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# CHAPTER 4: ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS

## SAMPLE PROBLEMS (“Try it yourself”)

4.1 The molecules are moving faster in the hot cup of tea.

4.2 The sand absorbs 997.5 calories of heat (calculator answer). The temperature change is
21ºC and the specific heat of sand is 0.19 cal/g ºC, so the heat is 250 g x 21ºC x 0.19 cal/g ºC
= 997.5 calories. Rounding this number to two significant figures gives 1000 calories, and we
need to write this as 1.0 x 103 calories to show the correct number of significant figures.

4.3 83.5 kJ equals 83,500 J, which equals 19,957 calories, which equals 19.957 kcal.
(Rounding the last two numbers to three significant figures gives you 2.00 x 104 calories and
20.0 kcal; note that the first of these must be written in scientific notation to show three
significant figures.)

4.4 Formaldehyde is a gas, based on its physical properties. Only gases expand and contract
to any significant degree when they are compressed, and only gases have such low densities.

4.5 Ice is a solid, so the water molecules vibrate but remain essentially in the same place
within the piece of ice.

4.6 From Table 4.6, we see that one millibar equals 100 Pa, so 1.8 Pa is the same as 0.018
millibars.

4.7 In this case, we have the same amount of oxygen in each container, but the sizes of the
containers are different. Gases exert more pressure when we put them into smaller containers, so
the oxygen exerts more pressure in the 10 liter container than it does in the 20 liter container.

4.8 The pressure in Mr. Smith’s tires will be less than 32 pounds per square inch, because the
tires are cooler at midnight than they are at noon. The lower the temperature, the lower the
pressure.

4.9 Acetic acid is a liquid at room temperature, because room temperature (25ºC) is between
the melting point and the boiling point.

## 4.10 The calculator answer is 3240 calories.

540 cal
6g × = 3240 cal
1g
Rounding this to one significant figure gives us 3000 calories.

4.11 The boiling point is the temperature where the graph levels off for the second time. This
€ and 400ºC, but closer to 400ºC. Any temperature between 360ºC
is somewhere between 300ºC
and 380ºC is a reasonable estimate.
Chapter 4 – Selected Answers 2

4.12 LiF boils at 1681ºC, and HF boils at 20ºC. LiF contains a metal and a nonmetal, so it is
an ionic compound and is very difficult to boil. HF contains two nonmetals, so it is a molecular
compound and is much easier to boil.

4.13 All of these compounds are molecular substances, and they all contain the same number
of atoms, so we look at the sizes of the atoms. CF4 contains the smallest atoms, so it should have
the lowest melting and boiling points. CBr4 contains the largest atoms, so it should have the
highest melting and boiling points. CCl4 is intermediate. Therefore, CF4 must be the gas, CCl4
must be the liquid, and CBr4 must be the solid at room temperature.

4.14 NH3 molecules, like H2O molecules, can participate in hydrogen bonds, as shown in
Figure 4.19. The positively charged hydrogen atoms in each NH3 molecule are attracted to the
negatively charged nitrogen atoms in other NH3 molecules. These hydrogen bonds make it more
difficult to pull NH3 molecules away from one another. Therefore, the boiling point of NH3 is
higher than that of PH3, which cannot form hydrogen bonds.

4.15 The boiling point of compound 3 should be closer to that of compound 1, because both of
these molecules can form hydrogen bonds. Both compound 1 and compound 3 contain at least
one hydrogen atom directly attached to the nitrogen atom.

## END OF SECTION PROBLEMS

Section 4.1

4.1 As the ball rises, the potential energy of the ball increases, and the kinetic energy of the
ball decreases. (The ball slows down as it goes up, eventually coming to a stop before it starts fo
fall back to earth.)

4.2 a) This is potential energy. All types of chemical energy (the energy in foods, fuels, etc.)
are potential energy, because they are a result of the locations of the atoms within the chemical
compounds.
b) This is kinetic energy. Thermal energy (the energy in a hot object) is a result of the
rapid movement of atoms and molecules in the object.
c) This is kinetic energy, because the top is in motion.
d) This is potential energy, because the water is higher than it would be if the dam were
not there. (Remember that energy is the ability to do work: the water can generate electricity if it
moves through a power plant.)

4.3 The 1000 mL sample of water has more thermal energy, because there are more water
molecules. The water molecules are moving at the same average speed in both samples, because
the speed of the molecules depends only on the temperature, not on the amount of water.

