EGYPTIAN MAGIC

by E. A. WALLIS BUDGE
LATE KEEPER OF THE EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIES IN THE BRITISH
MUSEUM
Kegan, Paul, Trench and Trübner & Co., London
[1901]
p. iii
to
SIR J. NORMAN LOCKYER, K.C.B., F.R.S.,
ETC., ETC, ETC.,
A TOKEN OF ESTEEM FOR A GREAT ASTRONOMER,
AND
A MARK OF TRUE REGARD FOR
A FRIEND.
p. vii
PREFACE.
A STUDY of the remains of the native religious literature of ancient Egypt which have
come down to us has revealed the fact that the belief in magic, that is to say, in the power
of magical names, and spells, and enchantments, and formulæ, and pictures, and figures,
and amulets, and in the performance of ceremonies accompanied by the utterance of
words of power, to produce supernatural results, formed a large and important part of the
Egyptian religion. And it is certain that, notwithstanding the continuous progress which
the Egyptians made in civilization, and the high intellectual development to which they
eventually attained, this belief influenced their minds and, from the earliest to the latest
period of their history, shaped their views concerning things temporal as well as spiritual
in a manner which, at this stage in the history of the world, is very difficult to understand.
The scrupulous care with which they performed their
p. viii
innumerable religious ceremonies, and carried out the rules which they had formulated
concerning the worship of the divine Power or powers, and their devotion to religious
magic, gained for them among the nations with whom they came in contact the reputation
of being at once the most religious and the most superstitious of men. That this reputation
was, on the whole, well deserved, is the object of this little book to shew.
Egyptian magic dates from the time when the predynastic and prehistoric dwellers in
Egypt believed that the earth, and the underworld, and the air, and the sky were peopled
with countless beings, visible and invisible, which were held to be friendly or unfriendly
to man according as the operations of nature, which they were supposed to direct, were
favourable or unfavourable to him. In -nature and attributes these beings were thought by
primitive man to closely resemble himself and to possess all human passions, and
emotions, and weaknesses, and defects; and the chief object of magic was to give man the
pre-eminence over such beings. The favour of the beings who were placable and friendly
to man might be obtained by means of gifts and offerings, but the cessation of hostilities
on the part of those that were implacable and unfriendly could only be obtained by
wheedling, and
p. ix
cajolery, and flattery, or by making use of an amulet, or secret name, or magical formula,
or figure, or picture which had the effect of bringing to the aid of the mortal who
possessed it the power of a being that was mightier than the foe who threatened to do evil
to him. The magic of most early nations aimed at causing the transference of power from
a supernatural being to man, whereby he was to be enabled to obtain superhuman results
and to become for a time as mighty as the original possessor of the power; but the object
of Egyptian magic was to endow man with the means of compelling both friendly and
hostile powers, nay, at a later time, even God Himself, to do what he wished, whether the
were willing or not. The belief in magic, the word being used in its best sense, is older in
Egypt than the belief in God, and it is certain that a very large number of the Egyptian
religious ceremonies, which were performed in later times as an integral part of a highly
spiritual worship, had their origin in superstitious customs which date from a period when
God, under any name or in any form, was unconceived in the minds of the Egyptians.
Indeed it is probable that even the use of the sign which represents an axe, and which
stands the hieroglyphic character both for God and "god," indicates that this weapon and.
tool was employed in the
p. x
performance of some ceremony connected with religious magic in prehistoric, or at any
rate in predynastic times, when it in some mysterious way symbolized the presence of a
supreme Power. But be this as it may, it is quite certain that magic and religion developed
and flourished side by side in Egypt throughout all periods of her history, and that any
investigation which we may make of the one necessarily includes an examination of the
other.
From the religious books of ancient Egypt we learn that the power possessed by a priest
or man who was skilled in the knowledge and working of magic was believed to be
almost boundless. By pronouncing certain words or names of power in the proper manner
and in the proper tone of voice he could heal the sick, and cast out the evil spirits which
caused pain and suffering in those who were diseased, and restore the dead to life, and
bestow upon the dead man the power to transform the corruptible into an incorruptible
body, wherein the soul might live to all eternity. His words enabled human beings to
assume divers forms at will, and to project their souls into animals and other creatures;
and in obedience to his commands, inanimate figures and pictures became living beings
and things which hastened to perform his behests. The powers of nature acknowledged
his might, and wind and rain,
p. xi
storm and tempest, river and sea, and disease and death worked evil and ruin upon his
foes, and upon the enemies of those who were provided with the knowledge of the words
which he had wrested from the gods of heaven, and earth, and the underworld. Inanimate
nature likewise obeyed such words of power, and even the world itself came into
existence through the utterance of a word by Thoth; by their means the earth could be
rent asunder, and the waters forsaking their nature could be piled up in a heap, and even
the sun's course in the heavens could be stayed by a word. No god, or spirit, or devil, or
fiend, could resist words of power, and the Egyptians invoked their aid in the smallest as
well as in the greatest events of their lives. To him that was versed in the lore contained
in the books of the "double house of life" the future was as well known as the past, and
neither time nor distance could limit the operations of his power; the mysteries of life and
death were laid bare before him, and he could draw aside the veil which hid the secrets of
fate and destiny from the knowledge of ordinary mortals.
Now if views such as these concerning the magician's power were held by the educated
folk of ancient Egypt there is little to wonder at when we find that beliefs and
superstitions of the most degraded character flourished with rank luxuriance among the
peasants
p. xii
and working classes of that country, who failed to understand the symbolism of the
elaborate ceremonies which were performed in the temples, and who were too ignorant to
distinguish the spiritual conceptions which lay at their root--to meet the religious needs of
such people the magician, and in later times the priest, found it necessary to provide
pageants and ceremonies which appealed chiefly to the senses, and following their
example, unscrupulous but clever men took advantage of the ignorance of the general
public and pretended to knowledge of the supernatural, and laid claim to the possession
of power over gods, and spirits, and demons. Such false knowledge and power they sold
for money, and for purposes of gain the so-called magician was ready to further any
sordid transaction or wicked scheme which his dupe wished to carry out. This magic
degenerated into sorcery, and demonology, and wit craft, and those who dealt in it were
regarded as associates of the Devil, and servants of the powers of darkness, and workers
of the "black art." In the "white" and "black" magic of the Egyptians most of the magic
known in the other countries of the world may be found; it is impossible yet to say
exactly how much the beliefs and religious systems of other nations were influenced by
them, but there is no, doubt that certain views and religious ideas of many heathen and
p. xiii
Christian sects may be traced directly to them. Many interesting proofs might be adduced
in support of this statement, but the limits of this book will not admit of their being given
here.
When we consider the lofty spiritual character of the greater part of the Egyptian religion,
and remember its great antiquity, it is hard to understand why the Egyptians carefully
preserved in their writings and ceremonies so much which savoured of gross and childish
superstition, and which must have been the product of their predynastic or prehistoric
ancestors, even during the period of their greatest intellectual enlightenment. But the fact
remains that they did believe in One God Who was almighty, and eternal, and invisible,
Who created the heavens, and the earth, and all beings and things therein; and in the
resurrection of the body in a changed and glorified form, which would live to all eternity
in the company of the spirits and souls of the righteous in a kingdom ruled by a being
who was of divine origin, but who had lived upon the earth, and had suffered a cruel
death at the hands of his enemies, and had risen from the dead, and had become the God
and king of the world which is beyond the grave; and that, although they believed all
these things and proclaimed their belief with almost passionate earnestness, they seem
never to have freed themselves from a hankering
p. xiv
after amulets and talismans, and magical names, and words of power, and seem to have
trusted in these to save their souls and bodies, both living and dead, with something of the
same confidence which they placed in the death and resurrection of Osiris. A matter for
surprise is that they seem to see nothing incongruous in such a mixture of magic and
religion, and the general attitude of the mind of the Egyptian on the point is well
illustrated by the following facts. Attached to the service of Râ, the Sun-god, at Thebes
were numerous companies of priests whose duties consisted as much in making copies of
religious books and in keeping alive the "divine traditions," as in ministering to the god in
their appointed seasons. The members of these companies who wrote the copies of the
Book of the Dead which were buried with kings and queens and personages of royal or
exalted rank declared the power and omnipotence of Almighty God, Whose visible
emblem to mankind was the Sun, and His sovereignty over things celestial and things
terrestrial with no uncertain voice, and we should expect them to believe what they
proclaimed, i.e., that God was sufficiently powerful to protect His emblem in the sky. Yet
the priests of Thebes made copies of works which contained texts to be recited at
specified hours of the day and night, and gave directions for the performance of
p. xv
magical ceremonies, the avowed object of such being to prevent the mythical monster
Âpep from vanquishing the Sun-god. And it is stated in all seriousness that if a piece of
papyrus upon which a figure of the monster has been drawn, and a wax figure of him be
burnt in a fire made of a certain kind of grass, and the prescribed words be recited over
them as they burn, the Sun-god will be delivered from Âpep, and that neither rain, nor
cloud, nor mist shall be able to prevent his light from falling upon the earth. Moreover,
the rubric describes the performance of the ceremony as a meritorious act!
E. A. WALLIS BUDGE.
LONDON,
August 28th, 1899
p. 1
EGYPTIAN MAGIC.
CHAPTER I.
ANTIQUITY OF MAGICAL PRACTICES IN EGYPT.
IN the first volume of this series 1 an attempt was made to set before the reader a
statement of the ideas and beliefs which the ancient Egyptians held in respect of God, the
"gods," the Judgment, the Resurrection, and Immortality; in short, to sketch in brief
outline much of what was beautiful, and noble, and sublime in their religion. The facts of
this statement were derived wholly from native religious works, the latest of which is
some thousands of years old, and the earliest of which may be said to possess an antiquity
of between six and seven thousand years; the extracts quoted in support of the deductions
set forth in it were intended to enable the reader to judge for himself as to the general
accuracy of the conclusions there given. Many writers on the Egyptian religion have
somewhat blinked the fact that it had two sides; on the one it closely resembles in
.
p. 2
many respects the Christian religion of to-day, and on the other the religion of many of
the sects which flourished in the first three or four centuries of our era, and which may be
said to have held beliefs which were part Christian and part non-Christian. In its non-
Christian aspect it represents a collection of ideas and superstitions which belong to a
savage or semi-savage state of existence, and which maintained their hold in a degree
upon the minds of the Egyptians long after they had advanced to a high state of
civilization. We may think that such ideas and beliefs are both childish and foolish, but
there is no possible reason for doubting that they were very real things to those who held
them, and whether they are childish or foolish or both they certainly passed into the
religion of the people of Egypt, wherein they grew and flourished, and were, at least
many of them, adopted by the Egyptian converts to Christianity, or Copts. Reference is
made to them in the best classical works of the ancient Egyptians, and it is more than
probable that from them they found their way into the literatures of the other great
nations of antiquity, and through the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and others into the
countries of Europe. In the following pages an attempt will be made to place in the
reader's hands the evidence as to the magical side of the Egyptian religion, which would
have been out of place in the former work, the object of which was to describe beliefs of
a more spiritual nature. But, as
p. 3
in the book on the Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, the facts here given are drawn from
papyri and other native documents, and the extracts are quoted from compositions which
were actually employed by the Egyptians to produce magical effects.
The "magic" of the Egyptians was of two kinds: (1) that which was employed for
legitimate purposes and with the idea of benefiting either the living or the dead, and (2)
that which was made use of in the furtherance of nefarious plots and schemes and was
intended to bring calamities upon those against whom it was directed. In the religious
texts and works we see how magic is made to be the handmaiden of religion, and how it
appears in certain passages side by side with the most exalted spiritual conceptions; and
there can be no doubt that the chief object of magical books and ceremonies was to
benefit those who had by some means attained sufficient knowledge to make use of them.
But the Egyptians were unfortunate enough not to be understood by many of the strangers
who found their way into their country, and as a result wrong and exaggerated ideas of
their religion were circulated among the surrounding nations, and the magical ceremonies
which were performed at their funerals were represented by the ignorant either as silly
acts of superstition or as tricks of the "black" art. But whereas the magic of every other
nation of the ancient East was directed entirely against the powers of darkness, and was
p. 4
invented in order to frustrate their fell designs by invoking a class of benevolent beings to
their aid, the Egyptians aimed being able to command their gods to work for them, and to
compel them to appear at their desire. These great results were to be obtained by the use
of certain words which, to be efficacious, must be uttered in a proper tone of voice by a
duly qualified man; such words might be written upon some substance, papyrus, precious
stones, and the like, and worn on the person, when their effect could be transmitted to any
distance. As almost every man, woman, and child in Egypt who could afford it wore
some such charm or talisman, it is not to be wondered at that the Egyptians were at a very
early period regarded as a nation of magicians and sorcerers. Hebrew, and Greek, and
Roman writers referred to them as experts in the occult sciences, and as the possessors of
powers which could, according to circumstances, be employed to do either good or harm
to man.
From the Hebrews we receive, incidentally, it is true, considerable information about the
powers of the Egyptian magician. Saint Stephen boasts that the great legislator Moses
"was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," and declares that he "was mighty in
words and in deeds," 1 and there are numerous features in the life of this remarkable man
which shew that he was acquainted with many of the practices of
p. 5
Egyptian magic. The phrase "mighty in words" probably means that, like the goddess
Isis, he was "strong of tongue" and uttered the words of power which he knew with
correct pronunciation, and halted not in his speech, and was perfect both in giving the
command and in saying the word. The turning of a serpent into what is apparently an
inanimate, wooden stick, 1 and the turning of the stick back into a writhing snake, 2 are
feats which have been performed in the East from the most ancient period; and the power
to control and direct the movements of such venomous reptiles was one of the things of
which the Egyptian was most proud, and in which he was most skilful, already in the time
when the pyramids were being built. But this was by no means the only proof which
Moses gives that he was versed in the magic of the Egyptians, for, like the sage Âba-aner
and king Nectanebus, and all the other magicians of Egypt from time immemorial, he and
Aaron possessed a wonderful rod 3 by means of which they worked their wonders. At the
word of Moses Aaron lifted up his rod and smote the waters and they became blood; he
stretched it out
p. 6
over the waters, and frogs innumerable appeared; when the dust was smitten by the rod it
became lice; and so on. Moses sprinkled ashes "toward heaven," and it became boils and
blains upon man and beast; he stretched out his rod, and there was "hail, and fire mingled
with the hail, very grievous," and the "flax and the barley was smitten;" he stretched out
his rod and the locusts came, and after them the darkness. Now Moses did all these
things, and brought about the death of the firstborn among the Egyptians by the command
of his God, and by means of the words which He told him to speak. But although we are
told by the Hebrew writer that the Egyptian magicians could not imitate all the miracles
of Moses, it is quite certain that every Egyptian magician believed that he could perform
things equally marvellous by merely uttering the name of one of his gods, or through the
words of power which he had learned to recite; and there are many instances on record of
Egyptian magicians utterly destroying their enemies by the recital of a few words
possessed of magical power, and, by the performance of some, apparently, simple
ceremony. 1 But one great distinction must be made between the magic of Moses and that
of the Egyptians among whom he lived; the former was wrought by the command of the
God of the Hebrews, but the latter by the gods of Egypt at the command of man.
p. 7
Later on in the history of Moses' dealings with the Egyptians we find the account of how
"he stretched out his hand over the sea, and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a
strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground; and the
waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left." When the Egyptians
had come between the two walls of water, by God's command Moses stretched forth his
hand over the sea, "and the sea returned to his strength," and the "waters returned, and
covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea
after them." 1 But the command of the waters of the sea or river was claimed by the
Egyptian magician long before the time of Moses, as we may see from an interesting
story preserved in the Westcar Papyrus. 2 This document was written in the early part of
the XVIIIth dynasty, about B.C. 1550 but it is clear that the stories in it date from the
Early Empire, and are in fact as old as the Great Pyramid. The story is related to king
Khufu (Cheops) by Baiu-f-Râ as an event which happened in the time of the king's father,
and as a proof of the wonderful powers of magic which were possessed by the priest 3
called
p. 8
Tchatcha-em-ânkh. It seems that on a certain day king Seneferu was in low spirits, and he
applied to the nobles of his royal household expecting that they would find some means
whereby his heart might be made glad; but as they could do nothing to cheer up the king,
he gave orders that the priest and writer of books, Tchatcha-em-ânkh, should be brought
into his presence immediately, and in accordance with the royal command he was at once
brought. When he had arrived, Seneferu said to him, "My brother, I turned to the nobles
of my royal household seeking for some means whereby I might cheer my heart, but they
have found nothing for me." Then the priest made answer and advised the king to betake
himself to the lake near the palace, and to go for a sail on it in a boat which had been
comfortably furnished with things from the royal house. "For," said he, "the heart of thy
Majesty will rejoice and be glad when thou sailest about hither and thither, and dost see
the beautiful thickets which are on the lake, and when thou seest the pretty banks thereof
and the beautiful fields then shall thy heart feel happiness." He next begged that the king
would allow him to organize the journey, and asked his permission to let him bring
twenty ebony paddles inlaid with gold, and also twenty young virgins having beautiful
heads of hair and lovely forms and shapely limbs, and twenty nets wherein these virgins
may array themselves instead of in their own ordinary
p. 9
garments. The virgins were to row and sing to his Majesty. To these proposals the king
assented, and when all was ready he took his place in the boat; while the young women
were rowing him about hither and thither the king watched them, and his heart became
released from care. Now as one of the young women was rowing, she entangled herself in
some way in her hair, and one of her ornaments which was made of "new turquoise" fell
into the water and sank; she ceased to row, and not herself only, but all the other maidens
ceased to row also. When the king saw that the maidens had ceased from their work, he
said to them, "Will ye not row?" and they replied, "Our leader has ceased to row." Then
turning to the maiden who had dropped her ornament overboard, he asked her why she
was not rowing, whereupon she told him what had happened. On this the king promised
that he would get back the ornament for her.
Then the king commanded that Tchatcha-em-ânkh should appear before him at once, and
as soon as the sage had been brought into his presence he said to him, "O Tchatcha-em-
ânkh, my brother, I have done according to thy words, and the heart of my Majesty
became glad when I saw how the maidens rowed. But now, an ornament which is made
of new turquoise and belongeth to one of the maidens who row hath fallen into the water,
and she hath in consequence become silent, and hath ceased to row, and hath disturbed
the
p. 10
rowing of those in her company. I said to her, 'Why dost thou not row?' and she replied,
'An ornament [of mine] made of new turquoise hath fallen into the water.' Then I said to
her, 'I will get it back for thee.'" Thereupon the priest and writer of books Tchatcha-em-
ânkh spake certain words of power (hekau), and having thus caused one section of the
water of the lake to go up upon the other, he found the ornament lying upon a pot-sherd,
and he took it and gave it to the maiden. Now the water was twelve cubits deep, but when
Tchatcha-em-ânkh had lifted up one section of the water on to the other, that portion
became four and twenty cubits deep. The magician again uttered certain words of power,
and the water of the lake became as it had been before he had caused one portion of it to
go up on to the other; and the king prepared a feast for all his royal household, and
rewarded Tchatcha-em-ânkh with gifts of every kind. Such is a story of the power
possessed by a magician in the time of king Khufu (Cheops), who reigned at the
beginning of the IVth dynasty, about B.C. 3800. The copy of the story which we possess
is older than the period when Moses lived, and thus there can be no possibility of our
seeing in it a distorted version of the miracle of the waters of the sea standing like walls,
one on the right hand and one on the left; on the other hand Moses' miracle may well
have some connexion with that of Tchatcha-em-ânkh.
p. 11
Among the Greeks and Romans considerable respect was entertained, not only for the
"wisdom" of the Egyptians, but also for the powers of working magic which they were
supposed to possess. The Greek travellers who visited Egypt brought back to their own
country much information concerning its religion and civilization, and, though they
misunderstood many things which they saw and heard there, some of the greatest of
thinkers among the Greeks regarded that country not only as the home of knowledge and
the source of civilization and of the arts, but also as the fountain head of what has been
called "white magic," and the "black art." In some respects they exaggerated the powers
of the, Egyptians, but frequently when the classical writers were well informed they only
ascribed to them the magical knowledge which the Egyptian magicians themselves
claimed to possess. A striking instance of this is given in the second book of the
Metamorphoses of Apuleius where, it will be remembered, the following is narrated. The
student Telephron arrived one day at Larissa, and as he was wandering about in an almost
penniless condition he saw an old man standing on a large block of stone issuing a
proclamation to the effect that any one who would undertake to guard a dead body should
receive a good reward. When Telephron asked if dead men were in the habit of running
away the old man replied testily to the effect that the witches all over Thessaly used
p. 12
to tear off pieces of flesh from the faces of the dead with their teeth, in order to make
magical spells by means of them, and to prevent this dead bodies must needs be watched
at night. The young man then asked what his duties would be if he undertook the post,
and he was told that he would have to keep thoroughly awake all night, to gaze fixedly
upon the dead body, to look neither to the right hand nor to the left, and not to close the
eyes even to wink. This was absolutely necessary because the witches were able to get
out of their skins and to take the form of a bird, or dog, or mouse, and their craftiness was
such that they could take the forms of flies and cast sleep upon the watcher. If the
watcher relaxed his attention and the body became mutilated by the witches, the pieces of
flesh torn away would have to be made good from the body of the watcher Telephron
agreed to undertake the duty for one thousand nummi, and was led by the old man to a
house, and, having been taken into the room where the dead body was, found a man
making notes on tablets to the effect that nose, eyes, ears, lips, chin, etc., were untouched
and whole. Having been provided with a lamp and some oil that night he began his
watch, and all went well, notwithstanding that he was greatly afraid, until the dead of
night when a weasel came into the chamber and looked confidingly at the watcher; but he
drove the animal--which was no doubt a witch--from the room, and then fell fast
p. 13
asleep. In the early morning he was suddenly wakened by the trumpets of the soldiers,
and almost immediately the widow of the dead man came to him with seven witnesses,
and began to examine the body to see if it was intact; finding that no injury had been
done to it she ordered her steward to pay Telephron his fee, and was so grateful to him
that she promised to make him one of her household. In attempting to express his thanks,
however, he made use of some inauspicious words, and immediately the servants of the
house fell upon him, and buffeted him, and plucked out his hair by the roots, and tore his
clothes, and finally cast him out of the house. Soon afterwards, whilst wandering about,
he saw the funeral procession pass through the forum, and at that moment an old man
went to the bier, and with sobs and tears accused the widow of poisoning his nephew so
that she might inherit his property and marry her lover. Presently the mob which had
gathered together wanted to set her house on fire, and some people began to stone her;
the small boys also threw stones at her. When she had denied the accusation, and had
called upon the gods to be witnesses of her innocence, the old man cried out, "Let, then,
Divine Providence decide the truth, in answer to her denial. Behold, the famous prophet
Zaclas the Egyptian, dwelleth among us, and he hath promised me that for much money
he will make the soul of the dead man to return from the place of death
p. 14
in the underworld, and to make it to dwell in his body again for a short time." With these
words, he led forward a man dressed in linen, and wearing palm-leaf sandals, who, like
all the Egyptian priests, had his head shaved, and having kissed his hands and embraced
his legs he implored him by the stars, and by the gods of the underworld, and by the
island of the Nile, and by the Inundation, etc., to restore life to the dead body, if only for
the smallest possible time, so that the truth of his accusation against the widow might be
proved. Thus adjured Zaclas touched the mouth and the breast of the dead man three
times with some plant, and having turned his face to the East and prayed, the lungs of the
corpse began to fill with breath, and his heart to beat, and raising his head and shoulders
he asked why he had been called back to life, and then he begged to be allowed to rest in
peace. At this moment Zaclas addressed him, and telling him that he had the power,
through his prayers, to cause the fiends to come and torture him, ordered, him to make
known the means by which he had died. With a groan he replied that the wife whom he
had recently married gave him poison to drink, and that he died in consequence. The wife
at once contradicted the words of her husband, and of the people who were standing
round some took one side and some another. At length the husband declared that he
would prove the truth of his own words, and pointing to Telephron,
p. 15
who had attempted to guard his body, told those present that the witches after making
many attempts to elude his vigilance had cast deep sleep upon him. They next called
upon himself by his name, which happened to be Telephron, like that of his watcher, and
whilst he was endeavouring feebly to obey their spells, his watcher rose up unconsciously
and walked about. Seeing this the witches forced their way into the room through some
unknown place, and having taken off the nose and ears of the watcher they placed models
of these members in their places. Those who heard these words looked fixedly at the
young man, who at once put up his hands and touched the members, whereupon his nose
came off in his hand, and his cars slipped through his fingers on to the ground.
The end of the story does not concern us, and so we pass on to note that the act of
touching the mouth which Zaclas performed is, of course, a part of the ceremony of
"opening the mouth" which is so often referred to in religious texts, and was considered
of extreme importance for the welfare of the dead, 1 and that the power of bringing back
the dead to life which Apuleius ascribes to the priest or magician was actually claimed
some thousands of years before Christ by the sages of Egypt, as we may see from the
following story in the Westcar Papyrus.
A son of king Khufu (or Cheops, who reigned about
p. 16
[paragraph continues] B.C. 3800) called Herutâtâf, who was famous as a learned man and whose
name is preserved in the "Book of the Dead" in connection with the "discovery" of
certain Chapters of that wonderful compilation, 1 was one day talking to his father,
presumably on the subject of the powers of working magic possessed by the ancients. In
answer to some remark by Khufu he replied, "Up to the present thou hast only heard
reports concerning the things which the men of olden time knew, and man knoweth not
whether they are true or not; but now I will cause thy Majesty to see a sage in thine own
time, and one who knoweth thee not." In reply to Khufu's question, "Who is this man, O
Herutâtâf?" the young man replied, "It is a certain man called Teta, who dwelleth in Tet-
Seneferu, and is one hundred and ten years old, and to this very day he eateth five
hundred loaves of bread, and the shoulder of an ox, and he drinketh one hundred
measures of ale. He knoweth how to fasten on again to its body a head that hath been cut
off; he knoweth how to make a lion follow him whilst his snare is trailing on the ground;
and he knoweth the number of the aptet of the sanctuary of Thoth." Now Khufu had for a
long time past sought out the aptet of the sanctuary of Thoth, because he was anxious to
make one similar for his own "horizon." Though at the present it is impossible to say
what the
p. 17
aptet was, it is quite clear that it was an object or instrument used in connection with the
working of magic of some sort, and it is clear that the king was as much interested in the
pursuit as his subjects. In reply to his son's words Khufu told him to go and bring the sage
into his presence, and the royal barge or boat having been brought, Herutâtâf set out for
the place where the sage dwelt. Having sailed up the river some distance he and his party
arrived at Tet-Seneferu, and when the boats had been tied to the quay the prince set out to
perform the rest of the Journey, which was overland, in a sort of litter made of ebony,
which was borne by men by means of poles of sesnetchem wood, inlaid with gold. When
he had arrived at the abode of Teta, the litter was set down upon the ground, and the
prince came out to greet the sage, whom he found lying upon a basket-work bed or
mattress, which had been placed for him in the courtyard of his house, whilst one servant
shampooed his head, and another rubbed his feet. After a suitable greeting and reference
to the sage's honourable condition had been made, Herutâtâf told him that he had come
from a great distance in order to bring to him a message from Khufu his father, and the
sage bade him "Welcome" heartily, and prophesied that Khufu would greatly exalt his
rank. The greetings ended, Herutâtâf assisted Teta to rise, and the old man set out for the
quay leaning upon the arm of the king's son,
p. 18
and when he had arrived there he asked that a boat might be provided for the transport of
his children and his books. Two boats were at once prepared and filled with their
complement of sailors, and Teta sailed down the Nile with Herutâtâf, while his family
followed.
After a time the party arrived at Khufu's palace, and Herutâtâf went into the presence of
his father, and reported to him that he had brought Teta the sage for him to see; Khufu
gave orders that he was to be brought before him quickly, and having gone forth into the
colonnade of the palace, Teta was led in to him. Khufu said to him, "How is it, Teta, that
I have never seen thee?" and the sage replied, "O Prince, he who is called cometh; and
since thou hast called me, behold, here I am." Khufu said to him, "Is it true, according to
what is reported, that thou knowest how to fasten on again to its body the head which
hath been cut off?" and the sage replied, "Yea, verily, O my lord the Prince, I do know
how to do this thing." And Khufu said, "Let a captive who is shut up in prison be brought
to me so that I may inflict his doom upon him," but Teta made answer, "Nay, my lord the
king let not this thing be performed upon man, but upon some creature that belongeth to
the sacred animals." Then some one brought to him a goose, and having cut off its head,
he laid the body of the goose on the west side of the colonnade, and the head on the east
side. Teta then stood up and spake certain words of magical power,
p. 19
whereupon the body began to move and the head likewise, and each time that they moved
the one came nearer to the other, until at length the head moved to its right place on the
bird, which straightway cackled. After this Teta had a khet-âa bird brought to him, and
upon it he performed the same miracle which he had wrought upon the goose; and to
prove that he had similar power over the animal creation, an ox was brought to him, and
having cut off its head, which fell upon the ground, he uttered words of magical power,
and the ox stood up and lived as before.
The two stories from the Westcar Papyrus given above are sufficient to prove that already
in the IVth dynasty the working of magic was a recognized art among the Egyptians, and
everything we learn from later texts indicates that it is well-nigh impossible to imagine a
time in Egypt when such was not the case. But the "wisdom" of the Egyptians was of two
kinds, that is to say, they were possessed of the two kinds of "wisdom" which enabled
them to deal with both the material world and the spiritual world; the nations around,
however, confused the two kinds, and misunderstood matters in consequence.
One of the oldest names of Egypt is "Kamt" or "Qemt," a word which means "black" or
"dusky," and it was applied to the country on account of the dark colour of the mud
which forms the land on each side of the Nile; the Christian Egyptians or Copts
p. 20
transmitted the word under the form Khême to the Greeks, Romans, Syrians, and Arabs.
At a very early period the Egyptians were famous for their skill in the working of metals
and in their attempts to transmute them, and, according to Greek writers, they employed
quicksilver in the processes whereby they separated the metals gold and silver from the
native ore. From these processes there resulted a "black" powder or substance which was
supposed to possess the most marvellous powers, and to contain in it the individualities
of the various metals; and in it their actual substances were incorporated. In a mystical
manner this "black" powder was identified with the body which the god Osiris was
known to possess in the underworld, and to both were attributed magical qualities, and
both were thought to be sources of life and power. Thus, side by side with the growth of
skill in performing the ordinary, processes of metal-working, in Egypt, there grew up in
that country the belief that magical powers existed in fluxes and alloys; and the art of
manipulating the metals, and the knowledge of the chemistry of the metals and of their
magical powers were described by, the name "Khemeia." that is to say "the preparation of
the black ore" (or "powder") which was regarded as the transmutation of metals. To this
name the Arabs affixed the article al, and thus we obtain the word Al-Khemeia, or
Alchemy, which will perpetuate
p. 21
the reputation of the Egyptians as successful students both of "white magic" and of the
"black" art.
But in addition to their skill as handicraftsmen and artisans the Egyptians were skilled in
literary composition, and in the production of books, especially of that class which
related to the ceremonies which were performed for the benefit of the dead. We have,
unfortunately, no means of knowing what early contemporary peoples thought of the
Egyptian funeral ceremonies, but it seems to be certain that it was chiefly by means of
these that they obtained their reputation as workers of miracles. If by chance any
members of a desert tribe had been permitted to behold the ceremonies which were
performed when the kings for whom the Pyramids had been built were laid to rest in
them., the stories that they took back to their kinsmen would be received as sure proofs
that the Egyptians had the power to give life to the dead, to animate statues, and to
command the services of their gods by the mere utterance of their names as words of
power. The columns of hieroglyphics with which the walls of the tombs were often
covered, and the figures of the gods, painted or sculptured upon stelæ or sarcophagi,
would still further impress the barbarian folk who always regard the written letter and
those who understand it with great awe. The following story from Mas'ûdî 1 will illustrate
the views which the Arabs
p. 22
held concerning the inscriptions and figures of gods in the temples of Egypt. It seems that
when the army of Pharaoh had been drowned in the Red Sea, the women and slaves
feared lest they should be attacked by the kings of Syria and the West; in this difficulty
they elected a woman called Dalûkah as their queen, because she was wise and prudent
and skilled in magic. Dalûkah's first act was to surround all Egypt with a wall, which she
guarded by men who were stationed along it at short intervals, her object being as much
to protect her son, who was addicted to the chase, from the attacks of wild beasts as
Egypt from invasion by nomad tribes; besides this she placed round the enclosure figures
of crocodiles and other formidable animals. During the course of her reign of thirty years
she filled Egypt with her temples and with figures of animals; she also made figures of
men in the form of the dwellers in the countries round about Egypt, and in Syria, and in
the West, and of the beasts which they rode. In the temples she collected all the secrets of
nature and all the attracting or repelling powers which were contained in minerals, plants,
and animals. She performed her sorceries at the moment in the revolution of the celestial
bodies when they would be amenable to a higher power. And it came to pass that if an
army set out from any part of Arabia or Syria to attack Egypt, the queen made the figures
of its soldiers and of the animals
p. 23
which they were riding to disappear beneath the ground, and the same fate immediately
overtook the living creatures which they represented, wherever they might be on their
journey, and the destruction of the figures on sculptures entailed the destruction of the
hostile host. In brief, the large figures of the gods which were sculptured or painted on
the walls, and the hieroglyphic inscriptions which accompanied them, were considered by
those who could neither understand nor read them to be nothing more nor less than
magical figures and formulæ which were intended to serve as talismans.
