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$EVWUDFW±$QDO\VLVRI':'0V\VWHPXVLQJ(')$LQ&EDQG (wavelength) narrowness of each channel, or how close (in
 QP WR  QP 2SWLPXP UHVXOWV RI *DLQ 1RLVH terms of wavelength) the channels are. Forty channel DWDM
)LJXUH *DLQ )ODWWHQLQJ DQG %(5 DUH REWDLQHG E\ YDU\LQJ systems can transmit over a single fiber an aggregate
LQSXW FKDQQHO SRZHU FKDQQHO VSDFLQJ (')$ OHQJWK 3XPS bandwidth of 400 Gbits (10 Gbpsper channel). The number of
3RZHU DQG (UELXP FRQFHQWUDWLRQ *DLQ RI (')$ LV channels also depends on the type of fiber. A single strand of
SURSRUWLRQDO WR WKH GLIIHUHQFH LQ SRSXODWLRQ RI LQWHUPHGLDWH single- mode fiber can transmit over 80 km without
OHYHO DQG ORZHU OHYHO 7KH SRSXODWLRQ LQYHUVLRQ FDQ EH amplification. Placing eight optical amplifiers in cascade, the
FRQWUROOHG E\ SURSHU FKRRVLQJ RI ILEHU OHQJWK DQG LQMHFWHG total distance is extended to over 640 km (this is typical for 80-
SXPS SRZHU WR (')$  7ZR PHWKRGV RI SXPSLQJ DUH channel systems at 10 Gbits per channel). There is race among
GLVFXVVHGGLUHFW SXPSLQJDW QPDQG LQGLUHFW SXPSLQJ companies and experimenters to break new records; longer
DWQP5HVXOWVDUHREWDLQHGDWQPRQO\5HVXOWVZHUH distances, more channels, and higher bit rates frequently make
REWDLQHGXVLQJRSWLFDOVLPXODWLRQVRIWZDUH the news. And this trend is expected to continue until all limits
 of physics for this technology have been reached and pushed
,QGH[7HUPV$3'':'0(')$1)3,13KRWRGLRGH back.
 EDFA has a narrow high gain peak at 1532 nm and a broad
NOMENCLATURE peak with a lower gain centered at 1550nm. So different
$3'±$YDODQFKH3KRWR'LRGH DWDM signals are amplified by different amounts.
(')$±(UELXP'RSHG)LEHU$PSOLILHU II. (')$23(5$7,21
1)±1RLVH)LJXUH Electrons from ground level (E1) are excited to higher energy
3,13KRWRGLRGH±3RVLWLYH±,QWULQVLF±1HJDWLYH3KRWRGLRGH state (E3) by pump laser signal as shown in Fig. 1. However,
E3 is not stable and erbium ions are soon dropped to the meta-
I. INTRODUCTION stable state E2 via a radiation less decay process (i.e. no photon
DWDM utilizes a large aggregate bandwidth in a single fiber is released).
by taking advantage of advanced optical technology that is able
to launch and multiplex many wavelengths in one fiber, switch
wavelengths optically with channels having spacing of 0.8nm
or less, and at the receiving end, de-multiplex and read each
wavelength separately. In DWDM, each wavelength constitutes
a separate channel capable of carrying traffic at a bit rate that
may not be the same on all channels. DWDM systems take
advantage of advanced optical technology (e.g., tunable lasers, 
narrowband optical filters, etc.) to generate many wavelengths )LJXUH(')$HQHUJ\OHYHOGLDJUDP
in the range around 1550 nm. ITU-T Recommendation 0.692 Population inversion is obtained at E2. When an optical signal
defines 43 wavelength channels, from 1530 to 1565 nm, with a of wavelength 1550nm passes through this erbium-doped fiber,
spacing of 1000Hz, each channel carrying an OC192 signal at particles in the meta-stable state are transited to the ground
10 GbitsHowever, systems with wavelength channels of more state via stimulated radiation and generate photons identical to
than 43 wavelengths have been introduced, and systems with the photons of the incident signal light. Hence signal
many more wavelengths are on the experimenter's workbench. amplification is obtained with a gain given by
Currently, commercial systems with 16, 40, 80, and 128 Gain (dB) = 10 log10(Pout/Pin) 1
channels (wavelengths) per fiber have been announced. Those At high input power, Gain saturation occurs, decreasing gain of
with 40 channels have channel spacing of 100 GHz, and those EDFA as gain is proportional to the difference in the
with 80 channels have channel spacing at 50 GHz. This population of intermediate level and lower level. This
channel separation determines the width of the spectral phenomenon results in the effects shown in Fig. 2 [8]
The noise figure based on signal-noise beating is given by:
 Fn = PASE(ȜS)/[hfGBW(ȜS)] 2
Where ȜS, is the signal wavelength. Also Noise Figure can be
 written as:
Fn = 2nSP 3
It follows directly from above formula that if nSP is 1, the SNR
of an amplified signal decreases two fold (by 3dB). Typical