4.4 The 0ºC ice has more thermal energy than the –20ºC ice, and the molecules are moving
faster in the 0ºC ice.

## 4.5 These are typical heat calculations:

Chapter 4 – Selected Answers 3

a) The temperature change is 22ºC – 18ºC = 4ºC. The heat calculation is then:
350 g × 4°C × 0.40 cal/g ⋅ °C = 560 calories of heat.
b) The temperature change is 18ºC – 12ºC = 6ºC. The heat calculation is then:
350 g × 6°C × 0.40 cal/g ⋅ °C = 840 calories of heat.

Section 4.2

4.6 € Sulfur dioxide is a gas and sulfur trioxide is a liquid. Both of these substances can
change their shapes, so neither one is a solid. The density of sulfur dioxide is extremely low
(0.26 g ÷ 100 mL = 0.0026 g/mL), which is typical for a gas. The density of sulfur trioxide
(192 g ÷ 100 mL = 1.92 g/mL) is typical for a liquid.

4.7 The helium atom is in constant, random motion. It moves throughout the balloon,
colliding with other atoms and with the walls of the balloon.

4.8 To change a substance into a solid, we should cool it, so carbon dioxide is most likely to
be a solid at –100ºC.

4.9 In a liquid, the molecules are in contact with one another, so there is no empty space
between molecules. The molecules themselves cannot be compressed significantly, so the
volume of water does not change when you squeeze it. (Gases can contract because there is a lot
of empty space between molecules.)

Section 4.3

4.10 a) The pressure decreases, because there are fewer oxygen molecules remaining in the
cylinder.
b) The pressure decreases, because the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its
temperature (as one goes up or down, so must the other).

4.11 When air is cooled, its volume decreases but the mass of the air does not change (because
the number of molecules does not change). Packing the same mass into a smaller volume gives
us a higher density. (Another way to think of this is that the molecules move closer together
when we cool a gas, so we can pack more molecules into the same volume.)

4.12 When you heat a gas, its pressure increases. If you heat an aerosol can to a high
temperature, the pressure inside the can becomes so high that the can bursts.

4.13 You can increase the temperature of the tire, reduce the volume of the tire (by pressing on
it), or put more air into the tire.

## 4.14 Use the relationships in Table 4.6 to solve this problem.

1 atm
a) 80 psi × = 5.44217687 atm (calculator answer) .
14.7 psi
Rounding this answer to two significant figures gives us 5.4 atm.

Chapter 4 – Selected Answers 4

51.7 torr
b) 80 psi × = 4136 torr (calculator answer)
1 psi
Rounding this answer to two significant figures gives us 4100 torr.

Section 4.4

4.15 a) Naphthalene is a solid at room temperature, because the melting point of naphthalene
is higher than room temperature (25ºC).
b) 100ºC is between the melting and boiling points of naphthalene, so naphthalene is a
liquid at 100ºC.

4.16 Boiling can be seen (the liquid bubbles), while evaporation cannot. Also, boiling occurs
at one specific temperature, while evaporation occurs at all temperatures.

4.17 Substances melt and freeze at the same temperature, so the liquid NaCl freezes at 801ºC.

4.18 At 20ºC, water is normally a liquid, but there is always some water vapor present in the
surrounding air. (There are other ways to express this idea.)

4.19 The heat of vaporization tells us that it takes 159 calories of heat to evaporate (or boil)
one gram of isopropyl alcohol. We can use this relationship as a conversion factor:
159 cal
25 g × = 3975 calories (calculator answer)
1g
To express this answer with only two significant figures, we must use scientific notation:
4.0 x 103 calories.
€ 4.20 Isopropyl alcohol freezes at –89ºC. While it is freezing, the temperature does not change,
because we must remove heat in order to change the liquid into a solid. Once all of the isopropyl
alcohol has become a solid, the temperature can begin to drop once again.

4.21 Mercury is a liquid at 150ºC. The melting point of mercury is around –40ºC and the
boiling point is around 360ºC. At any temperature between these, mercury is a liquid. (There
will also be a small amount of gaseous mercury present at this temperature.)

Section 4.5

4.22 NF3 is a molecular compound, whereas CrF3 is an ionic compound. NF3 molecules are
only weakly attracted to one another, and at room temperature this attraction is not strong enough
to keep the molecules in contact, so NF3 is a gas. In CrF3, the individual Cr3+ and F– ions are
attracted to one another very strongly, so they remain in fixed positions at room temperature. As
a result, CrF3 is a solid.
Chapter 4 – Selected Answers 5

4.23 The hydrogen from one molecule is attracted to the nitrogen from another molecule, as
shown below.
H H

H C H H C H
δ+ δ–
N H N H

H C H H C H

H H

4.24 In general, molecules with more atoms have higher boiling points than molecules with
fewer atoms, because the attractive forces between molecules (dispersion forces) become
stronger as the size of the molecules increases.