The historian Mas'ûdî mentions 1 an instance of the powers of working magic possessed
by a certain Jew, which proves that the magical practices of the Egyptians had passed
eastwards and had found a congenial home among the Jews who lived in and about
Babylon. This man was a native of the village of Zurârah in the district of Kûfa, and he
employed his time in working magic. In the Mosque at Kûfa, and in the presence of
Walîd ibn Ukbah, he raised up several apparitions, and made a king of huge stature, who
was mounted upon a horse, gallop about in the courtyard of the Mosque. He then
transformed himself into a camel and walked upon a rope; and made the phantom of an
ass to pass through his body; and
p. 24
finally having slain a man, he cut off the head and removed it from the trunk, and then by
passing his sword over the two parts, they united and the man came alive again. This last
act recalls the joining of the head of the dead goose to its body and the coming back of
the bird to life which has been described above.
We have now to describe briefly the principal means upon which the Egyptians relied for
working magic, that is to say, magical stones or amulets, magical figures, magical
pictures and formulæ, magical names, magical ceremonies, etc., and such portions of the
Book of the Dead as bear upon these subjects generally.
Footnotes
Footnotes
1:1 The series referred to is Books on Egypt and Chaldaea, published by Kegan Paul. Budge
wrote several volumes in the series, including the first, mentioned here, Egyptian Religion.--THE
PUBLISHER
4:1 Acts vii. 22.
5:1 Exodus vii. 10 ff. Two of Moses' opponents were called "Jannes" and "Jambres" (See 2
Timothy iii. 8).
5:2 That Moses' rod or serpent should swallow up the rods or serpents of the Egyptians is, of
course, to be expected, just as his magical powers are declared to be superior to those of the
Egyptians.
5:3 An interesting paper on the use of the rod by the Egyptians and Hebrews was published by
Chabas in Annales du Musée Guimet, tom. i. pp. 35-48, Paris, 1880.
6:1 For details, see Chapter III. (Magical Figures).
7:1 Exodus xiv. 21-28.
7:2 See Erman, Die Märchen des Papyrus Westcar, Berlin, 1890.
7:3 He was the chief kher heb, i.e., the head of the priests who officiated in funeral ceremonies,
and read the service from a book.
15:1 See Chapter VI. (Magical Ceremonies).
16:1 Chapters XXX., LXIV., CXXXVII. See my Chapters of Coming Forth by Day (text), pp. 97,
141, 309.
21:1 Les Prairies d'Or (ed. by B. de Meynard and P. de Courteille), Paris, 1863, tom. ii. p. 398 f.
23:1 Les Prairies d'Or (ed. B. de Meynard), Paris, 1865, tom. iv. pp. 266, 267.
p. 25
CHAPTER II.
MAGICAL STONES OR AMULETS.
"AMULET" is a name given to a class of objects and ornaments, and articles of dress and
wearing apparel, made of various substances which were employed by the Egyptians, and
later by other nations, to protect the human body, either living or dead, from baleful
influences, and from the attacks of visible and invisible foes. The word "amulet" is
derived from an Arabic root meaning "to bear, to carry," hence "amulet" is "something
which is carried or worn," and the name is applied broadly to any kind of talisman or
ornament to which supernatural powers are ascribed. It is not clear whether the amulet
was intended first of all to protect the living or the dead body, but it seems that it was
originally worn to guard its owner from savage animals and from serpents. As time went
on the development of religious ideas and beliefs progressed, and as a result new amulets
representing new views were invented; and the objects which were able to protect the
living were made, by an easy transition
p. 26
in the minds of those who wore them, to protect the dead. Moreover, as the preservation
of the corruptible body, with the number of its members complete and intact, was of the
most vital importance for the life of the spiritual and incorruptible body which was
believed to spring therefrom, under the influence of the new beliefs the dead body
became a veritable storehouse of amulets. Each member was placed under the specific
protection of some amulet, and a number of objects which were believed to protect the
body generally from serpents, worms, mildew, decay and putrefaction were laid with a
lavish hand in, and upon, and about it, and between the bandages with which it was
swathed. When men in Egypt began to lay amulets on their dead cannot be said, and it is
equally impossible to say when the belief in the efficacy of such and such an amulet
sprang into being; it seems clear, however, that certain amulets represent beliefs and
superstitions so old that even the Egyptians were, at times, doubtful about their origin and
meaning.
Amulets are of two kinds: (1) those which are inscribed with magical formulæ, and (2)
those which are not. In the earliest times formulæ or prayers were recited over the
amulets that were worn by the living or placed on the dead by priests or men set apart to
perform religious services by the community; but it was not in the power of every man to
employ them, and at a comparatively early date words of magical
p. 27
power and prayers were cut upon the amulets, which thus became possessed of a twofold
power, that is to say, the power which was thought to be inherent in the substance of
which the amulet was made, and that which lay in the words inscribed upon it. The
earliest name for the formulæ found upon amulets is hekau, and it was so necessary for
the deceased to be provided with these hekau, or "words of power," that in the XVIth
Century B.C., and probably more than a thousand years earlier, a special section 1 was
inserted in the Book of the Dead with the object of causing them to come to him from
whatever place they were in, "swifter than greyhounds and quicker than light." The
earliest Egyptian amulets known are pieces of green schist, of various shapes, animal. and
otherwise, which were laid upon the breast of the deceased; these are found in large
numbers in the pre-historic or predynastic graves at several places in Egypt. It is most
unlikely that they were made by the aboriginal inhabitants of Egypt, for, notwithstanding
the various conjectures which have been made as to their object and use, it is pretty
certain that, as M. J. de Morgan said, 2 they "belong to the cult." According to this writer
their use was exceedingly widespread until the end of the neolithic period, but with the
advent of the
p. 28
people whom we call Egyptians they become very rare. In the subsequent period the
animal forms disappear, and their place is taken by plaques of schist, rectangular in
shape, upon which are inscribed, in rough outline, figures of animals, etc. The theory that
these objects were intended as whetstones, or as slabs upon which to rub down paint, will
not hold, for the reasons which M. J. de Morgan has given. Moreover, in the green stone
scarab which was laid upon the breast of the deceased in dynastic times, we probably
have a survival of the green schist amulet of predynastic times in Egypt, both as regards
the object with which it was made and the material. But the custom of writing hekau, or
words of power, upon papyrus is almost as old as that of writing them upon stone, and we
see from the inscription on the walls of the corridors and chambers of the pyramid of
Unas, king of Egypt about B.C. 3300, that a "book with words of magical power" was
buried with him. 1 Elsewhere 2 we are told that the book which Teta, king of Egypt about
B.C. 3266, had with him "hath effect upon the heart of the gods"; and there is no doubt
that the object of every religious text ever written on tomb, stele, amulet, coffin, papyrus,
etc., was to bring the gods under the power of the deceased, so that he might be able to
compel them to do his will.
p. 29
1. THE AMULET OF THE HEART,
The heart was not only the seat of the power of life, but also the source of both good and
evil thoughts; and it sometimes typified the conscience. It was guarded after death with
special care, and was mummified separately, and then, with the lungs, was preserved in a
jar which was placed under the protection of the god Tuamutef. Its preservation was
considered to be of such importance that a text 1 was introduced into the Book of the
Dead at an early period, with the view of providing the deceased with a heart in the place
of that which had been removed in the process of mummification. The text reads:--
"May my heart be with me in the House of Hearts! May my breast 2 be with me in the
House of Hearts! May my heart be with me, and may it rest there, or I shall not eat of the
cakes of Osiris on the eastern side of the Lake of Flowers, neither shall I have a boat
wherein to go down the Nile, nor another wherein to go up, nor shall I be able to sail
down the Nile with thee. May my mouth [be given] to me that I may speak therewith, and
my two legs to walk therewith, and my two hands and arms to overthrow my foe. May
the doors of heaven be opened unto me; may Seb, the prince of the gods, open wide his
p. 30
two jaws unto me; may he open my two eyes which are blindfolded; may he cause me to
stretch apart my two legs which are bound together; and may Anpu (Anubis) make my
thighs to be firm so that I may stand upon them. May the goddess Sekhet make me to rise
so that I may ascend into heaven, and may that which I command in the House of the Ka
of Ptah be done. I shall understand with my heart, I shall gain the mastery over my heart,
I shall gain the mastery over my two hands, I shall gain the mastery over my legs, I shall
have the power to do whatsoever my ka (i.e., double) pleaseth. My soul shall not be
fettered to my body at the gates of the underworld, but I shall enter in and come forth in
peace."
When the deceased had uttered these words, it was believed that he would at once obtain
the powers which he wished to possess in the next world; and when he had gained the
mastery over his heart, the heart, the double, and the soul had the power to go where they
wished and to do what they pleased. The mention of the god Ptah and of his consort
Sekhet indicates that the Chapter was the work of the priests of Memphis, and that the
ideas embodied in it are of great antiquity. According to the Papyrus of Nekhtu-Amen,
the amulet of the heart, which is referred to in the above Chapter, was to be made of
lapis-lazuli, and there is no doubt that this stone was believed to
p. 31
possess certain qualities which were beneficial to those who wore it. It will also be
remembered that, according to one tradition, 1 the text of the LXIVth Chapter of the Book
of the Dead was found written in letters of lapis-lazuli in the reign of Hesep-ti, king of
Egypt about B.C. 4300, and the way in which the fact is mentioned in the Rubric to the
Chapter proves that special importance was attached to it.
Nefer-uben-f, a priest, guarding his heart against the destroyer of hearts.
(From Naville, Todtenbuch, vol. I. plate 39.)
But although a heart might be given to a man by means of the above Chapter, it was
necessary for the deceased to take the greatest care that it was not carried off from him by
a monster, who was part man and part beast, and who went about seeking for hearts to
carry away. To prevent such a calamity no less than seven Chapters of the Book of the
Dead (Nos. XXVII., XXVIII., XXIX., XXIXA, XXX., XXXA,
p. 32
and XXXB) were written. The XXVIIth Chapter was connected with a heart amulet made
of a white, semi-transparent stone, and reads:--
"Hail, ye who carry away hearts! Hail, ye who steal hearts, and who make the heart of a
man to go through its transformations according to its deeds, let not what he hath done
harm him before you! Homage to you, O ye lords of eternity, ye possessors of ever
lastingness, take ye not this heart of Osiris 1 into your grasp, and cause ye not words of
evil to spring up against it; for it is the heart of Osiris, and it belongeth unto him of many
names, 2 the mighty one whose words are his limbs, and who sendeth forth his heart to
dwell in his body. The heart of Osiris is triumphant, and it is made new before the gods:
he hath gained power over it, and he hath not been judged according to what he hath
done. He hath gotten power over his own members. His heart obeyeth him, he is the lord
thereof, it is in his body, and it shall never fall away therefrom. I, Osiris, victorious in
peace, and triumphant in the beautiful Amenta and on the mountain of eternity, bid thee
[O heart] to be obedient unto me in the underworld."
Another Chapter (XXIXB) was connected with a heart amulet made of carnelian, of
which so many examples may be found in large museums; the text
p. 33
reads: "I am the Bennu, 1 the soul of Râ, and the guide of the gods who are in the
underworld. Their divine souls came forth upon earth to do the will of their doubles, let
therefore the soul of the Osiris come forth to do the will of his double." The Bennu was
also the soul of Osiris, and thus the amulet brought with it the protection of both Osiris
and Râ.
But of all the Chapters which related to the heart, the most popular among the Egyptians
was that which is commonly known as XXXB, and its importance from a religious point
of view cannot be overstated. The antiquity of the Chapter is undoubted, for according to
the Papyrus of Nu, 2 a document of the early part of the XVIIIth dynasty, it dates from the
time of Hesep-ti, king of Egypt about B.C. 4300, and it seems that it formed a pendant or
supplement to the LXIVth Chapter, which professed to give the substance of all the
"Chapters of Coming Forth by Day" in a single Chapter. In the rubric to the longer
version of the Chapter, given in the same papyrus, 3 Chapter XXXB is connected with
Herutâtâf, the son of Khufu (Cheops), a man famed for wisdom, and it is there ordered
that the words of it be recited over a hard, green stone scarab, which shall be laid in the
breast of the deceased where the heart would ordinarily be; this amulet would then
perform for him the "opening of the
p. 34
mouth," 1 for the words of the Chapter would be indeed "words of power." From reciting
the words of the Chapter over a scarab to engraving them upon it was but a step, and this
step was taken as early as the IVth dynasty. The text is as follows:--
"My heart, my mother; my heart, my mother! My heart whereby I came into being! May
naught stand up to oppose me at [my] judgment; may there be no opposition to me in the
presence of the sovereign princes; may there be no parting of thee from me in the
presence of him that keepeth the Balance! Thou art my double (ka), the dweller in my
body, the god Khnemu who knitteth and strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth
into the place of happiness whither we go. May the Shenit, who form the conditions of
the lives of men, not make my name to stink. Let it be satisfactory unto us, and let the
listening be satisfactory unto us, and let there be joy of heart unto us at the weighing of
words. Let not that which is false be uttered against me before the great god, the lord of
Amentet. Verily how great shalt thou be when thou risest in triumph."
It was this Chapter which the deceased recited when he was in the Judgment Hall of
Osiris, whilst his heart was being weighed in the Balance against the feather symbolic of
right and truth. From certain papyri it seems as if the above words should, properly,
p. 35
be said by the deceased when he is being weighed against his own heart, a conception
which is quite different from that of the judgment of the heart before the gods.
The scribe Nebsent being weighed in a balance against his heart in the presence of Osiris.
(From the Papyrus of Nebseni, sheet 4.)
2. THE AMULET OF THE SCARAB,
From what has been said above it will be seen that the amulet of the heart, which was
connected with the most important and most popular of the Chapters for protecting the
heart, was directed to be made in the form of the scarab at a very early date. We can trace
the ideas which the Egyptians held about this insect as far back as the time of the building
of the Pyramids, 1 and there is no doubt that they represented beliefs which even at that
early period were very old. The
p. 36
Egyptian seems to have reasoned thus: since the physical heart is taken from the body
before mummification, and the body has need of another to act as the source of life and
movement in its new life, another must be put in its place. But a stone heart, whether
made of lapis-lazuli or carnelian, is only a stone heart after all, and even though by means
of prayers properly recited it prevents the physical heart from being carried off by "those
who plunder hearts," it possesses nothing of itself which can be turned to account in
giving new life and being to the body on which it lies. But the scarab or beetle itself
possesses remarkable powers, and if a figure of the scarab be made, and the proper words
of power be written upon it, not only protection of the dead physical heart, but also new
life and existence will be given to him to whose body it is attached. Moreover, the scarab
was the type and symbol of the god Khepera, the invisible power of creation which
propelled the sun across the sky. The particular beetle chosen by the Egyptians to copy
for amulets belongs to the family of dung-feeding Lamellicorns which live in tropical
countries. The species are generally of a black hue, but amongst them are to be found
some adorned with the richest metallic colours. A remarkable peculiarity exists in the
structure and situation of the hind legs, which are placed so near the extremity of the
body, and so far from each other, as to give the insect a most
p. 37
extraordinary appearance when walking. This peculiar formation is, nevertheless,
particularly serviceable to its possessors in rolling the balls of excrementitious matter in
which they enclose their eggs. These balls are at first irregular and soft, but, by degrees,
and during the process of rolling along, become rounded and harder; they are propelled
by means of the hind legs. Sometimes these balls are an inch and a half or two inches in
diameter, and in rolling them along the beetles stand almost upon their beads, with the
heads turned from the balls. These manœuvres have for their object the burying of the
balls in holes, which the insects have previously dug for their reception; and it is upon the
dung thus deposited that the larvæ, when hatched, feed. It does not appear that these
beetles have the ability to distinguish their own balls, as they will seize upon those
belonging to another, in the case of their having lost their own; indeed, it is said that
several of them occasionally assist in rolling the same ball. The males as well as the
females assist in rolling the pellets. They fly during the hottest part of the day. 1
Among the ancients several curious views were held about the scarab, whether of the
type scarabæus sacer or the ateuchus Ægyptiorium, 2 and Ælian, Porphyry,
p. 38
and Horapollo declared that no female scarab existed. The last named writer stated that
the scarab denoted "only begotten," because it was a creature self-produced, being
unconceived by a female. He goes on to say that, having made a ball of dung, the beetle
rolls it from east to west, and having dug a hole, he buries it in it for eight and twenty
days; on the twenty-ninth day he opens the ball, and throws it into the water, and from it
the scarabæi come forth. The fact that the scarab flies during the hottest part of the day
made the insect to be identified with the sun, and the ball of eggs to be compared to the
sun itself. The unseen power of God, made manifest under the form of the god Khepera,
caused the sun to roll across the sky, and the act of rolling gave to the scarab its name
kheper, i.e., "he who rolls." The sun contained the germs of all life, and as the insect's
ball contained the germs of the young scarabs it was identified also with the sun as a
creature which produced life in a special way. Now, the god Khepera also represented
inert but living matter, which was about to begin a course of existence, and at a very early
period he was considered to be a god of the resurrection; and since the scarab was
identified with him that insect became at once the symbol of the god and the type of the
resurrection. But the dead human body, from one aspect, contained the germ of life, that
is to say, the germ of the spiritual body, which was called into being
p. 39
by means of the prayers that were recited and the ceremonies that were performed on the
day of the funeral; from this point of view the insect's egg ball and the dead body were
identical. Now, as the insect had given potential life to its eggs in the ball, so, it was
thought, would a model of the scarab, itself the symbol of the god Khepera, also give
potential life to the dead body upon which it was placed, always provided that the proper
"words of power" were first said over it or written upon it. The idea of "life" appears to
have attached itself to the scarab from time immemorial in Egypt and the Eastern Sûdân,
for to this day the insect is dried, pounded, and mixed with water, and then drunk by
women who believe it to be an unfailing specific for the production of large families. In
ancient days when a man wished to drive away the effects of every kind of sorcery and
incantations he might do so by cutting off the head and wings of a large beetle, which he
boiled and laid in oil. The head and wings were then warmed up and steeped in the oil of
the âpnent serpent, and when they had been once more boiled the man was to drink the
mixture. 1
The amulet of the scarab has been found in Egypt in untold thousands, and the varieties
are exceedingly numerous. They are made of green basalt, green
p. 40
granite, limestone, green marble, blue paste, blue glass, purple, blue and green glazed
porcelain, etc.; and the words of power are usually cut in outline on the base. In rare
instances, the scarab has a human face or head, and sometimes the backs are inscribed
with figures of the boat of Râ, of the Bennu bird, "the soul of Râ," and of the eye of
Horus. The green stone scarabs are often set in gold, and have a band of gold across and
The scribe Ani holding a necklace with pectoral, on which is a figure of the boat of Râ
containing a scarab, or beetle, in the presence of Anubis, the god of the dead. (From the
Papyrus of Ani, plate 15.)
down the back where the wings join; sometimes the whole back is gilded, and sometimes
the base is covered with a plate of gold upon which the words of power have been
stamped or engraved. Occasionally the base of the scarab is made in the form of a heart, a
fact which proves the closeness of the relationship which existed between the amulets of
the heart and scarab. In late times, that is to say about B.C. 1200,
p. 41
large funeral scarabs were set in pylon-shaped pectorals, made of porcelain of various
colours, upon which the boat of the Sun was either traced in colours or worked in relief,
and the scarab is placed so as to appear to be carried in the boat; on the left stands Isis
and on the right Nephthys. 1 The oldest green stone funeral scarab known to me is in the
British Museum (No. 29,224); it was found at Kûrna near Thebes and belongs to the
period of the XIth dynasty, about B.C. 2600. The name of the man for whom it was made
(he appears to have been an official of the Temple of Amen) was traced on it in light
coloured paint which was afterwards varnished; there are no "words of power" on this
interesting object.
When once the custom of burying scarabs with the bodies of the dead became
recognized, the habit of wearing them as ornaments by the living came into fashion, and
as a result scarabs of almost every sort and kind may be found by the thousand in many
collections, and it is probable that the number of varieties of them was only limited by the
ability of those who manufactured them in ancient days to invent new sorts. The use of
the scarab amulet passed into Western Asia and into several countries which lay on the
Mediterranean, and those who wore it seem to have attached to it much the same idea as
its early inventors, the
p. 42
Egyptians. From a Greek magical papyrus translated by Goodwin 1 we may see that
certain solemn ceremonies were performed over a scarab before it was worn, even in the
period of the rule of the Greeks and Romans. Thus about the "ring of Horus" and the
"ceremony of the beetle" we are told to take a beetle, sculptured as described below, and
to place it on a paper table, and under the table there shall be a pure linen cloth; under it
put some olive wood, and set on the middle of the table a small censer wherein myrrh and
kyphi shall be offered. And have at hand a small vessel of chrysolite into which ointment
of lilies, or myrrh, or cinnamon, shall be put, and take the ring and lay it in the ointment,
having first made it pure and clean, and offer it up in the censer with kyphi and myrrh;
leave the ring for three days, and take it out and put it in a safe place. At the celebration
let there lie near at hand some pure loaves, and such fruits as are in season, and having
made another sacrifice upon vine sticks, during the sacrifice take the ring out of the
ointment, and anoint thyself with the unction from it. Thou shalt anoint thyself early in
the morning, and turning towards the east shalt pronounce the words written below. The
beetle shall be carved out of a precious emerald; bore it and pass a gold wire through it,
and beneath the beetle carve the
p. 43
holy Isis, and having consecrated it as above written, use it. The proper days for the
celebration were the 7th, 9th, 10th, 12th, 14th, 16th, 21st, 24th, and 25th, from the
beginning of the month; on other days abstain. The spell to be recited began, "I am
Thoth," the inventor and founder of medicines and letters; "come to me, thou that art
under the earth, rise up to me, thou great spirit."
3. THE AMULET OF THE BUCKLE
This amulet represents the buckle of the girdle of Isis, and is usually made of carnelian,
red jasper, red glass, and of other substances of a red colour; it is sometimes made of
gold, and of substances covered with gold. It is always associated with the CLVIth
Chapter of the Book of the Dead, which is frequently inscribed upon it, and which reads:-
-
"The blood of Isis, and the strength of Isis, and the words of power of Isis shall be mighty
to act as powers to protect this great and divine being, and to guard him from him that
would do unto him anything that he holdeth in abomination."
But before the buckle was attached to the neck of the deceased, where the rubric ordered
it to be placed, it had to be dipped in water in which ânkham flowers had been steeped;
and when the words of the Chapter of the Buckle given above had been recited over it,
p. 44
the amulet brought to the deceased the protection of the blood of Isis, and of her words of
power. It will be remembered that she raised the dead body of Osiris by means of her
words of power, and there is a legend to the effect that she smote the Sun-god Râ with
severe sickness by the magical power which she possessed. Another object of the buckle
was to give the deceased access to every place in the underworld, and to enable him to
have "one hand towards heaven, and one hand towards earth."
4. THE AMULET OF THE TET.
This amulet probably represents the tree trunk in which the goddess Isis concealed the
dead body of her husband, and the four cross-bars indicate the four cardinal points; it
became a symbol of the highest religious importance to the Egyptians, and the setting up
of the Tet at Busiris, which symbolized the reconstituting of the body of Osiris, was one
of the most solemn of all the ceremonies performed in connexion with the worship of
Osiris. The Tet represents neither the mason's table nor a Nilometer, as some have
thought, It is always associated with the CLVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, which
reads:--
"Rise up thou, O Osiris! Thou hast thy backbone, O Still-Heart! Thou hast the fastenings
of thy neck and back, O Still-Heart! Place thou thyself upon
p. 45
The mummy of Ani the scribe, lying on a bier, attended by Isis, Nephthys, Anubis, the
four children of Horus, the ushabti figure, his soul, the TET, etc. (From the Papyrus of
Ani, plates 33, 34).
p. 47
thy base, I put water beneath thee, and I bring unto thee a Tet of gold that thou mayest
rejoice therein."
Like the buckle, the Tet had to be dipped in the water in which ânkham flowers had been
steeped, and laid upon the neck of the deceased, to whom it gave the power to
reconstitute the body and to become a perfect KHU (i.e., spirit) in the underworld. On
coffins the right hand of the deceased grasps the buckle, and the left the Tet; both are
made of wood, notwithstanding the fact that the rubric to the Chapter of the Te orders the
Tet to be made of gold.
5. THE AMULET OF THE PILLOW,
This amulet is a model of the pillow which is found placed under the neck of the mummy
in the coffin, and its object is to "lift up" and to protect the head of the deceased; it is
usually made of hæmatite, and is inscribed with the text of the CLXVIth Chapter of the
Book of the Dead, which reads:--
"Thou art lifted up, O sick one that liest prostrate. They lift up thy head to the horizon,
thou art raised up, and dost triumph by reason of what hath been done for thee. Ptah hath
overthrown thine enemies, which was ordered to be done for thee. Thou art Horus, the
son of Hathor, . . . who givest back the head after the slaughter. Thy head shall not be
carried away from thee after [the slaughter], thy head shall never, never be carried away
from thee."
p. 48
6. THE AMULET OF THE VULTURE,
This amulet was intended to cause the power of Isis as the "divine mother" to be a
protection for the deceased, and was made of gold in the form of a vulture hovering in the
air with outstretched wings and holding in each talon the symbol of "life" and
was placed on the neck on the day of the funeral. With this amulet the CLVIIth Chapter
of the Book of the Dead was associated, and it was ordered by the rubric to it to be
recited over it; this text reads:--
"Isis cometh and hovereth over the city, and she goeth about seeking the secret
habitations of Horus as he emergeth from his papyrus swamps, and she raiseth up his
shoulder which is in evil case. He is made one of the company in the divine boat, and the
sovereignty of the whole world is decreed for him. He hath warred mightily, and he
maketh his deeds to be remembered; he hath made the fear of him to exist and awe of him
to have its being. His mother the mighty lady, protecteth him, and she hath transferred her
power unto him." The first allusion is to the care which Isis shewed for Horus when she
was bringing him up in the papyrus swamps, and the second to his combat with Set,
whom he vanquished through the might of Isis.
p. 49
7. THE AMULET OF THE COLLAR OF GOLD,
This amulet was intended to give the deceased power to free himself from his swathings;
it is ordered by the rubric to the CLVIIIth Chapter of the Book of the Dead to be placed
on his neck on the day of the funeral, and to be made of gold. The text of the Chapter
reads:--"O my father, my brother, my mother Isis, I am unswathed, and I see. I am one of
those who are unswathed and who see the god Seb." This amulet is very rare, and appears
to have been the expression of beliefs which grew up in the period of the XXVIth
dynasty, about B.C. 550.
8. THE AMULET OF THE PAPYRUS SCEPTRE,
This amulet was intended to give the deceased vigour and renewal of youth; it was made
of mother-of-emerald, or of light green or blue porcelain, and, when the words of the
CLIXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead had been recited over it, it was placed on his
neck on the day of the funeral. In the XXVIth dynasty and later it seems as if the amulet
represented the power of Isis, who derived it from her father, the husband of Renenet, the
goddess of abundant harvests and food. At an earlier period, judging from the text of the
CLXth Chapter, the amulet is put by the god
p. 50
[paragraph continues] Thoth into the hands of the deceased, who says, "It is in sound state, and I
am in sound state; it is not injured, and I am not injured; it is not worn away, and I am not
worn away."
9. THE AMULET OF THE SOUL,
This amulet was made of gold inlaid with precious stones in the form of a human-headed
hawk, and, when the words of the LXXXIXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead had been
recited over it, it was directed by the rubric to the Chapter to be placed upon the breast of
the deceased. The object of the amulet is apparent from the text in which the deceased is
made to say, "Hail, thou god Anniu! Hail, thou god Pehrer, who dwellest in thy hall!
Grant thou that my soul may come unto me from wheresoever it may be. If it would tarry,
then let my soul be brought unto me from wheresoever it may be. . . . Let me have
possession of my soul and of my spirit, and let me be true of voice with them
wheresoever they may be. . . . Hail, ye gods, who tow along the boat of the lord of
millions of years, who bring it above the underworld, and who make it to travel over Nut,
who make souls to enter into their spiritual bodies, . . . grant that the soul of the Osiris 1
p. 51
"may come forth before the gods, and that it may be true of voice with you in the east of
the sky, and follow unto the place where it was yesterday, and enjoy twofold peace in
Amentet. May it look upon its natural body, may it rest upon its spiritual body, and may
its body neither perish nor suffer corruption for ever!" Thus the amulet of the soul was
intended to enable the soul both to unite with the mummified body, and to be with its
spirit (khu) and spiritual body at will.
10. THE AMULET OF THE LADDER
In tombs of the Ancient and Middle Empires small objects of wood and other substances
in the form of ladders have often been found, but the signification of them is not always
apparent. From the texts inscribed upon the walls of the corridors and chambers of the
pyramids of Unas, Teta, Pepi, and other early kings, it is clear that the primitive
Egyptians believed that the floor of heaven, which also formed the sky of this world, was
made of an immense plate of iron, rectangular in shape, the four corners of which rested
upon four pillars which served to mark the cardinal points. On this plate of iron lived the
gods and the blessed dead, and it was the aim of every good Egyptian to go there after
death. At certain sacred spots the edge of
p. 52
the plate was so near the tops of the mountains that the deceased might easily clamber on
to it and so obtain admission into heaven, but at others the distance between it and the
earth was so great that he needed help to reach it. There existed a belief that Osiris
himself experienced some difficulty of getting up to the iron plate, and that it was only by
means of the ladder which his father Râ provided that he at length ascended into heaven.
On one side of the ladder stood Râ, and on the other stood Horus, 1 the son of Isis, and
each god assisted Osiris to mount it. Originally the two guardians of the ladder were
Horus the Elder and Set, and there are several references in the early texts to the help
which they rendered to the deceased, who was, of course, identified with the god Osiris.
But, with a view either of reminding these gods of their supposed duty, or of compelling
them to do it, the model of a ladder was often placed on or near the dead body in the
tomb, and a special composition was prepared which had the effect of making the ladder
become the means of the ascent of the deceased into heaven. Thus in the text written for
Pepi 2 the deceased is made to address the ladder in these words: "Homage to thee, O
divine Ladder! Homage to thee, O Ladder of Set! Stand thou upright, O divine Ladder!
Stand thou upright, O Ladder of Set! Stand thou upright, O Ladder of Horus, whereby
Osiris
p. 53
came forth into heaven when he made use of his magical power upon Râ. . . . For Pepi is
thy son, and Pepi is Horus, and thou hast given birth unto Pepi even as thou hast given
birth unto the god who is the lord of the Ladder (i.e., Horus); and thou shalt give unto
Pepi the Ladder of the god (i.e., Horus), thou shalt give unto him the Ladder of the god
Set whereby this Pepi shall come forth into heaven when he shall have made use of his
magical power upon Râ. O 'thou god of those whose doubles (kau) pass onwards, (when
the Eye of Horus soareth upon the wing of 'Thoth on the east side of the divine Ladder
(or Ladder of God), O men whose bodies [would go] into heaven, Pepi is the Eye of
Horus, and when the 'Eye turneth itself to any place where he is, Pepi goeth side by side
with the Eye of Horus, and O ye who are the brethren of the gods, rejoice ye that Pepi
journeyeth among you. And the brethren of Pepi who axe the gods shall be glad when
they meet Pepi, even as Horus is glad when he meeteth his Eye. He hath placed his Eye
before his father Seb, and every god and every spirit stretcheth out his hand towards Pepi
when he cometh forth into heaven from the Ladder. Pepi hath need neither to 'plough the
earth,' nor to 'collect the offering'; and he hath (need neither to go to the Hall which is in
Annu (Heliopolis), nor to the Hall of the Morning which is in Annu; for that which he
seeth and that which he
p. 54
heareth shall feed him and nourish him when he appeareth in heaven from the Ladder.
Pepi riseth like the uraeus on the forehead of Set, and every god and every spirit
stretcheth out his hand to Pepi on the Ladder. Pepi hath gathered together his bones, be
hath collected his flesh, and he hath gone quickly into heaven by means of the two
fingers 1 of the god of the Ladder (i.e., Horus). Elsewhere 2 the gods Khonsu, Sept, etc.,
are invoked to bring the ladder to Pepi, and the ladder itself is adjured to come with its
name, and in another place 3 we read, Homage to thee, O thou Ladder that supportest the
golden vase of the Spirits of Pe and the Spirits of Nekhen, stretch out thy hand to this
Pepi, and let him take his seat between the two great gods who (care in the place of this
Pepi; take him by the hand and lead him towards Sekhet-Hetep (i.e., the Elysian Fields),
and let him take his seat among the stars which are in the sky."
In the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead the importance of the ladder is also
seen, for in Chapter CXLIX. 4 the deceased says, "I set up a Ladder among the gods, and
I am a divine being among them"; and in Chapter CLIII. he says, "The
p. 55
[paragraph continues] Osiris Nu shall come forth upon your Ladder which Râ hath made for him,
and Horus and Set shall grasp him firmly by the hand." Finally, when the custom of
placing a model of the ladder in the tomb fell into disuse, the priests provided for the
necessity of the dead by painting a ladder on the papyri that were inscribed with the texts
from the Book of the Dead and were buried with them. 1
11. THE AMULET OF THE TWO FINGERS,
This amulet is intended to represent the two fingers, index and medius, which the god
Horus employed in helping his father Osiris up the ladder 2 into heaven, as has been
described above; it is found in the interior of mummies and is usually made of obsidian or
hæmatite.
