚Applications‛ menu 2. Click ‚Accessories‛ 3. Click ‚Terminal‛ 4. Type "ifconfig eth0:0 (IP)", where ‚(IP)‛ is the IP address which you assigned to the computer. To set the gateway type: "route add default gw (IP of gateway)" You need to mask the PCs behind your gateway in order to gain access to the Internet. Turn on NAT (Network Address Translation) and masquerading on by typing: "iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE" *Tip: If your subnet's gateway has Linux OS installed you need to type the following commands every time you turn it on in order to connect to the internet: 1. "ech0 1 >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward" - turns it into a router for the other PCs in your subnet 2. "ifconfig eth0:0 (IP)" 3. "route add default gw (IP of the central gateway)" **You can check your configuration with the command ‚ifconfig‛.
APPENDIX I: TECHNICAL TERMS AND EXPLANATIONS
COAXIAL CABLE Coaxial cable is the kind of copper cable used by cable TV companies between the community antenna and user homes and businesses. Coaxial cable is sometimes used by telephone companies from their central office to the telephone poles near users. It is also widely installed for use in business and corporation Ethernet and other types of local area network. Coaxial cable is called "coaxial" because it includes one physical channel that carries the signal surrounded by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same axis. The outer channel serves as a ground. Many of these cables or pairs of coaxial tubes can be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, can carry information for a great distance. TWISTED PAIR CABLE Twisted pair is the type of cable that consists of two independently wires (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) twisted around one another. CONVERTER A converter is a device that helps us to interconnect different types of cables by converting data from one cable to another. HUB In general, a hub is the central part of a wheel where the spokes come together. In data communications, a hub is the central connection for all the computers in a network, usually Ethernet-based. So this hardware device is a place of convergence and when a piece of information arrives at one of its ports, it is copied and sent to the other ports, so that all the segments of the Local Area Network can see it.
SWITCH Nowadays, the hubs are no longer used. We use switches instead. The advantage of using a switch over a hub is that most of the network traffic only goes where it needs to rather than to every port. This makes the network significantly faster. NIC A network interface card (NIC) is a computer circuit board or card that is installed in a computer so that it can be connected to a network. Personal computers and workstations on a local area network (LAN) typically contain a network interface card specifically designed for the LAN transmission technology, such as Ethernet or Token Ring. Network interface cards provide a dedicated, full-time connection to a network. Most home and portable computers connect to the Internet through as-needed dial-up connection. The modem provides the connection interface to the Internet service provider. NETWORK PANEL It is a panel of network ports contained together, usually within a telecommunication node that connects incoming and outgoing lines of a Local Area Network. PATCH PANEL In a LAN, the patch panel connects the network's computers to each other and to the outside lines that enable the LAN to connect to the Internet (with patch cords). The patch panel allows circuits to be arranged and rearranged by plugging and unplugging the patch cords. Patch panels also allow technicians to quickly change the path of signals, without switching equipment. Patch panels
was first used by early telephone exchanges but nowadays they are used to connect different devices, such as microphones, electric or electronic instruments, effects etc. TCP The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP is one of the two original components of the suite, complementing the Internet Protocol (IP) and therefore the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. A TCP connection provides the service of exchanging data directly between two hosts reliably This means that a connection must be established and announced - both sides must acknowledge the state of the connection. If data packets are lost they are retransmitted. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent. Major Internet applications rely on TCP: Mail, WWW, File Transfer. The advantages: reliable connection, the applications using TCP don't care about the state of the connection (not necessarily); The disadvantage: protocol overhead. IP ADDRESS An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 220.127.116.11 could be an IP address. The four numbers in an IP address are used in different ways to identify a particular network and a host on that network.
