You are on page 1of 109

LAGON 4.

2 user’s manual
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Table of content

General information ................................................................................................................... 1


Important Information ................................................................................................................ 1
Warranty ................................................................................................................................. 1
Copyright ................................................................................................................................ 2
Liability .................................................................................................................................. 2
Software installation ................................................................................................................... 2
Minimum System requirements ............................................................................................. 2
Installing LAGON .................................................................................................................. 2
Activating your software ............................................................................................................ 3
Activating a customer version ................................................................................................ 3
Requesting an activation code ............................................................................................ 3
Entering an activation code ................................................................................................ 4
Activating an evaluation version ............................................................................................ 6
Main panel description ............................................................................................................... 8
Software information.............................................................................................................. 9
Filter ON / OFF button ........................................................................................................... 9
GP Layout button ................................................................................................................... 9
ADU/MCU button .................................................................................................................. 9
GP type selection .................................................................................................................... 9
Scatterer button .................................................................................................................... 10
Parameters box ..................................................................................................................... 10
Transmitter frame ................................................................................................................. 10
Nominal / Workshop button ................................................................................................. 10
ICAO limits .......................................................................................................................... 11
Vertical scale and offset of the graph ................................................................................... 11
Units ..................................................................................................................................... 11
Defaults settings button ........................................................................................................ 11
Cursors ................................................................................................................................. 12
Monitors button .................................................................................................................... 14
Vectors button ...................................................................................................................... 14
Ray tracing button ................................................................................................................ 16
Static receiver ....................................................................................................................... 17
Graph .................................................................................................................................... 18
Plot selection and colors ................................................................................................... 19
Changing Z plane position of a plot ................................................................................. 19
Mean DDM and GP angle ................................................................................................ 20
Field strength display and features ................................................................................... 21
Zooming and Panning ...................................................................................................... 23
Quick elevation angle selector ............................................................................................. 23
Elevation Orbit tab ............................................................................................................... 24
Azimuth Orbit tab................................................................................................................. 25
Approach tab ........................................................................................................................ 27
Hyperbolic Approach tab ..................................................................................................... 28
Level Approach tab .............................................................................................................. 29
Sideway Isolines tab ............................................................................................................. 32
Forward Isolines tab ............................................................................................................. 34
3D graph tab ......................................................................................................................... 36

i
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Reference point selection ..................................................................................................... 38


START button ...................................................................................................................... 39
Plots ...................................................................................................................................... 40
Delete ............................................................................................................................... 40
Print .................................................................................................................................. 40
Copy ................................................................................................................................. 41
Export ............................................................................................................................... 41
Import ............................................................................................................................... 41
Antenna distribution and Monitor combining panel ................................................................ 47
Glide pathes with classic ADUs ........................................................................................... 47
Antenna feedings .............................................................................................................. 47
Transmitter parameters ..................................................................................................... 51
Monitor combining ........................................................................................................... 52
Thales Active Glide path ...................................................................................................... 54
Antenna feedings .............................................................................................................. 54
Monitor combining ........................................................................................................... 55
Issue with screen resolution ............................................................................................. 56
Antenna errors ...................................................................................................................... 57
Antenna readings .................................................................................................................. 57
File handling ......................................................................................................................... 58
Glide path Layout Edition panel .............................................................................................. 59
Primary reflection plane ....................................................................................................... 59
Mast to runway distance (Y position) .................................................................................. 61
Mast forward (X) position .................................................................................................... 61
Mast foot height ................................................................................................................... 61
Reference height of flight path ............................................................................................. 61
Reflection plane vertical shift .............................................................................................. 64
Antenna Type ....................................................................................................................... 65
Antenna settings ................................................................................................................... 67
Topography panel ................................................................................................................. 67
Terrain Editor ................................................................................................................... 68
Average reflection plane computation ............................................................................. 70
Selecting all points ........................................................................................................... 71
Selecting a set of points .................................................................................................... 72
Course position button ......................................................................................................... 74
GP type ................................................................................................................................. 75
Transmitter ........................................................................................................................... 75
Frequency ............................................................................................................................. 75
GP Angle .............................................................................................................................. 75
RDH ..................................................................................................................................... 75
File handling ......................................................................................................................... 75
Help panel ................................................................................................................................ 77
LAGON Help button ............................................................................................................ 77
LAGON updates button ....................................................................................................... 78
Context specific documentation ........................................................................................... 78
Monitors panel.......................................................................................................................... 79
Start up Options panel .............................................................................................................. 81
Reference deviation .................................................................................................................. 82
Terrain and Scatterer panel ...................................................................................................... 85

ii
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

PO OBJECTS ....................................................................................................................... 85
Adding a plate .................................................................................................................. 85
Reference systems ............................................................................................................ 86
Use of the Reference systems........................................................................................... 86
Plate edition ...................................................................................................................... 87
Adding an object .............................................................................................................. 88
Saving and recalling layouts ............................................................................................ 89
UTD TERRAIN PROFILE .................................................................................................. 90
Changing viewpoint in 3D picture ....................................................................................... 93
Transmitter panels .................................................................................................................... 94
Basic adjustments ................................................................................................................. 94
Thomson 381/389 ................................................................................................................. 94
Single frequency ............................................................................................................... 95
Dual frequency ................................................................................................................. 96
Workshop mode ............................................................................................................... 97
Park Air Systems NM 7000B ............................................................................................. 100
Thales Active glide path transmitter .................................................................................. 100
LAGON updates ..................................................................................................................... 101
Version 4.2 (27/06/12) ....................................................................................................... 101
Version 4.1 (23/04/12) ....................................................................................................... 102
Version 4.0 (15/01/12) ....................................................................................................... 102
Version 3.2 (10/02/11) ....................................................................................................... 102
Version 3.1 (01/09/10) ....................................................................................................... 102
Version 3.0 (18/08/10) ....................................................................................................... 102
Version 2.2 (17/10/08) ....................................................................................................... 103
Version 2.1 (15/09/08) ....................................................................................................... 103
Version 2.0 (01/08/08) ....................................................................................................... 103

iii
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

iv
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

General information
LAGON is a computer based training tool dedicated to Glide path radiation simulation, showing the
transmitter side of the Thomson 381/389 and Normarc 7000B equipments. For those not interested in
this specific transmitter design, a Basic adjustments transmitter provides adjustment available in all
kind of transmitters. For the Active Glide path from Thales a specific transmitter featuring the
adjustments for this kind of glide path is provided.

A large choice of image glide path systems from different manufacturers is shipped with the software.

LAGON was primarily designed for pedagogical needs, but it can also be considered as an efficient
aid for ILS transmission trouble shooting.

It can be used for initial training to acquire the basic principles of glide path systems for CSB and SBO
signals, near-field effects and electronic drifting on Glide path parameters.

It can also be used for training at an advanced level to visualise multipath effects on the glide path
alignment structure, on DDM in the required coverage area.

Multipath simulations are based on physical optics for rectangular plates and UTD signal scattering
from adverse terrains.

In all these cases, LAGON can be used either as an illustration tool during training courses for
professional instructors or to assist trainees during workshops.

So this software concerns:

 Teachers for practical ILS training, and also for theoretical training courses.

 Students in workshops or for personal work.

 Engineers or maintenance technicians as a technical aid for tracking down signal mismatching
or for their own in-service training.

The software is available in French and English.

Important Information
Warranty
Copyright
Liability

Warranty

The media on which you receive ENAC software is warranted not to fail to execute simulation
sequences described in this user manual, due to defects in materials and workmanship, for a period of
90 days from the date of purchase.

ENAC will replace software media that do not execute standard simulations during the warranty period
when the defective product is returned to ENAC by the owner.

The warranty does not cover any other damage arising out of LAGON use.

1
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Copyright

Under the copyright laws, this publication and software may not be reproduced or transmitted in any
form without the prior consent of ENAC.

Liability

As this software has been designed for educational purposes, ENAC could not be responsible for any
damage or problems related to other use of this product.

In case of simulation applied to real multipath research, the user should have a good theoretical
knowledge and practical experience of ILS in order to have a sufficient critical analysis of the software
results.

Software installation
Minimum System requirements
Installing LAGON

Minimum System requirements

To run LAGON, you must have the following items:


 Personal computer using a Pentium 600 or higher microprocessor
 Windows 2000/XP/VISTA/7
 1024 × 768 resolution (or higher) video adapter
 Minimum of 128 MB of RAM, 256 MB recommended
 80 MB free hard disk space
 Microsoft-compatible mouse

Installing LAGON

If you have a former release on your computer it is not necessary to uninstall it. The new release will
be installed in a separate directory.

If you choose to uninstall a former release after installation of the new release it may be possible that
some functionalities are not longer working as some dll’s and other ActiveX components may be
uninstalled. In that case you need to uninstall and reinstall the new release.

The latest version of LAGON can be downloaded at:


ftp://ftp.enac.fr/pub/atoll_lagon/

Double click on the downloaded installation file to unpack the installation files.

Double click on setup.exe in the LAGON directory and follow the indications of the installation
program.

2
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Activating your software


What is activation?
Activation is the process of obtaining an activation code to enable your software to run on your
computer. Activation codes are unique and are valid on only one computer.

What is a Computer ID?


The computer ID contains unique information about your computer. ENAC requires this information to
generate your activation code and enable your software.

 Activating a customer version


 Activating an evaluation version

Do I need to request a new activation code for future releases?


You need a new activation code for each new main release. You can recognise a new main release
when the first digit of the version number has changed.

The second digit change means minor changes and/or bug corrections.

So going from LAGON 2.2 to 3.0 will require a new code but going from 2.2 to 2.6 will not.

Activating a customer version


Requesting an activation code
Entering an activation code

Requesting an activation code

After installation, start LAGON with WINDOWS administrator rights. The window shown below will
display.

Enter the name of the owner of the software.

3
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Note: OWNER name is just an example.

Click on ACTIVATION REQUEST to displays the following window.

The alphanumeric string is your computer ID.

Copy and send the information in the white box to: lagon@enac.fr. ENAC will then send you back the
activation code shortly.

Entering an activation code

Once you got your activation code, start LAGON with WINDOWS administrator rights.

Enter the same name as those provided with the activation code.

4
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

A click on ACTIVATION displays the following window:

Enter here the provided activation code.

If the activation code is correct the following window will display.