12. THE AMULET OF THE EYE OF HORUS,
The Eye of Horus amulet, or Utchat, is one of the commonest of all, and its use seems to
have been universal at all periods. It was made of gold, silver, granite, hæmatite,
carnelian, lapis-lazuli, porcelain, wood, etc., although the rubric of a late Chapter of the
Book of the Dead 3 directs that the amulet
p. 56
should be made either of lapis-lazuli or of mak stone. The Utchat is of two kinds, one
facing to the left and the other to the right, and together they represent the two eyes of
Horus, one of which, according to an ancient text, was white and the other black; from
another point of view one Utchat represents the Sun and the other the Moon, or Râ and
Osiris respectively. But speaking generally, when the Egyptians wore the Utchat as an
amulet they intended it to bring to them the blessings of strength, vigour, protection,
safety, good health, and the like, and they had in their minds the Eye of Horus, probably
the white one, or the Sun. In religious texts the expression meh Utchat, i.e., the "filling of
the Utchat," is often used, and from many considerations it is clear that we must
understand it to refer to the Sun at the summer solstice; thus the amulet seems to have
been intended to bring to its wearer strength and health similar to that of the Sun at the
season of the year when it is most powerful. In the CLXVIIth Chapter of the Book of the
Dead the deceased is made to say, "The god Thoth hath brought the Utchat, and he hath
made it to rest after it departed, O Râ. It was grievously afflicted by the storm, but Thoth
made it to rest after it departed out of the storm. I am sound, and it is sound; I am sound,
and it is sound; and Nebseni, the lord of piety, is sound." To obtain the full benefit of the
Utchat amulet for the deceased it was obligatory to
p. 57
make one in lapis-lazuli and to plate it with gold, and then to offer to it offerings at the
summer solstice; another had then to be made of jasper and, if after the specified Chapter
(CXL.) had been recited over it, it was laid on any part of the body of the deceased, he
would become a god and take his place in the boat of Râ. At this solstice twelve altars 1
had to be lighted, four for Râ-Temu, four for the Utchat, and four for the other gods who
had been mentioned in the Chapter. An interesting example of the use of the utchat
occurs in a Greek spell for the discovery of a thief written as late as the IVth century of
our era. 2 In it we are told to "take the herb khelkbei and bugloss, press out the juice and
burn the crushed leaves and mix the ashes with the juice. Anoint and write upon a wall
Khoô with these materials. And take a common piece of wood, and cut a hammer out of
it, and strike with it upon the ear, pronouncing this spell:--'I adjure thee by the holy
names, render up the thief, who has carried away such [and such] a thing Khalkhak,
Khalkoum, Khiam, Khar, Khroum, Zbar, Bêri, Zbarkom, Khrê, Kariôb, Pharibou, and by
the terrible names !""###$$$$%%%%%&&&&&&''''''' {Greek
aeehhhiiiiooooouuuuuuwwwwwww}'" 3 Following these words we have a picture of the
utchat
p. 58
with an arrangement of certain vowels on each side of it thus:
'
&&
$$$$
#####
""""""
!!!!!!! {Greek
w
uu
iiii
hhhhh
eeeeee
aaaaaaa}
!
""
###
$$$$
#####
""""""
!!!!!!! {Greek
a
ee
hhh
iiii
hhhhh
eeeeee
aaaaaaa}
The spell continues, "Render up the thief who has stolen such [and such] a thing: as long
as I strike the ear with this hammer, let the eye of the thief be smitten and inflamed until
it betrays him.' Saying these words strike with the hammer." 1
13. THE AMULET OF "LIFE," (ÂNKH).
The object which is represented by this amulet is unknown, and of all the suggestions
which have been made concerning it none is more unlikely than that which would give it
a phallic origin. Whatever it may represent, it certainly symbolizes "life"; every god
carries it, and it seems, even in the earliest times, to be a conventional representation of
some object which in the remotest period had been used as an . amulet. In the Papyrus of
Ani (2nd edit., plate 2) the Ânkh rises from the Tet, and the arms which project from it
support the disk of the sun as here seen. This amulet is made of
p. 59
various substances, and was chiefly employed as a pendant of a necklace.
14. THE AMULET NEFER,
This amulet signifies "happiness, good luck," etc., and represents a musical instrument; it
was made of carnelian, red stone, red porcelain, and the like, and was a very favourite
form for the pendants of necklaces and strings of beads.
15. THE AMULET OF THE SERPENT'S HEAD,
This amulet was placed on the dead body to keep it from being bitten by snakes in the
underworld or tomb. It is made of red stone, red jasper, red paste, and carnelian. As the
goddess Isis is often typified by a serpent, and red is a colour peculiar to her, it seems as
if the idea underlying the use of this amulet was to vanquish the snakes in the tomb by
means of the power of the great snake-goddess Isis. This power had been transferred to it
by means of the words of the XXXIVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, which are often
inscribed upon it. The text reads: "O Serpent! I am the flame which shineth upon the
Opener of hundreds of thousands of years, and the standard of the god Tenpu," or as
others say, "the standard of young plants and flowers. Depart ye from me, for I am the
divine Lynx." Some
p. 60
have thought that the snake's head represents the serpent which surmounts the ram's head
on the urhekau instrument used in performing the ceremony of "Opening the mouth." 1
The Kher-heb priest touching the statue of the deceased with the urhekau instrument to
effect the "opening of the mouth." (From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 15)
16. THE AMULET OF THE MENAT,
This amulet was in use in Egypt as early as the VIth dynasty, and it was worn or held or
carried with the sistrum by gods, kings, priests, priestesses, etc.; usually it is held in the
hand, but it is often worn on the neck. Its object was to bring joy and health to the wearer,
and it was believed to possess magical properties; it represented nutrition 2 and
p. 61
strength, and the might of the male and female organs of generation, mystically
considered, was supposed to be united therein. The amulet is made in bronze, stone,
porcelain, and other substances, and when laid upon the body of the dead brought to it the
power of life and reproduction.
17. THE AMULET OF THE SAM,
This amulet is probably intended to represent an organ of the human body, and its use is
very ancient; it is made of lapis-lazuli and other hard stone substances, and in the late
period is often found in the swathings of mummies. Its primary meaning is "union," and
refers to animal pleasure.
18. THE AMULET OF THE SHEN,
This amulet is intended to represent the sun's orbit, and it became the symbol of an
undefined period of time, i.e., eternity; it was laid upon the body of the dead with the
view of giving to it life which should endure as long as the sun revolved in its orbit in the
heavens. In the picture of the mummy chamber 1 the goddesses Isis and Nephthys are
seen kneeling and resting their hands on shen. Figures of the shen were
p. 62
painted upon stelæ, coffins, etc.; as an amulet it is commonly made of lapis-lazuli or
carnelian. The amulet of the cartouche has been supposed to be nothing more than
shen elongated, but it probably refers to the ordinary meaning of i.e., "name."
19. THE AMULET OF THE STEPS,
This amulet seems to have two meanings: to lift up to heaven, and the throne of Osiris.
According to one legend, when the god Shu wished to lift up the goddess Nut from the
embrace of the god Seb, so that her body, supported by her stretched-out arms and legs,
might form the sky, he found that he was not tall enough to do so; in this difficulty he
made use of a flight of steps, and having mounted to the top of these he found himself
able to perform his work. In the fourth section of the Elysian Fields 1 three such flights of
steps are depicted. In the XXIInd Chapter of the Book of the Dead the deceased prays
that he "may have a portion with him who is on the top of the steps," i.e., Osiris, and in
funeral vignettes this god is seen seated upon the top of a flight of steps and holding his
usual symbols of sovereignty and dominion. The amulet of the Steps is usually made of
green or blue glazed porcelain.
p. 63
20. THE AMULET OF THE FROG,
This amulet is typical of teeming life and of the resurrection. The frog-headed goddess
Heqt, the wife of Khnemu, was associated with the resurrection, and this amulet, when
laid upon the body of the dead, was intended to transfer to it her power. The frog is often
represented on the upper part of the Greek and Roman terra-cotta lamps which are found
in Egypt, and on one of them written in Greek is the legend, "I am the resurrection." 1
The amulets described above are those which are most commonly found in the tombs and
on mummies, but a few others are also known, e.g., the White crown of the
South, the Red crown of the North, the horizon, or place where the
sun rises, an angle, typifying protection, the horns, disk, and
plumes, or the plummet, etc. Besides these, any ring, or pendant,
or ornament, or any object whatsoever, upon which was inscribed the name of a god or
his emblem, or picture, became an amulet with protective powers; and it seems that these
powers remained active as long as the substance lasted and as long as the name, or
emblem, or picture, was not
p. 64
erased from it. The use of amulets was common in Egypt from the earliest times to the
Roman Period, and when the Egyptians embraced Christianity, they, in common with the
Gnostics and semi-Christian sects, imported into their new faith many of the views and
beliefs which their so-called heathen ancestors had held, and with them the use of the
names of ancient Egyptian gods, and goddesses, and demons, and formulæ, which they
employed in much the same way as they were employed in the days of old.
Footnotes
27:1 I.e., Chapter XXIV., which is entitled, "The Chapter of bringing words of power unto Osiris in
the underworld."
27:2 Ethnographie Prehistorique, p. 144.
28:1 Unas, ed. Maspero, line 584.
28:2 Teta, ed. Maspero, line 351.
29:1 Chapter XXVI., entitled, "The Chapter of giving a heart to the deceased."
29:2 Literally, "pericardium."
31:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day (translation, p. 119).
32:1 I.e., the deceased who was identified with Osiris, the god and judge of the dead.
32:2 I.e., Thoth.
33:1 The Bennu bird is usually identified with the phoenix.
33:2 Brit. Mus., No. 10,477, sheet 13.
33:3 See sheet 21.
34:1 See Chapter VI. (Magical Ceremonies).
35:1 King Teta is said to "live like the scarab" (Teta, line 89); and in it is said, "Pepi is the son of
the Scarab which is born in Hetepet under the hair of the northern Iusâas" (Pepi, line 422).
37:1 See J. O. Westwood, Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects, London, 1839, vol.
i. p. 204 ff.
37:2 See my Mummy, p. 233.
39:1 See Joachim, Das älteste Buch über Heilkunde, Berlin, 1800, p. 160.
41:1 have given a summary of the chief varieties of the funeral scarab in my Papyrus of Ani,
London, 1895, p. 262.
42:1 Fragment of a Græco-Egyptian Work upon Magic (Publications of the Cambridge
Antiquarian Society, 1852).
50:1 I.e., the deceased, who is identified with the god Osiris.
52:1 Unas, line 579.
52:2 Line 192 f.
54:1 Compare, "Give thou to Pepi these two fingers which thou hast given to Nefert, the daughter
of the great god, as messengers from heaven to earth" (Pepi, line 422).
54:2 Pepi, line 200.
54:3 Pepi, line 471.
54:4 See my Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, translation, p. 270.
55:1 See the Papyrus of Ani, 2nd edition, pl. 22.
55:2 See Pepi, line 196.
55:3 I.e., CXL.
57:1 One for each month of the year.
57:2 Kenyon, Catalogue of Greek Papyri, p. 61.
57:3 The seven vowels were supposed in the Gnostic system to contain all the names of God,
and were, therefore, most powerful when used as a spell.
58:1 See Goodwin, Fragment of a Græco-Egyptian work upon Magic, p. 7.
60:1 See the description of this ceremony in Chapter VI.
60:2 Menat is connected with the root from which the word for "nurse" (menât) is derived; see the
article by Lefébure, "Le Menat et le Nom de l'Eunuque" in Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1891, p. 333 f.
61:1 See Papyrus of Ani, 2nd edit, plates 33, 31.
62:1 See Papyrus of Ani, 2nd edit., plate 35.
63:1 See Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 853.
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CHAPTER III.
MAGICAL FIGURES.
IT has been said above that the name or the emblem or the picture of a god or demon
could become an amulet with power to protect him that wore it, and that such power
lasted as long as the substance of which it was made lasted, if the name, or emblem, or
picture was not erased from it. But the Egyptians went a step further than this, and they
believed that it was possible to transmit to the figure of any man, or woman, or animal, or
living creature, the soul of the being which it represented, and its qualities and attributes.
The statue of a god in a temple contained the spirit of the god which it represented, and
from time immemorial the people of Egypt believed that every statue and every figure
possessed an indwelling spirit. When the Christianized Egyptians made their attacks on
the "idols of the heathen" they proved that they possessed this belief, for they always
endeavoured to throw down the statues of the gods of
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the Greeks and Romans, knowing that if they were once shattered the spirits which dwelt
in them would have no place wherein to dwell, and would thereby be rendered homeless
and powerless. It will be remembered that it is stated in the Apocryphal Gospels that
when the Virgin Mary and her Son arrived in Egypt there "was a movement and quaking
throughout all the land, and all the idols fell down from their pedestals and were broken
in pieces." Then all the priests and nobles went to a certain priest with whom "a devil
used to speak from out of the idol," and they asked him the meaning of these things; and
when he had explained to them that the footstep of the son of the "secret and hidden god"
had fallen upon the land of Egypt, they accepted his counsel and made a figure of this
god. The Egyptians acknowledged that the new god was greater than all their gods
together, and they were quite prepared to set up a statue of him because they believed that
in so doing they would compel at least a portion of the spirit of the "secret and hidden
god" to come and dwell in it. In the following pages we shall endeavour to describe the
principal uses which the Egyptians made of the figures of gods, and men, and beasts, to
which magical powers had been imparted by means of the performance of certain
symbolic ceremonies and the recital of certain words of power; and how they could be
employed to do both good and evil.
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One of the earliest instances of the use of a magical figure is related in the Westcar
Papyrus, 1 where we read that Prince Khâf-Râ told Khufu (Cheops) a story of an event
which had happened in the time of Neb-ka or Neb-kau-Ed, a king of the IIIrd dynasty,
who reigned about B.C. 3830. It seems that this king once paid a visit to one of his high
officials called Âba-aner, whose wife fell violently in love with one of the soldiers in the
royal train. This lady sent her tirewoman to him with the gift of a chest of clothes, and
apparently she made known to him her mistress's desire, for he returned with her to Âba-
aner's house. There he saw the wife and made an appointment to meet her in a little house
which was situated on her husband's estate, and she gave instructions to one of the
stewards of Âba-aner to prepare it for the arrival of herself and her lover. When all had
been made ready she went to the house and stayed there the whole day drinking and
making love with the man until sunset; and when the evening had come he rose up and
went down to the river and the tirewoman bathed him in the water thereof. But the
steward, who had made ready the house, declared that he must make the matter known
unto his master, and on the following morning as soon as it was light, he went to Âba-
aner and related to him everything which had happened. The official made no answer to
his
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servant's report, but ordered him to bring him certain materials and his box made of
ebony and precious metal. Out of the box he took a quantity of wax, which was, no
doubt, kept there for purposes similar to that to which a portion of it was now to be put,
and made a model of a crocodile seven spans long, and then reciting certain magical
words over it, he said, "When the man cometh down to bathe in my waters seize thou
him." Then, turning to the steward, he gave the wax crocodile to him and said, "When the
man, according to his daily wont, cometh down to wash in the water thou shalt cast the
crocodile in after him"; and the steward having taken the wax crocodile from his master
went his way.
And again the wife of Âba-aner ordered the steward who had charge of the estate to make
ready the house which was in the garden, "for," she said, "behold, I am coming to pass
some time therein." So the house was made ready and provided with all good things, and
she came with the man and passed some time with him there. Now when the evening was
come the man went down to the water to wash according to his daily wont, and the
steward went down after him and threw into the water the wax crocodile, which
straightway turned into a living crocodile seven cubits (i.e., about twelve feet) in length,
and seized upon the man and dragged him down in the water.
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Meanwhile Âba-aner tarried with his king Neb-kau-Râ for seven days, and the man
remained in the depths of the water and had no air to breathe. And on the seventh day
Âba-aner the kher heb 1 went out with the king for a walk, and invited His Majesty to
come and see for himself a wonderful thing which had happened to a man in his own
days; so the king went with him. When they had come to the water Âba-aner adjured the
crocodile, saying, "Bring hither the man," and the crocodile came out of the water
bringing the man with him. And when the king remarked that the crocodile was a horrid
looking monster, Âba-aner stooped down and took it up into his hand, when it
straightway became a waxen crocodile as it was before. After these things Âba-aner
related to the king what had happened between his wife and the man whom the crocodile
had brought up out of the water, whereupon the king said to the crocodile, "Take that
which is thine and begone"; and immediately the crocodile seized the man and sprang
into the water with him, and disappeared in its depths. And by the royal command Âba-
aner's wife was seized, and having been led to the north side of the palace was burnt, and
her ashes were cast into the stream. Here then we have already in the IIIrd dynasty the
existence of a belief that a wax crocodile, over which certain words
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had been said, could change itself into a living reptile at pleasure, and that a man could be
made by the same means to live at the bottom of a stream for seven days without air. We
may also notice that the great priestly official, the kher heb, was so much in the habit of
performing such acts of magic that he kept in a room a box of materials and instruments
always ready for the purpose; and, apparently, neither himself, nor his king, nor his
servant, thought the working of magic inconsistent with his high religious office.
But at the time when Âba-aner was working magic by means of wax figures, probably to
the harm and injury of his enemies, the priests were making provision for the happiness
and well-being of the dead also by means of figures made of various substances.
According to one very early belief the dead made their way to a region called Sekhet-
Aaru, where they led a life which was not very different from that which they had led
upon earth. From the pictures of this place which are painted on coffins of the XIth
dynasty, we see that it was surrounded by streams of water, and that it was intersected by
canals, and that, in fact, it was very much like an ordinary well-kept estate in the Delta.
The beings who lived in this place, however, had the same wants as human beings, that is
to say, they needed both food and drink, or bread-cakes and ale. The existence of bread
and ale presupposed the existence of wheat and barley, and
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the production of these presupposed the tilling of the ground and the work of agricultural
labourers. But the Egyptian had no wish to continue the labours of ploughing and reaping
and preparing the ground for the new crops in the world beyond the grave, therefore he
endeavoured to avoid this by getting the work done vicariously. If words of power said
over a figure could make it to do evil, similarly words of power said over a figure could
make it to do good. At first a formula 1 was composed, the recital of which was supposed
to relieve the deceased from the necessity of doing any work whatsoever, and when the
deceased himself had said, "I lift up the hand of the man who is inactive. I have come
from the city of Unnu (Hermopolis). I am the divine Soul which liveth, and I lead with
me the hearts of the apes," his existence was thought to be without toil. But, since the
inhabitants of Sekhet-Aaru needed food and drink, provision must be made for their
production, and the necessary labours of the field must, in some manner, be performed.
To meet the difficulty a small stone figure of the deceased was buried with him, but
before it was laid in the tomb the priests recited over it the words of power which would
cause it to do for the deceased whatever work he might be adjudged to perform in the
kingdom of Osiris, Later, these words were inscribed upon the figure in hieroglyphics,
and later still the figure was
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provided with representations of the rope basket, and plough , and flail
, such as were employed by the Egyptian labourer in carrying field produce,
and in ploughing, and in threshing grain. The formula 1 or words of power which were
inscribed on such figures varied at different periods, but one of the oldest, which was in
use in the XVIIIth dynasty, makes the deceased say to the figure, which was called
"Shabti":--
"O thou Shabti figure of the scribe Nebseni, if I be called, or if I be adjudged to do any
work whatsoever of the labours which are to be done in the underworld by a man in his
turn--behold, any obstacles (or opposition) to thee will be done away with there--let the
judgment fall upon thee instead of upon me always, in the matter of sowing the fields, of
filling the water-courses with water, and of bringing the sands from the east to the west."
After these words comes the answer by the figure, "Verily I am" here, and [will do]
whatsoever thou biddest me to do." The Egyptians were most anxious to escape the
labours of top-dressing 2 the land, and of sowing the seed, a work which had to be done
by a man standing in water in the sun, and the toilsome task of working the shadûf, or
instrument for raising water
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from the Nile and turning it on to the land. In graves not one figure only is found, but
several, and it is said that in the tomb of Seti I., king of Egypt about B.C. 1370, no less
than seven hundred wooden ushabtiu inscribed with the VIth Chapter of the Book of the
Dead, and covered with bitumen, were found. The use of the shabti figure continued
unabated down to the Roman period, when boxes full of ill-shaped, uninscribed porcelain
figures were buried in the tombs with the dead.
The next instance worth mentioning of the use of magical figures we obtain from the
official account of a conspiracy against Rameses III., king of Egypt about B.C. 1200. It
seems that a number of high officials, the Overseer of the Treasury included, and certain
scribes, conspired together against this king apparently with the view of dethroning him.
They took into their counsels a number of the ladies attached to the court (some think
they belonged to the harîm), and the chief abode of these ladies became the headquarters
of the conspirators. One official was charged with "carrying abroad their words to their
mothers and sisters who were there to stir up men and to incite malefactors to do wrong
to their lord"; another was charged with aiding and abetting the conspiracy by making
himself one with the ringleaders; another was charged with being cognizant of the whole
matter, and with concealing his knowledge of it; another with
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"giving ear to the conversation held by the men conspiring with the women of the Per-
khent, and not bringing it forward against them," and so on. The conspiracy soon
extended from Egypt to Ethiopia, and a military official of high rank in that country was
drawn into it by his sister, who urged him to "Incite the men to commit crime, and do
thou thyself come to do wrong to thy lord"; now the sister of this official was in the Per-
khent, and so she was able to give her brother the latest information of the progress of the
disaffection. Not content with endeavouring to dethrone the king by an uprising of both
soldiers and civilians, Hui, a certain high official, who was the overseer of the [royal]
cattle, bethought him of applying magic to help their evil designs, and with this object in
view he went to some one who had access to the king's library, and he obtained from him
a book containing formulæ of a magical nature, and directions for working magic. By
means of this book he obtained "divine power," and he became able to cast spells upon
folk. Having gained possession of the book he next looked out for some place where he
could carry on his magical work without interruption, and at length found one. Here he
set to work to make figures of men in wax, and amulets inscribed with words of magical
power which would provoke love, and these he succeeded in introducing into the royal
palace by means of the official Athirmâ; and
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it seems as if those who took them into the palace and those who received them were
under the magical influence of Hui. It is probable that the love philtres were intended for
the use of the ladies who were involved in the conspiracy, but as to the object of the wax
figures there is no doubt, for they were intended to work harm to the king. Meanwhile
Hui studied his magical work with great diligence, and he succeeded in finding
efficacious means for carrying out all the "horrible things and all the wickednesses which
his heart could imagine"; these means he employed in all seriousness, and at length
committed great crimes which were the horror of every god and goddess, and the
punishment of such crimes was death. In another place Hui is accused of writing books or
formulæ of magical words, the effect of which would be to drive men out of their senses,
and to strike terror into them; and of making gods of wax and figures of men of the same
substance, which should cause the human beings whom they represented to become
paralysed and helpless. But their efforts were in vain, the conspiracy was discovered, and
the whole matter was carefully investigated by two small courts of enquiry, the members
of which consisted, for the most part, of the king's personal friends; the king's orders to
them were that "those who are guilty shall die by their own hands, and tell me nothing
whatever about it." The first court, which consisted of six
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members, sat to investigate the offences of the husbands and relatives of the royal ladies,
and those of the ladies themselves, but before their business was done three of them were
arrested because it was found that the ladies had gained great influence over them, that
they and the ladies had feasted together, and that they had ceased to be, in consequence,
impartial judges. They were removed from their trusted positions before the king, and
having been examined and their guilt clearly brought home to them, their ears and noses
were cut off as a punishment and warning to others not to form friendships with the
enemies of the king. The second court, which consisted of five members, investigated the
cases of those who were charged with having "stirred up men and incited malefactors to
do wrong to their lord," and having found them guilty they sentenced six of them to
death, one by one, in the following terms:--"Pentaura, who is also called by another
name. He was brought up on account of the offence which he had committed in
connexion with his mother Thi when she formed a conspiracy with the women of the Per-
khent, and because he had intent to do evil unto his lord. He was brought before the court
of judges that he might receive sentence, and they found him guilty, and dismissed him to
his own death, where he suffered death by his own hand." The wretched man Hui, who
made wax figures and spells with the intent to inflict pain
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and suffering and death upon the king, was also compelled to commit suicide. 1
The above story of the famous conspiracy against Rameses III. is most useful as proving
that books of magic existed in the Royal Library, and that they were not mere treatises on
magical practices, but definite works with detailed instructions to the reader how to
perform the ceremonies which were necessary to make the formulæ or words of power
efficacious. We have now seen that wax figures were used both to do good and to do
harm, from the IIIrd to the XXth dynasty, and that the ideas which the Egyptians held
concerning them were much the same about B.C. 1200 as they were two thousand five
hundred years earlier; we have also seen that the, use of ushabtiu figures, which were
intended to set the deceased free from the necessity of labour in the world beyond the
grave, was widespread. That such figures were used in the pre-dynastic days when the
Egyptians were slowly emerging into civilization from a state of semi-barbarism is not to
be wondered at, and it need not surprise us that they existed as a survival in the early
dynasties before the people generally had realized that the great powers of Nature, which
they deified, could not be ruled by man and by his petty words and deeds, however
mysterious and solemn. It is, however, very remarkable to find
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that the use of wax figures played a prominent part in certain of the daily services which
were performed in the temple of the god Amen-Râ at Thebes, and it is still more
remarkable that these services were performed at a time when the Egyptians were
renowned among the nations of the civilized world for their learning and wisdom. One
company of priests attached to the temple was employed in transcribing hymns and
religious compositions in which the unity, power, and might of God were set forth in
unmistakable terms, and at the same time another company was engaged in performing a
service the object of which was to free the Sun, which was deified under the form of Râ,
and was the type and symbol of God upon earth, from the attacks of a monster called
Âpep!
It will be remembered that the XXXIXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead is a
composition which was written with the object of defeating a certain serpent, to which
many names are given, and of delivering the deceased from his attacks. In it we have a
description of how the monster is vanquished, and the deceased says to him, "Râ maketh
thee to turn back, O thou that art hateful to him; he looketh upon thee, get thee back. He
pierceth thy head, he cutteth through thy face, he divideth thy head at the two sides of the
ways, and it is crushed in his land; thy bones are smashed in pieces, thy members are
hacked from off thee, and the god Aker hath condemned thee, O Âpep,
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thou enemy of Râ. Get thee back, Fiend, before the darts of his beams! Râ hath
overthrown thy words, the gods have turned thy face backwards, the Lynx hath torn open
thy breast, the Scorpion hath cast fetters upon thee, and Maât hath sent forth thy
destruction. The gods of the south, and of the north, of the west, and of the east, have
fastened chains upon him, and they have fettered him with fetters; the god Rekes hath
overthrown him, and the god Hertit hath put him in chains." 1 The age of this composition
is unknown, but it is found, with variants, in many of the copies of the Book of the Dead
which were made in the XVIIIth dynasty. Later, however, the ideas in it were developed,
the work itself was greatly enlarged, and at the time of the Ptolemies it had become a
book called "The Book of Overthrowing Âpep," which contained twelve chapters. At the
same time another work bearing the same title also existed; it was not divided into
chapters, but it contained two versions of the history of the Creation, and a list of the evil
names of Âpep, and a hymn to Râ. 2 Among the chapters of the former work was one
entitled, "Chapter of putting the fire upon Âpep," which reads, "Fire be upon thee, Âpep,
thou enemy of Râ! The Eye of Horus prevails over the accursed soul and shade of Âpep,
and the
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flame of the Eye of Horus shall gnaw into that enemy of Râ; and the flame of the Eye of
Horus shall consume all the enemies of the Mighty God, life! strength! health! both in
death and in life. When Âpep is given to the flame," says the rubric, "thou shalt gay these
words of power:--Taste thou death, O Âpep, get thee back, retreat, O enemy of Râ, fall
down, be repulsed, get back and retreat! I have driven thee back, and I have cut thee in
pieces.
Râ triumphs over Âpep. Taste thou death, Âpep.
Râ triumphs over Âpep. Taste thou death, Âpep.
Râ triumphs over Âpep. Taste thou death, Âpep.
Râ triumphs over Âpep. Taste thou death, Âpep."
These last sentences were said four times, that is to say, once for each of the gods of the
cardinal points. The text continues, "Back, Fiend, an end to thee! Therefore have I driven
flame at thee, and therefore have I made thee to be destroyed, and therefore have I
adjudged thee to evil. An end, an end to thee! Taste thou death! An end to thee! Thou
shalt never rise again." Such are the words of power, and these are followed by the
directions for performing the ceremony, which read thus:--
"If thou wouldst destroy Âpep, thou shalt say this chapter over a figure of Âpep which
hath been drawn in green colour upon a sheet of new papyrus, and over
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a wax figure 1 of Âpep upon which his name hath been cut and inlaid with green colour;
and thou shalt lay them upon the fire so that it may consume the enemy of Râ. And thou
shalt put such a figure on the fire at dawn, and another at noon, and another at eventide
when Râ setteth in the land of life, and another at midnight, and another at the eighth
hour of the day, and another towards evening; [and if necessary] thou mayest do thus
every hour during the day and the night, and on the days of the festivals and every day.
By means of this Âpep, the enemy of Râ, shall be overthrown in the shower, for Râ shall
shine and Âpep shall indeed be overthrown." And the papyrus and the figure "having
been burnt in a fire made of khesau grass, the remains thereof shall be mixed with
excrement and thrown upon a fire; thou shalt do this at the sixth hour of the night, and at
dawn on the fifteenth day [of the month]. And when the figure of Âpep is placed in the
fire thou shalt spit upon him several times each hour during the day, until the shadow
turneth round. Thou shalt do these things when tempests rage in the east of the sky as Râ
setteth, in order to prevent the coming onward of the storms. Thou shalt do this and so
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prevent the coming of a shower or a rain-storm, and "thereby shall the sun be made to
shine."
In another part of this book the reciter is told to say the following "firmly with the
mouth":-- "Down upon thy face, O Âpep, enemy of Râ! The flame which cometh forth
from the Eye of Horus advanceth against thee. Thou art thrust down into the flame it of
fire and it cometh against thee. Its flame is deadly to thy soul, and to thy spirit, and to thy
words of power, and to thy body, and to thy shade. The lady of fire prevaileth over thee,
the flame pierceth thy soul, it maketh an end of thy person, and it darteth into thy form.
The eye of Horus which is powerful against its enemy hath cast thee down, it devoureth
thee, the great fire trieth thee, the Eye of Râ prevaileth over thee, the flame devoureth
thee, and what escapeth from it hath no being. Get thee back, for thou art cut asunder, thy
soul is shrivelled up, thy accursed name is buried in oblivion, and silence is upon it, and it
hath fallen [out of remembrance]. Thou hast come to an end, thou hast been driven away,
and thou art forgotten, forgotten, forgotten," etc. To make these words to be of effect the
speaker is told to write the names of Âpep upon a new papyrus and to burn it in the fire
either when Râ is rising, or at noon, or at sunset, etc. In another part of the work, after a
series of curses which are ordered to be said over Âpep, the rubric directs that they shall
be recited
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by a person who hath washed himself and is ceremonially clean, and when this has been
done he is to write in green colour upon a piece of new papyrus the names of all the
fiends who are in the train of Âpep, as well as those of their fathers, and mothers, and
children. He must then make figures of all these fiends in wax, and having inscribed their
names upon them, must tie them up with black hair, and then cast them on the ground and
kick them with the left foot, and pierce them with a stone spear; this done they are to be
thrown into the fire. More than once is it said, "It is good for a man to recite this book
before the august god regularly," for the doing of it was believed to give great power "to
him, both upon earth and in the underworld." Finally, after the names of Âpep are
enumerated, be who would benefit by the knowledge of them is bidden to "make the
figure of a serpent with his tail in his mouth, and having stuck a knife in his back, cast
him down upon the ground and say, "'Âpep, Fiend, Betet.'" Then, in order to destroy the
fiends who are in the train of Âpep, other images or figures of them must be made with
their hands tied behind them; these are to be called "Children of inactivity." The papyrus
then continues, "Make another serpent with the face of a cat, and with a knife stuck in his
back, and call it 'Hemhem' (Roarer). Make another with the face of a crocodile, and with
a knife stuck in his back, and call it
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'Hauna-aru-her-hra.' Make another with the face of a duck, and with a knife stuck in his
back, and call it 'Aluti.' Make another with the face of a white cat, and with a knife stuck
in his back, and tie it up and bind it tightly, and call it 'Âpep the Enemy.'" Such are the
means which the Egyptians adopted when they wanted to keep away rain and storm,
thunder and lightning, and mist and cloud, and to ensure a bright clear sky wherein the
sun might run his course.
Under the heading of "Magical Figures" must certainly be included the so-called Ptah-
Seker-Ausar figure which is usually made of wood; it is often solid, but is sometimes
made hollow, and is usually let into a rectangular wooden stand which may be either
solid or hollow. The three gods or trinity of Ptah, Seker (Socharis), and Ausar (Osiris),
are intended to represent the god of the sunrise (Ptah), the god of the night sun (Seker),
and the god of the resurrection (Osiris). The name Ptah means "Opener," and is usually
applied to the sun as the "opener" of the day; and the name Seker means "He who is shut
in," that is to say, the night sun, who was regarded as the sun buried temporarily. Now the
life of a man upon earth was identified with that of the sun; he "opened" or began his life
as Ptah, and after death he was "shut in" or "coffined," like it also. But the sun rises again
when the night is past, and, as it begins a new life with renewed strength and vigour, it
became the type
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of the new life which the Egyptian hoped to live in the world beyond the grave. But the
difficulty was how to obtain the protection of Ptah, Seker, and Osiris, and how to make
them do for the man that which they did for themselves, and so secure their attributes. To
attain this end a figure was fashioned in such a way as to include the chief characteristics
of the forms of these gods, and was inserted in a rectangular wooden stand which was
intended to represent the coffin or chest out of which the trinity Ptah-Seker-Ausar came
forth. On the figure itself and on the sides of the stand were inscribed prayers on behalf of
the man for whom it was made, and the Egyptian believed that these prayers caused the
might and powers of the three gods to come and dwell in the wooden figure. But in order
to make the stand of the figure as much like a coffin as possible, a small portion of the
body of the deceased was carefully mummified and placed in it, and it was thought that if
the three gods protected and preserved that piece, and if they revivified it in due season,
the whole body would be protected, and preserved, and revivified. Frequently, especially
in the late period, a cavity was made in the side of the stand, and in this was laid a small
roll of papyrus inscribed with the text of certain Chapters of the Book of the Dead, and
thus the deceased was provided with additional security for the resurrection of his
spiritual body in the world to come. The little rolls of papyrus
p. 86
are often inscribed with but short and fragmentary texts, but occasionally, as in the case
of the priestess Anhai, a fine large papyrus, 1 inscribed with numerous texts and
illustrated with vignettes, was placed inside the figure of the god, who in this instance is
in the form of Osiris only. 2 It seems that the Ptah-Seker-Ausar figure was much used in
the late period in Egypt, for many inscribed examples have been found which are not
only illegible, but which prove that the artist had not the remotest idea of the meaning of
the things which he was writing. It is possible that they were employed largely by the
poor, among whom they seem to have served the purpose of the costly tomb.
