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Induction motor being very advantages because of its simple construction,
ruggedness, work even in volatile behavior make it horse power of industry. These
merit are nullified by requirement of control under high performance demand.
Various control schemes were proposed broadly classified into scalar and vector
control. Scalar control is easy to implement having good steady state performance
but sluggish dynamic response. For good steady state as well improved dynamic
response, “vector control” based approach’s namely FOC, DTC, Predictive control
etc are in use. FOC based on decoupled torque and flux control ,where effect of
parameter variations, magnetic saturation, and stray-load losses are the subject of
research in obtaining robust sensorless drives. FOC predominantly relies on the
mathematical modeling of an induction machine; where DTC scheme based on
direct use of physical interactions that take place within the integrated system of
the machine and its supply. DTC use the principle of “bang-bang self-control”
,involving the calculation of estimated magnetic flux and torque based on
measured voltage and current .Estimated torque and flux then compared with
refrence values, if deviation obtained from comparison is too far. Selection of
appropriate voltage vector based on switching table in such a way that flux and
torque error will return in their tolerant band.DTC advantageous due to its absence
of coordinate transformation, separate modulation block and inherently sensorless.
On other hand DTC provide high torque and flux ripples at low speed, with
variable switching frequency , high noise, and lack of direct current control
behavior ,compromised the performance of induction motor. Many researchers try
to solve and provide solution in last decade. One of its solutions is prediction
control based on discrete model. Prediction control grown its foots in development
of advance controlling due to fast microprocessor available today. Prediction
control is favorite choice for converter control due to its easy and intuitive
concepts, can be applied to a variety of systems, constraints and nonlinearities can
be easily included, multivariable case can be considered, and the resulting
controller is easy to implement. The main characteristic of predictive control is the
use of the model of the system for the prediction of the future behavior of the
controlled variables. This information is used by the controller in order to obtain
the optimal actuation, according to a predefined optimization criterion.
Prediction controller is classified based on Optimization criterion, as in the
hysteresis-based predictive control is to keep the controlled variable within the
boundaries of a hysteresis area, while in the trajectory based, the variables are
forced to follow a predefined trajectory. In deadbeat control, the optimal actuation
is the one that makes the error equal to zero in the next sampling instant. A more
flexible criterion is used in MPC, expressed as a cost function to be minimized.
Main difference between these group of controller is MPC with continuous control
and deadbeat control requires an modulator for generation of required voltage with
fixed switching frequency, other directly generate voltage without modulator with
variable switching frequency. As variable switching frequency is problem in
conventional DTC , can be improved using MPC with continuous control.
For IM drive it measure variables is , ω, and a mathematical model of the IM are
used to estimate the variables that cannot be measured, such as the rotor and stator
flux ψr , ψs . Then, the same model is used to predict the future behavior of the
variables for every control action. Finally, the voltage vector that produces the
optimum reference tracking is selected as the switching state for the next sampling
step. The model of the machine is the most important part of the controller,
because both estimations and predictions depend on it.