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Original Title: Exercises Week 3

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Department of Physics and Electronics, Universidad de Córdoba

15.02.2018

1. a. Write down the identity operator for a given (finite) set of orthogonal basis states |ni.

b. Given an observable (a Hermitian operator) Â on a finite dimensional Hilbert space with

spectrum An and eigenstates |ni write down the operator Â in Dirac notation.

Remark: Remember that spectrum means the values An are the eigenvalues of the operator Â.

2. One of the key mathematical tools of quantum mechanics is the notion of Hilbert spaces. A

Hilbert space is an inner product space – a vector space (over R or C) equipped with an inner

product h·|·i – such that the metric induced by the norm ||u|| ≡ hu|ui. In this exercise, we

will see how Hilbert spaces are defined, and look at the example of a finite one.

A complex inner product hu|vi satisfies the following properties:

(b) hu1 + u2 |vi = hu1 |vi + hu2 |vi

(c) hku|vi = k ∗ hu|vi

(d) hu|ui ≥ 0 and hu|ui = 0 iff u = 0

dimensional Hilbert space H by vectors lying in CN by choosing a basis e1 , . . . , eN of H and

identifying ei with the i-th standard basis vector in CN .

a. P

N ∗ T T N

i=1 ai bi for any vectors u = [a1 , a2 , . . . , aN ] and v = [b1 , b2 , . . . , bN ] in C .

b. Find an expression for |a1 |2 in terms of an inner product involving u.

3. The commutator of two operators A and B is defined as [A, B] = AB − BA. Prove the

following:

a. [A, B] = −[B, A]

b. [A, B + C] = [A, B] + [A, C]

c. [A, BC] = [A, B]C + B[A, C]

d. [AB, CD] = −AC{D, B} + A{C, B}D − C{D, A}B + {C, A}DB

√ √

1

0̃ = |0i + 3 |1i , 1̃ = − 3 |0i + 1 |1i

2 2 2 2

.

(a) Show that 0̃ and 1̃ are orthonormal.

2

(b) Write down the two state vectors |φi and |ψi in the new basis.

(c) Are |φi and |ψi normalised? If not, make the normalisation of both states.

(d) What is the probability for the state |φi to go down in the basis state 0̃ . (Note: you

must use the normalised vector).

(e) Compute hφ|ψi in both basis {|0i , |1i} and {0̃ , 1̃ } and give an interpretation of the

result.

5. Suppose that the operator Q satisfies Q |qi = q |qi, i.e., |qi is an eigenvector of Q with

eigenvalue q. Show that |qi is also an eigenvector of Q2 , Qn , and eQ , and determine the

corresponding eigenvalues.

6. Suppose a Hilbert space H spanned by the basis {|0i , |1i , |2i , |3i}.

|0ih1| + i|1ih0|

~2

[Si , Sj ] = iijk ~Sk , {Si , Sj } = δij ,

2

where

~

Sx = (|+ih−| + |−ih+|),

2

i~

Sy = (|−ih+| − |+ih−|),

2

~

Sz = (|+ih+| − |−ih−|),

2

and the Levi-Civita tensor is

0, if any two labels are the same

ijk = 1, if i, j, k is an even permutation of x, y, z .

−1, if i, j, k is an odd permutation of x, y, z

8. Suppose |ii and |ji are eigenstates of some Hermitian operator A. Under what condition can

we conclude that |ii + |ji is also an eigenket of A? Justify your answer.

9. Using the rules of bra-ket algebra, prove or evaluate (XY )† = Y † X † (where X and Y are

operators)

0 1 0

1

√ 1 0 1 . (1)

2 0 1 0

3

a. Find the normalised eigenvectors of this observable and the corresponding eigenvalues.

Is there any degeneracy?

b. Let {|1i , |2i , |3i} be the basis in which this observable is written down. Give the expres-

sion of the eigenvectors as combinations of |1i, |2i and |3i.

11. Consider a 3-dimensional ket space. The representations of two operators in any basis, say

{|1i , |2i , |3i}, are

a 0 0 b 0 0

Â = 0 −a 0 , B̂ = 0 0 −ib (2)

0 0 −a 0 ib 0

b. Show that Â and B̂ commute.

c. Find a new set of orthonormal kets which are simultaneous eigenkets of both operators.

13. (a) Consider two kets |αi and |βi. Suppose ha1 |αi, ha2 |αi, . . . , haN |αi and ha1 |βi, ha2 |βi, . . . , haN |βi

are all known, where {|a1 i , |a2 i , . . . , |aN i} form a complete set of base kets. Find the

matrix representation of the operator |αihβ| in that basis.

(b) We now consider a spin 1/2 system and let |αi and |βi be |sz = ~/2i and |sx = ~/2i,

respectively. Write down explicitly the square matrix that corresponds to |αihβ| in the

sz diagonal basis.

where a is a number with the dimension of energy. Find the energy eigenvalues and the

corresponding energy eigenkets as linera combinations of |1i and |2i.

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