Returning once more to the subject of wax figures, it may be wondered why such a very
large proportion of the figures of the gods which were worn by the living and attached to
the bodies of the dead as amulets are made of almost every kind of substance except wax.
But the reason of this is not far to seek: wax is a substance which readily changes its form
under heat and pressure, and it is also possible that the fact of its having been employed
from time immemorial for making figures which were intended to work harm and not
good to man, induced those who made amulets in the forms of the gods to select some
other material. As a matter of fact, however, several figures of gods
p. 87
Ptah-Seker-Ausar figure with cavity containing a portion of a human body mummified.
(British Museum, No. 9736).
p. 89
made of wax to serve as protective amulets are known, and a set of four, representing the
four children of Horus, now preserved in the British Museum, are worthy of notice. The
four children of Horus, or the gods of the four cardinal points, were called Mestha, Hâpi,
Tuamutef, and Qebhsennuf, and with them were associated the goddesses Isis, Nephthys,
Neith, and Serqet respectively. Mestha was man-headed, and represented the south, and
protected the stomach and large intestines; Hâpi was dog-headed, and represented the
north, and protected the small intestines; Tuamutef was jackal-headed) and represented
the east and protected the lungs and the heart; and Qebhsennuf was hawk-headed, and
represented the west, and protected the liver and the gall-bladder. The various internal
organs of men were removed from the body before it was mummified, and having been
steeped in certain astringent substances and bitumen were wrapped up in bandages, and
laid in four jars made of stone, marble, porcelain, earthenware, or wood. Each jar was
placed under the protection of one of the four children of Horus, and as it was hollow,
and its cover was made in the form of the head of the god who was represented by it, and
as the jar by means of the inscription upon it became an abode of the god, it might well
be said that the organ of the deceased which was put in it was actually placed inside the
god. The custom of embalming the intestines separately is very old, and
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several examples of it in the XIth dynasty are known; even at that early period the four
jars of mummified intestines were placed in a funeral chest, or coffer, which was
mounted on a sledge, and drawn along in the funeral procession immediately after the
coffin. In later times we find that many attempts were made to secure for the deceased the
benefit of the protection of these four gods without incurring the expense of
The Four Children of Horus.
Osiris rising from the funeral chest holding the symbol of "life" In each hand.
(From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 8.)
stone jars; this could be done by burying with him four models or "dummy" jars, or four
porcelain figures of the four gods, , , , , or four wax ones. For some
unknown reason the set referred to above was made of wax. 1 The four children of Horus
played a
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very important part in the funeral works of the early dynasties; they originally
represented the four supports of heaven, but very soon each was regarded as the god of
one of the four quarters of the earth, and also of that quarter of the heavens which was
above it. As the constant prayer of the deceased was that he should be able to go about
wherever he pleased, both on earth and in heaven, it was absolutely necessary for his
welfare that he should propitiate these gods and place himself under their protection,
which could only be secured by the recital of certain words of power over figures of
them, or over jars made to represent them.
But of all the Egyptians who were skilled in working magic, Nectanebus, the last native
king of Egypt, about B.C. 318, was the chief, if we may believe Greek tradition.
According to Pseudo- Callisthenes, and the versions of his works which were translated
into Pehlevi, Arabic, Syriac, and a score of other languages and dialects, this king was
famous as a magician and a sage, and he was deeply learned in all the wisdom of the
Egyptians. He knew what was in the depths of the Nile and of heaven, he was skilled in
reading the stars, in interpreting omens, in casting nativities, in telling fortunes, and in
predicting the future of the unborn child, and in working magic of every kind, as we shall
see; he was said to be the lord of the earth, and to rule all kings by means of his magical
powers.
p. 92
[paragraph continues] Whenever he was threatened with invasion by sea or by land he succeeded
in destroying the power of his enemies, and in driving them from his coasts or frontiers;
and this he did by the following means. If the enemy came against him by sea, instead of
sending out his sailors to fight them, he retired into a certain chamber, and having
brought forth a bowl which he kept for the purpose, he filled it with water, and then,
having made wax figures of the ships and men of the enemy, and also of his own men
and ships, he set them upon the water in the bowl, his men on one side, and those of the
enemy on the other. He then came out, and having put on the cloak of an Egyptian
prophet and taken an ebony rod in his hand, he returned into the chamber, and uttering
words of power he invoked the gods who help men to work magic, and the winds, and the
subterranean demons, which straightway came to his aid. By their means the figures of
the men in wax sprang into life and began to fight, and the ships of wax began to move
about likewise; but the figures which represented his own men vanquished those which
represented the enemy, and as the figures of the ships and men of the hostile fleet sank
through the water to the bottom of the bowl, even so did the real ships and men sink
through the waters to the bottom of the sea. In this way he succeeded in maintaining his
power, and he continued to occupy his kingdom in peace for a considerable
p. 93
period. But it fell out on a day that certain scouts came and informed Nectanebus that a
multitude of the nations of the East had made a league together against Egypt, and that
their allied forces were at that moment marching against him. When the king heard the
news he laughed, and having said some scornful words about his enemies, he went into
his private chamber, and pouring water into the bowl began to work magic in the usual
way. But when he had spoken the words of power, he looked at the wax figures, and saw,
to his dismay, that the gods of Egypt were steering the enemies' ships, and leading their
soldiers to war against himself. Now as soon as Nectanebus saw this, he understood that
the end of the kingdom of Egypt was at hand, for hitherto the gods had been wont to hold
converse with him readily, and to lend him their help whenever he had need of it. He then
quitted the chamber hastily, and having shaved off his hair and his beard, and disguised
himself by putting on common apparel, be took ship and fled to Pella in Macedonia,
where he established himself as a physician, and as an Egyptian soothsayer.
Omitting, for the present, any reference to the contents of the IVth chapter of Pseudo-
Callisthenes, in which the casting of the nativity of Olympias by Nectanebus is described,
we come to the passage in which the story of the way in which he sent a dream
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to the queen by means of a wax figure is told. His object was to persuade the queen that
the Egyptian god Amen would come to her at night. To do this he left her presence, and
going out into the desert he collected a number of herbs which he knew how to employ in
causing people to dream dreams, and having brought them back with him be squeezed the
juice out of them. He then made the figure of a woman in wax, and wrote upon it the
name of Olympias, just as the priest of Thebes made the figure of Âpep in wax and cut
his name upon it. Nectanebus then lit his lamp, and, having poured the juice of the herbs
over the wax figure of the queen, he adjured the demons to such purpose that Olympias
dreamed a dream in which the god Amen came to her and embraced her, and told her that
she should give birth to a man-child who should avenge her on her husband Philip. But
the means described above were not the only ones known to Nectanebus for procuring
dreams, for when he wanted to make Philip of Macedon to see certain things in a dream,
and to take a certain view about what he saw, he sent a hawk, which he had previously
bewitched by magical words, to Philip as he lay asleep, and in a single night the hawk
flew from Macedonia to the place where Philip was, and coming to him told him what
things he should see in his dream, and he saw them. On the morrow Philip had the dream
explained by an expounder of dreams,
p. 95
and he was satisfied that the child 1 to whom his wife Olympias was about to give birth
was the son of the god Amen (or Ammon) of Libya, who was regarded as the father of all
the kings who ascended the throne of Egypt, who did not belong to the royal stock of that
country. 2
Here, in connexion with the Egyptian use of wax figures, must be mentioned one or two
stories and traditions of Alexander the Great which are, clearly, derived from Egyptian
sources. The Arab writer, Abu-Shâker, who flourished in the XIIIth century of our era,
mentions a tradition that Aristotle gave to Alexander a number of wax figures nailed
down in a box, which was fastened by a chain, and which he ordered him never to let go
out of his hand, or at least out of that of one of his confidential servants. The box was to
go wherever Alexander went, and Aristotle taught him to recite certain formulæ over it
whenever he took it up or put it down. The figures in the box were intended to represent
the various kinds of armed forces that Alexander was likely to find opposed to him. Some
of the models held in their hands leaden swords which were curved backwards, and some
had spears in their hands pointed head downwards, and some had bows with cut strings;
all these were laid face downwards in the box. Viewed by what we
p. 96
know of the ideas which underlay the use of wax figures by the Egyptians and Greeks, it
is clear that, in providing Alexander with these models and the words of power to use
with them, Aristotle believed he was giving him the means of making his enemies to
become like the figures in the box, and so they would be powerless to attack him. 1
In the Græco-Roman period 2 wax figures were used in the performance of magical
ceremonies of every kind, and the two following examples indicate that the ideas which
underlay their use had not changed in the least. If a lover wished to secure the favours of
his mistress, he is directed to make a figure of a dog in wax mixed with pitch, gum, etc.,
eight fingers long, and certain words of power are to be written over the place where his
ribs should be. Next it was necessary to write on a tablet other words of power, or the
names of beings who were supposed to possess magical powers; on this tablet the figure
of the dog must be placed, and the tablet is made to rest upon a tripod. When this has
been done the lover must recite the words of power which are written on the dog's side,
and also the names which have been inscribed on the tablet, and one of two things will
happen: i.e., the dog will either snarl
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and snap at the lover, or he will bark. If he snarls and snaps the lover will not gain the
object of his affections, but if he barks the lady will come to him. In the second example
the lover is ordered to make two waxen figures; one in the form of Ares, and the other in
the form of a woman. The female figure is to be in the posture of kneeling upon her knees
with her hands tied behind her, and the male figure is to stand over her with his sword at
her throat. On the limbs of the female figure a large number of the names of demons are
to be written, and when this has been done, the lover must take thirteen bronze needles,
and stick them in her limbs, saying as he does so, "I pierce" (here he mentions the name
of the limb) "that she may think of me." The lover must next write certain words of
power on a leaden plate, which must be tied to the wax figures with a string containing
three hundred and sixty-five knots, and both figure and plate are to be buried in the grave
of some one who has died young or who has been slain by violence. He must then recite a
long incantation to the infernal gods, and if all these things be done in a proper manner
the lover will obtain the woman's affections. 1
From Egypt, by way of Greece and Rome, the use of
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wax figures passed into Western Europe and England, and in the Middle Ages it found
great favour with those who interested themselves in the working of the "black art," or
who wished to do their neighbour or enemy an injury. Many stories are current of how in
Italy and England ignorant or wicked-minded people made models of their enemies in
wax and hung them up in the chimney, not too close to the fire, so that they might melt
away slowly, and of how the people that were represented by such figures gradually lost
the power over their limbs, and could not sleep, and slowly sickened and died. If pins and
needles were stuck into the wax figures at stated times the sufferings of the living were
made more agonizing, and their death much more painful.
Sharpe relates 1 that about the end of the VIIth century king Duffus was so unpopular that
"a company of hags roasted his image made of wax upon a wooden spit, reciting certain
words of enchantment, and basting the figure with a poisonous liquor. These women
when apprehended declared that as the wax melted, the body of the king should decay,
and the words of enchantment prevented him from the refreshment of sleep." The two
following extracts from Thomas Middleton's The Witch 2 illustrate the views held about
wax figures in England in the time of this writer. 3
p. 99
I.
"Heccat. Is the heart of wax
Stuck full of magique needles?"
Stadlin. 'Tis done Heccat.
Heccat. And is the Farmer's picture, and his wives,
Lay'd downe to th' fire yet?
Stadlin. They are a roasting both too.
Heccat. Good:
Then their marrowes are a melting subtelly
And three monethes sicknes sucks up life in 'em."
(Act i., scene 2.)
II.
"Heccat. What death is't you desire for Almachildes?
Duchesse. A sodaine and a subtle.
Heccat. Then I have fitted you.
Here lye the guifts of both; sodaine and subtle:
His picture made in wax, and gently molten
By a blew fire kindled with dead mens' eyes
Will waste him by degrees."
(Act v., scene 2)
Mr. Elworthy in his very interesting book "The Evil Eye" 1 relates some striking
examples of the burning of hearts stuck full of pins for magical purposes
p. 100
in recent years. Thus an old woman at Mendip had a pig that fell ill, and she at once made
up her mind that the animal had been "overlooked"; in her trouble she consulted a "white
witch," i.e. a "wise" man, and by his orders she acted thus. She obtained a sheep's heart,
and having stuck it full of pins 1 set it to roast before a fire, whilst her friends and
neighbours sang:--
It is not this heart I mean to burn.
But the person's heart I wish to turn,
Wishing them neither rest nor peace
Till they are dead and gone."
At intervals her son George sprinkled salt on the fire which added greatly to the
weirdness of the scene, and at length, when the roasting had been continued until far into
the night, a black cat jumped out from somewhere and was, of course, instantly declared
to be the demon which had been exorcised. Again, in October, 1882, a heart stuck full of
pins was found in a recess of a chimney in an old house in the village of Ashbrittle; and
in 1890 another was found nailed up inside the "clavel" in the chimney of an old house at
Staplegrove.
The art of making such figures King James I. attributes to the "Divell," and says in
describing the
p. 101
things which witches are able to "effectuate by the power of their master 1":--"To some
others at these times hee teacheth, how to make pictures of waxe or clay: That by the
roasting thereof, the persons that they beare the name of, may be continually melted or
dried away by continuall sicknesse. . . . They can bewitch and take the life of men or
women, by roasting of the pictures, as I spake of before, which likewise is verie possible
to their Maister to performe, for although (as I said before) that instrument of waxe have
no vertue in that turne doing, yet may hee not very well, even by the same measure that
his conjured slaves, melts that waxe at the fire, may hee not, I say at these same times,
subtily, as a sprite, so weaken and scatter the spirites of life of the patient, as may make
him on the one part, for faintnesse, so sweate it out the humour of his bodie: And on the
other parte, for the not concurrence of these spirites, which causes his digestion, so
debilitate his stomacke, that this humour radicall continually sweating out on the one
part, and no new good sucke being put in the place thereof, for lacke of digestion on the
other, he at last shall vanish away, even as his picture will die at the fire? And that
knavish and cunning workeman, by troubling him, onely at sometimes, makes a
proportion, so neere betwixt the working of the one and the other,
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that both shall end as it were at one time." Thus we have seen that the belief in the
efficacy of wax figures is at least six thousand years old, and judging from passages in
the works of modern writers its existence is not unknown in our own country at the
present time.
This chapter may be fittingly ended by a notice of the benefits which accrued to a
Christian merchant in the Levant from the use of a wax figure. According to an Ethiopic
manuscript in the British Museum1 this man was a shipowner as well as a merchant, and
be was wont to send his goods to market in his own ships; in his day, however, the sea
was infested with pirates, and he lost greatly through their successful attacks upon his
vessels. At length he determined to travel in one of his own ships with a number of armed
men, so that he might be able to resist any attack which the pirates might make, and
punish them for their robberies in times past. . Soon after he had sailed he fell in with a
pirate vessel, and a fight at once took place between his crew and the robbers, in the
course of which he was shot in the eye by an arrow; he stopped the combat and then
sailed for a port which was situated near a monastery, wherein the Virgin Mary was
reported to work miracles by means of a picture of herself which was hung up in it. When
the merchant arrived in port he was so ill through the wound in his eye that he could not
be moved, and it was found that a portion
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of the arrow which had struck him remained embedded in it; and unless he could obtain
the Virgin's help speedily he felt that his death was nigh. In this difficulty a certain
Christian came to the ship and made a wax figure of the merchant, and, having stuck in
one eye a model of the arrow which had struck him, carried the figure to the monastery,
which was some miles off, and caused the monks to allow him to bring it nigh to the
picture of the Virgin. When this had been done, and prayers had been made to her, the
figure of the Virgin stretched out its hand, and straightway pulled the model of the arrow
out of the eye of the wax figure of the merchant in such a way that no broken fragment
remained behind. When the wax figure had been taken back to the ship, it was found that
the piece of broken arrow had been extracted from the merchant's eye at the very moment
when the Virgin had drawn out the arrow from the eye of the wax figure. The merchant's
eye then healed, and he recovered his sight.
Footnotes
67:1 Ed. Erman, pp. 7 and 8.
69:1 I.e., the priestly official who performed the most important of the funeral ceremonies; he was
always a man of great learning, and generally of high rank.
71:1 I.e., Chapter V. of the Book of the Dead.
72:1 I.e., Chapter V. of the Book of the Dead.
72:2 This is, 1 think, the meaning of bringing the sand from the east to the west.
77:1 See Devéria, Le Papyrus Judiciaire de Turin in Journal Asiatique, 1865; and Chabas, Le
Papyrus Magique Harris, p. 169 ff.
79:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 89.
79:2 I have given a hieroglyphic transcript of both works, with translations, in Archæologia, Vol.
LII.
81:1 Theocritus has preserved for us a proof that the Greeks made use of wax figures at an early
date. Thus in Pharmakeutria (1. 27 ff.) the lady spinning her wheel and addressing the Lynx says,
"Even as I melt this wax, with the god to aid, so speedily may he by love be molten!" (Lang's
Translation, p. 12).
86:1 This papyrus is preserved in the British Museum (No. 10,472).
86:2 British Museum, No. 20,868.
90:1 Nos. 15,563, 15,564, 15,573, and 15,578 in the Second Egyptian Room.
95:1 i.e., Alexander the Great.
95:2 For further mention of dreams, see the last chapter in this book.
96:1 See my Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great (one volume edition), p. xvi.
96:2 The Greeks used incantations at an early date, as we may see from Pindar, Pythia, iv. 213;
this writer lived in the first half of the fifth century before Christ.
97:1 I owe the facts of these two examples of the use of wax figures and the two spells for
procuring visions and dreams (see p. 96), and the example of the use of the sphere of
Democritus (p. 230), to Mr. F. G. Kenyon, Assistant Keeper in the Dept. of MSS., British Museum.
98:1 See C. K. Sharpe, Witchcraft in Scotland, London, 1884, p. 21.
98:2 London, 1778.
98:3 Born about 1570, died about 1626.
99:1 London, 1895, pp. 53, 56.
100:1 In the Worth Riding of Yorkshire evil influences were averted by means of a living black
cock which "was pierced with pins and roasted alive at dead of night, with every door, window,
and cranny and crevice stuffed up" (see Blakeborough, Wit, Character, Folk-lore and Customs of
the North Riding of Yorkshire, London, 1898, p. 205).
101:1 The following words are put into the mouth of Epistemon in Dæmonologie, in Forme of one
Dialogue, London, 1603, Second Booke, Chap. V. pp. 44, 45.
102:1 Oriental 646, fol. 29b ff.
p. 104
CHAPTER IV.
MAGICAL PICTURES AND FORMULÆ, SPELLS, ETC.
FROM what has been said above it is clear that the Egyptian believed it possible to vivify
by means of formulæ and words of power any figure made in the form of a man or
animal, and to make it work either on behalf of or against his fellow man. Besides this, he
believed greatly in the efficacy of representations or pictures of the gods, and of divine
beings and things, provided that words of power properly recited by properly appointed
people were recited over them. If this fact be borne in mind a great many difficulties in
understanding religious texts disappear, and many apparently childish facts are seen to
have an important meaning. If we look into the tombs of the early period we see painted
on the walls numbers of scenes in which the deceased is represented making offerings to
the gods and performing religious ceremonies, as well as numbers of others in which be
is directing the work of his estate and ruling his household. It was not altogether the
result of pride that such pictures
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were painted on the walls of tombs, for at the bottom of his heart the Egyptian hoped and
believed that they were in reality representations of what he would do in the next world,
and he trusted that the words of his prayers would turn pictures into realities, and
drawings into substances. The wealthy Egyptian left behind him the means for making
the offerings which his ka,
The goddess Hathor giving the scribe Ani meat and drink from out of a sycamore tree
which grows by the side of a stream.
(From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 16.)
or double, needed, and was able to provide for the maintenance of his tomb and of the ka
chapel and of the priest or priests who ministered to it. It was ail article of faith among all
classes that unless the ka was properly fed it would be driven to wander about and pick
up filth and anything else of that nature which it
p. 106
found in its path, as we may see from the LIInd Chapter of the Book of the Dead, in
which the deceased says, "That which is an abomination unto me, that which is an
abomination unto me let me not eat. That which is an abomination unto me, that which is
an abomination unto me is filth; let me not eat of it instead of the cakes [which are
offered unto] the Doubles (kau). Let it not light upon my body; let me not be obliged to
take it into my hands; and let
The scribe Ani and his wife standing in a stream drinking water.
(From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 16.)
me not be obliged to walk thereon in my sandals." And in the CLXXXIXth Chapter he
prays that he may not be obliged to drink filthy water or be defiled in any way by it. The
rich man, even, was not certain that the appointed offerings of meat and drink could or
would be made in his tomb in perpetuity: what then was the poor man to do to save his ka
from the ignominy of eating filth and drinking dirty water?
p. 107
[paragraph continues] To get out of this difficulty the model of an altar in stone was made, and
models of cakes, vases of water, fruit, meat, etc., were placed upon it; in cases where this
was not possible figures of the offerings were sculptured upon the stone itself; in others,
where even the expense of an altar could not be borne by the relatives of the dead, an
altar with offerings painted upon it was placed in the tomb, and as long as it existed
through the prayers recited, the ka did not lack food. Sometimes neither altar, nor model
nor picture of an altar was placed in the tomb, and the prayer that sepulchral meals might
be given to the deceased by the gods, which was inscribed upon some article of funeral
furniture, was the only provision made for the wants of the ka; but every time any one
who passed by the tomb recited that prayer, and coupled with it the name of the man who
was buried in it, his ka was provided with a fresh supply of meat and drink offerings, for
the models or pictures of them in the inscription straightway became veritable substances.
On the insides of the wooden coffins of the XIIth dynasty, about B.C. 2500, are painted
whole series of objects which, in still earlier times, were actually placed in the tombs
with the mummy; but little by little men ceased to provide the numerous articles
connected with the sepulture of the dead which the old ritual prescribed, and they trusted
to the texts and formulæ which they painted on the coffin to turn pictures into substances,
and
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besides the pillow they placed little else in the tomb.
About a thousand years later, when the religious texts which formed the Book of the
Dead were written upon papyri instead of coffins, a large number of illustrations or
vignettes were added to them; to many of these special importance was attached, and the
following are worthy of note.
It will be remembered that the CXXVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead contains the so-
called "Negative Confession" which is recited in the Hall of Maâti, and a number of
names of gods and beings, the knowledge of which is most important for the welfare of
the deceased. At the end of the Chapter we find the following statement:--"This chapter
shall be said by the deceased after he hath been cleansed and purified, and when he is
arrayed in apparel, and is shod with white leather sandals, and his eyes have been painted
with antimony, and his body hath been anointed with ânti unguent, and when he hath
made offerings of oxen, and birds, and incense, and cakes, and ale, and garden herbs.
And behold, thou shalt paint a picture of what shall happen in the Hall of Maâti upon a
new tile moulded from earth, upon which neither a pig nor any other animal hath trodden.
And if thou writest upon it this chapter the deceased shall flourish; and his children shall
flourish; and his name shall never fall into oblivion; and bread, and
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cakes, and sweetmeats, and wine, and meat shall be given unto him at the altar of the
great god; and he shall not be turned back at any door in the underworld; and he shall be
brought in along with the Kings of the North and South; and he shall be in the following
of Osiris always and for ever." Here, then, we have an excellent example of the far-
reaching effects of a picture accompanied by the proper words of power, and every
picture in the Book of the Dead was equally efficacious in producing a certain result, that
result being always connected with the welfare of the dead.
According to several passages and chapters the deceased was terrified lest he should lack
both air and water, as well as food, in the underworld, and, to do away with all risk of
such a calamity happening, pictures, in which he is represented holding a sail (the symbol
of air and wind and breath) in his hands, and standing up to his ankles in water, 1 were
painted on his papyrus, and texts similar to the following were written below them. "My
mouth and my nostrils are opened in Tattu (Busiris), and I have my place of peace in
Annu (Heliopolis) which is my house; it was built for me by the goddess Sesheta, and the
god Khnemu set it upon its walls for me. . . ." "Hail, thou god Tem, grant thou unto me
the sweet breath which dwelleth in thy nostrils! I embrace the great throne which is in
Khemennu (Hermopolis), and I
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keep watch over the Egg of the Great Cackler; I germinate as it germinateth; I live as it
liveth; and my breath is its breath." 1 But yet another "exceeding great mystery" had to be
performed if the deceased was to be enabled to enter into heaven by its four doors at will,
and to enjoy the air which came through each. The north wind belonged to Osiris, the
south wind to Râ, the west wind to Isis, and the east wind to Nephthys; and for the
deceased to obtain power over each and all of these it was necessary for him to be master
of the doors through which they blew. This power could only be obtained by causing
pictures of the four doors to be painted on the coffin with a figure of Thoth opening each.
Some special importance was attached to these, for the rubric says, "Let none who is
outside know this chapter, for it is a great mystery, and those who dwell in the swamps
(i.e., the ignorant) know it not. Thou shalt not do this in the presence of any person
except thy father, or thy son, or thyself alone; for it is indeed an exceedingly great
mystery which no man whatever knoweth." 2
One of the delights coveted by the deceased was to sail over heaven in the boat of Râ, in
company with the gods of the funeral cycle of Osiris; this happiness could be secured for
him by painting certain pictures, and by saying over them certain words of power. On
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a piece of clean papyrus a boat is to be drawn with ink made of green âbut mixed with
ânti water, and in it are to be figures of Isis, Thoth, Shu, and Khepera, and the deceased;
when this has been done the papyrus must be fastened to the breast of the deceased, care
being taken that it does not actually touch his body. Then shall his spirit enter into the
boat of Râ each day, and the god Thoth shall take heed to him, and he shall sail about
with Râ into any place that he wisheth. 1 Elsewhere it is ordered that the boat of Râ be
painted "in a pure place," and in the bows is to be painted a figure of the deceased; but Râ
was supposed to travel in one boat (called "Âtet ") until noon, and another (called
"Sektet") until sunset, and provision had to be made for the deceased in both boats. How
was this to be done? On one side of the picture of the boat a figure of the morning boat of
Râ was to be drawn, and on the other a figure of the afternoon boat; thus the one picture
was capable of becoming two boats. And, provided the proper offerings were made for
the deceased on the birthday of Osiris, his soul would live for ever, and be would not die
a second time. 2 According to the rubric to the chapter 3 in which these directions are
given, the text of it is as old, at least, as the time of Hesepti, the fifth king of the Ist
dynasty, who reigned about B.C. 4350, and the custom of painting the boat upon
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papyrus is probably contemporaneous. The two following rubrics from Chapters
CXXXIII. and CXXXIV., respectively, will explain still further the importance of such
pictures:--
1. "This chapter shall be recited over a boat four cubits in length, and made of green
porcelain [on which have been painted] the divine sovereign chiefs of the cities; and a
figure of heaven with its stars shall be made also, and this thou shalt have made
ceremonially pure by means of natron and incense. And behold, thou shalt make an
image of Râ in yellow colour upon a new plaque and set it at the bows of the boat. And
behold, thou shalt make an image of the spirit which thou dost wish to make perfect [and
place it] in this boat, and thou shalt make it to travel about in the boat [which. shall be
made in the form of the boat] of Râ; and he shall see the form of the god Râ himself
therein. Let not the eye of any man whatsoever look upon it, with the exception of thine
own self, or thy father, or thy son, and guard [this] with great care. Then shall the spirit
be perfect in the heart of Râ, and it shall give unto him power with the company of the
gods; and the gods shall look upon him as a divine being like unto themselves; and
mankind and the dead shall fall down upon their faces, and he shall be seen in the
underworld in the form of the radiance of Râ."
2. "This chapter shall be recited over a hawk
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standing and having the white crown upon his head, [and over figures of] the gods Tem,
Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Suti, and Nephthys, painted in yellow colour upon a
new plaque, which shall be placed in [a model of] the boat [of Râ], along with a figure of
the spirit whom thou wouldst make perfect, These thou shalt anoint with cedar oil, and
incense shall he offered up to them on the fire, and feathered fowl,
The soul of the scribe Ani visiting his mummified body as it lies on its bier in the tomb.
(From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 17.)
shall be roasted. It is an act of praise to Râ as he journeyeth, and it shall cause a man to
have his being along with Râ day by day, whithersoever the god voyageth; and it shall
destroy the enemies of Râ in very truth regularly and continually."
Many of the pictures or vignettes carry their own interpretations with them, e.g., the
picture of the soul hovering over the dead body which lies beneath it on the bier at once
suggests the reunion of the soul with
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the body; the picture of the deceased walking away from a "block of slaughter" and a
knife dripping with blood suggests escape from a cruel death; the picture of a soul and
spirit standing before an open door suggests that the soul has freedom to wander about at
will; and the picture of the soul and the shadow in the act of passing out through the door
of the tomb indicates clearly that these parts of man's economy are
Anubis holding the mummy of the scribe Ani; by the door of the tomb stand the soul and
spirit of the deceased in the form of a human-headed hawk and bennu bird respectively.
(From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 16.)
not shut up in the tomb for all eternity. But the ideas which prompted the painting of
other vignettes are not so clear, e.g., those which accompany Chapters CLXII.-CLXV. in
the late or Säite Recension of the Book of the Dead, although, fortunately, the rubrics to
these chapters make their object clear. Thus the picture which stands above Chapter
CLXII. is that of a cow having upon her head horns, a disk, and two plumes,
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and from the rubric we learn that a figure of it was to be made in gold and fastened to the
neck of the deceased, and that another, drawn upon new papyrus, was to be placed under
his head. If this be done "then shall abundant warmth be in him throughout, even like that
which was in him when he was upon earth. And he shall become like a god in the
underworld,
The scribe Ani passing through the door of the tomb. outside are his shadow and his soul
in the form of a human-headed bird.
(From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 18.)
and he shall never be turned back at any of the gates thereof." The words of the chapter
have great protective power (i.e., are a charm of the greatest importance) we are told, "for
it was made by the cow for her son Râ when he was setting, and when his habitation was
surrounded by a company of beings of fire." Now the cow is, of course, Isis-Hathor, and
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both the words and the picture refer to some event in the life of Râ, or Horus. It is quite
evident that the words of power, or charm, uttered by Isis-Hathor delivered the god out of
some trouble, and the idea is that as it delivered the god, and was of benefit to him, even
so will it deliver the deceased and be of benefit to him. The words of power read:--"O
Amen, O Amen, who art in heaven, turn thy face upon the dead body of thy son, and
make him sound and strong in the underworld." And again we are warned that the words
are "a great mystery" and that "the eye of no man whatsoever must see it, for it is a thing
of abomination for [every man] to know it. Hide it, therefore; the Book of the lady of the
hidden temple is its name."
An examination of mummies of the late period shews that the Egyptians did actually
draw a figure of the cow upon papyrus and lay it under the head of the deceased, and that
the cow is only one figure among a number of others which were drawn on the same
papyrus. With the figures magical texts were inscribed and in course of time, when the
papyrus had been mounted upon linen, it superseded the gold figure of the cow which
was fastened to the neck of the deceased, and became, strictly speaking an amulet, though
its usual name among archaeologists is "hypocephalus." The figure on the opposite page
well illustrates the object. It will be noticed that the
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Hypocephalus or object placed under the head of the deceased Shai-enen to keep warmth
in the body.
p. 119
hypocephalus is round; this is due to the fact that it represents the pupil of the Eye of
Horus, which from time immemorial in Egypt was regarded as the source of all
generative power, and of reproduction and life. The first group of gods are:--Nehebka
offering to Horus his Eye, a goddess with the Eye of Horus for a head, the cow of Isis-
Hathor described above, the four children of Horus, two lions, a member of the human
body, the pylon of heads of Khnemu the god of reproduction, and Horus-Râ. In the
second are the boat of the Sun being poled along by Horus, and the boat of the Moon,
with Harpocrates in the bow. In the other scenes we have the god Khepera in his boat,
Horus in his boat, and Horus-Sept in his boat. The god with two faces represents the
double aspect of the sun in setting and rising, and the god with the rams' heads, who is
being adored by apes, is a mystical form of Khnemu, one of the great gods of
reproduction, who in still later times became the being whose name under the form of
Khnumis or Khnoubis occupied such an important position among the magical names
which were in use among the Gnostics. The two following prayers from the hypocephalus
will illustrate the words of power addressed to Amen, i.e., the Hidden One, quoted
above:--1. "I am the Hidden One in the hidden place. I am a perfect spirit among the
companions of Râ, and I have gone in and come forth among the perfect souls. I am the
mighty Soul of
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saffron-coloured form. I have come forth from the underworld at pleasure. I have come. I
have come forth from the Eye of Horus. I have come forth from the underworld with Râ
from the House of the Great Aged One in Heliopolis. I am one of the spirits who come
forth from the underworld: grant thou unto me the things which my body needeth, and
heaven for my soul, and a hidden place for my mummy." 2. "May the god, who himself is
hidden, and whose face is concealed, who shineth upon the world in his forms of
existence, and in the underworld, grant that my soul may live for ever! May the great god
in his disk give his rays in the underworld of Heliopolis! Grant thou unto me an entrance
and an exit in the underworld without let or hindrance."