978-93-80544-12-0/14/$31.00 2014
c IEEE 840
value of nSP is 1.4 to 4, which is why noise figure ( sp), is the average duration atoms stay at a specific level
approximately varies from 3.5 to 9dB for EDFA’s. before they move spontaneously down to the next energy level.
The lifetime of erbium ions at the upper level is only about 1
—s, while the lifetime of Erbium ions at the intermediate level
is more than 10 ms ( with this long lifetime, such a level is
called metastable). Therefore, Erbium ions pumped at the upper
level will descend to the intermediate level very quickly and
will stay at that level for a comparatively long time. In other
words, Erbium ions will accumulate at the intermediate level,
creating population inversion.
When pumping is done directly (at 1480-nm), only two energy
levels are involved. Erbium ions are continuously taken from
 )LJXUH>@*DLQ6DWXUDWLRQ the lower level by external optical energy at 1480-nm and
 placed at the intermediate level. Since the lifetime of Erbium
III. SYSTEM SETUP ions at this level is long, they accumulate here, again creating
We simulate a 16 channel DWDM system in the range of 1550- population inversion.
nm. System configuration is shown in Fig.2. Modulation used
is NRZ. The 16 multiplexed channels are normally simulated in V. RESULTS
the range of 1546-nm to 1558-nm, which is however At pump power of 120mW, Gain obtained is in the range of
sometimes changed to analyze the system performance for 33.37 to 33.39dB for 7m length over the wavelength range
varying wavelength. Frequency spacing between various from 1546 to 1558nm. For the same parametric condition Noise
channels is set normally to 0.8-nm, having wavelength range of Figure obtained is in the range of 7.22 to 6.07 dB. Fig. 3 shows
12-nm. Power of each channel is -26dBm, which is however variation of Gain and NF with varying input power of a
varied to analyze the effect of varying input power on Gain and channel. As Input Power varies from 20dBm to -80dBm, Gain
Noise of the active fiber. The optical isolator is also used to varies from 5.8895 to 42.41913 dB and Noise Figure varies
achieve stable amplifier operation, which functions to block the from 13.8445 to 8.82067 dB. In Fig. 4 the pump power is
reflected light into the amplifier. Pumping at 980nm is used to varied to measure the output power for the different fiber
excite the doped atoms to a higher energy level. length at a constant input power of -26dBm. With increase in
Results are obtained for APD and PIN Photo-detector on BER pump power, output power increases linearly. Fig. 5 shows
Analyzer. Low Pass Bessel Filter used limits the noise power. Gain Flattening obtained over wavelength range of 1540 nm to



To attain population inversion we need to pump Erbium ions at
the intermediate level. There are two ways to do this: pumping
them directly at 1480-nm wavelength or indirectly at the 980-
nm wavelength.
In indirect method (980-nm) Erbium ions are continuously
moved from the lower state to the upper level, there they non-
radiatively decay to the intermediate energy level from where )LJXUH9DULDWLRQRIRXWSXWSRZHUZLWKFKDQJLQJ(')$
they fall to the lower level radiating the desired wavelength OHQJWKDWFRQVWDQWSXPSSRZHU
(1500 to 1600-nm). This is known as three level mechanism. 
The key to using this three level mechanism is the lifetimes of
the two upper levels. Lifetime or time of spontaneous emission

2014 International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom) 841

Fig.6 shows Gain increases initially with increase in
concentration of Erbium ions from 200ppm for various values
of Pump Power. Noise Figure for 10mW pump power increases
tremendously after about 800ppm, as excessive ions are
pumped to the higher level. For other cases of pump power i.e
50mW, 100mW, 250mW Noise figure shows normal behavior
up-to 1400 ppm of Erbium concentration. This phenomenon is
explained in Fig. 7. Fig. 8 shows output shown on BER
analyzer for channel 14 when using APD. Fig 9 shows output
which appears on BER Analyzer for channel 14 using PIN

Comparing results of the Fig. 8 and 9, PIN has lower BER of
the order of E-16 compared to BER of APD, which is E-14.
Hence PIN photodiode is having lower ISI during reception of
DWDM signal.

The system for 16- channel amplification was analyzed with
34±3.5dB intrinsically gain flatness from 1546nm to 1558nm
bandwidth. The output power of 21.33dBm for a fiber length of

)LJXUH9DULDWLRQRI*DLQZLWK&RQFHQWUDWLRQRI(UELXP 7m and 250mW pump power and an average noise figure of
LRQVDWYDU\LQJ3XPS3RZHU 7.4dB were obtained from the simulation. This DWDM system
 has a good performance of BER which is in the range of 10-14
to 10-16. Varying concentration of Erbium ions changed the
gain and the best performances were obtained for a
concentration of 1000ppm-wt and pump power of 250mW at
which Q-value of 7.33 was obtained. Also BER values were
obtained for APD and PIN for channel 13 and 14, which was in
the range of E-14 to E-16. Also input power was varied from
5dBm to -40dBm, and the optimal values of gain and noise
figure were obtained for a value of -26dBm. All the values
were taken at pump wavelength of 980nm.

[1]. Kaur Inderpreet, Gupta Neena, “Enhancing the
Performance of WDM Systems By Using TFF in Hybrid
Amplifiers”, IEEE 2nd International Advance Computing
)LJXUH9DULDWLRQRI1)ZLWK&RQFHQWUDWLRQRI(UELXP Conference 2010, IACC 2010, pp. 106-109, Feb.
LRQVDWYDU\LQJ3XPS3RZHU 2010,ISBN:978-1-4244-4791-6/10.

842 2014 International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom)
[2]. Liang Xing, Li Zhan, Lilin Yi, Yuxing Xia, “Gain-
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2014 International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom) 843