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Lecture Note 6

In this lecture we would revisit the continuous time design techniques using frequency domain

since these can be directly applied to design for digital control system by transferring the

loop transfer function in z-plane to w-plane.

If we look at the frequency response of a simple PD controller, it is evident that the magni-

tude of the compensator continuously grows with the increase in frequency.

The above feature is undesirable because it amplifies high frequency noise that is typically

present in any real system.

In lead compensator, a first order pole is added to the denominator of the PD controller

at frequencies well higher than the corner frequency of the PD controller.

τs + 1

C(s) = K , where, α < 1

ατ s + 1

1

is the ratio between the pole zero break point (corner) frequencies.

α

√

1 + ω2τ 2

Magnitude of the lead compensator is K √ . And the phase contributed by the

1 + α2 ω 2 τ 2

lead compensator is given by

Thus a significant amount of phase is still provided with much less amplitude at high fre-

quencies.

I. Kar 1

Digital Control Module 5 Lecture 6

The frequency response of a typical lead compensator is shown in Figure 1 where the magni-

K

tude varies from 20 log10 K to 20 log10 and maximum phase is always less than 90o (around

α

60o in general).

Max. phase

Phase (deg)

−1 0 1 2 3

10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

It can be shown that the frequency where the phase is maximum is given by

1

ωmax = √

τ α

1−α

sin φmax =

1+α

1 − sin(φmax )

⇒α=

1 + sin(φmax )

K

The magnitude of C(s) at ωmax is √ .

α

I. Kar 2

Digital Control Module 5 Lecture 6

1

G(s) = , H(s) = 1

s(s + 1)

Design a cascade lead compensator so that the phase margin (PM) is at least 45o and steady

state error for a unit ramp input is ≤ 0.1.

τs + 1

C(s) = K , where, α < 1

ατ s + 1

When s → 0, C(s) → K.

1 1 1

= =

lims→0 sC(s)G(s) C(0) K

1

Thus = 0.1, or K = 10.

K

PM of the closed loop system should be 45o . Let the gain crossover frequency of the uncom-

pensated system with K be ωg .

1

G(jω) =

jω(jω + 1)

1

M ag. = √

ω 1 + ω2

P hase = −90o − tan−1 ω

10

⇒ p = 1

ωg 1 + ωg2

100

= 1

ωg (1 + ωg2 )

2

⇒ ωg = 3.1

Phase angle at ωg = 3.1 is −90 − tan−1 3.1 = −162o . Thus the PM of the uncompensated

system with K is 18o .

If it was possible to add a phase without altering the magnitude, the additional phase lead

required to maintain PM=45o is 45o − 18o = 27o at ωg = 3.1 rad/sec.

However, maintaining same low frequency gain and adding a compensator would increase

I. Kar 3

Digital Control Module 5 Lecture 6

the crossover frequency. As a result of this, the actual phase margin will deviate from the

designed one. Thus it is safe to add a safety margin of ǫ to the required phase lead so that if

it devaites also, still the phase requirement is met. In general ǫ is chosen between 5o to 15o .

So the additional phase requirement is 27o + 10o = 37o . The lead part of the compen-

sator will provide this additional phase at ωmax .

Thus

φmax = 37o

1 − sin(φmax )

⇒α = = 0.25

1 + sin(φmax )

The only parameter left to be designed is τ . To find τ , one should locate the frequency at

1

which the uncompensated system has a logarithmic magnitude of −20 log10 √ .

α

Select this frequency as the new gain crossover frequency since the compensator provides

1

a gain of 20 log10 √ at ωmax . Thus

α

1

ωmax = ωgnew = √

τ α

1

τ= √ = 0.4535

4.41 α

0.4535s + 1

C(s) = 10

0.1134s + 1

With this compensator actual phase margin of the system becomes 49.6o which meets the

design criteria. The corresponding Bode plot is shown in Figure 2

Example 2:

Now let us consider that the system as described in the previous example is subject to a

sampled data control system with sampling time T = 0.2 sec. Thus

1

Gz (z) = (1 − z )Z 2

−1

s (s + 1)

0.0187z + 0.0175

= 2

z − 1.8187z + 0.8187

I. Kar 4

Digital Control Module 5 Lecture 6

Bode Diagram

Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) , Pm = 49.6 deg (at 4.41 rad/sec)

100

50

Magnitude (dB)

0

−50

−100

−90

Phase (deg)

−135

−180

−2 −1 0 1 2 3

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

1 + wT /2 (1 + 0.1w)

z= =

1 − wT /2 (1 − 0.1w)

1 + 300

w

1− w

10

Gw (w) = [please try the simplification]

w(w + 1)

We need first design a phase lead compensator so that PM of the compensated system is at

least 500 with Kv = 2 . The compensator in w-plane is

1 + τw

C(w) = K 0<α<1

1 + ατ w

• Compute the gain crossover frequency ωg and phase margin of the uncompensated

system after introducing K in the system.

• At ωg check the additional/required phase lead, add safety margin, find out φmax .

Calculate α from the required φmax .

I. Kar 5

Digital Control Module 5 Lecture 6

1

• Since the lead part of the compensator provides a gain of 20 log10 √ , find out the fre-

α

1

quency of the uncompensated system where the logarithmic magnitude is −20 log10 √ .

α

This will be the new gain crossover frequency where the maximum phase lead should

occur.

• Make ωmax = ωgnew .

• Calculate τ from the relation

1

ωgnew = ωmax = √

τ α

Now,

w→0

⇒K=2

Using MATLAB command “margin”, phase margin of the system with K = 2 is computed

as 31.60 with ωg = 1.26 rad/sec, as shown in Figure 3.

Bode Diagram

Gm = 14.3 dB (at 3.22 rad/sec) , Pm = 31.6 deg (at 1.26 rad/sec)

100

50

Magnitude (dB)

−50

−100

270

225

Phase (deg)

180

135

90

−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Thus the required phase lead is 50o − 31.6o = 18.4o . After adding a safety margin of 11.6o ,

φmax becomes 30o . Hence

1 − sin(30o )

α= = 0.33

1 + sin(30o )

I. Kar 6

Digital Control Module 5 Lecture 6

From the frequency response of the system it can be found out that at ω = 1.75 rad/sec, the

1

magnitude of the system is −20 log10 √ . Thus ωgnew = ωmax = 1.75 rad/sec. This gives

α

1

1.75 = √

τ α

Or,

1

τ= √ = 0.99

1.75 0.33

Thus the controller in w-plane is

1 + 0.99w

C(w) = 2

1 + 0.327w

Bode Diagram

Gm = 14.3 dB (at 5.64 rad/sec) , Pm = 50.3 deg (at 1.75 rad/sec)

40

20

Magnitude (dB)

−20

−40

−60

270

225

Phase (deg)

180

135

90

−1 0 1 2 3 4

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

z−1

Re-transforming the above controller into z-plane using the relation w = 10 , we get

z+1

the controller in z-plane, as

2.55z − 2.08

Cz (z) ∼

= 2

z − 0.53

I. Kar 7

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