Here you can enter the directory where LAGON will save the user files. You can either enter a
pathname or select a directory by browsing you hard drives.

If the directory you enter does not exist it will be created.

A click on VALIDATE will copy some default files to the user directory and start the program.

5
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Activating an evaluation version


After installation, start LAGON with administrator rights. The window shown below will display.

Enter the name provided with the evaluation version activation code and click on ACTIVATE.

Note: For an evaluation version ENAC will send you an OWNER name composed like the following:
OWNER name, evaluation version valid until 20/12/08
You must enter the complete line in the license owner box.

OWNER name is just an example

Enter the provided activation code in the following window.

If the activation code is correct the following window will display.

6
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Here you can enter the directory where LAGON will save the user files. You can either enter a
pathname or select a directory by browsing you hard drives.

If the directory you enter does not exist it will be created.

A click on VALIDATE will copy some default files to the user directory and display the following
window:

You have to click on START LAGON to start the software. This window will display each time you start
the software in evaluation mode. If you buy a regular version during the evaluation time you can
activate your regular version by clicking on ACTIVATE LAGON.

When the evaluation period is over the START LAGON is dimmed like shown below:

You cannot longer use LAGON, but you still can activate a regular version

7
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Main panel description

The main panel is the working area from which you can access to different parameter panels of the
glide path and select different measurement options.

 Software information
 DDM Filtering
 GP Layout button
 ADU/MCU button
 GP Type selection
 Scatterer button
 Parameters box
 Transmitter frame
 Nominal/Workshop button
 ICAO limits
 Vertical scale and offset of the graph
 Units
 Defaults settings button
 Cursors
 Monitors button
 Vectors button
 Static receiver
 Graph
 Quick elevation angle selector
 Elevation Orbit tab
 Azimuth Orbit tab

8
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

 Approach tab
 Hyperbolic Approach tab
 Level Approach tab
 Sideway Isolines tab
 Foreward Isolines tab
 3D graph tab
 Reference point selection
 START button
 Plots

Software information
This button opens the Help panel which gives some information about the software and
the possibility to open the documentation.

Filter ON / OFF button


Toggles DDM filtering ON or OFF.

Receiver speed = 105 Kts (195km/h)

Cut off frequency = Speed/(2 * 92.6)


With Cut Off frequency in Hz and Speed in km/h.

Cut Off frequency = 0.34Hz

This button can be used in 2 ways:


 You can switch filtering ON before you start a calculation. In that case the displayed data are
filtered according to the parameters defined above.
 You can select a plot with the mouse and apply filtering by selecting Filter ON. This possibility
is only available in Approach mode.

Take care: in orbit mode filtering induces a course line shift

GP Layout button

opens GP Layout Edition panel

ADU/MCU button

opens Distribution and Monitor panel

GP type selection

9
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

A large choice of glide path types from different manufacturer is


available.

Scatterer button

opens Scatterer Edition panel

Parameters box
From this box you can choose which parameter will be calculated and displayed
when the next calculation is started.

Transmitter frame
From the transmitter frame it is possible to switch On or Off the Course and the
Clearance transmitter.

It is also possible to choose the kind of transmitter you want to use.


Two signal generators are available:

 THOMSON 381/389
 Park Air Systems NM 7000B
 Basic adjustment for those not interested in the simulation of a specific signal generator or if
your equipment is not available

If the Active Glide path from Thales is selected the associated transmitter is automatically selected. In
this case it is not possible to select another kind of transmitter.

A click on the Electronic button will open the selected electronic panel.

Nominal / Workshop button


It is possible to make some training exercises on the electronic by hiding some
input controls on the electronic panel if the Workshop mode is selected.

The teacher can prepare some maladjustment on the electronic, save them in a file and ask the
trainees to load the files in workshop mode in order to hide the maladjustments. The trainees have

10
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

then to adjust the transmitter using the methods described in the « Settings and maintenance »
manuals from the manufacturers or provided during training courses.

More details on Workshop mode can be found in Thomson 381/389

Workshop mode is only available with the Thomson 381/389 transmitter and for M Array distribution
units.

ICAO limits

ICAO limits can only be displayed on the Elevation orbits, Approaches and Hyperbolic
approaches.

Vertical scale and offset of the graph


Depending on the parameter you selected to display, these inputs will change accordingly.

With DDM Offset you can offset the vertical scale for DDM on the graph. This is especially interesting
in approach mode when you make an approach on the sector edge for example. In that case you have
to offset the vertical scale of 150µA to center vertically the curve on the graph.

Units
The distances and heights can be displayed in the Metric system (m) or in the
English system (feet (ft), nautical miles (Nm), knots (kts)).
For distances in the English system the unit will switch from Nm to feet if
distance is less than 0.5 Nm and from feet to Nm if distance is more than
3040 feet.

The field strength on the graphic and on the static receiver can be displayed
in dB or in %. The level of the plot with the maximum amplitude is taken as
reference level and adjusted to 0 dB or 100 %.

Defaults settings button


A click on this button will display the defaults settings Startup Options panel.
This panel allows you to customize the configuration of LAGON when you start
the program.

11
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Cursors

If Cursors is switched ON, 2 cursors are displayed on the graph.

You can use the mouse to move a cursor. Click on it and by holding down the left mouse button drag it
to the desired position. When you release the mouse button the cursor will snap to the nearest data
point.

The X and Y values at the cursors position on the graph near the position of the cursors.

Once the cursor is attached to a plot, you can operate it using the keyboard as shown below.

 Left arrow key : To the previous point on the current plot.


 Right arrow key : To the next point on the current plot.
 Up arrow key : To the next point on the current plot.
 Down arrow key : To the previous point on the current plot.
 <Shift>-left arrow key : Back 10 points on the current plot.
 <Shift>-right arrow key : Forward 10 points on the current plot.
 <Shift>-up arrow key : Forward 10 points on the current plot.
 <Shift>-down arrow key : Back 10 points on the current plot.
 <Ctrl>-left arrow key : Left to the closest point in the x direction on the current plot.
 <Ctrl>-right arrow key : Right to the closest point in the x direction on the current plot.
 <Ctrl>-up arrow key : Up to the closest point in the y direction on the current plot.
 <Ctrl>-down arrow key : Down to the closest point in the y direction on the current plot.
 <Home> : To the first visible point on the current plot.
 <End> : To the last visible point on the current plot.

12
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

 <Shift-Page Up> : To the previous plot.


 <Shift-Page Down> : To the next plot.

It is possible to change the position of the cursor readings with regard to the cursor.

Click on the readings, keep mouse button down, move the readings to the desired position and
release mouse button.

The cursors and their readings are copied together with the graph to the Clipboard when the Copy
button is pressed.

The display below the Cursors button displays the difference of the Y axis readings between the 2
cursors. As shown in the example below, it may sometimes be interesting to check quickly the
difference between the 2 cursors readings.

13
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Monitors button

A click on this button displays the Monitors panel.

Vectors button

A click on this button displays the vector graphs.

14
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The vector graph gives a graphical representation of the amplitudes and phases of the radiated
signals.

It is possible displaying the vectors for the radiated signal from each antenna and image antenna or
for the resulting lobbing factors.

The phase reference is given by the distance between antenna 1 (lower) and the position of the
receiver.

Two graphs are available, one for the CSB signals and the other for the SBO or CLR signals. A toggle
button at the upper right corner allows to chose between SBO and CLR.

It is possible to zoom in and out on each graph with the Zoom value.

The position of the point where the vectors are drawn is selected by Distance, Azimuth and Elevation
or Height in the static receiver frame.

NOTE: Settings in the transmitter panel are for the time being only taken into account on the vector
graphs for the Active GP.

15
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Ray tracing button


A click on this button displays the Ray tracing graph.

This graph shows the rays used in the UTD computation. It is possible to select or unselect the rays.
Unselected rays will not be displayed and not be used in the computations.

It is also possible to unselect antennas but this will only hide the rays. Computation is always carried
out with all antennas.

The inputs in the RECEIVER box define the position used to compute the rays that are displayed.

The more plates are used to define a profile the more rays need to be taken into account and more the
computation speed is slowing down.

An approach with the above displayed profile results in the following plot:

16
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

If one unselects the Diffracted-Reflected rays (green) it gets the following result:

If you get such a strange result in a simulation it means either that not enough ray types are selected
or that the profile is too complicated (too munch plates) with regards to the number of ray types
currently available. In the latest case the profile needs to be simplified.

Static receiver
The static receiver allows measuring Field strength, DDM and SDM at a point
defined by Distance, Azimuth and Elevation or Height.

The input will be on Elevation if the receiver geographical reference point is set
to Runway or Mast/Horizontal.

The input will be on Height if the receiver geographical reference point is set to
Mast/Gnd.

These inputs are also used to select the point where the vectors are drawn
when the vector graphics are open or to set the position of the receiver when
the Ray Tracing graph is open.

17
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

When one clicks on one of the inputs of the static receiver or on near field
position inputs on the monitors panel, the digit which will be incremented or
decremented is highlighted (Black background).

The value of an input is incremented or decremented when the user clicks on


the up or down arrows on the left side of the input control or when the user
hits the up or down keys on the keyboard.

It is possible to change the digit which will be incremented or decremented


with the "greater than" or "less than" keys from the keyboard.

Graph
The graph displays plots of data points calculated at several receiver positions defined as a trajectory,
or a surface grid (to generate isoline plots and 3D plots).

Receiver positions are set in the tabbed pages


described later and the X axis (trajectory), XY axis
(surface grid) of the graph is set accordingly.

Trajectory mode includes:


o Elevation ORBIT
o Azimuth ORBIT
o APPROACH
o HYPER APP
o LEVEL APP

Surface grid mode includes:


o SDW ISO (Sideway isolines)
o FWD ISO (Forward isolines)
o 3D GRAPH

For the trajectories modes the Y axis depends on the selected ILS parameter to be displayed as well
as the setting of the scale.

18
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Plot selection and colors

If plots are displayed and if Cursors is OFF, it is possible to select one of the plots with the mouse. In
that case the selected plot becomes bold and its color is displayed in the square at the top left corner
of the graph. A click in the square allows you then to change the color of the plot.

Changing Z plane position of a plot

Sometimes one plot may hide another one.


It is possible to change the Z plane order of the plots in order to reveal plots hidden by others.