## 4.25 Na2SO4 is an ionic compound, so we expect it to be a solid at room temperature, because

of the powerful attraction between ions. H2SO4 is a molecular compound, and the attractive
forces between molecules are much weaker than those between ions, so H2SO4 is the liquid.

4.26 Compound 1 contains an O–H bond, so this molecule can participate in hydrogen
bonding. Compound 2 does not contain an O–H bond, so it cannot form hydrogen bonds.
Therefore, compound 1 should have the higher boiling point. Compound 1 boils at 95ºC, and
compound 2 boils at 49ºC.

4.27 Butane cannot form hydrogen bonds, so the attraction between butane molecules is very
weak, giving it a low boiling point. 1-propanol and ethylene glycol can form hydrogen bonds, so
their boiling points are higher. Ethylene glycol has two hydrogen atoms that can participate in
hydrogen bonds, while 1-propanol has only one, so ethylene glycol molecules are attracted to
one another more strongly than are 1-propanol molecules. This added attraction gives ethylene
glycol a higher boiling point than 1-propanol.

4.28 Only the hydrogen atoms that are bonded to nitrogen or oxygen can participate in
hydrogen bonding.
S H

H C H

H N C C O H
H H O

## CUMULATIVE PROBLEMS (Odd-numbered problems only)

4.29 The thermal energy of the cake increases. Thermal energy depends on temperature, so as
the temperature goes up, the thermal energy goes up as well.
Chapter 4 – Selected Answers 6

4.31 a) The car moving at 40 miles per hour has more kinetic energy.
b) The car has more kinetic energy, because it is heavier. The heavier a moving object is,
the more kinetic energy it has (because it can do more work if it hits something).
c) The atoms in the 80ºC water have more kinetic energy. The atoms and molecules in a
hot object have more kinetic energy than the atoms and molecules in a cool object.
d) Both batteries have the same amount of kinetic energy. (They have different amounts
of potential energy.)

4.33 a) Both pieces of bread have the same amount of potential energy (chemical energy).
b) The airplane at 30,000 feet has more potential energy.
c) The new battery has more potential energy (chemical energy).
d) The large stone has more potential energy, because it can do more work if it falls than
the smaller stone can.

## 4.35 Two liters of water at 20ºC has more thermal energy.

4.37 To calculate the heat, we need the temperature change (in Celsius degrees) and the mass
of the copper (in grams). The temperature change is 30ºC – 20ºC = 10ºC, and the mass of the
copper is 2500 g (remember that there are 1000 grams in a kilogram). The heat calculation is:
2500 g x 10ºC x 0.092 cal/g·ºC = 2300 calories

4.39 To calculate the heat, we need the temperature change (in Celsius degrees) and the mass
of the copper (in grams). For the temperature change, we must first change the two temperatures
from Fahrenheit to Celsius:
70ºF – 32 = 38 38 ÷ 1.8 = 21.11111111ºC
40ºF – 32 = 8 8 ÷ 1.8 = 4.44444444ºC
Now we can get the temperature change: 21.11111111ºC – 4.44444444ºC = 16.66666667ºC

For the mass, we must convert 25 pounds into grams. There are 454 grams in a pound, so…
454 g
25 pounds × = 11350 g
1 pound
Finally, we can do the heat calculation:
11350 g x 16.66666667ºC x 0.19 cal/g·ºC = 35,941.667 calories
Rounding this answer to two significant figures gives us 36,000 calories

4.41 There are several reasons for this. In particular, though, you should recognize that the
specific heat of sand is much lower than that of water, so the temperature of sand goes up much
more than the temperature of water when you add the same amount of heat to both.

4.43 Water has the higher specific heat. Specific heat is the amount of energy you must put
into a substance to change its temperature. Raising the temperature of water takes more heat
than raising the temperature of oil. If we use the same amount of heat, then, the oil will become
hotter than the water.

4.45 Oxygen is a gas. Gases always fill their entire container, so the oxygen will occupy the
entire 1000 mL volume. Water, by contrast, is a liquid and has a fixed volume.
Chapter 4 – Selected Answers 7

4.47 From the mass and volume, we can calculate the density of propane. We should convert
the mass from milligrams to grams first, so we can compare our answer with the typical densities
of solids, liquids and gases (all of which are expressed in g/mL). 90 mg is the same is 0.09 g, so
the density is: 0.09 g ÷ 50 mL = 0.0018 g/mL
This density is much too low for a solid or liquid, but is a reasonable value for a gas. We
can conclude that propane is a gas at room temperature.