Chapter CLXIII. of the Book of the Dead was written to prevent the body of a man
mouldering away in the underworld, and to deliver him from the souls which were so
unfortunate as to be shut in the various places thereof, but in order to make it thoroughly
efficacious it was ordered to be recited over three pictures: (1) a serpent with legs, having
a disk and two horns upon its head; (2) an utchat, 1 or Eye of Horus, "in the pupil of
which shall be a figure of the God of the lifted hand with the face of a divine soul, and
having plumes and a back like a hawk"; (3) an utchat, or Eye of Horus, "in the pupil of
which
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there shall be a figure of the God of the lifted hand with the face of the goddess Neith,
and having plumes and a back like a hawk." If these things be done for the deceased "he
shall not be turned back at any gate of the underworld, he shall eat, and drink, and
perform the natural functions of his body as he did when he was upon earth; and none
shall rise up to cry out against him; and he shall be protected from the hands of the enemy
for ever and ever." 1
The words of power which form the CLXIVth Chapter to be effectual had to be recited
over a figure of the goddess Mut which was to have three heads. The first head was like
that of the goddess Pekhat and had plumes; the second was like that of a man and had
upon it the crowns of the South and North; the third was like that of a vulture and had
upon it plumes; the figure had a pair of wings, and the claws of a lion. This figure was
painted in black, green, and yellow colours upon a piece of anes linen; in front of it and
behind it was painted a dwarf who wore plumes upon his head. One hand and arm of each
dwarf were raised, and each had two faces, one being that of a hawk and the other that of
a man; the body of each was fat. These figures having been made, we are told that the
deceased shall be "like unto a god with the gods of the underworld; he shall never, never
be turned back; his flesh and his bones shall be like
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those of one who hath never been dead; he shall drink water at the source of the stream; a
homestead shall be given unto him in Sekhet-Aaru; he shall become a star of heaven; he
shall set out to do battle with the serpent fiend Nekau and with Tar, who are in the
underworld; he shall not be shut in along with the souls which are fettered; he shall have
power to deliver himself wherever he may be; and worms shall not devour him." 1
Again, the words of power which form the CLXVth Chapter to be effectual were ordered
by the rubric to "be recited over a figure of the God of the lifted hand, which shall have
plumes upon its head; the legs thereof shall be wide apart, and the middle portion of it
shall be in the form of a beetle, and it shall be painted blue with a paint made of lapis-
lazuli mixed with qamai water. And it shall be recited over a figure with a head like unto
that of a man, and the hands and the arms thereof shall be stretched away from his body;
above its right shoulder shall there be the head of a ram, and above its left shoulder shall
there be the head of a ram. And thou shalt paint the figure of the God of the lifted hand
upon a piece of linen immediately over the heart of the deceased, and thou shalt paint the
other over his breast; but let not the god Sukati who is in the underworld know it." If
these things be done, "the deceased shall
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drink water from the source of the stream, and he shall shine like the stars in the heavens
above." It is probable that Chapters CLXIL-CLXV. were composed at a comparatively
late date.
Yet another example of the magical pictures of the Book of the Dead must here be given.
The vignette of Chapter CXLVIII. contains pictures of seven cows "and their bull," and
of four rudders; the seven cows have reference to the seven Hathor goddesses, the bull is,
of course, a form of Râ, and the four rudders refer to the four quarters of the earth and to
the four cardinal points. The text of the Chapter contains the names of the cows and of
the bull, and of the rudders, and certain prayers for sepulchral. offerings. Now the
deceased would be provided with "abundance of food regularly and continually for ever,"
if the following things were done for him. Figures of the cows and of their bull and of the
rudders were to be painted in colours upon a board (?), and when Râ, the Sun-god, rose
upon them the friends of the deceased were to place offerings before them; these
offerings would be received mystically by the gods and goddesses whom the figures
represented, and in return they would bestow upon the deceased all the offerings or gifts
of meat and drink which he would require. Moreover, "if this be done," we are told, "Râ
shall be a rudder for the deceased, and he shall be a strength protecting him, and he shall
make an end of all his enemies for
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him in the underworld, and in heaven, and upon earth, and in every place wherever he
may enter."
We have seen above, in the description of the amulets which the Egyptians used, how
both the substance of the amulet and the words which were inscribed upon it possessed
magical powers, but we may learn from several instances given in the papyri that the
written words alone were sufficient in some cases to produce remarkable effects. This is,
of course, a very natural development, and charms or words of power which needed
nothing but to be written on papyrus or linen to produce a magical effect would be
popular with all classes of men and women, and especially among the poor and the
ignorant. The written word has been regarded in the East with reverence from time
immemorial, and a copy of a sacred writing or text is worn or carried about to this day
with much the same ideas and beliefs about its power to protect as in the earliest times. In
ancient Egypt the whole Book of the Dead, as well as the various sections of it which are
usually copied on papyri, consisted of a series of "words of power," and the modern
Egyptian looks upon the Koran in the same light as his ancestor looked upon the older
work. A curious passage in the text inscribed on the inside of the pyramid of Unas reads
(1. 583), "The bone and flesh which possess no writing are wretched, but, behold, the
writing of Unas is under the great seal, and behold, it is not under the little seal." It is
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difficult to explain the passage fully, but there is no doubt that we have here an allusion
to the custom of placing writings believed to be possessed of magical powers with the
dead. Certain passages or sections of the religious books of ancient nations have always
been held to be of more importance than others, and considering the great length of such
compositions this is not to be wondered at. Among the Egyptians two forms of the
LXIVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead were in use, and there is no doubt whatever that
the shorter form, as far back as the Ist dynasty, about B.C. 4300, was intended to be a
summary of the whole work, and that the recital of it was held to be as efficacious as the
recital of all the rest of it. 1 It is a remarkable fact that this form is called "The Chapter of
knowing the 'Chapters of Coming Forth by Day' in a single Chapter," and that it is
declared to date from the time of Hesepti, a king of the Ist dynasty, about B.C. 4300,
whilst the "finding" of the longer form is attributed to the reign of Men-kau-Râ
(Mycerinus), a king of the IVth dynasty, about B.C. 3600. It is interesting to note how
persistently certain chapters and formulæ occur in funeral papyri of different periods, and
the explanation seems to be that a popular selection was made at an early date, and that
this selection was
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copied with such additions or omissions as the means of the friends of the deceased
allowed or made necessary. One thing is quite certain: every man in Egypt died in the
firm belief that in the course of his journey into the next world he would be provided with
words of power which would enable him to make his way thither unhindered, and give
him abundance of meat and drink. We may see this view which was held concerning
words of power from the following passages:--"May Thoth, who is filled and furnished
with words of power, come and loose the bandages, even the bandages of Set which fetter
my mouth. . . . Now as concerning the words of power and all the words which may be
spoken against me, may the gods resist them, and may each and every one of the
company of the gods withstand them." 1 "Behold, I gather together the word of power
from wherever it is, and from any person with whom it is, swifter than greyhounds and
quicker than light." 2 To the crocodile which cometh to carry off from the deceased his
words of power he says, "Get thee back, return, get thee back, thou crocodile fiend Sui!
Thou shalt not advance to me, for I live by reason of the words of power which I have
with me. . . . Heaven hath power over its seasons, and the words of power have dominion
over that which they possess; my mouth therefore shall have power over the words of
power which are
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therein." 1 "I am clothed (?) and am wholly provided with thy magical words, O Râ, the
which are in the heaven above me, and in the earth beneath Me." 2 To the two Sister-Mert
goddesses the deceased says, "My message to you is my words of power. I shine from the
Sektet boat, I am Horus the son of Isis, and I have come to see my father Osiris." 3 "I
have become a spirit in my forms, I have gained the mastery over my words of power,
and it is decreed for me to be a spirit." 4 "Hail, thou that cuttest off heads, and slittest
brows, thou who puttest away the memory of evil things from the mouth of the spirits by
means of the words of power which they have within them, . . . let not my mouth be shut
fast by reason of the words of power which thou hast within thee. . . . Get thee back, and
depart before the words which the goddess Isis uttered when thou didst come to cast the
recollection of evil things into the mouth of Osiris." 5 On the amulet of the Buckle we
have inscribed the words, "May the blood of Isis, and the powers of Isis, and the words of
power of Isis be mighty to protect this mighty one," etc., and in the address which Thoth
makes to Osiris he says, "I am Thoth, the favoured one of Râ, the lord of might, who
bringeth to a prosperous end that which he doeth, the mighty one of words of power, who
is in the boat of
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millions of years, the lord of laws, the subduer of the two lands," etc. 1
From the above passages we not only learn how great was the confidence which the
deceased placed in his words of power, but also that the sources from which they sprang
were the gods Thoth and Isis. It will be remembered that Thoth is called the "scribe of the
gods," the "lord of writing," the "master of papyrus," the maker of the palette and the ink-
jar," the "lord of divine words," i.e., the holy writings or scriptures, and as he was the lord
of books and master of the power of speech, he was considered to be the possessor of all
knowledge both human and divine. At the creation of the world it was he who reduced to
words the will of the unseen and unknown creative Power, and who uttered them in such
wise that the universe came into being, and it was he who proved himself by the exercise
of his knowledge to be the protector and friend of Osiris, and of Isis, and of their son
Horus. From the evidence of the texts we know that it was not by physical might that
Thoth helped these three gods, but by giving them words of power and instructing them
how to use them. We know that Osiris vanquished his foes, and that he reconstituted his
body, and became the king of the underworld and god of the dead, but he was only able
to do these things by means of the words of power which Thoth had given to him,
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and which he had taught him to pronounce properly and in a proper tone of voice. It is
this belief which makes the deceased cry out, "Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious
over his enemies, make thou Ani to be victorious over his enemies in the presence of the
great and sovereign princes who are in Tattu," or in any other place. Without the words of
power given to him by Thoth, Osiris would have been powerless under the attacks of his
foes, and similarly the dead man, who was always identified with Osiris, would have
passed out of existence at his death but for the words of power provided by the writings
that were buried with him. In the Judgment Scene it is Thoth who reports to the gods the
result of the weighing of the heart in the balance, and who has supplied its owner with the
words which he has uttered in his supplications, and whatever can be said in favour of the
deceased he says to the gods, and whatever can be done for him he does. But apart from
being the protector and friend of Osiris, Thoth was the refuge to which Isis fled in her
trouble. The words of a hymn declare that she knew "how to turn aside evil hap," and that
she was "strong of tongue, and uttered the words of power which she knew with correct
pronunciation, and halted not in her speech, and was perfect both in giving the command
and in saying the word," 1 but this description only
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proves that she had been instructed by Thoth in the art of uttering words of power with
effect, and to him, indeed, she owed more than this. When she found the dead body of her
husband Osiris, she hovered about over it in the form of a bird, making air by the beating
of her wings, and sending forth light from the sheen of her feathers, and at length she
roused the dead to life by her words of power; as the result of the embrace which
followed this meeting Horus was born, and his mother suckled him and tended him in her
hiding-place in the papyrus swamps. After a time she was persecuted by Set, her
husband's murderer, who, it seems, shut her and her son Horus up in a house as prisoners.
Owing, however, to the help which Thoth gave her, she came forth by night and was
accompanied on her journey by seven scorpions, 1 called respectively Tefen, Befen,
Mestet, Mestetef, Petet, Thetet, and Matet, the last three of which pointed out the way.
The guide of the way brought her to the swamps of Per-sui, 2 and to the town of the two
goddesses of the sandals where the swampy country of Athu begins. Journeying on they
came to Teb, 3 where the chief of the district had a house for his ladies; now the mistress
of the house would not
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admit Isis on account of the scorpions that were with her, for she had looked out of her
door and watched Isis coming. On this the scorpions took counsel together and wished to
sting her by means of the scorpion Tefen, but at this moment a poor woman who lived in
the marshes opened the door of her cottage to Isis, and the goddess took shelter therein.
Meanwhile the scorpion had crept under the door into the house of the governor, and
stung the son of the lady of the house, and also set the place on fire; no water could
quench the fire, and there was no rain to do it, for it was not then the rainy season. Now
these things happened to the woman who had done no active harm to Isis, and the poor
creature wandered about the streets of the city uttering loud cries of grief and distress
because she knew not whether her boy would live or die.
When Isis saw this she was sorry for the child who had been stung, and as he was
blameless in the matter of the door of his mother's house being shut in the face of the
goddess, she determined to save him. Thereupon she cried out to the distraught mother,
saying, "Come to me, come to me! For my word is a talisman which beareth life. I am a
daughter well known in thy city also, and I will do away the evil by means of the word of
my mouth which my father hath taught me, for I am the daughter of his own body." Then
Isis laid her hands upon the body of the boy, and
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in order to bring back the spirit into his body said--
"Come Tefen, appear upon the ground, depart hence, come not nigh!
"Come poison of Befen, appear upon the ground. I am Isis, the goddess, the lady of
words of power, who doeth deeds of magic, the words of whose voice are charms.
"Obey me, O every reptile that stingeth, and fall down headlong!
"O poison of [Mestet and] Mestetef, mount not upwards!
"O poison of Petet and Thetet, draw not nigh! O Matet, fall down headlong!"
The goddess Isis then uttered certain words of the charm which had been given to her by
the god Seb in order to keep poison away from her, and said, "Turn away, get away,
retreat, O poison," adding the words "Mer-Râ" in the morning and "The Egg of the Goose
appeareth from out of the sycamore" in the evening, as she turned to the scorpions. Both
these sentences were talismans. After this Isis lamented that she was more lonely and
wretched than all the people of Egypt, and that she had become like an old man who hath
ceased to look upon and to visit fair women in their houses; and she ordered the scorpions
to turn away their looks from her and to show her the way to the marshes and to the
secret place which is in the city of
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[paragraph continues] Khebt. Then the words of the cry, "The boy liveth, the poison dieth! As the
sun liveth, so the poison dieth," were uttered, and the fire in the house of the woman was
extinguished, and heaven rejoiced at the words of Isis. When Isis had said that the "son of
the woman had been stung because his mother had shut the door of her house in her face,
and had done nothing for her," the words of the cry, "The boy liveth and the poison
dieth," were again uttered, and the son of the woman recovered.
Isis then continues her narrative thus:--"I Isis conceived a child, and was great with child
of Horus. I, a goddess, gave birth to Horus, the son of Isis, upon an island (or nest) in
Athu the region of swamps; and I rejoiced greatly because of this, for I regarded Horus as
a gift which would repay me for the loss of his father. I hid him most carefully and
concealed him in my anxiety, and indeed he was well hidden, and then I went away to the
city of Am. When I had saluted the inhabitants thereof I turned back to seek the child, so
that I might give him suck and take him in my arms again. But I found my sucking-child
Horus the fair golden one, well nigh dead! He had bedewed the ground with the water
from his eye and with the foam from his lips, his body was stiff, his heart was still, and
no muscle in any of his limbs moved. 1 Then I uttered a bitter cry
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of grief, and the dwellers in the papyrus swamps ran to me straightway from out of their
houses, and they bewailed the greatness of my calamity; but none of them opened his
mouth to speak, for every one was in deep sorrow for me, and no man knew how to bring
back life into Horus. Then there came to me a certain woman who was well known in her
city, for she belonged to a noble family, and she tried to rekindle the life in Horus, but
although her heart was full of her knowledge my son remained motionless." Meanwhile
the folk remarked that the son of the divine mother Isis had been protected against his
brother Set, that the plants among which he had been hidden could not be penetrated by
any hostile being, that the words of power of Temu, the father of the gods, "who is in
heaven," should have preserved the life of Horus, that Set his brother could not possibly
have had access to where the child was, who, in any case, had been protected against his
wickedness; and at length it was discovered that Horus had been stung by a scorpion, and
that the reptile "which destroyeth
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the heart" had wounded him, and had probably killed him.
At this juncture Nephthys arrived, and went round about among the papyrus swamps
weeping bitterly because of the affliction of her sister Isis; with her also was Serqet, the
goddess of scorpions, who asked continually, "What hath happened to the child Horus?"
Then Nephthys said to Isis, "Cry out in prayer unto heaven, and let the mariners in the
boat of Râ cease to row, and let not the boat of Râ move further on its course for the sake
of the child Horus"; and forthwith Isis sent forth her cry up to heaven, and made her
request come unto the "Boat of millions of years," and the Sun stood still and his boat
moved not from its place by reason of the goddess's petition. Out from the boat came the
god Thoth provided with magical powers, and bearing with him the great power to
command in such wise that the words of his mouth must be fulfilled straightway; and he
spake to Isis, saying "O thou goddess Isis, whose mouth knoweth how to utter charms (or
talismans), no suffering shall come upon thy child Horus, for his health and safety depend
upon the boat of Râ. I have come this day in the divine boat of the Disk (Aten) to the
place where it was yesterday. When darkness (or night) ruleth, the light shall vanquish it
for the health (or safety) of Horus for the sake of his mother Isis and similarly shall it
happen unto every one who
p. 136
possesseth what is [here] written(?)." What took place next is, of course, evident. The
child Horus was restored to life, to the great joy of his mother Isis, who was more
indebted than ever to the god Thoth for coming to deliver her out of her trouble on the
death of her son, just as he had done on the death of her husband. Now because Isis had
revivified both her husband and her son by the words of power and talismans which she
possessed, mortal man thought it was absolutely necessary for him to secure her favour
and protection at any cost, for eternal life and death were in her hands. As time went on
the Egyptians revered her more and more, and as she was the lady of the gods and of
heaven, power equal to that possessed by Râ himself was ascribed to her. Indeed,
according to a legend which has come down to us, and which written upon papyrus or
linen formed a magical formula against the poison of reptiles of all kinds, she made a
bold attempt to wrest the power of Râ from him and to make herself mistress of the
universe. The way in which she did this is told in a hieratic papyrus preserved at Turin, 1
from which the following rendering has been made; the merit of first discovering the
correct meaning of the text belongs to M. Lefébure.
p. 137
THE LEGEND OF RÂ AND ISIS.
"The Chapter of the divine god, the self-created being) who made the heavens and the
earth, and the winds [which give] life, and the fire, and the gods, and men, and beasts,
and cattle, and reptiles, and the fowl of the air and the fish of the sea; he is the king of
men and of gods, he hath one period of life (?) and with him periods of one hundred and
twenty years each are but as years; his names are manifold and unknown, the gods even
know them not.
"Now Isis was a woman who possessed words of power; her heart was wearied with the
millions of men, therefore she chose the millions of the gods, but she esteemed more
highly the millions of the spirits (khu). And she meditated in her heart, saying, 'Cannot I
by means of the sacred name of God make myself mistress of the earth and become a
goddess like unto Râ in heaven and upon earth?' Now behold, each day Râ entered at the
head of his holy mariners and established himself upon the throne of the two horizons.
Now the divine one (i.e., Râ) had grown old, he dribbled at the mouth, his spittle fell
upon the earth, and his slobbering dropped upon the ground. And Isis kneaded it with
earth in her hand, and formed thereof a sacred serpent in the form of a dart; she did not
set it upright before her face, but let it lie upon the ground in the path
p. 138
whereby the great god went forth, according to his hearts desire, into his double kingdom.
Now the holy god arose, and the gods who followed him as though he were Pharaoh went
with him; and he came forth according to his daily wont; and the sacred serpent bit him.
The flame of life departed from him, and he who dwelt among the cedars (?) was
overcome. The holy god opened his mouth, and the cry of his majesty reached unto
heaven; his company of gods said, 'What hath happened?' and his gods exclaimed, 'What
is it?' But Râ could not answer, for his jaws trembled and all his members quaked; the
poison spread swiftly through his flesh just as the Nile rusheth through all his land. When
the great god had stablished his heart, he cried unto those who were in his train, saying,
'Come unto me, O ye who have come into being from my body, ye gods who have come
forth from me, make ye known unto Khepera that a dire calamity hath fallen upon me.
My heart perceiveth it, but my eyes see it not; my hand hath not caused it, nor do I know
who hath done this unto me. Never have I felt such pain, neither can sickness cause more
woe than this. I am a prince, the son of a prince, the sacred essence which hath proceeded
from God. I am the great one, the son of the great one, and my father planned my name; I
have multitudes of names and multitudes of forms, and my being is in every god. I have
been
p. 139
proclaimed by the heralds Temu and Horus, and my father and my mother uttered my
name; but it hath been hidden within me by him that begat me, who would not that the
words of power of any seer should have dominion over me. I came forth to look upon that
which I had made, I was passing through the world which I had created, when lo!
something stung me, but what I know not. Is it fire? Is it water? My heart is on fire, my
flesh quaketh, and trembling hath seized all my limbs. Let there be brought unto me my
children, the gods, who possess the words of power and magical speech, and mouths
which know how to utter them, and also powers which reach even unto the heavens. Then
the children of every god came unto him uttering cries of grief. And Isis also came,
bringing with her her words of magical power, and her mouth was full of the breath of
life; for her talismans vanquish the pains of sickness, and her words make to live again
the throats of those who are dead. And she spake, saying, 'What hath come to pass, O
holy Father? What hath happened? Is it that a serpent hath bitten thee, and that a thing
which thou hast created hath lifted up his head against thee? Verily it shall be cast down
by my effective words of power, and I will drive it away from before the sight of thy
sunbeams.' The holy god opened his mouth and said, I was passing along my path, and I
was going
p. 140
through the two regions of my lands according to my hearts desire, to see that which I
had created, when lo! I was bitten by a serpent which I saw not. Is it fire? Is it water? I
am colder than water, I am hotter than fire. All my flesh sweateth, I quake, my eye hath
no strength, I cannot see the sky, and the sweat rusheth to my face even as in the time of
summer.' Then said Isis unto Râ, 'O tell me thy name, holy Father, for whosoever shall be
delivered by thy name shall live.' And Râ said, 'I have made the heavens and the earth, I
have knit together the mountains, I have created all that is above them, I have made the
water, I have made to come into being the goddess Meht-urt, and I have made the Bull of
his mother, from whom spring the delights of love. I have made the heavens, I have
stretched out the two horizons like a curtain, and I have placed the soul of the gods within
them. I am he who, if he openeth his eyes, doth make the light, and, if he closeth them,
darkness cometh into being. At his command the Nile riseth, and the gods know not his
name. I have made the hours, I have created the days, I bring forward the festivals of the
year, I create the Nile-flood. I make the fire of life, and I provide food in the houses. I am
Khepera in the morning, I am Râ at noon, and I am Temu at even.' Meanwhile the poison
was not taken away from his body, but it pierced deeper, and the great god could no
longer walk.
p. 141
"Then said Isis unto Râ, 'What thou hast said is not thy name. O tell it unto me, and the
poison shall depart; for he shall live whose name shall be revealed! Now the poison
burned like fire, and it was fiercer than the flame and the furnace, and the majesty of the
great god said, 'I consent that Isis shall search into me, and that my name shall pass from
me into her.' Then the god hid himself from the gods, and his place in the Boat of
Millions of Years was empty. And when the time had arrived for the heart of Râ to come
forth, Isis spake unto her son Horus, saying, 'The god hath bound himself by oath to
deliver up his two eyes (i.e., the sun and moon).' Thus was the name of the great god
taken from him, and Isis, the lady of words of magical power, said, 'Depart, poison, go
forth from Ea. O Eye of Horus, go forth from the god, and shine outside his mouth. It is I
who work, it is I who make to fall down upon the earth the vanquished poison, for the
name of the great god hath been taken away from him. Let Râ live, and let the poison die!
Let the poison die, and let Râ live!' These are the words of Isis, the mighty lady, the
mistress of the gods, who knew Râ by his own name."
Now from a few words of text which follow the above narrative we learn that the object
of writing it was not so much to instruct the reader as to make a magic formula, for we
are told that it was to be recited over
p. 142
figures of Temu and Horus, and Isis and Horus, that is to say, over figures of Temu the
evening sun, Horus the Elder, Horus the son of Isis, and Isis herself. Temu apparently
takes the place of Râ, for he represents the sun as an old man, i.e., Râ, at the close of his
daily life when he has lost his strength and power. The text is a charm or magical formula
against snake bites, and it was thought that the written letters, which represented the
words of Isis, would save the life of any one who was snake-bitten, just as they saved the
life of Râ. If the full directions as to the use of the figures of Temu, Isis, and the two
Horus gods, were known unto us we should probably find that they were to be made to
act in dumb show the scenes which took place between Râ, and Isis when the goddess
succeeded in taking from him his name. Thus we have ample evidence that Isis possessed
marvellous magical powers, and this being so, the issues of life and death, as far as the
deceased was concerned, we know from the texts to have been in her hands. Her words of
power, too, were a priceless possession, for she obtained them from Thoth, who was the
personification of the mind and intelligence of the Creator, and thus their origin was
divine, and from this point of view were inspired.
From a papyrus of the Ptolemaic period we obtain some interesting facts about the great
skill in working magic and about the knowledge of magical formulæ
p. 143
which were possessed by a prince called Setnau Khâ-em-Uast. He knew how to use the
powers of amulets and talismans, and how to compose magical formulæ, and he was
master both of religious literature and of that of the "double house of life," or library of
magical books. One day as he was talking of such things one of the king's wise men
laughed at his remarks, and in answer Setnau said, "If thou wouldst read a book
possessed of magical powers come with me. and I will show it to thee, the book was
written by Thoth himself, and in it there are two formulæ. The recital of the first will
enchant (or bewitch) heaven, earth, hell, sea, and mountains, and by it thou shalt see all
the birds, reptiles, and fish, for its power will bring the fish to the top of the water. The
recital of the second will enable a man if he be in the tomb to take the form which he had
upon earth," etc. When questioned as to where the book was, Setnau said that it was in
the tomb of Ptah-nefer-ka at Memphis. A little later Setnau went there with his brother
and passed three days and three nights in seeking for the tomb of Ptah-nefer-ka, and on
the third day they found it; Setnau recited some words over it, and the earth opened and
they went down to the place where the book was. When the two brothers came into the
tomb they found it to be brilliantly lit up by the light which came forth from the book;
and when they looked they saw not only Ptah-nefer-ka, but his wife Ahura, and Merhu
their
p. 144
son. Now Ahura and Merhu were buried at Coptos but their doubles had come to live
with Ptah-nefer-ka by means of the magical power of Thoth. Setnau told them that he had
come to take away the book, but Ahura begged him not to do so, and related to him the
misfortunes which had already followed the possession of it. She was, it seems, the sister
of Ptah-nefer-ka whom she married, and after the birth of her son Merhu, her husband
seemed to devote himself exclusively to the study of magical books, and one day a priest
of Ptah promised to tell him where the magical book described above might be found if
he would give him a hundred pieces of silver, and provide him with two handsome
coffins. When the money and the coffins had been given to him, the priest of Ptah told
Ptah-nefer-ka that the book was in an iron box in the middle of the river at Coptos. "The
iron box is in a bronze box, the bronze box is in a box of palm-tree wood, the palm tree
wood box is in a box of ebony and ivory, the ebony and ivory box is in a silver box, the
silver box is in a gold box, and in the gold (sic) box lies the book. The box wherein is the
book is surrounded by swarms of serpents and scorpions and reptiles of all kinds, and
round it is coiled a serpent which cannot die." Ptah-nefer-ka told his wife and the king
what he had heard, and at length set out for Coptos with Ahura and Merhu in the royal
barge; having arrived at Coptos he went to the temple of Isis and Harpocrates and offered
up
p. 145
a sacrifice and poured out a libation to these gods. Five days later the high priest of
Coptos made for him the model of a floating stage and figures of workmen provided with
tools; he then recited words of power over them and they became living, breathing men,
and the search for the box began. Having worked for three days and three nights they
came to the place where the box was. Ptah-nefer-ka dispersed the serpents and scorpions
which were round about the nest of boxes by his words of power, and twice succeeded in
killing the serpent coiled round the box, but it came to life again; the third time he cut it
into two pieces, and laid sand between them, and this time it did not take its old form
again. He then opened the boxes one after the other, and taking out the gold box with the
book inside it carried it to the royal barge. He next read one of the two formula-, in it and
so enchanted or bewitched the heavens and the earth that he learned all their secrets; he
read the second and he saw the sun rising in the heavens with his company of the gods,
etc. His wife Ahura then read the book and saw all that her husband had seen. Ptah-nefer-
ka then copied the writings on a piece of new papyrus, and having covered the papyrus
with incense dissolved it in water and drank it; thus he acquired the knowledge which
was in the magical book. Meanwhile these acts had stirred the god Thoth to wrath, and he
told Râ what Ptah-nefer-ka had done. As a result the decree
p. 146
went forth that Ptah-nefer-ka and his wife and child should never return to Memphis, and
on the way back to Coptos Ahura and Merhu fell into the river and were drowned; and
while returning to Memphis with the book Ptah-nefer-ka himself was drowned also.
Setnau, however, refused to be diverted from his purpose, and he insisted on having the
book which he saw in the possession of Ptah-nefer-ka; the latter then proposed to play a
game of draughts and to let the winner have the book. The game was for fifty-two points,
and although Ptah-nefer-ka tried to cheat Setnau, he lost the game. At this juncture
Setnau sent his brother Anhaherurau up to the earth to bring him his talismans of Ptah
and his other magical writings, and when he returned he laid them upon Setnau, who
straightway flew up to heaven grasping the wonderful book in his hand. As he went up
from the tomb light went before him, and the darkness closed in behind him; but Ptah-
nefer-ka said to his wife, "I will make him bring back this book soon, with a knife and a
rod in his hand and a vessel of fire upon his head." Of the bewitchment of Setnau by a
beautiful woman called Tabubu and of his troubles in consequence thereof we need make
no mention here: it is sufficient to say that the king ordered him to take the book back to
its place, and that the prophecy of Ptah-nefer-ka was fulfilled. 1
p. 147
1n connexion with the subject of the magical powers of Isis must be briefly mentioned
the curious small stelæ, with rounded tops, on the front of which are inscribed figures of
the god Horus standing upon crocodiles: they are usually known as "cippi of Horus." The
largest and finest example of this remarkable class of object is the famous
"Metternichstele," which was found in the year 1828 during the building of a cistern in a
Franciscan monastery in Alexandria, and was presented by Muhammad Ali Pasha to
Prince Metternich. We are fortunately enabled to date the stele, for the name of
Nectanebus I., the last but one of the native kings of Egypt, who reigned from B.C. 378 to
B.C. 360, occurs on it, and we know from many sources that such a monument could
have been produced only about this period. From the two illustrations of it here given we
see that it is both sculptured and engraved with figures of many of the gods of ancient
Egypt, gods well known from the monuments of the earlier dynasties, and also with
figures of a series of demons and monsters and animals which have both mythological
and magical importance. Many of these are accompanied by texts containing magical
formulæ,
p. 148
magical names, and mythological allusions. In the principal scene we see Horus, or
Harpocrates, standing upon two crocodiles; on his brow is the uraeus, and he wears on
the right side of his head the lock of hair emblematic of youth. In his hands he grasps
serpents, a lion, and an antelope, and it is clear by the look on his face that he is in no
wise afraid of them. Above his head is a bearded head, which is usually said to represent
that of Bes. On his right are:--(1) an utchat, 1 with human hands and arms; (2) Horus-Râ,
hawk-headed, and wearing the sun's disk and uraeus, and standing on a serpent coiled up;
(3) Osiris, in the form of a hawk standing upon a sceptre, and wearing the atef crown; (4)
The goddess Isis standing upon a serpent coiled up; (5) The goddess Nekhebet, in the
form of a vulture, standing upon a papyrus sceptre. On his left are:--(1) An utchat with
human hands and arms; (2) a papyrus standard with plumes and menats 2; (3) the god
Thoth standing upon a serpent coiled up; (4) the goddess Uatchet, in the form of a
serpent, standing upon a papyrus sceptre. Now Horus typifies youth and strength and the
rising sun, and the head above him. is probably intended to represent that of Râ (or Bes)
as an old man; the allusion here is clearly to the god who "is old at eventide and who
becomes young again." The utchats and the figures of the gods symbolize the solar
powers and the deities
p. 149
Clippus of Horus. (See Metternichstele, ed. Golénischeff, plate 1.)
p. 151
who are masters of the words of power, both in the South and in the North, by which the
young god Horus vanquishes all hostile animals, reptiles, and creeping things which live
in water and on land. Above and about this scene are several rows of figures of gods and
sketches of mythological scenes; many of which are evidently taken from the vignettes of
the Book of the Dead, and the object of all of the latter is to prove that light overcomes
darkness, that good vanquishes evil, and that renewed life comes after death. The texts
which fill all the spaces not occupied by figures describe certain incidents of the eternal
combat which Horus wages against his brother Set, and tell the story of the wanderings of
Isis with her son Horus and of her sufferings in the country of the papyrus Swamps, a
sketch of which we have given above (see pp. 130-136); besides these, prayers to certain
gods are introduced. The whole monument is nothing but a talisman, or a gigantic amulet
engraved with magical figures and words of power, and it was, undoubtedly, placed in
some conspicuous place in a courtyard or in a house to protect the building and its
inmates from the attacks of hostile beings, visible and invisible, and its power was
believed to be invincible. There is not a god of any importance whose figure is not on it,
and there is not a demon, or evil animal or reptile, who is not depicted upon it in a
vanquished state; the knowledge of the ancient Egyptian mythology
p. 152
and the skill shewn by the designer of this talisman are very remarkable. The small cippi
of Horus contain nothing but extracts from the scenes and texts which we find on the
"Metternichstele," and it, or similar objects, undoubtedly formed the source from which
so many of the figures of the strange gods which are found on Gnostic gems were
derived. Certain of the figures of the gods on the cippi were cast in bronze in the
Ptolemaic and Roman periods, or hewn in stone, and were buried in tombs and under the
foundations of houses to drive away any of the fiends who might come to do harm either
to the living or the dead.