In the example below you may note that the green plot disappears at 4750m. One wants to know if it is
hidden behind the red or the black plot.

Select the red plot with the mouse and then right click on the plot you have selected.

19
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

A small panel is displayed that allows you to change the Z plane order of this plot. Select Move to
BACK in order to put all other plots in front of it.

Now you see that the green plot was behind the red one.

Mean DDM and GP angle

On the bottom of the APPROACH plot the DDM mean value between Points A and B, the GP angle
and the Reference Datum Heights are displayed.

The GP angle and the RDH are calculated from an extended regression line of the measurements
between A and B.

20
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The Achieved GP angle and the Achieved RDH are calculated from an extended regression line of the
measurements between 1000' and 6000' from threshold.

Field strength display and features

If Field strength is selected, the R/A button is displayed at the top left corner of the graph and allows
you to display the field strength in Relative or Absolute mode.

In relative mode the level of the plot with the maximum amplitude is taken as reference level and
adjusted to 0 dB or 100 %.

Relative linear scale

21
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Relative logarithmic scale

The Field scale control allows you to select the vertical maximum and minimum values of the plots that
will be displayed.

In absolute mode the maximum and minimum of the vertical scale is automatically adjusted to the level
of the maximum and minimum of the plots in graph.

22
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Zooming and Panning

You can use zooming—the ability to expand or contract the viewport around a particular area in graph.
You can also use panning, the ability to shift the viewport.

You can define a rectangular zone that will become the new limits of the graph. To select these
bounds, press <Ctrl> and click and hold the left mouse button to define the first corner of the box. Drag
the mouse to define the opposite corner of the rectangle. When you are satisfied with the new
boundaries of the graph, release the mouse button.

To zoom out, press <Ctrl> and click and hold the right mouse button.

To pan, press the <Ctrl-Shift> keys and click the left mouse button over a point on the viewport. Then
drag the mouse to another point. The graph viewport scrolls so that the original point now appears
under the new mouse cursor location. You can drag the mouse anywhere on the screen, even beyond
the viewport.

You also can undo up to 25 of the most recent pans or zooms by pressing <Ctrl-Space> to reverse
each successive change.

Quick elevation angle selector


The quick elevation selector displays the most common elevation angles
used in a glide path as a function of the nominal glide path angle d.

This selector becomes available each time the user selects an elevation
angle input.

For example if the stop angle of the elevation orbit is selected the angle
selector is activated and the frame of the input related to the angle selector
becomes blue. The button “2” turns green because the stop angle is 6°,
which is 2 times the GP angle.

23
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

It is now possible to enter a new stop angle with the keyboard or with a left click on one of the buttons
of the angle selector.

If you enter a value with the keyboard which doesn’t fit with one from the angle selector, all buttons are
blue

Elevation Orbit tab

This tab displays all the parameters needed to define the trajectory of an Elevation Orbit centered on
the chosen reference point (Runway or Mast foot).

24
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The first three inputs define the elevation limits of the circle as well as the steps between the data
points.

Elevation 0 means horizontal in all reference systems.

Distance and Azimuth inputs define at which distance and in which azimuth the elevation orbit is
carried out.

Azimuth Orbit tab

This tab displays all the parameters needed to define the trajectory of an Azimuth Orbit centered on
the chosen reference point (Runway or Mast foot).

25
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Azimuths

The first three inputs define the azimuth limits of the circle as well as the steps between the data
points.

If you change Start Azimuth, Stop Azimuth is automatically adjusted symmetrically. If you want to do
an unsymmetrical orbit you can change the Stop Azimuth without any effect on the Start Azimuth.

Elevation and Height

If the reference point is set to Runway or to Mast/Horizontal, the input will be the elevation and the
corresponding height is calculated and displayed. The height is in that case given with regard to
horizontal plane crossing either the threshold or the mast foot.

If the reference point is set to Mast/Ground, the input will be the


height with regard to the ground and the elevation with regard
to the horizontal plane crossing at mast foot will be calculated
and displayed.

26
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Approach tab

This tab displays all the parameters needed to define the trajectory of an Approach at a given
elevation angle centered on the chosen reference point (Runway or Mast foot).

Input parameters with Ref point at Runway

27
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Input parameters with Ref point at Mast foot

Distances

The first three inputs define the Distance limits of the approach as well as the steps between the data
points. Start distance must always be greater than Stop distance.

Elevation and Azimuth

Elevation is the approach angle with regard to the horizontal.


Azimuth is the azimuth direction of the approach. Azimuth angle are positive in trigonometric direction.

Reference deviation

Hyperbolic Approach tab

This tab displays all the parameters needed to define the trajectory of a Hyperbolic Approach at a
given elevation angle centered on the Runway reference point. In this mode the reference point is
automatically switched to Runway as for the mast foot reference the glide path dos not define a
hyperbolic approach path.

28
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

In hyperbolic approach mode the receiver follows the theoretical hyperbolic path defined by the glide
path due to the lateral shift of the antenna mast with regard to the center line.

Distances

The first three inputs define the Distance limits of the approach path as well as the steps between the
data points. Start distance must always be greater than Stop distance.

Elevation and Azimuth

Elevation is the approach angle with regard to the horizontal.


Azimuth is the azimuth direction of the approach. Azimuth angle are positive in trigonometric direction.

Level Approach tab

This tab displays all the parameters needed to define the trajectory of a Level Approach at a given
height centered on the chosen reference point (Runway or Mast foot).

29
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Distances

The first three inputs define the Distance limits of the approach path as well as the steps between the
data points. Start distance must always be greater than Stop distance.

Height

If reference point is Runway or Mats/Horizontal the height is referenced with regard to the horizontal
plane crossing either the threshold or the mast foot.

If reference point is Mast/Ground the height is referenced to the ground plane.

Azimuth

Azimuth is the azimuth direction of the approach. Azimuth angle are positive in trigonometric direction.

Elevation scale on graph

On level approach the graph features a second X scale in order to display the elevation angles
corresponding to the distances defined for the run. The elevation scale is related to the height of the
level run and is automatically adjusted accordingly.

30
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

If there are several plots on the graph made at different heights the elevation scale is dimmed because
it is not relevant to all the plots.

To get the right elevation scale displayed you need to select a plot.

31
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Sideway Contour lines tab

This tab displays all the parameters needed to define the surface grid at a given distance centered on
the chosen reference point (Runway or Mast foot).

32
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

In this mode the software will calculate the DDM in the area defined by azimuth and elevation limits
and display contour line plots for some given DDM values. A contour line is a line that shows the
locations of a given DDM value in the above defined area.

The picture below shows for which DDM values the contour lines are calculated.

The elevation angle at azimuth -8°, 0° and +8° where the DDM values are geographically located are
also calculated and displayed.

It is possible to display on the graph up to 5 sets or computations of contour lines. The PLOT
SELECTOR allows you to highlight one of the set of contour lines and display the related elevation

33
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

angles. If you hit the Del key or if you click on the Delete button, the selected set of isolines will be
deleted. If no plot is selected the same action will delete all plots.

Elevation scan

The elevation scan will start at 0° and stop at 6°. These limits can not be change and are displayed on
the Y axis of the graph.

Azimuth scan

The first three inputs on the SDW ISO tab define the azimuth limits of the azimuth scan as well as the
steps between the data points.

Distance

Distance at which the sideway contour lines will be calculated.

Forward Contour lines tab

This tab displays all the parameters needed to define the surface grid for calculating the forward
contour lines.

34
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

In this mode the LAGON will calculate the DDM in the area defined by distance and height limits and
display contour line plots for some given DDM values. A contour line is a line that shows the locations
of a given DDM value in the above defined area. The forward contour lines are calculated for the
following DDM values:
-150µA, 0µA and +150µA.

The picture below shows an example of forward contour line calculated with ref point set at mast foot.

35
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Distance limits

The first column allows setting the start and the stop distance of the area to be scanned as well as the
distance computation steps

Height limits

The second column allows setting the start and the stop heights of the area to be scanned as well as
the height computation steps

3D graph tab

This tab displays all the parameters needed to define the surface grid for calculating the 3D graph.
The grid defines the positions of the measurement points.

The third dimension will be the amplitude of the parameter to display.

It is possible to display the 3D graph in Rectangular or Polar mode.

36
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

In Rectangular mode the grid defines a XY plane and the amplitude of the calculated parameter is
displayed in the Z axis.

In Polar mode the grid defines rays and the calculated parameter defines the length of the ray. The
end of the rays will be connected together to shape a 3D volume.

Example for 1 ray

Connecting the end of all rays together will shape a volume as shown above

37
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Plot handling

It is possible to plot up to 5 3D plots on the graph. The Plot selector


allows you to select one of them in order to perform one of the
following actions:
o Delete the plot with the Del key or the Delete button
o Set the plot style
o Change the transparency of the plot in order to make some other plots behind visible

Angular Zoom

The angular zoom will amplify the elevation angles to provide a better view.

Rotating, Panning, and Zooming


Use the following steps to rotate, zoom, and pan a 3D graph:
 To rotate the graph, press and hold the left mouse button and drag.
 To zoom on the graph, press and hold the <Alt> key and the left mouse button while dragging
the mouse forward and backward. If your mouse has a wheel, you also can zoom on the
graph by rotating the wheel.
 To pan the graph, press and hold the <Shift> key and the left mouse button while dragging the
mouse.

You can come back at any time to the default view point with Default view setting button.

Reference point selection


It is possible to set the reference 0 point for the receiver trajectory
mode or surface grid mode as well as for the static receiver. Three
possibilities are available:

o Runway as shown below

38
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

o Mast / Horizontal
The reference point is the mast foot and the elevation points are given with regard to a
horizontal plane crossing the mast foot.

o Mast / Ground
The reference point is the mast foot and the heights are given with regard of the ground.

When Runway or Mast/Horizontal is selected


one can define the elevation of the receiver
and the corresponding height with regard to
the horizontal plane is displayed.
Default settings can be set in the Options
panel

When Mast/Ground is selected the input is


the height wit regard to the ground and the
elevation with regard to the horizontal plane
is displayed.
Default settings are the theoretical position of
the Nearfield

START button
A click on the START button will start a calculation of the parameter selected in the Parameter box for
several position of the receiver following a specified trajectory or specific points in a grid. Parameters
of the trajectory or the grid are defined on the tabbed pages.