Static and Dynamic IP Network infrastructure devices such as servers, routers and firewalls are typically assigned permanent "static" IP addresses. The client machines can also be assigned static IPs by a network administrator, but most often are
automatically assigned temporary "dynamic" IP addresses via software that uses the "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol" (DHCP). The dynamic IP address changes each time the user reconnects to the network. Private IP Address These addresses are characterized as private because they are not assigned to any computer over the Internet, and IP packets addressed by them cannot be transmitted onto the public Internet. Also, they are set manually and they are used in private networks (home, office, residential networks and so on). Subnet A subnet (short for "subnetwork") is an identifiably separate part of an organization's network. Typically, a subnet may represent all the machines at one geographic location, in one building, or on the same local area network (LAN). Having an organization's network divided into subnets allows it to be connected to the Internet with a single shared network address. NAT Network Address Translation is standard that allows an organization to present itself to the Internet with far fewer IP addresses than there are nodes on its internal network. The NAT technology, which is implemented in a router, firewall or PC, converts private IP addresses (such as in the 192.168.0.0 range) of the machine on the internal private network to one or more public IP addresses for the Internet. It changes the packet headers to the new address and keeps track of them via internal tables that it builds. UDP User Datagram Protocol is a simple transport layer protocol for client/server network applications based on Internet Protocol (IP). With UDP, computer applications can send messages (in this case referred as datagrams) to the other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without requiring prior communications to set up special transmission channels or data paths.
PROTOCOL In computing and telecommunications, a protocol or communications protocol is a formal description of message formats and the rules for exchanging those messages. At the lowest level, a protocol defines the behaviour of a hardware connection. Network engineers have written rules for communication that must be strictly followed for successful communication between any 2 parts involved. Example: The protocols in human communication are separate rules about appearance, speaking, listening and understanding. All these rules, also called protocols of conversation, represent different layers of communication. They work together to help people successfully communicate. The need for protocols also applies to network devices. OSI MODEL The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a way of sub-dividing a communications system into smaller parts called layers. A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it. FRAME In computer networking and telecommunication, a frame is a data packet that includes frame synchronization. This is a sequence of bits or symbols making it possible for the receiver to detect the beginning and end of the packet in the stream of symbols or bits. If a receiver is connected to the system in the middle of a frame transmission, it ignores the data until it detects a new frame synchronization sequence. ETHERNET Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). It defines a number of wiring and signalling
standards for the Physical Layer of the OSI networking model as well as a common addressing format. It is the most widespread wired LAN technology. PORT There are two types of computer ports: hardware ports and software ports. A software port (usually just called a 'port') is a virtual/logical data connection that can be used by programs to exchange data directly, instead of going through a file or other temporary storage location. A hardware port serves as an interface between the computer and other computers or peripheral devices. Physically, a port is a specialized outlet on a piece of equipment to which a plug or cable connects. Services Network services are the foundation of a networked computing environment. Generally network services are installed on one or more servers to provide shared resources to client computers. Common network services include: • HTTP(S) – Websites and applications • SMTP – eMail communication • FTP – File Transfer Protocol • DNS – Domain Name System • SSH – Secure Shell Access • POP3(S) – Mailretrival protocol • IMAP(S) – Mailbox protocol HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol, the standard way of transferring information across the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page. HTTP is called a stateless protocol because each command is executed independently, without any knowledge of
the commands that came before it. This is the main reason that it is difficult to implement Web sites that react intelligently to user input. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol for sending e-mail messages between servers. Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another; the messages can then be retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or IMAP. In addition, SMTP is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your e-mail application. FTP File Transfer Protocol is a standard network protocol used to copy a file from one host to another over a TCP/IP-based network, such as the Internet. DNS The Domain Name System makes it possible to assign domain names to groups of Internet users in a meaningful way, independent of each user's physical location. Because of this, World Wide Web (WWW) hyperlinks and Internet contact information can remain consistent and constant even if the current Internet routing arrangements change or the participant uses a mobile device. This is useful because Internet domain names are easier to remember than IP addresses. SSH Secure Shell is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged using a secure channel between two networked devices. It is used primarily on Linux and Unix based systems to access shell accounts. SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and other insecure remote shells, which send information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to packet analysis.