4.49 In both solids and liquids, the molecules are in contact with one another, with little empty
space between molecules. When you melt a solid, the amount of empty space only changes very
slightly, and the size of the molecules themselves does not change, so the liquid and solid form
of a substance take up the same amount of space.

4.51 This is not a reasonable conclusion, because the individual grains of sand do not change
their shapes when you pour sand from one container to another. Only the air between the grains
changes its shape. Sand is actually a solid.

4.53 At 2000ºC, the thermal energy of the molecules or ions is so high that it can overcome
even a very powerful attraction between these particles.

4.55 Sugar is a solid at room temperature, so sugar molecules vibrate but do not move around
within a sugar crystal. Each molecule remains in the same position within the crystal.

4.57 The atmospheric pressure in Denver is lower than it is in San Francisco. When the
pressure on the outside of the balloon decreases, it becomes lower than the pressure of the air
inside the balloon, so the balloon expands. (However, as the air in the balloon expands, its
pressure drops, and once the internal pressure equals the external pressure, the balloon does not
expand further.)

4.59 The temperature of the pavement is very hot on a typical summer day in the desert. As a
result, the air inside the tires heats up. As the temperature increases, the pressure inside the tire
also increases. If the tire is already very weak, this added pressure is enough to make the tire
burst.

4.61 In table 4.6, we see that one atm equals 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi). We can use
this relationship as a conversion factor:
14.7 psi
5.6 atm × = 82.32 psi (calculator answer)
1 atm
Rounding this answer to two significant figures gives us 82 pounds per square inch.

4.63 a) Lactic acid is normally a liquid at 25ºC, because 25ºC is between the melting point and
€ the boiling point of lactic acid. (A small amount of vapor can also be present.)
b) Lactic acid is a solid at 0ºC, because this temperature is below the freezing point of
lactic acid. (A small amount of vapor can also be present.)
Chapter 4 – Selected Answers 8

4.65 It takes 80 calories to melt one gram of ice. We can use this relationship to convert the
mass of ice into the corresponding amount of heat, but we must first convert 6.5 kg into grams.
Since a kilogram equals 1000 grams, 6.5 kg is the same as 6500 grams. Now we calculate the
heat:
80 cal
6500 g × = 520,000 calories of heat (which equals 520 kilocalories)
1g

4.67 We must do this problem in two steps. First, we calculate the amount of heat required to
raise the temperature from 20ºC to 100ºC (a temperature change of 80ºC):
€ 30 g x 80ºC x 1 cal/g·ºC = 2400 calories
Then we calculate the amount of heat required to boil the water. To do so, we need the heat of
vaporization of water: it takes 540 calories to boil a gram of water.
30 g x 540 cal/g = 16,200 calories
The total is 2400 cal + 16,200 cal = 18,600 calories

4.69 The boiling point of methane is lower than 25ºC. A substance can only be a gas if its
temperature is higher than its boiling point.

## 4.71 A reasonable estimate would be 5ºC or 10ºC, based on the graph.

4.73 Benzene is a gas at 100ºC, because 100ºC is above the boiling point.

4.75 You will begin with gaseous benzene. Once you cool the benzene to its boiling point, the
benzene will begin to condense. The temperature will remain constant until the benzene has
turned into a liquid. Once the benzene has condensed, the temperature will drop to 75ºC.

4.77 Calcium chloride is an ionic compound, held together by the attractive forces between
oppositely charged ions. These forces are very strong, so calcium chloride has a high melting
point.

## 4.79 a) covalent bonds

b) dispersion forces and hydrogen bonds
c) dispersion forces and hydrogen bonds

## 4.81 a) covalent bonds

b) dispersion forces
c) dispersion forces

4.83 The second and third molecules (HOCl and C2H7N) can form hydrogen bonds, because
they contain at least one hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to oxygen or nitrogen.

4.85 a) Methyl iodide has the strongest dispersion force, because iodine atoms are larger than
bromine or chlorine atoms. The larger the atoms, the stronger the dispersion force.
b) Methyl iodide has the highest boiling point, because it has the strongest attraction (the
dispersion force) between molecules.
Chapter 4 – Selected Answers 9

c) Methyl chloride is most likely to be a gas, because it has the weakest attraction
between molecules.

4.87 Only the hydrogen atoms that are directly bonded to nitrogen or oxygen can participate in
hydrogen bonding.

H O H

H C C N H

H N C C O H
H H O

4.89 The student has forgotten that NaOH is not a molecular substance. NaOH is an ionic
compound, containing Na+ and OH– ions. The attraction between ions in an ionic compound is
much stronger than hydrogen bonds, so NaOH should have the higher melting point.