Once the calculations are completed the results are displayed on the Graph.

39
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Plots
 Delete
 Print
 Copy
 Export

Delete

If a plot is selected, a click on Delete will remove it from the graph.

If not plot is selected, a click on Delete will remove all plots from the graph.

If you hit the DEL key on the keyboard you will get the same behavior as a click on the Delete button.

Print

A click on the Print button displays the Printing panel

Here you can add a title and a comment that will be printed along with the current plots on the graph.
The default text for the title is the selected measurement mode but you can remove it and enter the
title you want.

The Printer box displays the default printer selected in Windows.


A click on the black arrow at the right will display all available printers from your computer. If desired
you can select another printer.

The default orientation for the print is Landscape. It is possible to select Portrait.

If you have a color printer you can chose to print in Black & White or Color.

You can remove this panel without printing with the CLOSE button.

40
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Copy

A click on this button will copy the graph with all the plots to the Clipboard. You can then past the
graph in an other software like Word to generate some reports.

Export

With this button you can export in a text file all computed parameters. They can be selectively recalled
and displayed using the new IMPORT function.

They can also be post-processed in a spreadsheet program like Excel

The files are organised as follows on the hard drive


Lagon user files
Plot Records
Lagon files
Elevation Orbit
Azimuth Orbit
Approach
Hyper App
Level App
Custom files
Approach
Orbit

It is not possible to export sideway contour plots, forward contour plots and 3D graphs

Import
It is possible to import data from different sources in order to make comparisons between
measurements easier.

Importation of LAGON files

To import data from a file, click on the Import button.


The following panel will open

41
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

With File Type you can select if you want to import a file previously exported from LAGON or a file
coming from another source (for example from a measurement).

With Measure Mode you select the directory where the file you want to import is located.
Files created with the EXPORT function are automatically stored in the following directories:

Files from flight or ground measurements have to be placed in the Custom files directory before
importation.

Once File Type and Measure Mode have been set to the type of data you want to import, the files
available in the selected directory are displayed in the File List box.

When importing native data files selected from this box the Import parameters Selector is
automatically sized to the number of columns of data in the file.
With the buttons Off/Selected you can select the columns you want to import.
Default selection depends on the selection made on the main panel.

It is possible to take a look at the raw data in the files with the View file button.

42
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Importation of custom files

For the time being only APPROACH files can be imported.

When Custom files is selected you need to specify how the data in the file are formatted.
Before importing a file you need to add the following tags:
[DATA START] and [DATA STOP]
Example:

Enter the number of columns in the file. It is not compulsory to enter the complete number of columns.
If your file has for example 20 columns but the last parameter you are interested in is in column 8 you
only need to declare 9 columns.

Each column displays now a selection list. The content of the list depends on the type of station you
have selected from where the data are coming from.

43
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

If the file you are going to import has no specific data for the course and the clearance signal you can
select Data from SINGLE Freq. Station even if the data are coming from a Dual frequency station.

With the columns separator input you can specify if the columns are separated by white spaces or
tabulations or by a coma.

If the file to import does not contain X data (azimuth angle for an Orbit or distances for an Approach),
you must specify X data by setting the position of the first and the last data point in the file.
This may happen for input files with only time stamps.
If an X data column is selected the X Data settings box is dimmed.

If Approach is selected you must specify the distance unit and the
reference system used for the X data in the file.

The distance unit can be meters, feet or Nautical miles.

X reference permits to specify if the origin of the X axis is abeam the


GP mast or at threshold.
If it is at threshold you can select the orientation of the X axis. Two possibilities are available. Either
the X axis is directed towards the localizer or it is in opposite direction.

This box permits to select the units used in the file to be imported for different data types.
It allows also selecting the sign convention used for the DDM.

In some files invalid data may be replaced by a string.


Example:

In this case the strings must be replaced by a numerical value (0.0) before importation. To remove
invalid strings this feature must be selected.

44
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

It is now possible to import the data with the Import button.


A progress bar shows if the importation is working.

45
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

46
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Antenna distribution and Monitor combining panel

Glide paths with classic ADUs

This panel gives mainly access to the antenna feeding parameters as well as to monitor recombining
parameters. Some transmitter parameters can also be accessed in order facilitate some adjustments.

Antenna feedings

Antenna feedings can be changed trough the feeding table or with the adjustments available on the
bloc diagram of the antenna distribution unit.

Feeding table

Antenna feedings are displayed in relative values because these values shape the resulting radiation
patterns. For each signal (CSB, SBO or CLR) the antenna with the biggest amplitude is taken as a
reference and the value is set to 100%. The phase of the reference antenna is set to 0°.

The values in the feeding table can also be seen as the amplitude ratios at the antennas with regard to
the most fed antenna.

The feedings of an M array can be divided into 2 parts:


o The feedings of a Null reference glide path
o Some Extra Signals

47
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The Extra Signals have all the same amplitude of 50% with regard to the NR signals and a phase of
180°

In some cases it is possible to optimize the antenna feedings in order to improve the radiated signals
by reducing the reflections from some directions.

The optimization is carried out by changing the values of the Extra Signals. In order to facilitate the
setting of optimized values the Extra Signals can be set separately.

The amplitude ratio with regard to the NR signals is called Ratio or RT (RaTio).
In order to keep the same DDM variations as for a non-optimized M array all Extra Signals should
have the same Ratio. But in some special cases it may be interesting to set separately the ratio for
CSB and for SBO. It is therefore possible to set separately the CSB ratio called RTC and the SBO
ratio called RTS.

The phase of the Extra Signals is called PHX.

If RTC is set differently than RTS the Ratio input is


dimmed. It is nevertheless possible to click on it to
change the value. In that case the input is undimmed and
the new value is copied to both RTC and RTS and the
corresponding values are updated in the feeding table.

If the phase of an Extra Signal is changed in the feeding table the PHX input is dimmed.

48
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

If you set separately each Extra phase in the feeding table to the same value, the PHX input will
display this new common Extra phase and the control will be undimmed.

It is also possible to select the dimmed PHX control and enter a new PHX. In that case the PHX
control will be undimmed.

Bloc diagram

The Bloc Diag button will display the bloc diagram of the antenna distribution unit.

On the bloc diagram you will find all the adjustments available on the real ADU. Adjustable power
dividers and phase shifters.

You can operate these controls by sliding the cursor with the mouse, changing the value with the up
and down arrows at the left side of the numeric control or by entering a value with the keyboard.

49
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The changes made in the bloc diagram will be added to the values in the feeding table.

If the amplitude ratio of a power splitter is set to 1 it means that the values set
in the feeding table are used unchanged in the calculations. If you set for
example the value to 0.8 it means that the value related to the lower output (L
Out) of the power splitter is multiply by a factor 0.8 and the value related to
the upper output (U Out) is multiply by a factor 1.2.

Example for CSB signals in A1 and A2.

If the power splitter is set to 1, A1 and A2 radiate the levels set in the feeding table as shown below.

If the power splitter is set to 0.8, the level of the antenna connected to the lower output will be
decreased by a factor of 0.8 which leads to 80%, and the level of the antenna connected to the upper
output will be increased by a factor of 1.2 which leads to 60%.

If after a change of one of the settings on the block diagram you go


back to the feeding table, you can notice that the block diagram button
has turned red and that a new button labelled Total supply is displayed.

The red color indicates that at least one adjustment on the block diagram has been changed from its
nominal value.

50
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

If you click on Total supply the feeding table will display the complete antenna feedings that will be
used in the calculations taking into account both the values from the original feeding table as well as
the adjustments made on the block diagram.
It is not possible to modify the values in the feeding table as long as the Total supply is displayed.

The yellow boxes can be used to disconnect a signal or to add a line with a given phase shift (length).

Transmitter parameters

The most useful parameters of the transmitter are available and adjustable directly from
the ADU/MCU panel.

Adjusting these parameters from this panel will have the same effect as adjusting them
from the transmitter panel.

The displayed SBO level is a percentage from the CSB level in antenna 1 (lower
antenna). It is automatically adjusted when you click on the orange VALIDATE button
as described in GP Layout panel chapter.

LAGON uses the transmitter parameters from the ADU/MCU panel to initialize the
transmitter. It is therefore possible to adapt power levels or clearance DDM for each
GP type in order to fit with different manufacturer recommendations.

The clearance output power is usually adjusted by measuring the ratio between
Clearance and Course in antenna A1. This ratio is displayed as shown.

Depending on the design of the Antenna distribution unit and manufacturing tolerances
it may be possible that the relation between the power readings and the Clear/Crs
reading may not fit with the measurements on a real Glide path.

It is therefore possible to calibrate the above mentioned relationship. When you left
click on the display Clear/Crs Ratio by holding down the <Shift> key, the display
becomes an input marked by the display of the up and down arrows.

It is possible to enter a measured value with accordance to the power measurements.

Click again on the input by holding down the <Shift> key to go back to normal operation and save the
panel under the same name in order to save the change for later use.

51
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Monitor combining

A click on the big MCU button at the right will hide the feeding table or block diagram and display the
monitor combining unit.

The MCU combines the signals from the probes in each antenna in order to recreate signals as a far
field receiver would catch-up on the Course Line (CL) the Width, and in the lower coverage area
(CLR). At the bottom the DDM at each output is displayed.

On the left side inputs to simulate probe errors are available. It is therefore possible to simulate a
change in the coupling both in amplitude and in phase.

The attenuators on the MCU are automatically adjusted according to the elevation angle that has been
set to simulate and the forward slope adjusted in the GP layout panel.

Elevation simulation angles selection

The simulated elevation can be set either in degrees or as a function of d. In the first case any angle
without any restriction can be set. In the setting as a function of d the user can select among the
most common values.

For the width output theses values are:


 Half lower sector
 Lower sector
 Elevation giving 150µA

52
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Because the DDM is not strictly linear in the complete alignment sector, setting the width elevation
angle simulation to 0.76d will lead to a DDM smaller than 150µA. If you want to read exactly 150µA
you need to set the angle to 0.755d.

For the clearance output the selectable values are:


 0.3d
 0.45d

These 2 values are corresponding to those described in the ICAO Annex 10 for the minimum lower
coverage area minima DDMs.