The Arab historian Mas'ûdî has preserved 1 a curious legend of the talismans which were
employed by Alexander the Great to protect the city of Alexandria whilst it was being
built, and as the legend is of Egyptian origin, and dates from a period not greatly removed
from that in which the Metternich stele was made, it is worthy of mention. When the
foundations of the city had been laid, and the walls had begun to rise up, certain savage
animals came up each night from the sea, and threw down everything which had been
built during the day; watchmen were appointed to drive them away, but in spite of this
each morning saw the work done during the previous day destroyed. After much thought
Alexander devised a plan whereby he
p. 153
Clippus of Horus. (See Metternichstele, ed. Golénischeff, plate 3.)
p. 155
might thwart the sea monsters, and he proceeded to carry it into effect. He made a box ten
cubits long and five cubits wide with sides made of sheets of glass fastened into frames
by means of pitch, resin, etc. In this box Alexander placed himself, together with two
skilful draughtsmen, and having been closed it was towed out to sea by two vessels; and
when weights of iron, lead, and stone had been attached to the under part of it, it began to
sink, being guided to the place which Alexander wished it to reach by means of cords
which were worked from the ships. When the box touched the bottom of the sea, thanks
to the clearness of the glass sides and the water of the sea, Alexander and his two
companions were able to watch the various marine monsters which passed by, and he saw
that although they had human bodies they had the heads of beasts; some had axes, some
had saws, and some had hammers, and they all closely resembled workmen. As they
passed in front of the box Alexander and his two draughtsmen copied their forms upon
paper with great exactness, and depicted their hideous countenances, and stature, and
shape; this done, a signal was made, and the box was drawn up to the surface. As soon as
Alexander reached the land he ordered his stone and metal workers to make
reproductions of the sea monsters according to the drawings which he and his friends had
made, and when they were finished he caused them to be set up on pedestals along the
p. 156
sea-shore, and continued his work of building the city. When the night came, the sea
monsters appeared as usual, but as soon as they saw that figures of themselves had been
put up on the shore they returned at once to the water and did not shew themselves again.
When, however, the city had been built and was inhabited, the sea monsters made their
appearance again, and each morning a considerable number of people were found to be
missing; to prevent this Alexander placed talismans upon the pillars which, according to
Mas'ûdî, were there in his day. Each pillar was in the shape of an arrow and was eighty
cubits in height, and rested upon a plinth of brass; the talismans were placed at their
bases, and were in the form of figures or statues of certain beings with suitable
inscriptions, and as they were put in position after careful astronomical calculations had
been made for the purpose we may assume that they produced the effect desired by the
king.
Footnotes
109:1 See the vignettes to Chapters LIV.-LX. of the Book of the Dead.
110:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 106.
110:2 Ibid., p. 289.
111:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 162.
111:2 Ibid., p. 212.
111:3 I.e., CXXX.
120:1 See above, p. 55
121:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 292.
122:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 294.
125:1 In a similar way the Arabs attach as much importance to the Fatha, or opening chapter,
and to the chapter which declares the Unity of God (CXII.), as to the rest of the Koran.
126:1 See Chapter of Coming Forth by Day, p. 70.
126:2 Ibid., p. 71
127:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 81.
127:2 Ibid., p. 81.
127:3 Ibid., p. 87.
127:4 Ibid., p. 129.
127:5 Ibid., p. 150.
128:1 See Chapters of Coming forth by Day, p. 340 f.
129:1 Chabas, Revue Archéologique, 1857, p. 65 ff.; Ledrain, Monuments Égyptiens, pl. xxii. ff.;
and for a recent translation see my First Steps in Egyptian, pp. 179-188.
130:1 The story is told on the famous Metternichstele, ed. Golénischeff, Leipzig, 1877.
130:2 I.e., Crocodilopolis.
130:3 The city of the two sandals. The two sandals were made of leather from the skin of the god
Nehes or Set, the opponent of Horus.
133:1 This is an exact description of the state of an animal which has p. 134 been stung by the
small black scorpion in Egypt and the Sûdân. I saw Colonel W. H. Drage's dog "Shûbra" bitten at
Merâwî in September, 1897, by a black scorpion, and in about an hour she was in the state of
Horus as described above, and the whole camp was distressed, for both master and dog were
great favourites. When it was no longer possible to administer spirit to her, Major G. R. Griffith
and others immersed her body in pails of very hot water for several hours, and at sundown she
was breathing comfortably, and she soon afterwards recovered.
136:1 See Pleyte and Rossi, Le Papyrus de Turin, 1869-1876, pll. 31-37, and 131-138; see also
Lefébure in Ægyptische Zeitshrift, 1883, p. 27 ff.; Wiedemann, Religion der alien Ægypter, 1890,
p. 29 ff.; and my Papyrus of Ani, 1895, p. lxxxix., and First Steps in Egyptian, 1895, pp. 241-256.
146:1 For translations see Brugsch, Le Roman de Setnau (in Revue p. 147 Archéologique, 2nd
series, Vol. xvi., 1867, p. 161 ff.); Maspero, Contes Égyptiens, Paris, 1882, pp. 45-82; Records of
the Past, vol. iv., pp. 129-148; and for the original Demotic text see Mariette, Les Papyrus du
Musée de Boulaq, tom. i., 1871, pll. 29-32; Revillout, Le Roman de Setna, Paris, 1877; Hess,
Roman von Sfne Ha-m-us. Leipzig, 1888.
148:1 See above, p. 55.
148:2 See above, p. 60.
152:1 See Les Prairies d'Or, ed. B. de Meynard and Pavet de Courteille, Paris, 1861, tom. ii. p.
425 ff.
p. 157
CHAPTER V.
MAGICAL NAMES.
THE Egyptians, like most Oriental nations, attached very great importance to the
knowledge of names, and the knowledge of how to use and to make mention of names
which possessed magical powers was a necessity both for the living and the dead. It was
believed that if a man knew the name of a god or a devil, and addressed him by it, he was
bound to answer him and to do whatever he wished; and the possession of the knowledge
of the name of a man enabled his neighbour to do him good or evil. The name that was
the object of a curse brought down evil upon its owner, and similarly the name that was
the object of a blessing or prayer for benefits secured for its master many good things. To
the Egyptian the name was as much a part of a man's being as his soul, or his double
(KA), or his body, and it is quite certain that this view was held by him in the earliest
times. Thus in the text which is inscribed on the walls inside 1 the pyramid
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of Pepi L, king of Egypt about B.C. 3200, we read, "Pepi hath been purified. He hath
taken in his hand the mâh staff, he hath provided himself with his throne, and he hath
taken his seat in the boat of the great and little companies of the gods. Ed maketh Pepi to
sail to the West, he stablisheth his seat above those of the lords of doubles, and he writeth
down Pepi at the head of those who live. The doors of Pekh-ka which are in the abyss
open themselves to Pepi, the doors of the iron which is the ceiling of the sky open
themselves to Pepi, and he passeth through them; he hath his panther skin upon him, and
the staff and whip are in his hand. Pepi goeth forward with his flesh, Pepi is happy with
his name, and he liveth with his ka (double)." Curiously enough only the body and name
and double of the king are mentioned, just as if these three constituted his whole
economy; and it is noteworthy what importance is attached to the name in this passage. In
the text from the pyramid of another king 1 we have a prayer concerning the preservation
of the name, which is of such interest that a rendering of it in full is here given: it reads,
"O Great Company of the gods who dwell in Annu (Heliopolis), grant that Pepi Nefer-ka-
Râ may flourish (literally 'germinate'), and that his pyramid, his ever lasting building,
may flourish, even as the name of
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Temu, the chief of the nine gods, doth flourish. If the name of Shu, the lord of the upper
shrine in Annu, flourisheth, then Pepi shall flourish, and his pyramid, his everlasting
building, shall flourish! If the name of Tefnut, the lady of the lower shrine in Annu,
flourisheth, the name of Pepi shall be established, and this his pyramid shall be
established to all eternity! If the name of Seb flourisheth at the 'homage of the earth,' then
the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this his pyramid shall flourish, and this his building
shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Nut in the House of Shenth in Annu
flourisheth, the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this his pyramid shall flourish, and this
his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Osiris flourisheth in the nome
of Abydos, then the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this his pyramid shall flourish, and
this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Osiris Khent-Amentet
flourisheth, then the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this his pyramid shall flourish, and
this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Set, the dweller in Nubt
(Ombos) flourisheth, then the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this his pyramid shall
flourish, and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Horus
flourisheth, then the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this his pyramid shall flourish, and
this his building shall flourish unto all
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eternity! If the name of Râ flourisheth in the horizon, then the name of Pepi shall flourish,
and this his pyramid shall flourish, and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If
the name of Khent-merti flourisheth in Sekhem (Letopolis), then the name of Pepi shall
flourish, and this his pyramid shall flourish, and this his building shall flourish unto all
eternity! If the name of Uatchet in Tep flourisheth, then the name of Pepi shall flourish,
and this his pyramid shall flourish, and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity!"
The above prayer or formula was the origin of most of the prayers and texts which had
for their object the "making the name to germinate or flourish," and which were copied so
frequently in the Saïte, Ptolemaic, and Roman periods. All these compositions show that
from the earliest to the latest times the belief as to the importance of the preservation of
the name never changed in Egypt, and the son who assisted in keeping green his father's
name, and in consequence his memory, performed a most meritorious duty. But in the
present chapter we are not so much concerned with the ordinary as with the extraordinary
uses to which a name might be put, and the above facts have only been mentioned to
prove that a man's name was regarded as an essential part of himself, and that the blotting
out of the name of an individual was synonymous with his destruction. Without a name
no man could be identified in the
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judgment, and as a man only came into being upon this earth when his name had been
pronounced, so the future life could only be attained after the gods of the world beyond
the grave had become acquainted with it and had uttered it.
According to the story of the Creation which is related in the Papyrus of Nesi-Amsu, 1
before the world and all that therein is came into being, only the great god Neb-er-tcher
existed, for even the gods were not born. Now when the time had come for the god to
create all things be says, "I brought (i.e., fashioned) my mouth, and I uttered my own
name as a word of power, and thus I evolved myself under the evolutions of the god
Khepera, and I developed myself out of the primeval matter which had evolved
multitudes of evolutions from the beginning of time. Nothing existed on this earth [before
me], I made all things. There was none other who worked with me at that time.
Elsewhere, that is to say, in the other version of the story, the god Khepera says, I
developed ct myself from the primeval matter which I made, I developed myself out of
the primeval matter. My name is' Osiris,' the germ of primeval matter." Here, then, we
have a proof that the Egyptians regarded the creation as the result of the utterance of the
name of the god Neb-er-tcher or Khepera by himself. Again, in the story of Râ and Isis,
given in the preceding
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chapter, we have seen that although Isis was able to make a serpent and to cause it to bite
Râ, and to make him very ill, she was powerless to do as she wished in heaven and upon
earth until she had persuaded the god to reveal to her his name by which he ruled the
universe. In yielding up his name to the goddess he placed himself in her power, and in
this example we have a striking instance of the belief that the knowledge of the name of
god, or devil, or human being, implied dominion over that being. We have seen
elsewhere that Râ, the type and symbol of God, is described as the god of "many names,"
and in that wonderful composition the XVIIth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, 1 we
have the following statement:--"I am the great god Nu, who gave birth unto himself, and
who made his name to become the company of the gods." Then the question, "What does
this mean?" or "Who is this?" is asked. And this is the answer: "It is Râ, the creator of the
name[s] of his limbs, which came into being in the form of the gods who are in the
following of Râ." From this we see that all the "gods" of Egypt were merely
personifications of the NAMES Of Râ, and that each god was one of his members, and
that a name of a god was the god himself. Without the knowledge of the names of the
gods and devils of the underworld the dead Egyptian would have fared badly, for his
personal liberty would have been
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fettered, the roads and paths would have been blocked to him, the gates of the mansions
of the underworld would have been irrevocably shut in his face, and the hostile powers
which dogged his footsteps would have made an end of him; these facts are best
illustrated by the following examples:--
When the deceased comes to the Hall of Judgment, at the very beginning of his speech he
says, "Homage to thee, O Great God, thou Lord of Maâti, I have come to thee, O my
Lord, and I have brought myself hither that 1 may behold thy beauties. I know thee, and I
know thy name, and I know the names of the two and forty gods who exist with thee in
this Hall of Maâti." 1 But although the gods may be favourable to him, and he be found
righteous in the judgment, he cannot make his way among the other gods of the
underworld without a knowledge of the names of certain parts of the Hall of Maâti. After
the judgment he acquires the mystical name of "He who is equipped with the flowers and
the dweller in his olive tree," and it is only after he has uttered this name that the gods say
"Pass onwards." Next the gods invite him to enter the Hall of Maâti, but he is not allowed
to pass in until he has, in answer to questions asked by the bolts, lintels, threshold,
fastenings, socket, door-leaves, and door-posts, told their names. The floor of the Hall
will not permit him to walk upon it unless he
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tells not only its name, but also the mystical names of his two legs and feet wherewith he
is about to tread upon it. When all this has been done the guardian of the Hall says to
him, "I will not announce thy name [to the god] unless thou tellest me my name"; and the
deceased replies, "'Discerner of hearts and searcher of the reins' is thy name." In reply to
this the guardian says, "If I announce thy name thou must utter the name of the god who
dwelleth in his hour," and the deceased utters the name "Mâau-Taui." But still the
guardian is not satisfied, and he says, "If I announce thy name thou must tell me who is
he whose heaven is of fire, whose walls [are surmounted by] living uraei, and the floor of
whose house is a stream of water. Who is he, I say? (i.e., what is his name?)" But the
deceased has, of course, learnt the name of the Great God, and he replies, "Osiris." The
guardian of the Hall is now content, and he says, "Advance, verily thy name shall be
mentioned to him"; and he further promises that the cakes, and ale, and sepulchral meals
which the deceased shall enjoy shall come from the "Eye of Râ,"
In another Chapter 1 the deceased addresses seven gods, and says, "Hail, ye seven beings
who make decrees, who support the Balance on the night of the judgment of the Utchat,
who cut off heads, who hack necks in pieces, who take possession of hearts by
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violence and rend the places where hearts are fixed, who make slaughterings in the Lake
of Fire, I know you, and I know your names; therefore know ye me, even as I know your
names." The deceased, having declared that the seven gods know his name and he their
names, has no further apprehension that evil will befall him.
In one portion of the kingdom of Osiris there existed seven halls or mansions through
which the deceased was anxious to pass, but each of the gates was guarded by a
doorkeeper, a watcher, and a herald, and it required special provision on the part of the
deceased to satisfy these beings that he had a right to pass them. In the first place, figures
of the seven gates had to be made in some substance (or painted upon papyrus), as well as
a figure of the deceased: the latter was made to approach each of the gates and to stand
before it and to recite an address which had been specially prepared for the purpose.
Meanwhile the thigh, the head, the heart, and the hoof of a red bull were offered at each
gate, as well as a very large number of miscellaneous offerings which need not be
described in detail. But all these ceremonies would not help the deceased to pass through
the gates, unless be knew the names of the seven doorkeepers, and the seven watchers,
and the seven heralds who guarded them. The gods of the first gate were:--Sekhet-hra-
âsht-aru, Semetu, and Hukheru; those of the second, Tun-hât, Seqet-hra, and
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Sabes; of the third, Am-huat-ent-pehfi, Res-hra, and Uâau; of the fourth, Khesef-hra-âsht-
kheru, Res-ab, and Neteka-hra-khesef-atu; of the fifth, Ânkh-em-fentu, Ashebu, and
Tebherkehaat; of the sixth, Akentauk-ha-kheru, An-hra, and Metes-hra-ari-she; of the
seventh, Metes-sen, Ââa-kheru, and Khesef-hra-khemiu. And the text, which the
deceased recites to the Halls collectively, begins, "Hail, ye Halls! Hail, ye who made the
Halls for Osiris! Hail, ye who watch your Halls! Hail, ye who herald the affairs of the
two lands for the god Osiris each day, the deceased knoweth you, and he knoweth your
names." 1 The names having been uttered, and the addresses duly recited, the deceased
went wherever he pleased in the seven Halls of Osiris.
But beside the seven halls the deceased had to pass through the twenty-one hidden pylons
of the house of Osiris in the Elysian Fields, and in order to do so he had to declare the
names of the pylon and the doorkeeper of each, and to make a short address besides. Thus
to the first pylon he says, "I have made my way, I know thee and I know thy name, and I
know the name of the god who guardeth thee. Thy name is 'Lady of tremblings, with
lofty walls, the sovereign lady, the mistress of destruction, who setteth in order the words
which drive back the whirlwind and the storm, who delivereth from destruction him that
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travelleth along the way'; and the name of thy doorkeeper is Neri." At the second pylon
he says, "I have made [my] way, I know thee, and I know thy name, and I know the name
of the god who guardeth thee. Thy name is 'Lady of heaven, the mistress of the world,
who devoureth with fire, the lady of mortals, who knoweth mankind.' The name of thy
doorkeeper is Mes-Ptah," and so on at each of the pylons. In the later and longer version
of the chapter which was written to supply the deceased with this knowledge he informs
the god of each pylon what purification he has undergone; thus to the god of the first
pylon he says, "I have anointed myself with hâti "unguent [made from] the cedar, I have
arrayed myself in apparel of menkh (linen), and I have with me my sceptre made of heti
wood." After the speech the god of the pylon says, "Pass on, then, thou art pure."
When we remember that one of the oldest beliefs as to the future life made it appear that
it would be lived by man in the Sekhet-Aaru, or Field of Reeds, a region which, as we
know from the drawings of it which have come down to us, was intersected by canals and
streams, it is at once clear that in order to pass from one part of it to another the deceased
would need a boat. Even assuming that he was fortunate enough to have made his own
way into this region, it was not possible for him to take a boat with him. To meet, this
difficulty a boat and all its various parts were
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drawn upon the papyrus, upon which the selection of Chapters from the Book of the Dead
had been inscribed for him, and a knowledge of the text of the chapter which belonged to
it made the drawing to become an actual boat. But before he could enter it, the post to
which it was tied up, and every part of the boat itself, demanded that he should tell them
their names, thus:--
Post at which to tie up. "Tell me my name." D. 1 "Lord of the two lands, dweller in the
shrine," is thy name.
Rudder. "Tell me my name." D. "Leg of Hâpiu" is thy name.
Rope. "Tell me my name." D. "Hairs with which Anpu finisheth the work of my
embalmment" is thy name.
Oar-ruts. "Tell us our name." D. "Pillars of the underworld" is your name.
Hold. "Tell me my name." D. "Akau" is thy name.
Mast. "Tell me my name." D. "Bringer back of the lady after her departure" is thy name.
Lower deck. "Tell me my name." D. "Standard of Ap-uat" is thy name.
Upper Post. "Tell me my name." D. "Throat of Mestha" is thy name.
Sail. "Tell me my name." D. "Nut" is thy name.
Leather Straps. "Tell us our name." D. "Those who
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are made from the hide of the Mnevis Bull, which was burned by Suti," is your name.
Paddles. "Tell us our name." D. "Fingers of Horus the firstborn" is your name.
Pump (?). "Tell me my name." D. "The hand of Isis which wipeth away the blood of the
Eye of Horus," is thy name.
Planks. "Tell us our names." D. "Mestha, Hâpi, Tuamutef, Qebhsennuf, Haqau, Thet-em-
âua, Maa-an-tef, Ari-nef-tchesef," are your names.
Rows. "Tell us our name." D. "He who is at the head of his nomes" is your name.
Hull. "Tell me my name." D. "Mert" is thy name.
Rudder. "Tell me my name." D. "Âqa" is thy name; Shiner in the water, hidden beam," is
thy name.
Keel. "Tell me my name." D. "Thigh of Isis, which Râ cut off with the knife to bring
blood into the Sektet boat," is thy name.
Sailor. "Tell me my name." D. "Traveller" is thy name.
Wind. "Tell me my name." D. "The North Wind, which cometh from Tem to the nostrils
of Osiris," is thy name.
And when the deceased had declared to these their names, before he could set out on his
journey he was obliged to tell the river, and the river-banks, and the ground their mystical
names. This done, the boat
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admitted him as a passenger, and he was able to sail about to any part of the Elysian
Fields at will.
But among the beings whom the deceased wished to avoid in the underworld were the
beings who "lay snares, and who work the nets, and who are fishers," and who would
draw him into their nets. It seems as if it were absolutely necessary that he should fall in
with these beings and their nets, for a whole chapter of the Book of the Dead was written
with the view of enabling him to escape from them unharmed; the god their leader is
called "the god whose face is behind him," and "the god who hath gained the mastery
over his heart." To escape from the net which was worked by "the fishers who lay snares
with their nets and who go round about in the chambers of the waters," the deceased had
to know the names of the net, and of the ropes, and of the pole, and of the hooks, and of
each and every part of it; without this knowledge nothing could save him from calamity.
We unfortunately understand very few of the allusions to mythological events which are
contained in the names of the various parts of the machinery which work the net, but it is
quite certain that they have reference to certain events in the lives of the gods who are
mentioned, and that these were well known to the writers and readers of religious texts.
From the above descriptions of the means whereby the deceased made his way through
the gates and the
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halls of the underworld and escaped from the fowler and his net, it will be readily
understood that the knowledge of the name alone was, in some cases, sufficient to help
him out of his difficulties; but in others it was necessary to have the name which was
possessed of magical power inscribed upon some object, amulet or otherwise. Moreover,
some gods and devils were thought to have the power to assume different forms, and as
each form carried with it its own name, to have absolute power over a god of many forms
it was necessary to know all his names. Thus in the "Book of Overthrowing Âpep" 1 we
are told not only to make a wax figure of the monster, but also to write his name upon it,
so that when the figure is destroyed by being burnt in the fire his name also may be
destroyed; this is a striking example of the belief that the name was an integral part of the
economy of a living creature. But Âpep possessed many forms and therefore many
names, and unless he could be invoked by these names he still had the power to do evil;
the above-mentioned book 2 therefore supplies us with a list of his names, among which
occur the following:--"Tutu (i.e., Doubly evil one), Hau-hra (i.e., "Backward Face),
Hemhemti (i.e., Roarer), Qetu (i.e., Evil-doer), Âmam (i.e., Devourer), Saatet-ta (i.e.,
Darkener of earth), Iubani, Khermuti, Unti, Karauememti,
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Khesef-hra, Sekhem-hra, Khak-ab, Nâi, Uai, Beteshu, Kharebutu the fourfold fiend," etc.
All these names represent, as may be seen from the few of which translations are given,
various aspects of Âpep, the devil of thunder, lightning, cloud, rain, mist, storm, and the
like, and the anxiety to personify these so that the personifications might be attacked by
means of magical ceremonies and words of power seems positively childish.
Passing now to certain chapters of the Book of the Dead which are rich in names of
magical power, 1 we notice that the god Amen, whose name meant the "hidden one,"
possessed numerous names, upon the knowledge of which the deceased relied for
protection. Thus he says, "O Amen, 2 Amen; O Re-Iukasa; O God, Prince of the gods of
the east, thy name is Na-ari-k, or (as others say) Ka-ari-ka, Kasaika is thy name.
Arethikasathika is thy name. Amen-na-an-ka-entek-share, or (as others say) Thek-share-
Amen-kerethi, is thy name. O Amen, let me make supplication unto thee, for I, even I,
know thy name. Amen is thy name. Ireqai is thy name. Marqathai is thy name. Rerei is
thy name. Nasaqbubu is thy name. Thanasa-Thanasa is thy name. Shareshatha-katha is
thy name. O Amen, O Amen, O God, O God, O Amen, I adore thy name." In another
place 3 the deceased addresses Sekhet-Bast-Râ, saying,
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"Thou art the fire-goddess Ami-seshet, whose opportunity escapeth her not; thy name is
Kaharesapusaremkakaremet, Thou art like unto the mighty flame of Saqenaqat which is
in the bow of the boat of thy father Harepukakashareshabaiu, for behold, thus is [the
name uttered] in the speech of the Negroes, and of the Anti, and of the people of Nubia.
Sefiperemhesihrahaputchetef is thy name; Atareamtcherqemturennuparsheta is the name
of one of thy divine sons, and Panemma that of the other." And in yet another chapter 1
the deceased addressing the god Par says, "Thou art the mighty one of names among the
gods, the mighty runner whose strides are might thou art the god the mighty one who
comest and rescuest the needy one and the afflicted from him that oppresseth him; give
heed to my cry. I am the Cow, and thy divine name is in my mouth, and I will utter it;
Haqabakaher is thy name; Âurauaaqersaanqrebathi is thy name; Kherserau is thy name;
Kharsatha is thy name. I praise thy name . . . . O be gracious unto the deceased, and cause
thou heat to exist under his head, for, indeed, he is the soul of the great divine Body
which resteth in Annu (Heliopolis), whose names are Khukheperuru and
Barekathatchara."
The examples of the use of names possessing magical powers described above illustrate
the semi-religious
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views on the subject of names which the Egyptians held, and we have now to consider
briefly the manner in which the knowledge of a name was employed in uses less
important than those which had for their object the attainment of life and happiness in the
world to come. In the famous magical papyrus 1 which Chabas published 2 we find a
series of interesting charms and magical formulæ which were written to preserve its
possessor from the attacks of sea and river monsters of every kind, of which the
following is an example. "Hail, lord of the gods! Drive away from me the lions of the
country of Meru (Meroë?), and the crocodiles which come forth from the river, and the
bite of all poisonous reptiles which crawl forth from their holes. Get thee back, O
crocodile Mâk, thou son of Set! Move not by means of thy tail! Work not thy legs and
feet! Open not thy mouth! Let the water which is before thee turn into a consuming fire,
O thou whom the thirty-seven gods did make, and whom the serpent of Râ did put in
chains, O thou who wast fettered with links of iron before the boat of Râ! Get thee back,
O crocodile Mâk, thou son of Set!" These words were to be said over a figure of the god
Amen painted on clay; the rod was to have four rams' heads upon one neck, under his feet
was to be a figure of the crocodile Mâk, and
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to the right and left of him were to be the dog headed apes, i.e., the transformed spirits of
the dawn, who sang hymns of praise to Râ when he rose daily. 1 Again, let us suppose
that some water monster wished to attack a man in a boat. To avoid this the man stood
before the cabin of the boat and, taking a hard egg in his hand, he said, "O egg of the
water which hath been spread over the earth, essence of the divine apes, the great one in
the heaven above and in the earth beneath, who dost dwell in the nests which are in the
waters, I have come forth with thee from the water, I have been with thee in thy nest, I
am Amsu of Coptos, I am Amsu, lord of Kebu." When he had said these words he would
appear to the animal in the water in the form of the god Amsu, with whom he had
identified himself, and it would be afraid and flee. At the end of the papyrus in which the
above extracts occur we find a series of magical names which may be read thus:--Atir-
Atisa, Atirkaha-Atisa, Samumatnatmu-Atisa, Samuanemui-Atisa, Samutekaari-Atisa,
Samutekabaiu-Atisa, Samutchakaretcha-Atisa, Tâuuarehasa, Qina, Hama, Senentuta-
Batetsataiu, Anrehakatha-sataiu, Haubailra-Haari. From these and similar magical names
it is quite certain that the Gnostics and other sects which held views akin to theirs
obtained the names which they were so fond of
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inscribing upon their amulets and upon the so-called magical papyri. The last class of
documents undoubtedly contains a very large proportion of the magical ideas, beliefs,
formulæ, etc., which were current in Egypt from the time of the Ptolemies to the end of
the Roman Period, but from about B.C. 150 to A.D. 200 the papyri exhibit traces of the
influence of Greek, Hebrew, and Syrian philosophers and magicians, and from a passage
like the following 1 we may get a proof of this:--"I call thee, the headless one, that didst
create earth and heaven, that didst create night and day, thee the creator of light and
darkness. Thou art Osoronnophris, whom no man hath seen at any time; thou art Iabas,
thou art Iapôs, thou hast distinguished the just and the unjust, thou didst make female and
male, thou didst produce seeds and fruits, thou didst make men to love one another and to
bate one another. I am Moses thy prophet, to whom thou didst commit thy mysteries, the
ceremonies of Israel; thou didst produce the moist and the dry and all manner of food.
Listen to me: I am an angel of Phapro Osoronnophris; this is thy true name, handed down
to the prophets of Israel. Listen to me. 2 . . ." In this passage the name Osoronnophris is
clearly a corruption of the old Egyptian names of the
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great god of the dead "Ausar Unnefer," and Phapro seems to represent the Egyptian Per-
âa (literally, "great house") or "Pharaoh," with the article pa "the" prefixed. It is
interesting to note that Moses is mentioned, a fact which seems to indicate Jewish
influence.
In another magical formula we read, 1 "I call upon thee that didst create the earth and
bones, and all flesh and all spirit, that didst establish the sea and that shakest the heavens,
that didst divide the light from the darkness, the great regulative mind, that disposest
everything, eye of the world, spirit of spirits, god of gods, the lord of spirits, the
immoveable Aeon, IAOOUÊI, hear my voice. I call upon thee, the ruler of the gods,
high-thundering Zeus, Zeus, king, Adonai, lord, Iaoouêe. I am he that invokes thee in the
Syrian tongue, the great god, Zaalaêr, Iphphou, do thou not disregard the Hebrew
appellation Ablanathanalb, Abrasilôa. For I am Silthakhôoukh, Lailam, Blasalôth, Iaô,
Ieô, Nebouth, Sabiothar, Bôth, Arbathiaô, Iaoth, Sabaôth, Patoure, Zagourê, Baroukh
Adonai, Elôai, Iabraam, Barbarauô, Nau, Siph," etc. The spell ends with the statement
that it "loosens chains, blinds, brings dreams, creates favour; it may be used in common
for whatever purpose you will." In the above we notice at once the use of the seven
vowels which form "a name wherein be contained all Names,
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and all Lights, and all Powers." 1 The seven vowels have, of course, reference to the three
vowels "Iaô" 2 which were intended to represent one of the Hebrew names for Almighty
God, "Jâh." The names "Adonai, Elôai," are also derived through the Hebrew from the
Bible, and Sabaôth is another well-known Hebrew word meaning "hosts"; some of the
remaining names could be explained, if space permitted, by Hebrew and Syriac words.
On papyri and amulets the vowels are written in magical combinations in such a manner
as to form triangles and other shapes; with them are often found the names of the seven
archangels of God; the following are examples:--
3
4
5
In combination with a number of signs which owe their origin to the Gnostics the seven
vowels were
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sometimes engraved upon plaques, or written upon papyri, with the view of giving the
possessor power over gods or demons or his fellow creatures. The example printed below
is found on a papyrus in the British Museum and accompanies a spell written for the-
purpose of overcoming the malice of enemies, and for giving security against alarms and
nocturnal visions. 1
Amulet inscribed with signs and letters of magical power for overcoming the malice of
enemies.
(From Brit. Mus., Greek Papyrus, Nu. CXXIV.--4th or 5th century.)
But of all the names found upon Gnostic gems two, i.e., Khnoubis (or Khnoumis), and
Abrasax (or Abraxas), are of the most frequent occurrence. The first is usually
represented as a huge serpent having the head of a lion surrounded by seven or twelve
rays. Over the seven rays, one on the point of each, are the seven vowels of the Greek
alphabet, which some suppose to
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refer to the seven heavens; and on the back of the amulet, on which the figure of
Khnoumis occurs, is usually found the sign of the triple S and bar. Khnoumis is, of
course, a form of the ancient Egyptian god Khnemu, or "Fashioner" of man and beast, the
god to whom many of the attributes of the Creator of the universe were ascribed. Khnemu
is, however, often depicted with the head of a ram, and in the later times, as the "beautiful
ram of Râ," he has four heads; in the Egyptian monuments he has at times the head of a
hawk, but never that of a lion. The god Abrasax is represented in a form which has a
human body, the bead of a hawk or cock, and legs terminating in serpents; in one hand he
holds a knife or dagger, and in the other a shield upon which is inscribed the great name
()* {Greek IAW}, or JÂH. Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the meaning
and derivation of the name Abrasax, but there is no doubt that the god who bore it was a
form of the Sun-god, and that he was intended to represent some aspect of the Creator of
the world. The name was believed to possess magical powers of the highest class, and
Basileides, 1 who gave it currency in the second century, seems to have regarded it as an
invincible name. It is probable, however, that its exact meaning was lost at an early date,
and that it
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soon degenerated into a mere magical symbol, for it is often found inscribed on amulets
side by side with scenes and figures with which, seemingly, it cannot have any connexion
whatever. Judging from certain Gnostic gems in the British Museum, Abrasax is to be
identified with the polytheistic figure that stands in the upper part of the Metternich stele
depicted on p. 153. This figure has two bodies, one being that of a man, and the other that
of a bird; from these extend four wings, and from each of his knees projects a serpent. He
has two pairs of hands and arms; one pair is extended along the wings, each hand holding
the symbols of "life," "stability," and "power," and two knives and two serpents; the other
pair is pendent, the right hand grasping the sign of life, and the other a sceptre. His face is
grotesque, and probably represents that of Bes, or the sun as an old man; on his head is a
pylon-shaped object with figures of various animals, and above it a pair of horns which
support eight knives and the figure of a god with raised hands and arms, which typifies
"millions of years." The god stands upon an oval wherein are depicted figures of various
"typhonic" animals, and from each side of his crown proceed several symbols of fire.
Whether in the Gnostic system Abraxas absorbed all the names and attributes of this god
of many forms cannot be said with certainty.
Footnotes
157:1 Line 169.
158:1 Pepi II. (ed. Maspero, 1. 669, ff. Recueil, tom. xii. 1892, p. 146).
161:1 See my paper in Archæologia, Vol. LII., London, 1891.
162:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 49.
163:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 191.
164:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 128.
166:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 211.
168:1 D. = the deceased.
171:1 Papyrus of Nesi-Amsu, col. xxiii. 1. 6. (Archæologia, vol. LII.)
171:2 Ibid., col. xxxii. 1. 13 f.
172:1 Chapters CLXII., CLXIII., CLXIV., CLXV.
172:2 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 295.
172:3 Ibid., p. 293.
173:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, p. 289.
174:1 British Museum, No. 10,042.
174:2 Le Papyrus Magique Harris, Chalon-sur-Saône, 1860.
175:1 See the scene in the rounded portion of the Metternichstele illustrated on p. 149.
176:1 See Goodwin, Fragment of a Græco-Egyptian Work upon Magic, p. 7.
176:2 Here follow a number of names of which Reibet, Athelebersthe, Blatha, Abeu, Ebenphi, are
examples.
177:1 Goodwin, op. cit., p. 21.
178:1 See Kenyon, Greek Papyri in the British Museum, London, 1893, p. 63.
178:2 For Iaoouêi we should probably read Iaô ouêi.
178:3 British Museum, Gnostic gem, No. G. 33.
178:4 Kenyon, Greek Papyri, p. 123.