Routing Routing represents, the process of moving a packet of data from source to destination. Routing is usually performed by a dedicated device called a router. Routing is a key feature of the Internet because it enables messages to pass from one computer to another and eventually reach the target machine. Each intermediary computer performs routing by passing along the message to the next computer. Part of this process involves analyzing a routing table to determine the best path. ARP Short for Address Resolution Protocol, a network layer protocol used to convert an IP address into a physical address (called a DLC address), such as an Ethernet address. The term address resolution refers to the process of finding an address of a computer in a network. The address is "resolved" using a protocol in which a piece of information is sent by a client process executing on the local computer to a server process executing on a remote computer. The information received by the server allows the server to uniquely identify the network system for which the address was required and therefore to provide the required address. The address resolution procedure is completed when the client receives a response from the server containing the required address. MAU Medium Attachment Unit, also known as "transceiver" converts signals on an Ethernet cable to and from Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) signals.
APPENDIX II: THE OSI MODEL
The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model represents an hierarchical communications structure used to constitute a network and to allow communication between computers no matter what structural features there are. As applications, OSI model divides network communication problem of a hierarchical architecture composed of seven layers. Each layer has well defined functions and communicates only with adjacent layers, allowing linking different types of software and hardware. Each level has well established positions and allows communication from the top to bottom, in order to create well-established hierarchy.
7. Application - Serves as the window for users Application / “End-user visible” and application - Processes to access the network HTTP, SMTP, FTP service 6. Presentation - Formats the data to be presented by Session the application Layer. SSL, TLS - It can be viewed as the ‚translator‚ for the network. Transport - Allows session establishment between processes Sockets / Streams NetBIOS, L2TP, SIP , Session establishment Allows session - Running in different stations. establishment between processes Sockets / Streams , Session establishment, - Ensures that data is delivered TCP/UDP error-free, in sequence and with no Message losses or duplications acknowledgment
-Controls the operations of the Network subnet, deciding which physical IP, ICMP, IPSEC , path the data takes. Routing, Subnet traffic control, logical-physical address mapping (Routers, L3-Switches ) Protocol -Provides error-free transfer of data Physical frames from one node to another Ethernet, Token ring, over the physical layer. PPP, ARP , Ethernet frame „envelopes‚ contains MAC address -Concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over the physical medium Transmission Medium 100baseT, Fiber (Optical) [a HUB is working only on L1] , data encoding, physical medium attachment, physical medium Transmission: Bits & Volts
2. Data link
This diagram presents how the OSI model works
APPENDIX III: BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://www.bukisa.com/articles/114814_network-topology-advantagesand-disadvantages-of-star-and-mesh-topology http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_advantages_of_mesh_topology_ over_other_types_of_network_topology http://www.free-computer-tips.info/networking-tips/mesh-topology-treetopology-and-hybrid-topology.html http://www.wikipedia.org Bradley Mitchell "Network Topologies" , About.com Guide, retrieved May 24 2010 http://www.ehow.com http://www.youtube.com http://fcit.usf.edu/network/chap4/chap4.html
APPENDIX IV: EDITORIAL STAFF
COORDINATING TEACHER: Slobodan Aleksic CHIEF EDITOR: Hodorog Andrei EDITORIAL STAFF:
Agavriloaei Matei-Andrei Anghel Theodor Anton Mădălina Ioana Bernevic Elsa-Maria Bezrucav Ştefan Octavian Borş Radu Buhuş Corina-Mădălina Chelsău Andreas-Mihael-Rareş Chiţimuş Diana-Maria Cojocaru Andreea-Roxana Constantinescu Adela Dimitriu Ana-Maria-Andreea Eşanu Tudor Fâcă Ionuţ-Codrin Filip Smaranda-Nicoleta Flueraru Bogdan-Mihai Foszto Monica Fotache Mădălina-Ioana Garas Radu Humelnicu Roxana Istrate Alexandra-Brenda Ivan Monica Merticariu Bogdan-Cristian Mitu Ina-Maria Munteanu Bogdan Nechita Daniela-Elena Petruşcă Monica Pîrţac Adriana Sava Lucian-Cristian Siminiuc Iuliana-Antoanela Siriteanu R. Lucian Szabo P.T. Lavinia-Sabrina Ştefan M.O. Ioana-Alexandra Toma Florina Veringă Gh. Iuliana-Andreea
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