If the user sets the attenuators manually, the elevation angle inputs turn
grey indicating that the attenuator are not any longer set to the theoretical
values as calculate from the elevation angle settings.

If you change the elevation angle the control turns again black and white and the attenuators are set
accordingly.

FSL buttons

In case of forward slope an FSL button is displayed under each attenuator.

This feature works as follow:

 If you change the forward slope on the GP Layout panel without adjusting the antenna heights
with the Set ant. Position button, the VALIDATE button remains grey. This means that the
ADU/MCU will not be updated when you leave the GP Layout panel.
Nevertheless, in order to remind you that something has change, the MCU panel displays FSL
buttons with text in red.

Text is in italics means that the user wants this attenuator value calculated with regard to the
FSL but that the data has not been updated to the actual FSL.
If the text is stroke-out means that the user wants to keep the attenuator value as without FSL
even if the terrain has FSL.

A click on the FSL button will display the correct value and change the color
of the text to green.

 If you change the forward slope on the GP Layout panel and click on the Set ant. Position
button to adjust the heights, the VALIDATE button turns orange. This means that the
ADU/MCU will be updated when you leave the GP Layout panel .

This time, when displaying the MCU panel, the attenuators who had the FSL text in italics are
updated and display the FSL text in green.

53
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

If you save the panel in the configuration as shown above you will get the following behavior:
 If there is no FSL the FSL buttons are hidden
 If you change FSL in the GP Layout panel without updating antenna positions, the
FSL buttons will display as seen at point 1
 If you change FSL in the GP Layout panel and update the antenna positions, the
FSL buttons will display as shown just above

Thales Active Glide path


 Antenna feedings
 Monitor combining

Antenna feedings

For the Active GP this panel shows the connections from the outputs of the transmitter to the antennas
through the simplified antenna distribution unit.

The adjustments on the transmitter are also available. For more details see Thales Active glide path
transmitter

Each transmitter output features a connector which allows to change the


connection pattern that permits to simulate some adjustment configurations.

Each of the 4 outputs can be connected to one of the 4 inputs or to a dummy load.

54
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Each output of the ADU features a connector that allows to connect the output to a dummy load or to
insert a cable length.

Using the connectors described above it is for example possible to simulate the RF Clearance Phasing
as described in the manufacturer's manual.

One of this configuration is shown below:

 CLR output on dummy load


 SBO output connected to CLR input
 CSB1 output on dummy load. This has not the same effect as setting the Power to 0. If one sets
the power of CSB1 to 0 the SBO level will also go to 0 because it is a percentage of the CSB1
level.
 DDM CSB2 set to 0µA
 Increase of SBO level to get a more accurate measurement. In LAGON the displayed SBO level
is the theoretical level that should be radiated by antenna 3 with regard to the CSB1 level
radiated with antenna 1. It is not the same level as the one displayed in the ADRASC software
from Thales.
 SBO phase changed of -90° in order to get a phase measurement

The measurements can be made with the static receiver from the main panel set at the appropriate
position.

Monitor combining

55
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

A click on the MCU button at the right hides the ADU and displays the MCU block diagram.

For the CRS Position and CRS Width the phase and amplitude adjustments are setup in a similar way
as in the SOAC from Thales. The attenuators display the theoretical ratio they should provide at the
output of each monitor channel.

The CLR combining is setup in a similar way as the optional CLR detector from Thales. The
attenuators display this time the theoretical ratio in dB.

If the terrain FSL is different to 0, FSL button are displayed below the attenuators. The behavior of this
buttons is described in the FSL buttons section.

Issue with screen resolution

The ADU/MCU panel has been developed with a given screen resolution. Given the large number of
screen resolutions in use today it may happen that one experiences an overlap of the controls in the
MCU panel as shown below.

56
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

In that case you can change the size of the text font in the Default settings available on the main panel
or/and resize the panel with the mouse until you are satisfied with the arrangement of the controls.
In order to keep the new panel size when you restart LAGON you just have to save the panel under
Init.agp which is the initialization file.

Antenna errors
Below the drawings of the antennas there are 2 fields that allow you to simulate some
antenna or feeding cable errors. It is possible to add for each antenna an attenuation
and a phase shift.

These inputs will also have an effect on the monitoring readings

Antenna readings
The ADU/MCU panel displays the DDM values that one can measure with an ILS receiver at out
coupled signals from A1 and A2. These values may be used for first alignment adjustments as well as
reference parameters for yearly maintenance or troubleshooting.

57
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

File handling
The currently loaded file is displayed at the bottom of this window.

Each GP type has its initialization file which is loaded when selected. A new GP type selection on the
main panel will also initialize the connected transmitter as the transmitter initialization parameters are
also saved in the ADU file. It is thus possible to match the parameters of the transmitter to those
defined by the manufacturer of each glide path.

If the complete path name of the file is too long to be displayed completely, it is possible to display it
just by clicking and holding down the left mouse button over the file name box.

If the File name is light grey it means that at least one parameter has been change from the initial
settings stored in the file.

Save and Load buttons allow to save or load special ADU/MCU settings.

When the window is opened the CANCEL button is dimmed.

If a parameter is changed the the CANCEL button is undimmed.

A click on CANCEL brings all parameters back to the values when the window was opened

58
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Glide path Layout Edition panel

On this panel you can define:


 Primary reflection plane parameters (terrain slopes)
 Antenna mast position
 Antenna azimuth radiation pattern
 Antenna positions
 Gilde path type
 Transmitter type
 Gilde path frequency
 Glide path angle
 Reference Datum Height (RDH)

It gives also access to the Topography panel.

It is possible to save a GP layout and recall it later.

A graphical 3D representation displays some of the parameters adjusted in this panel and provides
thus a better understanding of the effect of those parameters.

The 3D graph shows also the coordinates reference set at the threshold.

Primary reflection plane


An average flat plane evaluated from the surface survey in front of the mast defines the primary
reflection plane.

The primary reflection plane is defined with 3 parameters:


 The average Sideway Slope (SSL) of the terrain
 The height which is given by the extended line of the SSL
at threshold

59
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

 The average Forward slope (FSL) of the terrain.

The FSL is positive if upward in the X direction.


The SSL is positive if upward in the Y direction.

It is possible to compute the primary reflection parameters from terrain survey data using the
Topography panel

The slopes of the reflection plane are visualized on the 3D graph.

60
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The horizontal plane crossing the threshold and 2 benchmarks may help to better understand the
drawing. They can also been hidden with the ON/OFF buttons.

Mast to runway distance (Y position)


The distance of the mast to the runway is positive if the mast is to the
right of the runway center line and negative if the mast is to the left.

Mast forward (X) position


The mast forward position is calculated automatically depending the
following parameters:
 FSL
 GP angle
 Reference Datum Height (RDH)

If you want to use the real mast position as measured, click on


Actual Mast X Pos. It becomes now possible to input the value
which will be used in further computations. The theoretical value
remains displayed above.

Mast foot height


The mast foot height is calculated automatically depending on the
following parameters:
 FSL
 SSL
 Mast distance to the runway
 Mast forward position

If you want to use the real mast foot height as measured, click on
Actual Mast foot height. It becomes now possible to enter the value
you want. This value will be used in all further computations. The
theoretical value remains displayed above.

Reference height of flight path


The flight inspection plane follows a reference trajectory in order to check the glide path signal. A
reference point for this trajectory has to be defined.

A horizontal reflection plane with a height of 0 m at threshold leads to the following reference point:
 X = Forward mast distance
 Y = 0 (runway center line)
 Z = 0 (runway threshold height)

61
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

When the terrain has a forward slope (FSL), the antenna heights are calculated in order to provide the
correct glide path angle with regard to a horizontal plane crossing at mast foot.

The FSL leads to a vertical shift of the horizontal plane at mast foot with regard to the one at threshold.

If the trajectory z reference is not moved, the aircraft will fly a parallel approach path with regard to the
radiated one and lead to a misinterpretation of the measurements.

It is therefore necessary to set the reference point of the approach trajectory to the correct height.

62
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

If the terrain has only a forward slope the correct reference height is the height of the foot of the mast.

In case of a sideway slope the height of the foot of the mast will change but the radiated approach
path will follow the same line as without SSL.

The following picture gives an example of the radiated DDM=0 point across the GP mast in case of a
terrain with SSL.

63
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The trajectory reference point height is therefore not always just the height of the foot of the mast.
LAGON calculates and displays the theoretical trajectory Z
reference with regard of the terrain parameters.

The user can also enter another trajectory Z reference by


activating the manual input. This value could perhaps be provided
by the flight inspection plane.

The theoretical value remains displayed above but is not used for calculations.

Reflection plane vertical shift


This parameter allows moving up and down the reflection layer
without having any effect on mast foot height or antenna heights
with regard to threshold.

This feature can be use to simulate to some extent the effects of growing grass, layer of snow (in
some conditions), changes in an underground water layer, etc.

64
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Antenna Type
A list of antenna types is available.

It is possible to edit the antenna azimuth pattern with the Edit


antenna button or add a new antenna type by selecting NEW in the
antenna selection list.

Both actions (click on Edit antenna or selecting NEW) will display the antenna edition panel:

If NEW is selected the default settings in this panel are related to the isotropic antenna. You obtain the
same result by clicking the NEW button in this panel.

The table shows the amplitude and phase for different azimuth angles and the drawing displays the
polar plot of the radiation diagram.

Default setting for azimuth increment is 10°. It is possible to add or delete azimuth points with the
Insert and Remove buttons.

Example for adding a new azimuth point at 28°:

65
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Click on azimuth 20°, the point is highlighted and Click on the Insert button to add a new point
the Insert and Remove buttons are activated between 20 and 30°. The 25° point is created
with amplitude 0

Change the azimuth from 25° to 28° Enter the amplitude for this point

It is also possible to delete or change the value of an azimuth point. If you have only points every 15°
you can change the 10° to 15° and delete the 20° point.

Once the complete pattern is described it can be saved with the Save button. This will not only save
the pattern but also add it to the antenna selection list.

66
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Antenna settings
The antenna heights are set with regard to the foot of the mast.

If the mast foot height is changed from the theoretical to the


measured value, the antenna heights used for calculation may
differ from those displayed as described below.

Sideway offset (SDW Offset) is used to compensate for near field effects on runway center line.