178:5 Ibid., p. 123. These names read Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, Souriel, Zaziel, Badakiel, and
Suliel.
179:1 Kenyon, op. cit., P. 121.
180:1 He of Alexandria, who lived about A.D. 120. He was a disciple of Menander, and declared
that he had received the esoteric doctrine of Saint Peter from Glaucias, a disciple of the Apostle.
p. 182
CHAPTER VI.
MAGICAL CEREMONIES.
IN the preceding pages we have seen how the Egyptians employed magical stones or
amulets, and magical words, and magical pictures, and magical names, in the
performance of deeds both good and evil; it remains to consider these magical
ceremonies in which the skill of the magician-priest was exerted to its fullest extent, and
with the highest objects, that is to say, to preserve the human body in a mummified
condition, and to perform the symbolic acts which would restore its natural functions.
When we think of the sublime character of the life which the souls of the blessed dead
were believed to lead in heaven with the gods, it is hard to understand why the Egyptians
took such pains to preserve the physical body from decay. No Egyptian who believed his
Scriptures ever expected that his corruptible body would ascend into heaven and live with
the gods, for they declare in no uncertain manner that it remains upon the earth whilst the
soul dwells in heaven. But that the preservation of the
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body was in some way or for some reason absolutely necessary is certain, for the art of
mummification flourished for several thousands of years, and unless there was some
good reason, besides the observance of conservative custom and traditional use, why it
should do so, king and priest, gentle and simple, and rich and poor, would never have
burdened their relatives and heirs with the expense of costly funeral ceremonies, and with
the performance of rites which were of no avail. At first sight, too, it seems strange to
find the Egyptians studying carefully how best to provide the dead with a regular supply
of sepulchral offerings, for when we come to think about it we notice that in arranging for
the well-being of the dead nothing whatever was left to chance. For example, a papyrus
will contain several prayers and pictures with appropriate formulæ, the object of each of
which is to give the deceased meat and drink; any one of these would have been enough
for the purpose, but it was thought best in such an important matter to make assurance
doubly sure, and if there was the least doubt about the efficacy of one Chapter one or
more of the same class were added. Similarly, the tendency of the natural body after
death being to decay, the greatest care was taken in mummifying its various members,
lest perchance any one of them should be neglected accidentally, and should, either by
the omission of the words of power that ought to have been said over it, or through the
lax
p. 184
performance of some ceremony, decay and perish. The Egyptian declared that he was
immortal, and believed that he would enjoy eternal life in a spiritual body; yet he
attempted by the performance of magical ceremonies and the recital of words of power to
make his corruptible body to endure for ever. He believed that he would feed upon the
celestial and imperishable food whereon the gods lived, but at the same time he spared no
effort or expense to provide for his tomb being supplied at stated intervals throughout the
year with perishable food in the shape of offerings of oxen, feathered fowl, cakes, bread,
and the like. He mummified his dead and swathed them in linen bandages, and then by
the performance of magical ceremonies and by the recital of words of power sought to
give back to their members the strength to eat, and drink, and talk, and think, and move at
will. Indeed, all the evidence now forthcoming seems to prove that be never succeeded in
bringing himself to think that the gods could do without his help, or that the pictures or
representations of the scenes which took place in the life, and death, and burial, and
resurrection of Osiris, upon which he relied so implicitly, could possibly fail to be as
efficacious as the actual power of the god himself.
The examination of mummies has shown us with tolerable clearness what methods were
adopted in preparing bodies for bandaging and final ornamentation,
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and the means adopted for disposing of the more corruptible portions of the body are well
known from classical and other writers. But for an account of the manner in which the
body was bandaged, and a list of the unguents and other materials employed in the
process, and the words of power which were spoken as each bandage was laid in its
place, we must have, recourse to a very interesting papyrus which has been edited and
translated by M. Maspero under the title of Le Rituel de l'Embaumement. 1 The first part
of the papyrus, which probably gave instructions for the evisceration of the body, is
wanting, and only the section which refers to the bandaging is at all perfect. The text
opens with an address to the deceased in which it is said, "The perfume of Arabia hath
been brought to thee to make perfect thy smell through the scent of the god. Here are
brought to thee liquids which have come forth from Râ, to make perfect . . . thy smell in
the Hall [of Judgment]. O sweet-smelling soul of the great god, thou dost contain such a
sweet odour that thy face shall neither change nor perish. . . . Thy members shall become
young in Arabia, and thy soul shall appear over thy body in Ta-neter (i.e., the 'divine
land')." After this the priest or mummifier was to take a vase of liquid which contained
ten perfumes, and to smear therewith the body from head to foot twice, taking especial
care
p. 186
to anoint the head thoroughly. He was then to say, Osiris (i.e., the deceased), thou hast
received the perfume which shall make thy members perfect. Thou receivest the source
[of life] and thou takest the form of the great Disk (i.e., Aten), which uniteth itself unto
thee to give enduring form to thy members; thou shalt unite with Osiris in the great Hall.
The unguent cometh unto thee to fashion thy members and to gladden thy heart, and thou
shalt appear in the form of Râ; it shall make thee to be sound when thou settest in the sky
at eventide, and it shall spread abroad the smell of thee in the nomes of Aqert. . . . Thou
receivest the oil of the cedar in Amentet, and the cedar which came forth from Osiris
cometh unto thee; it delivereth thee from thy enemies, and it protecteth thee in the nomes.
Thy soul alighteth upon the venerable sycamores. Thou criest to Isis, and Osiris heareth
thy voice, and Anubis cometh unto thee to invoke thee. Thou receivest the oil of the
country of Manu which hath come from the East, and Râ riseth upon thee at the gates of
the horizon, at the holy doors of Neith. Thou goest therein, thy soul is in the upper
heaven, and thy body is in the lower heaven . . . O Osiris, may the Eye of Horus cause
that which floweth forth from it to come to thee, and to thy heart for ever!" These words
having been said, the whole ceremony was repeated, and then the internal organs which
had been removed from the body
p. 187
were placed in the "liquid of the children of Horus," so that the liquid of this god might
enter into them, and whilst they were being thus treated a chapter was read over them and
they were put in the funeral chest. When this was done the internal organs were placed on
the body, and the body having been made to lie straight the backbone was immersed in
holy oil, and the face of the deceased was turned towards the sky; the bandage of Sebek
and Sedi was then laid upon the backbone. In a long speech the deceased is addressed and
told that the liquid is "secret," and that it is an emanation of the gods Shu and Seb, and
that the resin of Phoenicia and the bitumen of Byblos will make his burial perfect in the
underworld, and give him his legs, and facilitate his movements, and sanctify his steps in
the Hall of Seb. Next gold, silver, lapis-lazuli, and turquoise are brought to the deceased,
and crystal to lighten his face, and carnelian to strengthen his steps; these form amulets
which will secure for him a free passage in the underworld. Meanwhile the backbone is
kept in oil, and the face of the deceased is turned towards the heavens; and next the
gilding of the nails of the fingers and toes begins. When this has been done, and portions
of the fingers have been wrapped in linen made at Saïs, the following address is made to
the deceased:--"O Osiris, thou receivest thy nails of gold, thy fingers of gold, and thy
thumb of smu (or uasm) metal; the liquid of Râ entereth into thee as well
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as into the divine members of Osiris, and thou journeyest on thy legs to the immortal
abode. Thou hast carried thy hands to the house of eternity, thou art made perfect in gold,
thou dost shine brightly in smu metal, and thy fingers shine in the dwelling of Osiris, in
the sanctuary of Horus himself. O Osiris, the gold of the mountains cometh to thee; it is a
holy talisman of the gods in their abodes, and it lighteneth thy face in the lower heaven.
Thou breathest in gold, thou appearest in smu metal, and the dwellers in Re-stau receive
thee; those who are in the funeral chest rejoice because thou hast transformed thyself into
a hawk of gold by means of thy amulets (or talismans) of the City of Gold," etc. When
these words have been said, a priest who is made to personify Anubis comes to the
deceased and performs certain symbolical ceremonies by his head, and lays certain
bandages upon it. When the head and mouth and face have been well oiled the bandage
of Nekheb is laid on the forehead, the bandage of Hathor on the face, the bandage of
Thoth upon the two ears, and the bandage of Nebt-hetep on the nape of the neck. Over
the head was laid the bandage of Sekhet, in two pieces, and over each ear, and each
nostril, and each cheek was fastened a bandage or strip of linen; over the forehead went
four pieces of linen, on the top of the head two, outside the mouth two, and inside two,
over the chin two, and over the nape of the neck four large pieces; there were
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to be twenty-two pieces to the right and to the left of the face passing over the two ears.
The Lady of the West is then addressed in these words:--"Grant thou that breathing may
take place in the head of the deceased in the underworld, and that be may see with his
eyes, and that he may hear with his two ears; and that he may breathe through his nose;
and that he may be able to utter sounds with his mouth; and that he may be able to speak
with his tongue in the underworld. Receive thou his voice in the Hall of Maâti and his
speech in the Hall of Seb in the presence of the Great God, the lord of Amentet." The
addresses which follow these words have, reference to the delights and pleasures of the
future life which shall be secured for him through the oil and unguents, which are duly
specified and described, and through the magical figures which are drawn upon the
bandages. The protecting properties of the turquoise and other precious stones are alluded
to, and after a further anointing with oil and the placing of grains of myrrh and resin, the
deceased is declared to have "received his head," and he is promised that it shall
nevermore depart from him. On the conclusion of the. ceremonies which concern the
head the deceased has the power to go in among the holy and perfect spirits, his name is
exalted among men, the denizens of heaven receive his soul, the beings of the underworld
bow down before his body, the dwellers upon earth adore him, and the
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inhabitants of the funeral mountain renew for him his youth. Besides these things, Anubis
and Horus make perfect his bandages, and the god Thoth protects his members by his
words of magical power; and he himself has learned the magical formulæ which are
necessary to make his path straight in the underworld, and also the proper way in which
to utter them. All these benefits were secured for him by the use of bandages and
unguents which possess both magical names and properties, and by the words of power
uttered by the priests who recited the Ritual of Embalmment, and by the ceremonies
which the priest who personated Anubis performed beside the body of the deceased in
imitation of those which the god Anubis performed for the dead god Osiris in remote
days.
Next the left hand of the deceased was mummified and bandaged according to the
instructions given in the Ritual of Embalmment. The hand was stretched out on a piece of
linen, and a ring was passed over the fingers; it was then filled with thirty-six of the
substances which were used in embalming, according to the number of the forms of the
god Osiris. This done, the hand was bandaged with a strip of linen in six folds, upon
which were drawn figures of Isis and Hâpi. The right hand was treated in a similar way,
only the figures drawn upon the bandages were those of Râ and Amsu; and when the
appropriate words had been
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recited over both hands divine protection was assured them. After these things the
ceremonies concerning the right and left arms were performed, and these were followed
by rubbing the soles of the feet and the legs and the thighs, first with black-stone oil, and
secondly with holy oil. The toes were wrapped in linen, and a piece of linen was laid on
each leg; on each piece was drawn the figure of a jackal, that on the right leg representing
Anubis, and that on the left Horus. When flowers of the ânkham plant and other
substances had been laid beside and on the legs, and they had been treated with ebony-
gum water and holy oil, and appropriate addresses had been said, the ceremony of
bandaging the body was ended. Everything that could be done to preserve the body was
now done, and every member of it was, by means of the words of power which changed
perishable substances into imperishable, protected to all eternity; when the final covering
of purple or white linen had been fastened upon it, the body was ready for the tomb.
But the Ritual of Embalmment which has been briefly described above seems to belong
to a late period of Egyptian history, and although the ideas and beliefs contained in it are
as old as Egyptian civilization itself, it seems as if it was intended to take the place of a
much older and more elaborate work which was in use as far back as the period in which
the Great Pyramid was built, and which was intended to be
p. 192
recited during the performance of a complex series of ceremonies, some of which are still
not completely understood. It seems as if the performance of all the ceremonies would
require several days, and it is clear that only the wealthy could afford the expense which
must have attended such elaborate obsequies; for the poorer classes of men the various
ceremonies must have been greatly curtailed, and at a very early period we find that a
shortened form of ritual had taken their place. Of all the ceremonies, the most important
was that of the "Opening of the Mouth and Eyes," which was performed either on the
mummy itself or upon a statue which represented it. It has already been stated that the
Egyptians believed that they could transmit to a statue the attributes of the person in
whose image it was made, and similarly that that which was done to the statue of the
mummified person was also done to it. The use of a statue instead of the actual mummy
has obvious advantages, for the ceremony could be performed at any time and in any
place, and the presence of the mummy was unnecessary. As a matter of fact the ceremony
was performed in a chamber at the entrance to the tomb, or outside the tomb at a place
which had been made ceremonially pure or consecrated, and those who took part in it
were:--(1) The Kher-heb, or chief officiating priest, who held a roll of papyrus in his
hand. (2) The Sem priest. (3) The Smer, who was, perhaps, some intimate friend of the
deceased.
p. 193
(4) The Sa-mer-ef, 1 or man who was either the son of the deceased or his representative.
(5) The Tcherau-ur, or woman who represented Isis. (6) The Tcherau-sheraut, or woman
who represented Nephthys. (7) The Menhu, or slaughterer. (8) The Am-asi priest. (9) The
Am-khent priest. (10) A number of people who represented the armed guard of Horus. All
these became actors in scenes which were intended to represent the events which took
place in connexion with the burial of Osiris, with whom the deceased is now identified;
the two women took the parts of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys, and the men those of
the gods who helped them in the performance of their pious duties. From the scenes 2
which accompany the texts 3 relating to the ceremony of opening the mouth and eyes we
see that it began with the sprinkling of water round about the statue or mummy from four
vessels, one for each quarter of the earth, and with the recital of addresses to the gods
Horus, Set, Thoth, and Sept; this act restored to the deceased the use of his head. The
sprinkling of water was followed by a purification by means of incense, also contained in
four vases, one for each of the four quarters of the earth. The burning
p. 194
of this sweet-smelling substance assisted in opening the mouth of the deceased and in
strengthening his heart. At this stage the Sem priest dressed himself in the skin of a cow,
and lying down upon a kind of couch pretended to be asleep; but he was roused up by the
Am-asi priest in the presence of the Kher-heb and the Am-khent priest, and when the Sem
priest had seated himself upon a seat, the four men together represented the four children
of Horus, 1 or the gods with the heads of a hawk, an ape, a jackal, and a man respectively.
The Sem priest then said, "I have seen my father in all his forms," which the other men in
turn repeat. The meaning of this portion of the ceremony is hard to explain, but M.
Maspero 2 thinks that it was intended to bring back to the body of the deceased its shadow
(khaibit), which had departed from it when it died. The preliminary purifications being
ended, and the shadow having been joined to the body once more, the statue or mummy
is approached by the men who represent the armed guard of Horus; and one of their
number, having taken upon himself the character of Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis,
touches its mouth with his finger. The Kher-heb next made ready to perform the sacrifice
which was intended to commemorate the slaughter, at some very early period, of the
fiends who were the friends of Set. It seems that,
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the soul of Horus dwelt in an eye, and that Set nearly succeeded in devouring it; but
Horus vanquished Set and saved his eye. Set's associates then changed themselves into
the forms of animals, and birds, and fish, but they were caught, and their heads were cut
off; Set, however, who was concealed in the form of a pig, contrived to escape. The
sacrifice consisted of a bull (or cow) or two, two gazelles or antelopes, and ducks. When
the bull had been slain, one of the forelegs was cut off, and the heart taken out, and
offered to the statue or mummy; the Sem priest then took the bleeding leg and touched, or
pretended to touch, the mouth and eyes with it four times. The slaughtered gazelles or
antelopes and ducks were simply offered before the statue. The Sem priest next said to the
statue, "I have come to embrace thee, I am thy son Horus, I have pressed thy mouth; I am
thy son, I love thee. . . . Thy mouth was closed, but I have set in order for thee thy mouth
and thy teeth." He then brought two instruments, called "Seb-ur" and
"Tuntet" respectively, and touched the mouth of the statue or mummy with them, whilst
the Kher-heb said, "Thy mouth was closed, but I have set in order for thee thy mouth and
thy teeth. I open for thee thy mouth, I open for thee thy two eyes. I have opened for thee
thy mouth with the instrument of Anubis. I have opened thy mouth with the instrument of
Anubis, with the iron implement with which the mouths of the
p. 196
gods were opened. Horus, open the mouth! Horus, open the mouth! Horus hath opened
the mouth of the dead, as he in times of old opened the mouth of Osiris, with the iron
which came forth from Set, with the iron instrument with which he opened the mouths of
the gods. He hath opened thy mouth with it. The deceased shall walk and shall speak, and
his body shall be with the great company of the gods in the Great House of the Aged One
in Annu, and he shall receive there the ureret crown from Horus, the lord of mankind."
Thus the mouth and the eyes of the deceased are opened. The Sem priest then took in his
hand the instrument called ur hekau, i.e., the "mighty one of enchantments," a curious,
sinuous piece of wood, one end of which is in the form of a ram's head surmounted by a
uraeus, and touched the mouth and the, eyes of the statue or mummy four times, whilst
the Kher-heb recited a long address in which he declared that this portion of the
ceremony had secured for the deceased all the benefits which accrued to the god Osiris
from the actions of Nut, Horus, and Set, when he was in a similar state. It has been said
above that every dead man hoped to be provided with the hekau, or words of power,
which were necessary for him in the next world, but without a mouth it was impossible
for him to utter them. Now that the mouth, or rather the use of it, was restored to the
deceased, it was all important to give
p. 197
him not only the words of power, but also the ability to utter them correctly and in such
wise that the gods and other beings would hearken to them and obey them; four touches
of the ur hekau instrument on the lips endowed the deceased with the faculty of uttering
the proper words in the proper manner in each of the four quarters of the world. When
this had been done, several other ceremonies were performed with the object of allowing
the "son who loveth him" or his representative to take part in the opening of the mouth of
his father. In order to do this he took in his hand a metal chisel and touched the openings
of the mouth and of the eyes, and then the Sem priest touched them first with his little
finger, and afterwards with a little bag filled with pieces of red stone or carnelian, with
the idea, M. Maspero thinks, of restoring to the lips and eyelids the colour which they had
lost during the process of mummification. The "son who loves him" then took four
objects called "iron of the South, and iron of the North," and laid each of them four times
upon the mouth and the eyes while the Kher-heb recited the proper address in which the
mummy or statue is said to have had his mouth and lips established firmly. This done, the
Sem priest brings an instrument called the "Pesh-en-kef," and touches the
mouth of the mummy or statue therewith, and says, "O Osiris, I have stablished for thee
the two jaw-bones
p. 198
in thy face, and they are now separated"; that is to say, the bandages with which they
have been tied up can no longer prevent their movement when the deceased wishes to eat.
After the Pesh-en-kef had been used the Sem priest brought forward a basket or vessel of
some kind of food in the shape of balls, and by the order of the Kher-heb offered them to
the mouth of the mummy, and when this portion of the ceremony was ended, the Sem
priest took an ostrich feather, and waved it before its face four times, but with what object
is not clear. Such are the ceremonies which it was thought necessary to perform in order
to restore to the deceased the functions which his body possessed upon earth. But it must
be remembered that hitherto only the "bull of the south" has been sacrificed, and that the
"bull of the north" has yet to be offered up; and all the ceremonies which have been
already performed must be repeated if the deceased would have the power to go forth at
will over the whole earth. From the earliest times the South and the North were the two
great sections into which the world was divided, and each section possessed its own
special gods, all of whom had to be propitiated by the deceased; hence most religious
ceremonies were ordered to be performed in duplicate. In later days each section was
divided into two parts, and the four divisions thus made were apportioned to the four
children of Horus; hence prayers and formulæ
p. 199
The ceremony of "opening the mouth" being performed on the mummy of Hunefer, about
B.C. 1350
(From the Papyrus of Hunefer, sheet 5)
p. 201
were usually said four times, once in honour of each god, and the rubrical directions on
this point are definite.
In the limited space of this book it is not possible to reproduce all the scenes of the
ceremony of opening the mouth and the eyes which are depicted in the tombs and
elsewhere, but on page 199 is a general view of the ceremony as it is often given in the
papyri of the XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties. On the right we see the pyramidal tomb in the
Theban hill with its open door, and by the side of it is the funeral stele with a rounded top
inscribed with a figure of the deceased standing in adoration before Osiris, and with a
prayer to the god for sepulchral offerings. Anubis, the god of the dead, embraces the
mummy, thus indicating his readiness to take the deceased under his protection. Nasha,
the wife of the deceased, stands weeping before the mummy, and at his feet kneels
another weeping woman, probably his daughter. Anubis and the mummy stand upon a
layer of sand which has been placed there with the object of sanctifying the ground. A
priest clad in a panther's skin holds a censer containing burning incense in one hand, and
a vase, from which he sprinkles water, in the other. One ministrant holds the two
instruments "Tun-tet" and "Seb-ur" in the right hand, and the "Ur hekau" instrument in
the left; and another offers four vases of unguent. In the lower register are a cow and her
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calf, and two men are carrying along to the mummy the haunch which we must assume to
have been recently cut from the slaughtered bull, and the heart which has just been taken
out of him. On a table we see lying a number of objects, the "Meskhet," and Pesh-en-
kef," and other instruments, two sets of four vases for holding unguents and oil, the bags
of colour, the iron of the south and north, etc. The text which runs in short vertical lines
above the scene reads: "The Chapter of the opening of the mouth of the statue of Osiris,
the royal scribe, Hunefer, which is to be performed [when] its face [looketh] towards the
south, [and when it is set] upon the sand behind him. And the Kher-heb shall say four
times unto the Sem priest as he goeth round about him bearing four vases of water: 'Thou
art pure with the purification of Horus, and Horus is pure with thy purification. Thou art
pure with the purification of Thoth, and Thoth is pure with thy purification. Thou art pure
with the purification of Sep, and Sep is pure with thy purification. Thou art pure with the
purification of Seb, and Seb is pure with thy purification. Pure. Pure.' [Say] four times.
'Incense hath been offered unto thee of the incense of Horus, and incense hath been
offered unto Horus of thy incense. Incense hath been offered unto thee of the incense of
Thoth, and incense hath been offered unto Thoth of thy incense. Incense hath been
offered unto thee of
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the incense of Sep, and incense hath been offered unto Sep of thy incense. Incense hath
been offered unto thee of the incense of Seb, and incense hath been offered unto Seb of
thy incense.'" The above words are all the text that the scribe considered it necessary to
give in the Papyrus of Hunefer, and that he curtailed the representation of the ceremony
of opening the mouth and eyes as much as possible is evident.
The performance of the ceremony of opening the mouth was followed by a number of
other less important ceremonies which had for their object the providing of the mummy
or statue with scents, and unguents, and various articles of wearing apparel; these were
not essentials, but sufficient importance was attached to them to make the performance of
them almost obligatory. Among the objects presented to the deceased in these ceremonies
scents and perfumed unguents play a prominent part, and this is not to be wondered at. To
certain kinds of oil, magical properties have been attached from time immemorial in the
East, and the important place which they occupied in the ceremonies and rituals of many
nations proves that remarkable effects were expected to follow their use. The living made
use of oil to soften the skin and to preserve it from the parching heat of the sun, and the
dead were anointed with it during the process of mummification so that their skins might,
through the
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magical words which were pronounced whilst it was being rubbed on them, remain soft
for all time, and so that the curative properties of the oil might heal the wounds which the
mummifiers had made. A glance at the medical papyri of Egypt will shew that oil appears
in scores of prescriptions, and it was no less useful to the magician 1 than to the physician
in producing good or evil results. It seems to have been used with the idea of effecting
transformations by the former, just as it was employed by the priest in the performance of
certain important religious ceremonies, and a curious survival of this use is mentioned by
Lucian, 2 who relates that a woman transformed herself into a night-raven by its means.
The woman first undressed herself, and going to a lamp threw two grains of incense into
the flame and recited certain words; she then went to a large chest containing several
bottles, and taking out one which, the writer thinks, contained oil, rubbed all her body
with the liquid, from head to foot, beginning with the ends of the nails, and suddenly
feathers and wings began to grow upon her, and a hooked, horny beak took the place of
her nose. In a very short time she resembled a bird in every respect, and when she saw
that she was well feathered, she flew upwards and, uttering the cry of a night-raven,
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disappeared through the window. 1 In connexion with the recital of certain Chapters of
the Book of the Dead a number of interesting ceremonies were performed, but as they
only illustrate the beliefs described above they need not be mentioned here.
Footnotes
185:1 In Mémoire sur quelques Papyrus du Louvre, Paris, 1875.
193:1 I.e., "the son who loveth him."
193:2 See Dümichen, Der Grabpalast des Patuamenap, Leipzig, vol. i., 1884; vol. ii., 1885; vol.
iii., 1891; and Champollion, Monuments, Paris, 1845, tom. iii., plates 213-248.
193:3 See Schiaparelli, Il Libro dei Funerali degli antichi Egiziani, Turin, 1882; see also Maspero,
Le Rituel du sacrifice funéraire (Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, tom. xv., p. 159 ff.).
194:1 I.e., Mestha, Hâpi, Tuamutef and Qebhsennuf.
194:2 Op. cit., p. 168.
204:1 See the description of the ceremony of the beetle, p. 42.
204:2 Lucius Sive Asinus, xlii., 12 (ed. Didot, p. 419). Compare also 54 (p. 466).
205:1 From the words, Xpioµq¡i µsµqvsuµév! "¬q/siuqoq #vov ¬oi$osis {Greek Xrísmati
memageuménwj e?paleípsasa ó?non poih'seie} (see Lucius sive Asinus, xlii., 54, ed. Didot, p.
466), it is clear that the person who is speaking believed that he had been transformed into an
ass by means of the use of "bewitched oil."
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CHAPTER VII.
DEMONIACAL POSSESSION, DREAMS, GHOSTS, LUCKY AND
UNLUCKY DAYS, HOROSCOPES, PROGNOSTICATIONS,
TRANSFORMATIONS, AND THE WORSHIP OF ANIMALS.
THE Egyptians, in common with many other Eastern nations, believed that certain
sicknesses and diseases might be cured by certain medicaments pure and simple, but that
others needed not only drugs but the recital of words of power to effect their cure. There
is good reason for thinking that some diseases were attributed to the action of evil spirits
or demons, which had the power of entering into human bodies and of vexing them in
proportion to their malignant nature and influence, 1 but the texts do not afford much
information on the matter. Incidentally, however, we have one interesting proof that
foreign peoples believed that the Egyptians were able to cure the diseases caused by
demoniacal possession, and the exercise of their power
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on the occasion described was considered to be so noteworthy that the narrative of it was
inscribed upon a stele 1 and setup in the temple 2 of the god Khonsu at Thebes, so that all
men might read and know what a marvellous cure his priests had effected. It appears that
king Rameses II. was in Mesopotamia "according to his wont, year by year," and all the
chiefs of the countries round about came to pay their respects to him, and they sought to
obtain his goodwill and protection, probably even an alliance, by bringing to him gifts of
gold, and lapis-lazuli, and turquoise, and of every kind of valuable thing which the land
produced,
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and every man sought to outdo his neighbour by the lavishness of his gifts. Among others
there came the Prince of Bekhten, and at the head of all the offerings which he presented
to His Majesty he placed his eldest daughter, who was very beautiful. When the king saw
her he thought her the most beautiful girl he had ever seen, and he bestowed upon her the
title of "Royal spouse, chief lady, Râ-neferu" (i.e., "the beauties of Râ," the Sun-god), and
took her to Egypt; and when they arrived in that country the king married her. One day
during the fifteenth year of the king's reign, when His Majesty was in Thebes celebrating
the festival of Amen-Râ, a messenger came to the king and reported the arrival of an
ambassador from the Prince of Bekhten who had brought rich gifts for the royal lady Râ-
neferu. When he had been led into the king's presence, he did homage before him, saying,
"Glory and praise be unto thee, O thou Sun of the nations; grant that we may live before
thee!" Having said these words be bowed down and touched the ground with his head
three times, and said, "I have come unto thee, O my sovereign Lord, on behalf of the lady
Bent-ent-resht, the younger sister of the royal spouse Râ-neferu, for, behold, an evil
disease hath laid hold upon her body; I beseech thy Majesty to send a physician 1 to see
her." Then the king straightway ordered the books of the "double house
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Stele recording the casting out of the devil from the Princess of Bekhten. On the right the
king is offering Incense to Khonsu Nefer-hetep, and on the left a priest is offering incense
to Khonsu, "the great god who driveth away devils." (From Prisse, Monuments, plate 24.)
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of life" to be brought and the learned men to appear, and when they had come into his
presence he ordered them to choose from among their number a man "wise of heart and
cunning of finger," that he might send him to Bekhten; they did so, and their choice fell
upon one Tehuti-em-heb. This sage having come before the king was ordered to set out
for Bekhten in company with the ambassador, and he departed; and when they had
arrived there the Egyptian priest found the lady Bent-ent-resht to be possessed of a
demon or spirit over which he was powerless. The Prince of Bekhten, seeing that the
priest was unable to afford relief to his daughter, sent once again to the king, and
entreated him to send a god to his help.
When the ambassador from Bekhten arrived in Egypt the king was in Thebes, and on
hearing what was asked he went into the temple of Khonsu Nefer-hetep, and besought
that god to allow his counterpart Khonsu to depart to Bekhten and to deliver the daughter
of the prince of that country from the power of the demon that possessed her. It seems as
if the sage Tehuti-em-heb had been sent to Bekhten by the advice of the god, for the king
says, in addressing, the god, "I have come once again into thy presence"; but in any case
Khonsu Nefer-hetep agreed to his request, and a fourfold measure of magical power was
imparted to the statue of the god which was to go to Bekhten. The god, seated in his boat,
and five other
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boats with figures of gods in them, accompanied by chariots and horses on the right hand
and on the left, set out from Egypt, and after travelling for seventeen months arrived in
Bekhten, where they were received with great honour. The god Khonsu went to the place
where Bent-ent-resht was, and, having performed a magical ceremony over her, the
demon departed from her and she was cured straightway. Then the demon addressed the
Egyptian god, saying, "Grateful and welcome is thy coming unto us, O great god, thou
vanquisher of the hosts of darkness! Bekhten is thy city, the inhabitants thereof are thy
slaves, and I am thy servant; and I will depart unto the place whence I came that I may
gratify thee, for unto this end hast thou come thither. And I beseech thy Majesty to
command that the Prince of Bekhten and I may hold a festival together." To the demon's
request Khonsu agreed, and he commanded his priest to tell the Prince of Bekhten to
make a great festival in honour of the demon; this having been done by the command of
Khonsu the demon departed to his own place.
When the Prince of Bekhten saw that Khonsu was thus powerful, he and all his people
rejoiced exceedingly, and he determined that the god should not be allowed to return to
Egypt, and as a result Khonsu remained in Bekhten for three years, four months, and five
days. On a certain day, however, the Prince was
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sleeping., and he dreamed a dream in which he saw the god Khonsu come forth from his
shrine in the form of a hawk of gold, and having mounted into the air he flew away to
Egypt. The Prince woke up in a state of great perturbation, and having inquired of the
Egyptian priest was told by him that the god had departed to Egypt, and that his chariot
must now be sent back. Then the Prince gave to Khonsu great gifts, and they were taken
to Egypt and laid before the god Khonsu Nefer-hetep in his temple at Thebes. In early
Christian literatures we find a number of examples of demoniacal possession in which the
demon who has entered the body yields it up before a demon of greater power than
himself, but the demon who is expelled is invariably hostile to him that expels him, and
he departs from before him with every sign of wrath and shame. The fact that it was
believed possible for the demon of Bekhten and the god Khonsu to fraternize, and to be
present together at a festival made by the Prince of the country, shews that the people of
Bekhten ascribed the same attributes to spirits or demons as they did to men. The demon
who possessed the princess recognized in Khonsu a being who was mightier than himself,
and, like a vanquished king, he wished to make the best terms he could with his
conqueror, and to be on good terms with him.
The Egyptians believed that the divine powers frequently made known their will to them
by means of
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dreams, and they attached considerable importance to them; the figures of the gods and
the scenes which they saw when dreaming seemed to them to prove the existence of
another world which was not greatly unlike that already known to them. The knowledge
of the art of procuring dreams and the skill to interpret them were greatly prized in Egypt
as elsewhere in the East, and the priest or official who possessed such gifts sometimes
rose to places of high. honour in the state, as we may see from the example of Joseph, 1
for it was universally believed that glimpses of the future were revealed to man in
dreams. As instances of dreams recorded in the Egyptian texts may be quoted those of
Thothmes IV., king of Egypt about B.C. 1450, and Nut-Amen, king of the Eastern Sûdân
and Egypt, about B.C. 670. A prince, according to the stele which he set up before the
breast of the Sphinx at Gizeh, was one day hunting near this emblem of Râ-Harmachis,
and he sat down to rest under its shadow and fell asleep and dreamed a dream. In it the
god appeared to him, and, having declared that he was the god Harmachis-Khepera-Râ-
Temu, promised him that if he would clear away from the Sphinx, his own image, the
drift sand in which it was becoming buried, he would give to him the sovereignty of the
lands of the South and of the North, i.e., of all Egypt. In due course the prince became
king of Egypt under the title of Thothmes IV., and the stele
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which is dated on the 19th day of the month Hathor of the first year of Thothmes IV.
proves that the royal dreamer carried out the wishes of the god. 1 Of Nut-Amen, the
successor of the great Piânkhi who came down from Gebel Barkal and conquered all
Egypt from Syene to the sea, we read that in the first year of his reign he one night
dreamed a dream wherein he saw two serpents, one on his right hand and the other on his
left; when he awoke they had disappeared. Having asked for an interpretation of the
dream he was told:--"The land of the South is thine, and thou shalt have dominion over
the land of the North: the White Crown and the Red Crown shall adorn thy head. The
length and the breadth of the land shall be given unto thee, and the god Amen, the only
god, shall be with thee." 2 The two serpents were the symbols of the goddesses Nekhebet
and Uatchet, the mistresses of the South and North respectively. As the result of his
dream Nut-Amen invaded Egypt successfully and brought back much spoil, a portion of
which he dedicated to the service of his god Amen.
