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February 2011
Page 80

giving cavity relief to the downstream side of the valve. Double piston effect seats do not
give cavity relief. A special assembly is having single piston upstream and double
downstream, giving relief to the upstream, the valve is uni-directional. The valves are
normally two or three piece end entry. A more expensive configuration is top entry, which
has the advantage of being line maintainable. The valve ends are normally flanged but hub
type for pipe clamp connectors and butt weld is also available.
Reduced bore ball valves are smaller and lighter than full bore, and therefore cost less to
produce. Reduced bore ball valves have lower operating torque than full bore ball valves,
resulting in a lower cost actuated valve package. The smaller bore however creates a
slightly higher pressure drop in comparison to full bore, and also prevents pigging.
Full bore ball valves will be selected for specific process reasons, typically, minimum
pressure drop, minimal erosion or due to pigging requirements.
Ball valve seats may be soft (thermoplastic) or metallic. Soft seated ball valves are lower in
cost than metal seated ball valves, but have a limited temperature rating outlined in 8.8.4.
Soft-seat materials provide good sealing ability, however they should not be used in dirty
services, particularly on floating ball valves. Metal seated ball valves should incorporate a
hard face ball, usually stellite. Metal seated floating ball valves also incorporate spring
loaded seats.
Trunnion mounted ball valves may incorporate elastomeric seals which have a very limited
operating range 8.8.7.
Soft seated floating ball valves in services where thermal cycling will occur may have a
reduced shut off performance at low pressures, typically below 2 bar (ga) [29 psig].
External body seals are normally polymeric, fire-safe valves utilize secondary graphite fire
seals. When necessary the graphite seals are protected by a primary polymeric seal in
order to eliminate graphitic corrosion. Fire safe seals are generally not designed for fugitive
emission performance. Higher integrity graphite seals may satisfy both the emission and
fire-safe requirements eliminating the need for the elastomeric or polymeric primary seal.
For highly corrosive media (e.g. acids), floating ball valves incorporating a polymeric liner
with a minimum thickness of 3 mm (0.12 in), are more cost effective than valves
manufactured from exotic alloys. These valves are selected for acid service, The lined body
material is usually nodular iron which has restricted low temperatures of –20°C (-4 °F) for
PN 10 and –10°C (-14 °F) for PN16. The flanges however are class 150 as standard.
Ball valves are not torque seated.
Ball valves are double seated valves which incorporate a cavity between the seats, the
cavity relief requirements specified in clause 3.12.6 shall be applied. Plug valves
A plug valve is a quarter-turn on-off valve. The plug can be cylindrical or tapered and has a
variety of port types. Plug valves are available in either a lubricated or non-lubricated
Non-lubricated plug valves contain a polymeric body liner or a sleeve, which is installed in
the body cavity. The tapered and polished plug acts like a wedge and presses the sleeve
against the body. The nonmetallic sleeve reduces the friction between the plug and the
body. Like for soft-seated ball valves, non-lubricated plug valves are limited by temperature
and chemical compatibility of the non-metallic materials used. Non-lubricated plug valves
are used instead of lubricated plug valves, where maintenance needs to be kept to a
minimum. They can be used in special services (e.g. sulphur and hydrogen fluoride), since
they do not have a body cavity in open communication with the flow when switching, where
fouling liquids could be trapped or solidify, potentially jamming the valve. These valves are
not torque seated.
Lubricated plug valves will be of inverted pressure balance type only and shall be used if
the product allows the use of lubricant. Lubricants shall contain a base oil and a viscosity
improver like amorphous or fumed silica. They perform well in processes where the fluid