Forward offset (FWD Offset) is used to compensate phase misalignment induces by the forward slope
(FSL).

It is also possible to turn the antennas in azimuth. This feature is usually used to move the null
direction of the azimuth radiation pattern away from the threshold in order to get more field strength
during the final approach path.

The button Set ant. Position can be used to calculate the theoretical antenna
settings with regard to the terrain features.

Topography panel
The purpose of this panel is to compute the FSL, SSL and reflection plane height at threshold of the
average plane from a site survey recorded terrain data. These parameters can then be used as inputs
on the GP Layout panel.

67
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Terrain Editor
To edit terrain data open the terrain data editor with the button Terrain Editor

The terrain data points are entered with the threshold as reference point and with the following axis
orientation.

68
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

To enter data for a new terrain, first select


the grid used during the site survey.

In the X direction, if for example the survey


has started 300m from the threshold with
steps of 20 m set Start Point X = -300 m and
Step X = +20 m. You must also enter the
number of steps according to the last
surveyed X line.

In the Y direction, if for example the survey


has started 160 m to the left of the runway
center line set Start Point Y = -160 m and
Step Y = +20 m. You must also enter the
number of steps according to the last
surveyed Y line.

These inputs will update the data tables to


the left by adjusting the number of cells and
initializing the tables X and Y according to
the values of Start, Step and Number of
steps.

The heights table (Z) is initialized to 0.

One can now fill in the heights of each point.


The heights must be entered with regard to
the threshold. This means that you have to
subtract the absolute height of the threshold
from the absolute heights of each point.

If one has the terrain heights in an Excel


sheet with the same format as in the terrain
editor it is possible to Copy/paste the data
from Excel to the Terrain editor.

It may happen that the real measurements are not made exactly at the foreseen position in the grid.
There are 2 possibilities to handle these situations.
 It is possible to shift a complete row or column by changing the values in the X and Y tables.
 It is possible to enter a different value of X and Y with a right click with the mouse on the cell
one wants to modify.
The right mouse click on a cell opens a context menu where you can choose Change XY
values.

A panel with the original X and Y data displays. It is now possible to change these values for
the selected point which is highlighted with a yellow background.

69
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

When the X and/or Y values of a point are not those displayed in the X and Y tables, the
background of the point remains yellow.
If you move the mouse cursor above a cell with a yellow background the X and Y values are
displayed.

NOTE: If you change a value in the X or Y table all special values entered for each cell are
removed and replace by those in the X and Y tables.

It is possible to save the terrain survey data in a file for later use with the Save button.

One can recall terrain data previously saved with the Load button.

Close the terrain editor with the Close button.

Average reflection plane computation

After closing the Terrain editor the terrain is displayed in the 3D View tab.

To compute the average reflection plane one must first select the points taken into account for the
computation.
Two different selections are possible. This may allow to make a decision on which points should or
should not be used for the computation.

70
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Click on Pts Select 1. All points from the site survey are now displayed in 2D seen from above.

One may note that in the example above some points have been moved from the original position on
the grid.

It is now possible to select all points with the Select All button or just some of them with the Select
Group and Select Points functions.

Selecting all points

Let’s start with a selection of all points.

The selected points are now displayed as a red cross and the parameters of the average reflection
plane are displayed in the Select 1 column from The Average Plane frame.

The 3D View provides now a visual overview of the average reflection plane.

71
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Switching View ref Plane ON adds some visual references to the drawing. The red line above the
orange triangle visualizes the horizontal at threshold. The orange triangle shows the height differences
between the horizontal and the average reflection plane.

Selecting a set of points

Select the Pts Select 2 tab in order to keep the previous selection and activate Select Group function.

An index is now displayed at the origin with X=0 and Y=0.


When the mouse is moving above the graph the index follows the mouse cursor and displays the X
and Y values at each point.

Click the left mouse button to set the first point of the selection polygon.
Move the mouse to the second position and click with the left button to set a second point.

72
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Continue to select points until all points you want to select are included in the selection polygon.

A double click with the left mouse button sets the last point of the selection polygon and all points
inside are selected.

The parameters of the average reflection plane using the selected points are now computed and
displayed in the column Select 2 in the Average Plane frame.

It is also possible to add or remove points one by one when the Select Points function is activated.

In the 3D View you can now select which average reflection plane is selected.

73
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Turning ON the View Selected points displays all selected points on the 3D graph as red dots.

It is possible to adjust the vertical scale of the 3D graph with the inputs Z min, Z max and Z view.

With the 2 Copy buttons you can copy one of the data set in the corresponding input controls on the
GP Layout panel

Course position button


This button allows to display the radiated DDM=0µA line considering the signal settings are nominal.

The bottom edge of the course position drawing shows the height of the reference point for positioning
the measurement receiver as described in chapter Reference height of trajectography.

74
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

GP type
This input allows selecting a glide path type from a list of available
systems. If you change the selection no other parameter (terrain or
antenna parameters) will be changed automatically.

There is a similar input on the main panel but the behavior is slightly
different. A glide path type selection from the main panel will reset all
parameters from the GP layout panel to the nominal values.

Transmitter
This input allows selecting which kind of transmitter will be used. For
the time being 2 transmitter types are available:
 A basic transmitter with the most common adjustments but
not related to a given manufacturer.
 The THOMSON 381/389 transmitter. For this transmitter a
block diagram with the most important adjustment available
on the real transmitter can be displayed from the main panel.

Frequency
With this input you can select the frequency of your glide path. In brackets is indicated the associated
localizer frequency.

GP Angle
Here you can set the nominal GP angle which will be used to calculate the antenna settings as well as
the mast X position.

RDH
This input allows setting the Reference Datum Height which will be used to calculate the mast X
position.

File handling
The currently loaded file is displayed at the bottom of this window.

If the complete path name of the file is too long to be displayed completely, it is possible to display it
just by clicking and holding down the left mouse button over the file name box.

75
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

If the File name is light grey it means that at least one parameter has been change from the initial
settings stored in the file.

Save and Load buttons allow to save or load GP layouts.

At start up the default file is InitGpLayout.xml. It is possible to save this file with your own settings.

When the window is opened the most right button displays CLOSE and the CANCEL button is
dimmed.

If a parameter is changed the button becomes VALIDATE and the CANCEL button is undimmed.

A click on CANCEL brings all parameters back to the values when the window was opened

The VALIDATE button turns orange when one of the following parameters is changed:
 A click on Set ant. position
 New GP type selection
 New transmitter selection

When you click on VALIDATE when it is orange, the ADU and transmitter settings will be initialized.
This means that you will lose all the previous settings and the orange color acts as a warning.

76
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Help panel

The Information and Help panel gives some general information about the software and displays two
buttons which give access to the documentation.

 LAGON Help button


 LAGON updates button
 Context specific documentation

LAGON Help button


LAGON help button opens the documentation window at the top of the documentation.

The blue texts in the documentation window are hyperlinks to some specific items.

77
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

LAGON updates button


LAGON updates button open the documentation at the Updates item.

Here you can check what has changed between the releases of LAGON, new features or bug
corrections.

Context specific documentation


A right click on a specific item in the user interface will open the documentation window at the specific
point related to that item.

Example: Right click on a button in the UNITS frame

78
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Monitors panel
The Monitors panel displays the parameters usually given by the monitors of an equipment. Farfield
parameters are also displayed on the same panel in order to get an easy way to compare between
monitor readings and farfield measurements.

Farfield measurements are computed at 10000m from the mast.


It is possible to adjust the elevation angle of the measurement for the Sector and Clearance column.

The Nearfiel position can be set with the Azimuth (), Distance (D) and Height (H) inputs.

The monitor readings are calculated using the adjustments made in the MCU and the radiated signals.
The DDM readings of the monitors are also available in the MCU panel.

79
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

80
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Startup Options panel


This panel allows specifying some presetting which will be recalled at start-up of LAGON.

Language
The text in the panels of the software can be set to French or English.

Geographical Units
Distance and heights can be displayed in the metric units system or in the English unit system.

For distances the unit will toggle between feet and Nautical miles is the distance is less than 0.5 Nm or
more than 3040 feet.

DDM
DDM unit can be set to % or µA

The sign convention for the DDM can also be set

DDM  m150  m90 in case + Sign for 150 Hz is selected,


or
DDM  m90  m150 in case + Sign for 90 Hz is selected

Static receiver
The parameters in this frame define the default position of the static receiver when starting the
program.

Measurement modes
These tabbed pages allow you to set the default values for each measurement mode.

It is also possible to select the default tab that will be activated at startup. Activate the tab to want as
default tab before saving the Startup options.

81
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Size of main panel


Width and Height are those from the main panel.

If Width and Height are in italics it means that the panel size has not changed from the default values.

If you close the Default setting panel, change the main panel size by dragging the borders with the
mouse and then come back to the Default setting panel, the new panel size is displayed.

Width and Height is not longer in italics to show that the panel
size has changed from the default settings.

The checkbox “Save actual panel size” is now activated. If you want to keep the new panel size for the
next startup, check the box and click on the SAVE button.

This feature along with the possibility to change the size of the font allows adapting the software to the
size and resolution of your screen in order to get a comfortable viewing of the simulations.

For the time being the font size adjustment will not affect all panels.

CANCEL brings all changes back to the settings before the panel was opened and closes the panel.

SAVE will save the current settings as default settings the next time ATOLL is started.

Reference deviation
The flight inspection plane flies theoretically on the published approach angle when checking the
position of the GP angle. It's in fact difficult to maintain the plane all the time on the exact published
path. The aircraft is therefore always a little bit below or above the theoretical approach angle.
The flight inspection system knows the deviation from the theoretical approach path and compensates
the measured DDM accordingly.
The issue is that in case of multipath propagation the scattered signal will not hit the antenna with the
same phase relationship when the plane for a given distance is a little higher or lower than expected.
Below you can see an example of 3 approach flights on the same GP without any change in the
adjustments on the GP system.

82
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The differences between these 3 plots are only because the flight inspection plane was not flying
exactly the same path.

In order to simulate this behavior it is possible to introduce a


reference deviation of the receiver around the nominal
approach path.

To activate this feature click on Edit in the APPROACH tab.

This opens the following panel:

The graph shows in green the nominal approach path and in red the deviation. The basic deviation is
a sine deviation around the nominal path. It is possible to adjust the number of cycle, add an offset
along the distance axis and select the maximum excursion error.

This can be used to illustrate the effect of the misalignment of the flight inspection plane to the bends
one can observe on the records.

It is also possible to import a real flight path with the Import button.

A click on the import button opens the same panel as for importing flight inspection plots seen in the
previous chapter. The only change is the selection list which displays now the following features:

X is the distance scale

For the deviation error it is possible to select the Ref Elevation or the DDM
deviation with regard to the reference trajectory depending on what is
available in the flight inspection file.

Example of a real flight inspection path and its effect on the DDM plot.

83
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Black: with theoretical path, Red: with real approach path

84
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Terrain and Scatterer panel


A click on the Terrain & Scatterer button opens the panel.

PO OBJECTS gives the possibility to add scattering plates or objects consisting of a set of plates. The
method of Physical Optics (PO) is used to compute the signal scattered from these objects.

UTD TERRAIN PROFILE gives the possibility to add some terrain unevenness in front of the glide
path by defining a terrain profile. The Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) is used to compute the
signals scattered from the terrain irregularities.

PO OBJECTS
Adding a plate
Click on Add Plate to open the list of predefined rectangular plates and select the plate you want to
add.

The plate is added by default at the origin of the reference system (threshold). It is possible to change
its size, position and orientation.

85
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Reference systems

The plate has its own reference system. The position can be set
with regard to this reference system with the X, Y, Z inputs from
the Object position on reference box.

The plate local reference system can then be moved and rotated
with regard to the absolute reference system with the inputs from
the Object position box.

Use of the Reference systems


Example 1:

In this case when you make a rotation around the Z axis, the rotation will take place around the left
edge of the plate.

If you change the Object position on reference X input to -10 m the rotation will take place around the
middle of the plate.

86
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Example 2:

You can simulate the tail fin but using the nose wheel of the aircraft as position reference. If the nose
wheel is 40 m apart from the tail fin you can add 40 m in the X input of the Object on reference box.
When you move and rotate the plate with the inputs of the Object position box, you move and rotate
the plate around the nose wheel.

Plate edition
Only the parameters of the selected plate are displayed.
An object is selected by a left click on its name. The name of the selected object is then displayed in
bold and the 3D view is centered on it.

If one double clicks on the name of a plate the name can be changed. End edition of the name with
the <Enter> key or by selecting another input.

The Sensitive area (SA) buttons are dimmed because Sensitive Areas calculations are not yet
possible in LAGON.

The buttons in the Active labeled column permit to select or unselect object for calculation. It is
therefore possible to remove plates from the calculation without removing them from the selection.

The column after the Active column indicates if the selection is a Plate (P) or an Object (O). An Object
is a set of plates that can be moved together.

The width and the height of the plate can be


adjusted with the Width and Height inputs.

A plate can be divided into a set of sub


plates in order to increase the validity of the
PO calculations. The sub division is made by
adding rows and columns to the original
plate.

No metallic objects can be approximated by changing the Amplitude of the reflection factor.

87
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

With the Save button it is possible to add a new plate in the selection list of predefined plates
displayed with the Add button. The zooming state is also saved at the same time.

To remove a plate from the layout, click on the Remove button.

Adding an object
Click on Add Object to open the list of available
objects.
By default only the New item is displayed.
Selecting New adds an empty object (without
plates).

It is now possible to add plates to the object with


the Add Plate button.

Each plate can be set in size, position and rotation


with regard to the object reference system as seen
previously.

Example:
Object made up of 2 plates.

In this case the object is selected. It is possible to move the complete object using the Object position
inputs on the bottom right of the panel.

When you click on one of the label of the plates the selected plate turns orange and you can change
the settings of that plate.

88
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The check boxes behind the name of the plates permit to unselect plates from the object for
computation without removing them from the object.

A click on the OK button hides the object edition window.

The O after the Active column indicates that this item is an object. This O is not just an indicator; a
click on it opens the object editor window.

Saving and recalling layouts

It is possible to define a complete airport layout by adding several plates representing buildings,
airplanes or other scattering objects and check the contribution from each object on the global DDM by
selectively switching plates on or off.

When a complete layout is defined it can be saved for later use with the Save Layout button.

All scattering objects layouts for the currently selected station will be saved in the sub directory Scat
Objects Layout.

The positions of the objects are saved in an xml file defined in Layout name box (for example Layout
1.xml)

89
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

For each object and for each plate new sub directories are created.

In the example below we are in the GP layout Station 1. Under Scat Objects Layouts we can see 3
subdirectories and 2 xml files.
The 2 xml files indicate that 2 different Object layouts are stored, Test1 and Test 2.
In Test 1 there are 2 PO Objects defined in the sub directory Test1_PO_ObjectsDef, Object_1 and
Object_2. There is also a PO plate defined in the sub directory Test 1_PO_PlatesDef.

A layout is recalled with the Load Layout button

UTD TERRAIN PROFILE


This tab allows defining a terrain profile in order to simulate some unevenness of the terrain in front of
the glide path.
The default configuration is the reflection plane defined in the GP Layout panel.

To add a terrain profile you must first enter a truncation of the primary reflection plane with a click on
the button Infinite.

90
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Note: The primary reflection plane is defined in the GP Layout panel by FSL, SSL and Height above
threshold.

It is now possible to set the distance of the truncation as well as the orientation in azimuth.

We can add more edges with the Add button

91
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

As long as the second plane is vertical it is possible to set the orientation in azimuth.

If the second plane is not vertical the orientation of the edge is the intersection between the first and
the second plane.

In this example FSL and SSL are set different to 0 in the GP Layout panel

To add more plates you must first select after which edge you want to add a new one. As long as no
edge is selected the Add and Delete buttons are not active.

To select an edge click left on the X data and then by holding


down the shift key click on the Z data. It is also possible to
select an edge with a left click on the edge number. This is not
working if one of the inputs is in edit mode (black background).

92
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

If you click now on Add a new edge is added behind the one who was selected.
You can now adjust X and Z to the right position.

The last plane is considered infinite.

Changing viewpoint in 3D picture


It is possible to zoom, pan and rotate the 3D picture.

To zoom in or out use the 2 buttons + and – at the right of the panel. If one of those 2 buttons
has been used once, it is possible to continue zooming using the mouse wheel if the mouse
pointer is above the picture.

To rotate the picture simply hold the left mouse button down on the picture and move the
mouse up and down or right and left to change the viewpoint of the object.

To pan the picture hold down the <Shift> key and the left mouse button while the pointer is on
the picture and move the mouse up and down or right and left.

93
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Transmitter panels
 Basic adjustments
 Thomson 381/389
 NM 7000B

Basic adjustments
If you are not interested in a specific transmitter layout or if your equipment is not available you can
use the Basic adjustments transmitter. Here you will find the adjustments that are present in one or
another way in all equipments.

Here you can see the real SBO level with regard to CSB signal. When you select a new GP type this
level is automatically adjusted with regard to some of the parameter defined in the GP Layout panel in
order to provide the right sector width.

You can easily add -90° phase in SBO for phase adjustments and switch ON or OFF the SBO signal.

Thomson 381/389
This panel displays a block diagram for the Thomson 381/389 transmitter with the main adjustments
available on this equipment.

It is possible to save and recall settings with the Save and Load buttons.

The file name currently loaded is displayed. The file with the default settings is called Init.381GS. GS
stands for Glide path Single frequency.

If the complete path name of the file is too long to be displayed completely, it is possible to display it
just by clicking and holding down the left mouse button over the file name box.

The CANCEL button becomes actives if at least one parameter is changed on the panel. It is then
possible to come back to the settings present when the panel was opened.

94
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

 Single frequency
 Dual frequency
 Workshop mode

Single frequency

 LF generator
 RF generator

LF generator

 R51 is the DDM balance on CSB.


o 0 means that 90 Hz tone ant 150 Hz tone have same amplitude leading to DDM=0.
o 0.1 means that 150 Hz tone has been increased of 10% and 90 Hz tone has been decreased
of 10%
 R43 will induce a linear variation in the 150 Hz tone in the SBO channel

RF generator

The nominal cabinet setting is with SBO phase and amplitude feedback loop ON. Only the S03 SBO
amplitude feedback loop is implemented in the simulation model. This gives the possibility to see
interesting effects on modulations in the case of SBO balance errors or poor carrier suppression.

 R06: SDM adjustment. Nominal value is 0.8 (80%)


 R15: RF level. Nominal value is 1. This is corresponding to the nominal output power set in
the Antenna Distribution Unit panel.
A value of 1.1 means an increase of 10% of the output voltage and so a rise of 1.12 = 1.21 of
the output power.
 R36: SBO level. Nominal value is 1 corresponding to the nominal SBO amplitude giving the
right sector width. The real SBO level is displayed on the Antenna Distribution Unit panel or on
the Basic Adjustments panel.
 R62: Carrier suppression. Nominal value is 0 which means no carrier in SBO.
 SBO phase simulates the SBO phase shifter. Nominal value is 0. A click in the label makes
the control active. You can then add or remove -90° with the <space> bar on your keyboard.

95
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Dual frequency

 LF generator
 Clearance LF phasing
 RF generator

LF generator

 R51 is the DDM balance on CSB.


o 0 means that 90 Hz tone ant 150 Hz tone have same amplitude leading to DDM=0.
o 0.1 means that 150 Hz tone has been increased of 10% and 90 Hz tone has been decreased
of 10%
 R43 will induce a linear variation in the 150 Hz tone in the SBO channel

Clearance LF phasing

For the dual frequency system, it is possible to change the LF phase of the clearance signal. This
adjustment can be used to experiment with localiser optimisation in the case of multipath problem and
has no use for the glide path. The standard THOMSON generator does not have such an
adjustment, so we need a specific LF board providing two separate course and clearance channels.

Reference: information relative to clearance LF phase (out of phase clearance) can be found in ICAO
annex 10, volume 1, chapter 3.1.3.5.3.5.

Two modes for clearance LF phasing are available.

96
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

 Synchro 30 Hz mode. This nominal phase setting is derived from simple trigonometric
properties. The 30 Hz reference signal phase change keeps the relative LF phase between
the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones unchanged and therefore keeps the clearance LF signal always
compliant with ICAO specifications. The shape of the clearance CSB modulating signal can be
checked on the scope located just above the phase values.
 Free mode, allows you to change the LF phase of the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones independly.
Care should be taken to respect audio phasing as described in ICAO Annex 10 by choosing
values for Phase 90 Hz and Phase 150 Hz. Thus, visual check of audio phasing will be useful
with LF scope.

RF generator

The nominal cabinet setting is with SBO phase and amplitude feedback loop ON. Only the S03 SBO
amplitude feedback loop is implemented in the simulation model. This gives the possibility to see
interesting effects on modulations in the case of SBO balance errors or poor carrier suppression.

 R06: SDM adjustment. Nominal value is 0.8 (80%)


 R15: RF level. Nominal value is 1. This is corresponding to the nominal output power set in
the Antenna Distribution Unit panel.
A value of 1.1 means an increase of 10% of the output voltage and so a rise of 1.12 = 1.21 of
the output power.
 R36: SBO level. Nominal value is 1 corresponding to the nominal SBO amplitude giving the
right sector width. The real SBO level is displayed on the Antenna Distribution Unit panel or on
the Basic Adjustments panel.
 R62: Carrier suppression. Nominal value is 0 which means no carrier in SBO.
 SBO phase simulates the SBO phase shifter. Nominal value is 0. A click in the label makes
the control active. You can then add or remove -90° with the <space> bar on your keyboard.

Workshop mode

If you select Workshop on the main panel before opening the transmitter panel the digital inputs are
hidden.

97
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The default settings for this mode are in the file Init.381GDW. GDW stands for Glide path Dual
Workshop.

In this mode the trainee has to make the adjustments using methods applied on the real equipment.
He can not simply set all values to nominal.

The teacher can prepare some exercises and ask the trainee to load some specific files. A special
mode is available to create the exercise files.

If you hit the <V> (visualize) key while holding down the <Shift> key the digital input are displayed but
it is not possible to save the file while in this mode.

98
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

The teacher can now add some errors in the settings, than hide the digital inputs with <Shift><B> and
save these parameters in a file on the hard drive.

When the trainee opens the file he can not see the errors but their effect on the DDM and SDM with
the monitors or by starting an Orbit or an Approach plot.

Given it is difficult to make the adjustments turning the knobs with the mouse, an index displays when
a control is selected. To select a control without changing unwillingly its value it is appropriate to click
on the label of the control.

Once a control is selected and its index displayed it is possible to change the setting using the up and
down keys from the keyboard.

99
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Park Air Systems NM 7000B

The connection to the RMM is not yet activated.

Thales Active glide path transmitter

Selecting the Active GP selects also automatically the associated transmitter. The
transmitter selection box is dimmed because only the Active GP transmitter can be used
with the Active GP.

A click on Electronic displays the adjustment parameters of the


Active GP transmitter.

4 signals are available, 3 course signals and 1 clearance signal.


CSB 1 is radiated with the lower antenna A1.
CSB 2 is radiated with the middle antenna A2
SBO A3 is radiated with the upper antenna A3
CLR is radiated both with the lower and the upper antennas using
a simplified antenna distribution unit.

CSB 1 is a signal equivalent to the combination of a CSB and a


SBO signal as it can be measured in A1 on a passive GP.
CSB 2 is a signal equivalent to the combination of a CSB and a
SBO signal as it can be measured in A2 on a passive GP.
The SBO A3 level displayed is the nominal theoretical SBO level
fed to A3 with regard to CSB A1 level. It is half the SBO level
normally radiated with A2 which is 11.68% for a GP on a terrain
without forward slope (FSL)
Because the SBO A3 level is given as a percentage of the CSB1 level, setting the CSB1 power to 0
will result in a SBO A3 level of 0.

DDM CSB1, DDM CSB2 and SBO A3 are automatically adjusted to the theoretical values according to
the forward slope of the terrain. FSL is adjusted in the GP Layout panel.

100
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Global SBO level input is equivalent to the SBO level adjustment on a passive GP. In this case it will
adjust simultaneously DDM CSB1, DDM CSB2 and SBO A3. If the value is set to 100% the DDM
CSB1 and CSB2 and SBO A3 are the nominal value. If for example you set the value to 80% the
transmitter will radiate 80% of DDM CSB1 and CSB2 and of SBO A3 with regard to the values when
Global SBO level was 100%.

SBO A3 = 5.841 x 0.8 = 4.673


DDM CSB2 = -400.6 x 0.8 = -320.4
DDM CSB1 = -100.1 x 0.8 = -80.1

If you set the global SBO level back to 100% the original values are set.

It is possible to change each parameter separately. Two possibilities have to be considered.

1. Changing DDM CSB1 or DDM CSB2 or SBO A3 when Global SBO level is 100%.
2. Changing DDM CSB1 or DDM CSB2 or SBO A3 when Global SBO level is not 100%.

Lets consider as an example that we change the value of DDM CSB2.


1. Global SBO level = 100%
We set DDM CSB2 to -390µA.
Changing Global SBO level to 80% will result in a DDM CSB2 of -312µA
Setting Global SBO level back to 100% brings DDM CSB2 back to -390µA

2. Global SBO level = 80%


DDM CSB2 is now -320µA
Lets now reduce DDM CSB2 to -304µA which is 5% less of the previous value
Setting Global SBO level back to 100% results in DDM CSB2 = -380µA which is 5% less than
the nominal value of -400µA

LAGON updates
 Version 4.2 (27/06/12)
 Version 4.1 (23/04/12)
 Version 4.0 (15/01/12)
 Version 3.2 (10/02/11)
 Version 3.1 (01/09/10)
 Version 3.0 (18/08/10)
 Version 2.2 (17/10/08)
 Version 2.1 (15/09/08)
 Version 2.0 (01/08/08)

This historic starts at version 2.0

Version 4.2 (27/06/12)


 When the GP mast was not at the theoretical X position the reference height of the approach
path was not correct
 When importing a real flight inspection approach trajectory the computation of the mean Angle
and RDH was not update correctly
 LAGON crashed if after a Hyper Approach one made a normal Approach
 With a Null ref GP the vectors of the image antennae were not correctly labeled and didn't
have the correct color
 The computed GP angle and RDH remained display after selecting the Sideway ISO tab

101
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Version 4.1 (23/04/12)


 Right click on PO objects was not working
 Added Wilcox antenna radiation pattern
 New radiation pattern for the Kathrein antenna obtained from measurements. Avoids
discontinuity of DDM near the threshold.
 Added importation of hyperbola corrected DDM measurements
 Corrected DDM conversion error for imported plots. The conversion factor was 0.155 instead
of 0.175.
 Added button on main panel to change the DDM sign. This button was only available on the
default settings panel.
 Corrected error on SDW offset computation for the Side Band Reference GP

Version 4.0 (15/01/12)


 New Scattering objects and terrain profile Panel
 Ray tracing graph on main panel
 Normarc 7000B transmitter
 ICAO limits displayed
 Computation of mean DDM and GP angle on approach graph
 Increment steps displayed on static receiver inputs and Near field position on monitor panel
 New format for EXPORT files
 Data files IMPORTATION
 Reference deviation on Approach tab
 Applying filtering after computation
 Changing Z plane position of a plot

Version 3.2 (10/02/11)


 Active GP: SDM input on Electronic adjustments panel was not taken into account
 The SDM is now displayed for Elevation orbit, Azimuth orbit and Level approach plots. This
most interesting for the Active GP
 The sideway position of the scattering plates was not correctly referenced

Version 3.1 (01/09/10)


 Topography panel: Addition of 2 copy buttons below each column of the average plane
computation data which can be used to copy the chosen selection in the corresponding
controls of the GP layout panel
 Bug fixes
o Active GP: Changing the Global SBO level did not change the DDM reading in
antenna 2
o Active GP: DDM readings unit remained always in µA even if % was selected
o Active GP: The number of decimals for the DDM displays is now adjusted accordingly
to the selected unit. 1 digit after the dot in µA and 2 digits after the dot in %
o Active GP: Activating the Course position button on the GP layout panel stalled the
program
o Active GP: Strange behavior of the Forward ISO lines below a given X distance
o SEL 410 GP: Default level ratio in A1 was 20%. Changed to 25% as recommended by
the manufacturer

Version 3.0 (18/08/10)


 Introduction of the Topography panel. The purpose of this panel is to compute the FSL, SSL
and reflection plane height at threshold of the average plane from a site survey recorded
terrain data
 Introduction of the Active glide path from Thales
 Addition of a zoom to the vectors diagrams

102
LAGON 4.2 user’s manual

Version 2.2 (17/10/08)


 In the monitor panel the Near field is now set automatically to the theoretical position
 When you chose Reference point Mast/Gnd the default position of the static receiver is now
the theoretical Near field position
 The DDM units in the monitor panel remained always in µA even if the user changed to %
 The position of the Near field in the monitor panel was always in meters even if the user
changed to the English units
 If Ref point Mast/Gnd was selected the far field readings in the monitor panel did not display
correctly
 The clearance transmitter did sometimes not display in Basic generator panel
 Some values in the Sideway ISO tab could crash the program
 In SEL MCU the phase values were wrong
 Minor bug fixes

Version 2.1 (15/09/08)


 On level approach the graph displays now an elevation scale at the top
 Copy of graphs has been improved. Copy of Isolines and 3D graphs was not working
previously.
 Printing of graphs has been improved. It was not possible to print Isolines and 3D graphs in
previous versions. It is also possible now to select one of the available printers and change
the orientation of the printout, portrait or landscape
 It is now possible to copy to clipboard or to print the vector diagrams
 New activation policy.
 Minor bug fixes

Version 2.0 (01/08/08)


 Activating LAGON
 Static receiver has now its own inputs
 Measurement mode selection changed to tab pages format
 The reference point for trajectory definition can be set to runway or mast foot
 Introduction of the quick elevation angle selector
 Graph cursors values are now displayed on the graph
 Introduction of the vector diagrams
 Distance and height units can now be displayed in the metric or English unit system
 Introduction of the Default settings panel
 Introduction of a new GP layout panel with improved features
 The ADU/MCU panel displays now some of the transmitter parameters
 The MCU panel displays now FSL button that allow to select if the attenuators values are
calculated taking into account FLS or not
 Introduction of this new documentation and help
 LAGON is now compatible with Windows VISTA

103