Since dreams and visions in which the future might be revealed to the sleeper were
greatly desired, the Egyptian magician set himself to procure such for his clients by
various devices, such as drawing magical pictures and reciting magical words. The
following
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are examples of spells for procuring a vision and dreams, taken from British Museum
Papyrus, No. 122, lines 64 ff. and 359 ff. 1 "To obtain a vision from [the god] Bes. Make
a drawing of Besa, as shewn below, on your left hand, and envelope your hand in a strip
of black cloth that has been consecrated to Isis (?) and lie down to sleep without speaking
a word, even in answer to a question. Wind the remainder of the cloth round your neck.
The ink with which you write must be composed of the blood of a cow, the blood of a
white dove, fresh (?) frankincense, myrrh, black writing-ink, cinnabar, mulberry juice,
rain-water, and the juice of wormwood and vetch. With this write your petition before the
setting sun, [saying], c Send the truthful seer out of the holy shrine, I beseech thee,
Lampsuer, Sumarta, Baribas, Dardalam, Iorlex: O Lord send the sacred deity Anuth,
Anuth, Salbana, Chambré, Breïth, now, now, quickly, quickly. Come in this very
night.'" 2
"To procure dreams: Take a clean linen bag and write upon it the names given below.
Fold it up and make it into a lamp-wick, and set it alight, pouring pure oil over it. The
word to be written is this: 'Armiuth, Lailamchoüch, Arsenophrephren, Phtha,
Archentechtha.' Then in the evening, when you are
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going to bed, which you must do without touching food [or, pure from all defilement], do
thus. Approach the lamp and repeat seven times the formula given below: then extinguish
it and lie down to sleep. The formula is this: 'Sachmu . . . epaëma Ligotereënch: the
Aeon, the Thunderer, Thou that hast swallowed the snake and dost exhaust the moon, and
dost raise up the orb of the sun in his season, Chthetho is thy name; I require, O lords of
the gods, Seth, Chreps, give me the information that I desire.'"
The peculiar ideas which the Egyptians held about the composition of man greatly
favoured the belief in apparitions and ghosts. According to them a man consisted of a
physical body, a shadow, a double, a soul, a heart, a spirit called the khu, a power, a
name, and a spiritual body. When the body died the shadow departed from it, and could
only be brought back to it by the performance of a mystical ceremony; the double lived in
the tomb with the body, and was there visited by the soul whose habitation was in
heaven. The soul was, from one aspect, a material thing, and like the ka, or double, was
believed to partake of the funeral offerings which were brought to the tomb; one of the
chief objects of sepulchral offerings of meat and drink was to keep the double in the tomb
and to do away with the necessity of its wandering about outside the tomb in search of
food. It is clear from many texts that, unless the double was supplied with sufficient food,
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it would wander forth from the tomb and eat any kind of offal and drink any kind of dirty
water which it might find in its path. But besides the shadow, and the double, and the
soul, the spirit of the deceased, which usually had its abode in heaven, was sometimes to
be found in the tomb. There is, however, good reason for stating that the immortal part of
man which lived in the tomb and had its special abode in the statue of the deceased was
the "double." This is proved by the fact that a special part of the tomb was reserved for
the ka, or double, which was called the "house of the ka," and that a priest, called the
"priest of the ka," was specially appointed to minister therein. The double enjoyed the
smell of the incense which was offered at certain times each year in the tomb, as well as
the flowers, and herbs, and meat, and drink; and the statue of the deceased in which the
double dwelt took pleasure in all the various scenes which were painted or sculptured on
the walls of the various chambers of the tomb, and enjoyed again all the delights which
his body had enjoyed upon earth. The ka, or double, then, in very early times was, to all
intents and purposes, the ghost of the Egyptians. In later times the khu, or "spirit," seems
to have been identified with it, and there are frequent allusions in the texts to the sanctity
of the offerings made to the khu, and to their territories, i.e., the districts in which their
mummified bodies lie.
Whether there was any general belief that the ka
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or khu could or did hold intercourse with his relatives or friends whom he left alive upon
earth cannot be said, but an instance is known in which a husband complains to his wife,
who has been dead for three years, of the troubles which she has brought upon him since
her death. He describes his own merits and the good treatment which he had vouchsafed
to her when she was alive, and declares that the evil with which she is requiting him is
not to be endured. To make his complaint to reach her he first reduced it to writing upon
papyrus, then went to her tomb and read it there, and finally tied the papyrus to a statue or
figure of his wife which was therein; since her double or spirit lived in the tomb she
would, of course, read the writing and understand it. 1 It is a pity that we have no means
of knowing what was the result of the husband's complaint. Elsewhere 2 we have a
fragment of a conversation which a priest of Amen called Khonsu-em-heb, who was
searching for a suitable place in which to build his tomb, holds with the. double or spirit
of some person whom he has disturbed, and the spirit of the dead tells some details of his
life to the living man. The cemeteries were regarded with awe by the ancient Egyptians
because of the spirits of the dead
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who dwelt in them, and even the Arabic-speaking peoples of Egypt and the Sûdân, if we
exclude the "antiquity grubber," have them in great respect for the same reason. 1 The
modern peoples of the Sûdân firmly believe that the spirits of those slain in battle dwell
on the field where they fell, or where their bodies are buried, and the soldiers in the tenth
battalion of Lord Kitchener's army declare that the grave of the gallant Major Sidney,
who was shot while charging at the head of his regiment, in the battle of Abû Hamed,
August 7th, 1897, "is watched regularly every night by the ghosts of the native soldiers
who were killed at Abû Hamed, and who mount guard over their dead commander's
tomb, challenging, with every military detail, all passers-by. So implicitly is this legend
credited by the blacks that none of
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them will, after dusk, approach the grave. Any one doing so is believed to be promptly
halted by a phantom sentry, and even the words (in Arabic), 'Guard, turn out!' are often
(so the story goes) plainly heard repeated at some distance off across the desert." 1
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The Egyptians believed that a man's fate or destiny was decided before he was born, and
that he had no power whatever to alter it. Their sages, however, professed to be able to
declare what the fate might be, provided that they were given certain data, that is to say,
if they were told the date of his birth, and if they were able to ascertain the position of the
planets and stars at that time. The goddess of fate or destiny was called "Shai," and she is
usually accompanied by another goddess called "Renenet," who is commonly regarded as
the lady of fortune; they both appear in the Judgment Scene, where they seem to watch
the weighing of the heart on behalf of the deceased. But another goddess, Meskhenet, is
sometimes present, and she also seems to have had influence over a man's future; in any
case she was able to predict what that future was to be. Thus we read that she and Isis,
and Nephthys, and Heqet, disguised as women, went to the house of Râ-user, whose wife
Râ-Tettet was in travail; when they had been taken into her room they assisted her in
giving birth to triplets, and as each child was born Meskhenet declared, "He shall be a
king who shall have dominion over the whole land."
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[paragraph continues] And this prophecy was fulfilled, for the three boys became three of the
kings of the Vth dynasty. 1 The Seven Hathor goddesses also could predict the future of a
human being, for in the well-known "Tale of Two Brothers" it is related that, when the
god Khnemu, at the request of Râ-Harmachis, had created for Bata a wife "who was more
beautiful in her person than any other woman in all the earth, for the essence of every god
was contained in her," they came to see her, and that they spake with one voice, saying,
"Her death will be caused by the knife." And this came to pass, for, according to the
story, when the king whose wife she became heard from her first husband that she had
left him and had wrought evil against him, he entered into judgment with her in the
presence of his chiefs and nobles, and "one carried out their decree," i.e., they sentenced
her to death and she was executed. Similarly, in another story, the Seven Hathors came to
see the son who had been born to a certain king in answer to his prayers to the gods, and
when they had seen him they said, "He shall die by means of a crocodile, or a serpent, or
a dog." The story goes on to say how be escaped from the crocodile and the serpent, and
though the end is wanting, it is quite clear that he was wounded by an accidental bite of
his dog and so died. 2 The moral of all such stories
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is that there is no possibility of avoiding fate, and it is most probable that the modern
Egyptian has only inherited his ancestors' views as to its immutability. 1 A man's life
might, however, be happy or unhappy according as the hour of the day or the day itself
was lucky or unlucky, and every day of the Egyptian year was divided into three parts,
each of which was lucky or unlucky. When Olympias was about to give birth to
Alexander the Great, Nectanebus stood by her making observations of the heavenly
bodies, and from time to time he besought her to restrain herself until the auspicious hour
had arrived; and it was not until he saw a certain splendour in the sky and knew that all
the heavenly bodies were in a favourable position that he permitted her to brine, forth her
child. And when he had said, "O queen, now thou wilt give birth to a governor of the
world," the child fell upon the ground while the earth quaked, and the lightnings flashed,
and the thunder roared. 2 Thus it is quite evident that the future of a child depended even
upon the hour in which he was born.
In magical papyri we are often told not to perform certain magical ceremonies on such
and such days, the idea being that on these days hostile powers will make them to be
powerless, and that gods mightier than
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those to which the petitioner would appeal will be in the ascendant. There have come
down to us, fortunately, papyri containing copies of the Egyptian calendar, in which each
third of every day for three hundred and sixty days of the year is marked lucky or
unlucky, and we know from other papyri why certain days were lucky or unlucky, and
why others were only partly so 1. Taking the month Thoth, which was the first month of
the Egyptian year, and began, according to the Gregorian Calendar, on August 29th, we
find that the days are marked as follows:--
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Now the sign means "lucky," and means "unlucky"; thus at a glance it could
be seen which third of the day is lucky or unlucky, and the man who consulted the
calendar would, of course, act accordingly. It must be noted that the priests or magicians
who drew up the calendar had good reasons for their classification of the days, as we may
see from the following example. The 19th day of Thoth is, in the above list, marked
wholly lucky, i.e., each third of it is lucky, and the papyrus Sallier IV. 1 also marks it
wholly lucky, and adds the reason:--"It is a day of festival in heaven and upon earth in the
presence of Râ. It is the day when flame was hurled upon those who followed the boat
containing the shrine of the gods; and on this day the gods gave praises being content,"
etc. But in both lists the 26th day is marked wholly unlucky, the reason being, "This was
the day of the fight between Horus and Set." They first fought in the form of men, then
they took the form of bears, and in this state did battle with each other for three days and
three nights. Isis aided Set when he was getting the worst in the fight, and Horus
thereupon cut off his mother's head, which Thoth transformed by his words of power into
that of a cow and put on her body. On this day offerings are to be made to Osiris and
Thoth, but work of any kind is absolutely forbidden. The calendars of lucky
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and unlucky days do not, however, always agree as to a given day. Thus in the list given
above the 20th day of Thoth is marked wholly unlucky, but in the papyrus Sallier IV. it is
wholly lucky, but the reader is told not to do any work in it, nor to slay oxen, nor to
receive a stranger; on this day the gods who are in the following of Râ slew the rebels.
Concerning the fourth day of the next month, Paophi, the papyrus Sallier IV. says, "Go
not forth from thy house from any side of it; whosoever is born on this day shall die of
the disease aat." Concerning the fifth day it says, "Go not forth from thy house from any
side of it, and hold no intercourse with women. This is the day wherein all things were
performed in the divine presence, and the majesty of the god Menthu was satisfied
therein. Whosoever is born on this day shall die of excessive venery." Concerning the
ninth day it says, "Whosoever is born on this day shall die of old age," and concerning
the fifteenth, "Go not forth from thy dwelling at eventide, for the serpent Uatch, the son
of the god, goeth forth at this time, and misfortunes follow him; whosoever shall see him
shall lose his eye straightway." Again, the twenty-sixth day of Paophi was a lucky day for
making the plan of a house; on the fifth day of Hathor no fire was to be kindled in the
house; on the sixteenth day it was forbidden to listen to songs of joy because on this day
Isis and Nephthys wept for Osiris at Abydos;
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a man born on the twenty-third day would die by drowning; and so on. But to the three
hundred and sixty days given in the calendars of lucky and unlucky days must be added
the five epagomenal days which were considered to be of great importance and had each
its peculiar name. On the first Osiris was born, on the second Heru-ur (Aroueris), on the
third Set, on the fourth Isis, and on the fifth Nephthys; the first, third, and fifth of these
days were unlucky, and no work of any kind was to be undertaken on them. The rubric
which refers to these days 1 states that whosoever knoweth their names shall never suffer
from thirst, that he shall never be smitten down by disease, and that the goddess Sekhet 2
shall never take possession of him; it also directs that figures of the five gods mentioned
above shall be drawn with unguent and ânti scent upon a piece of fine linen, evidently to
serve as an amulet.
From the life of Alexander the Great by Pseudo-Callisthenes 3 we learn that the Egyptians
were skilled in the art of casting nativities, and that knowing the exact moment of the
birth of a man they proceeded to construct his horoscope. Nectanebus employed for the
purpose a tablet made of gold and silver and acacia wood, to which were fitted three
belts. Upon the
p. 229
outer belt was Zeus with the thirty-six decani surrounding him; upon the second the
twelve signs of the Zodiac were represented; and upon the third the sun and moon. 1 He
set the tablet upon a tripod, and then emptied out of a small box upon it models of the
seven stars 2 that were in the belts, and put into the middle belt eight precious stones;
these he arranged in the places wherein he supposed the planets which they represented
would be at the time of the birth of Olympias, and then told her fortune from them. But
the use of the horoscope is much older than the time of Alexander the Great, for to a
Greek horoscope 3 in the British Museum is attached "an introductory letter from some
master of the art of astrology to his pupil, named Hermon, urging him to be very exact
and careful in his application of the laws which he ancient Egyptians, with their laborious
devotion to the art, had discovered and handed down to posterity." Thus we have good
reason for assigning the birthplace of the horoscope to Egypt. In connexion with the
horoscope must be mentioned the "sphere" or "table" of Democritus as a means of
making predictions as to life and death. In a magical
p. 230
papyrus 1 we are told to "ascertain in what month the sick man took to his bed, and the
name he received at his birth. Calculate the [course of] the moon, and see how many
periods of thirty days have elapsed; then note in the table the number of days left over,
and if the number comes in the upper part of the table, he will live, but if in the lower
part, he will die."
Both from the religious and profane literature of Egypt we learn that the gods and man in
the future life were able at will to assume the form of any animal, or bird, or plant, or
living thing, which they pleased, and one of the greatest delights to which a man looked
forward was the possession of that power. This is proved by the fact that no less than
twelve 2 of the chapters of the Book of the Dead are devoted to
p. 231
providing the deceased with the words of power, the recital of which was necessary to
enable him to transform himself into a "hawk of gold," a "divine hawk," "the governor of
the sovereign princes," "the god who giveth light in the darkness," a lotus, the god Ptah, a
bennu bird (i.e., phœnix), a heron, a "living soul," a swallow, the serpent Sata, and a
crocodile; and another chapter 1 enabled him to transform himself into "whatever form he
pleaseth." Armed with this power he could live in the water in the form of a crocodile, in
the form of a serpent he could glide over the rocks and ground, in the form of the birds
mentioned above he could fly through the air, and soar up and perch himself upon the
bow of the boat of Râ, in the form of the lotus he had mastery over the plants of the field,
and in the form of Ptah he became "more powerful than the lord of time, and shall gain
the mastery over millions of years." The bennu bird, it will be remembered, was said to
be the "soul of Râ," and by assuming this form the deceased identified himself with
Khepera, the great god of creation, and thus acquired the attributes of the soul of the Sun-
god. In the Elysian Fields he was able to assume any form and to swim and fly to any
distance in any direction. It is noteworthy that no beast of the field or wild animal is
mentioned as a type of his possible transformations into animals.
p. 232
Now the Egyptians believed that as the souls of the departed could assume the form of
any living thing or plant, so the "gods," who in many respects closely resembled them,
could and did take upon themselves the forms of birds and beasts; this was the
fundamental idea of the so-called "Egyptian animal worship," which provoked the
merriment of the cultured Greek, and drew down upon the Egyptians the ridicule and
abuse of the early Christian writers. But if the matter be examined closely its apparent
stupidity disappears. The Egyptians paid honour to certain birds, and animals, and
reptiles, because they considered that they possessed certain of the characteristics of the
gods to whom they made them sacred. The bull was a type of the strength and procreative
power of the god of reproduction in nature, and the cow was the type of his female
counterpart; every sacred animal and living thing possessed some quality or attribute
which was ascribed to some god, and as each god was only a form of Râ, the quality or
attribute ascribed to him was that of the Sun-god himself. The educated Egyptian never
worshipped an animal as an animal, but only as an incarnation of a god, and the reverence
paid to animals in Egypt was in no way different from that paid to the king, who was
regarded as "divine" and as an incarnation of Râ the Sun-god, who was the visible
symbol of the Creator. The relation of the king to Râ was identical with that of Râ to
God. The
p. 233
[paragraph continues] Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans never understood the logical conception
which underlay the reverence with which the Egyptians regarded certain animals, and as
a result they grossly misrepresented their religion. The ignorant people, no doubt, often
mistook the symbol for what it symbolized, but it is wrong to say that the Egyptians
worshipped animals in the ordinary sense of the word, and this fact cannot be too strongly
insisted on. Holding the views he did about transformations there was nothing absurd in
the reverence which the Egyptian paid to animals. When a sacred animal died the god
whom it represented sought out another animal of the same species in which to renew his
incarnation, and the dead body of the animal, inasmuch as it had once been the dwelling-
place of a god, was mummified and treated in much the same way as a human body after
death, in order that it might enjoy immortality. These views seem strange, no doubt, to us
when judged by modern ideas, but they formed an integral part of the religious beliefs of
the Egyptians, from the earliest to the latest times. What is remarkable, however, is the
fact that, in spite of invasions, and foreign wars, and internal dissensions, and external
influences of all kinds, the Egyptians clung to their gods and the sometimes childish and
illogical methods which they adopted in serving them with a conservatism and zeal which
have earned for them the reputation of being at once the most religious and most
superstitious nation of
p. 234
antiquity. Whatever literary treasures may be brought to light in the future as the result of
excavations in Egypt, it is most improbable that we shall ever receive from that country
any ancient Egyptian work which can properly be classed among the literature of atheism
or freethought; the Egyptian might be more or less religious according to his nature and
temperament, but, judging, from the writings of his priests and teachers which are now in
our hands, the man who was without religion and God in some form or other was most
rare, if not unknown.
Footnotes
206:1 As recently as 1895 this belief existed in Ireland, for according to the Times of April 2, 3, 6,
and 8, Michael Cleary was charged on April 1 at Clonmel with having, on March 14, burnt his wife
Bridget, aged 27, for being a witch, thus causing her death, at Baltyvadhen, p. 207 county
Tipperary. Johanna Burke swore that boiling herbs out of a saucepan on the fire were forced
down the throat of the deceased, her husband asking her in the name of the Father, Son, and
Holy Ghost, if she was his wife. He then stripped her naked, threw her on the floor, and pouring
paraffin over her, set her on fire. Cleary, assisted by J. Dunne, P. Kennedy, W. Kennedy, and
others, next took her to the fire and forced her to sit upon it in order to "drive out the witch" which
possessed her. She was next laid upon the bed and shaken, while her husband recited the words
"Away with you," meaning the evil spirit, or spirits, and at six o'clock on the morning of the 15th of
March the priest was sent for to exorcise the spirits with which the house was thought to be filled.
A herbalist called Denis Ganey was present at the time, being charged as an accessory before
the fact. The prisoners were found guilty and were sentenced to terms of imprisonment as
follows:--M. Cleary 20 years, J. Dunne 3 years, P. Kennedy 5 years, W. Kennedy 18 months, J.
Kennedy 18 months, Boland Kennedy 6 months, Michael Kennedy 6 months.
207:1 Originally published by Prisse, Monuments Égyptiens, Paris, 1817, pl. 24.
207:2 It is now preserved in the Bibliotèque Nationale at Paris; for a full description and
translation of it see E. de Rougé, Étude sur une stele Égyptienne, Paris, 1858.
208:1 Bekh khet, "knower of things."
214:1 See Genesis, Chapters xi., xii.
215:1 See Vyse, Appendix, London, 1842, vol. iii., p. 114 ff.
215:2 See Brugsch, Egypt under the Pharaohs, Vol. ii., p. 259.
216:1 See Catalogue of Greek Papyri, vol. i. p. 118.
216:2 A sketch of the god Besa is given at the end of the papyrus. See the description of the
"Metternichstele" above, p. 147 ff.
219:1 For the text see Leemans, Monuments Égyptiens, Partie IL, pll. 183, 184, Leyden, 1846,
fol.; for a transcript into hieroglyphics see Maspero, Journal Asiatique, Sér. 7, tom. 15, May and
June, 1880, pp. 365-420.
219:2 See Golénischeff in Recueil de Travaux, tom. iii., pp. 3-7.
220:1 When I visited the Pyramids of Meroë in 1898 1 took with me the local shêkh, and a man
and a boy to look after the donkeys. Having come to within half a mile of the pyramids the three
stopped and wished me to ride on by myself, and when I asked them why they did not want to
come up the hill to the pyramids with me the shêkh replied that they had been built by kings
whose spirits still dwelt there, and that it would not be seemly for him and his companions to
"trouble" them. I pressed him to come, but he answered "It is not the custom of our country to go
there," so I walked on by myself. When I had been in the pyramid field for about two hours taking
photographs and measurements, the shêkh arrived with the boy, but nothing would persuade him
to walk about there, and having seated himself be recited prayers from the Koran in an
undertone, and at intervals urged me to return to his straw house on the river bank as soon as
possible. He was firmly convinced that the prismatic compass which I used was a talisman, and
when he reached home he thanked God fervently that he had not been molested by the spirits of
the dead.
221:1 See the illustrated paper The Sketch, No. 332, June 7, 1899, p. 277. The following from the
Times of July 7, 1899, is worth quoting:--
"THE GRAVE OF A BRITISH NAVAL OFFICER IN JAPAN.--Recently a report came to the ears
of the British Consul at Hiogo that the grave of a British naval officer existed near a village on the
island of Hiroshima, in the Inland Sea of Japan-a place rarely visited by any foreigner-and that,
for some reason, it was carefully kept in order by the peasants in the neighbourhood. The Consul
accordingly communicated with the Governor of the prefecture in which the island is situated;
inquiries were made, and the Governor was able to send to the Consul a history of the lonely
grave. The story was appended by the Governor to a formal despatch of his own, and was
obviously drawn up by the village headman or some equally humble official, and it is worth giving
in full. The Sylvia, the vessel mentioned, was for many years engaged in surveying off the coasts
of Japan:--'In the first year of Meiji, corresponding to A.D. 1868, H.B.M.S. Sylvia was proceeding
on a voyage through the Inland Sea when an officer on board, named Lake, fell ill. He was landed
on the island of Hiroshima, at the village of Hiroshima, in the district of Naka, province of Sanuki,
and prefecture of Kagawa. The Sylvia proceeded along the coast of Hiroshima and cast anchor at
Enoura Bay, to await the officer's recovery. In a few days, however, he died, and Captain St.
John buried his remains in ground belonging to the temple of Ikwoji above Enoura shrine, and,
having set up a wooden cross to mark the grave, departed. Several years afterwards, when this
monument had almost decayed from the effects of wind and rain, frost and snow, Awaburi
Tokwan, Superior of Ikwoji Temple, and others said:--"Truly it would be too sad if the grave of our
solitary guest from afar, who has become a spirit in a strange land, were suffered to pass out of
all knowledge." Thereupon Terawaki Kaemon, head of a village guild, and other sympathisers,
such as Oka Ryohaku, set on foot a scheme for the erection of a stone monument, and, the shore
folk all with one accord p. 222 lending their help, the work was finally brought to completion. This
was on the 7th day of the eleventh month of the fourth year of Meiji--that is, 1871. Since then
nearly 30 winters have passed, during which time the islanders have not neglected to take good
care of the tomb. In particular, from the 10th to the 16th day of the seventh month, old style, there
are still persons found who every year clean and sweep the grave, and, offering up flowers and
incense, mourn for and console the spirit of the dead.'"
223:1 See Erman, Westcar Papyrus, Berlin, 1890, hieroglyphic transcript, pll. 9 and 10.
223:2 See Maspero, Contes Égyptiens, pp. 29-46.
224:1 The uneducated Muhammadan believes that man's fate is written upon his skull, and that
the sutures are the writing. No man, however, can read them. See the words of Zayn al-Mawasif
in Burton's Alf Laylah wa Laylah, vol. viii., p. 237.
224:2 See Pseudo-Callisthenes, I. 12.
225:1 See Brit. Mus. Papyrus, No. 10,474.
226:1 See Chabas, Le Calendrier, p. 24.
228:1 See Chabas, op. cit., p. 104.
228:2 The Eye of Sekhet seems to have taken the form of noxious vapours in the fields at
sunrise; see Chabas, op. cit., p. 78.
228:3 I. 4.
229:1 quote from my History of Alexander the Great, Cambridge, 1889, p. 5.
229:2 I.e., Sun, Moon, Zeus, Kronos, Aphrodite, and Hermes; we must add Mars according to
Meusel's Greek text.
229:3 Published for the first time by Kenyon, Catalogue of Greek Papyri vol. i. p. 132 ff.
230:1 Leyden Pap. V. (ed. Leemans), col. xi., 1. 1 ff.
230:2 I.e., Chapters LXXVII. to LXXXVIII.
231:1 I.e., Chapter LXXVI.
Budge, Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis (1857 - 1934)
An Englishman, Budge studied Egyptology under Samuel Birch at the British Museum
between 1870 and 1878. He later studied at Christ's College at Cambridge. He went to
work for the British Museum after graduation in 1883, and between 1894 and 1924, was
a Keeper in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities. He excavated at
Aswan, Gebel Barkal, Meroe, Semna and other Nubian sites. Budge was known as a
prolific author with over 140 titles to his credit, some of which continue to be printed.

EGYPTIAN MAGIC
by E. A. WALLIS BUDGE
LATE KEEPER OF THE EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM

Kegan, Paul, Trench and Trübner & Co., London [1901]
p. iii to

SIR J. NORMAN LOCKYER, K.C.B., F.R.S.,
ETC., ETC, ETC., A TOKEN OF ESTEEM FOR A GREAT ASTRONOMER, AND A MARK OF TRUE REGARD FOR A FRIEND.

p. vii

PREFACE.
A STUDY of the remains of the native religious literature of ancient Egypt which have come down to us has revealed the fact that the belief in magic, that is to say, in the power of magical names, and spells, and enchantments, and formulæ, and pictures, and figures, and amulets, and in the performance of ceremonies accompanied by the utterance of words of power, to produce supernatural results, formed a large and important part of the Egyptian religion. And it is certain that, notwithstanding the continuous progress which the Egyptians made in civilization, and the high intellectual development to which they eventually attained, this belief influenced their minds and, from the earliest to the latest period of their history, shaped their views concerning things temporal as well as spiritual in a manner which, at this stage in the history of the world, is very difficult to understand. The scrupulous care with which they performed their
p. viii

innumerable religious ceremonies, and carried out the rules which they had formulated concerning the worship of the divine Power or powers, and their devotion to religious magic, gained for them among the nations with whom they came in contact the reputation of being at once the most religious and the most superstitious of men. That this reputation was, on the whole, well deserved, is the object of this little book to shew. Egyptian magic dates from the time when the predynastic and prehistoric dwellers in Egypt believed that the earth, and the underworld, and the air, and the sky were peopled with countless beings, visible and invisible, which were held to be friendly or unfriendly to man according as the operations of nature, which they were supposed to direct, were favourable or unfavourable to him. In -nature and attributes these beings were thought by primitive man to closely resemble himself and to possess all human passions, and emotions, and weaknesses, and defects; and the chief object of magic was to give man the pre-eminence over such beings. The favour of the beings who were placable and friendly to man might be obtained by means of gifts and offerings, but the cessation of hostilities on the part of those that were implacable and unfriendly could only be obtained by wheedling, and
p. ix

cajolery, and flattery, or by making use of an amulet, or secret name, or magical formula, or figure, or picture which had the effect of bringing to the aid of the mortal who possessed it the power of a being that was mightier than the foe who threatened to do evil to him. The magic of most early nations aimed at causing the transference of power from a supernatural being to man, whereby he was to be enabled to obtain superhuman results

and even the world itself came into existence through the utterance of a word by Thoth. or at any rate in predynastic times. From the religious books of ancient Egypt we learn that the power possessed by a priest or man who was skilled in the knowledge and working of magic was believed to be almost boundless. Inanimate nature likewise obeyed such words of power. and wind and rain. His words enabled human beings to assume divers forms at will. it is quite certain that magic and religion developed and flourished side by side in Egypt throughout all periods of her history. the word being used in its best sense. and the Egyptians invoked their aid in the smallest as well as in the greatest events of their lives. and that any investigation which we may make of the one necessarily includes an examination of the other. tool was employed in the p. even God Himself. and cast out the evil spirits which caused pain and suffering in those who were diseased. No god. and earth. but the object of Egyptian magic was to endow man with the means of compelling both friendly and hostile powers. and disease and death worked evil and ruin upon his foes. whether the were willing or not. or spirit. was unconceived in the minds of the Egyptians. p. wherein the soul might live to all eternity. By pronouncing certain words or names of power in the proper manner and in the proper tone of voice he could heal the sick. and bestow upon the dead man the power to transform the corruptible into an incorruptible body. to do what he wished. and the underworld. xi storm and tempest. is older in Egypt than the belief in God. under any name or in any form. the mysteries of life and . and it is certain that a very large number of the Egyptian religious ceremonies. and the waters forsaking their nature could be piled up in a heap. when it in some mysterious way symbolized the presence of a supreme Power. Indeed it is probable that even the use of the sign which represents an axe. nay. river and sea. or fiend. or devil. and which stands the hieroglyphic character both for God and "god." indicates that this weapon and. and upon the enemies of those who were provided with the knowledge of the words which he had wrested from the gods of heaven. To him that was versed in the lore contained in the books of the "double house of life" the future was as well known as the past. and in obedience to his commands. which were performed in later times as an integral part of a highly spiritual worship. and to project their souls into animals and other creatures. could resist words of power. The belief in magic. The powers of nature acknowledged his might.and to become for a time as mighty as the original possessor of the power. and neither time nor distance could limit the operations of his power. x performance of some ceremony connected with religious magic in prehistoric. inanimate figures and pictures became living beings and things which hastened to perform his behests. at a later time. by their means the earth could be rent asunder. But be this as it may. and restore the dead to life. had their origin in superstitious customs which date from a period when God. and even the sun's course in the heavens could be stayed by a word.

and those who dealt in it were regarded as associates of the Devil. and in later times the priest. and laid claim to the possession of power over gods. and the earth. Now if views such as these concerning the magician's power were held by the educated folk of ancient Egypt there is little to wonder at when we find that beliefs and superstitions of the most degraded character flourished with rank luxuriance among the peasants p. and he could draw aside the veil which hid the secrets of fate and destiny from the knowledge of ordinary mortals. even during the period of their greatest intellectual enlightenment. Who created the heavens. although they believed all these things and proclaimed their belief with almost passionate earnestness. but there is no. When we consider the lofty spiritual character of the greater part of the Egyptian religion. Many interesting proofs might be adduced in support of this statement. and for purposes of gain the so-called magician was ready to further any sordid transaction or wicked scheme which his dupe wished to carry out. This magic degenerated into sorcery. unscrupulous but clever men took advantage of the ignorance of the general public and pretended to knowledge of the supernatural. and who were too ignorant to distinguish the spiritual conceptions which lay at their root--to meet the religious needs of such people the magician. and that.death were laid bare before him. and spirits. and wit craft. and demons. doubt that certain views and religious ideas of many heathen and p. and had become the God and king of the world which is beyond the grave. who failed to understand the symbolism of the elaborate ceremonies which were performed in the temples. xiii Christian sects may be traced directly to them. and invisible. it is hard to understand why the Egyptians carefully preserved in their writings and ceremonies so much which savoured of gross and childish superstition. which would live to all eternity in the company of the spirits and souls of the righteous in a kingdom ruled by a being who was of divine origin. and eternal. but the limits of this book will not admit of their being given here. and had risen from the dead. Such false knowledge and power they sold for money. But the fact remains that they did believe in One God Who was almighty. and workers of the "black art. found it necessary to provide pageants and ceremonies which appealed chiefly to the senses. and remember its great antiquity. it is impossible yet to say exactly how much the beliefs and religious systems of other nations were influenced by them. and following their example. and had suffered a cruel death at the hands of his enemies. and servants of the powers of darkness. and demonology. and in the resurrection of the body in a changed and glorified form. and all beings and things therein. but who had lived upon the earth. and which must have been the product of their predynastic or prehistoric ancestors. xii and working classes of that country. they seem never to have freed themselves from a hankering ." In the "white" and "black" magic of the Egyptians most of the magic known in the other countries of the world may be found.

at Thebes were numerous companies of priests whose duties consisted as much in making copies of religious books and in keeping alive the "divine traditions.p. The members of these companies who wrote the copies of the Book of the Dead which were buried with kings and queens and personages of royal or exalted rank declared the power and omnipotence of Almighty God. Whose visible emblem to mankind was the Sun. WALLIS BUDGE. and a wax figure of him be burnt in a fire made of a certain kind of grass. and gave directions for the performance of p. and the general attitude of the mind of the Egyptian on the point is well illustrated by the following facts. the Sun-god. and seem to have trusted in these to save their souls and bodies. And it is stated in all seriousness that if a piece of papyrus upon which a figure of the monster has been drawn. Moreover." as in ministering to the god in their appointed seasons. and that neither rain. the rubric describes the performance of the ceremony as a meritorious act! E.. Attached to the service of Râ. nor mist shall be able to prevent his light from falling upon the earth. and we should expect them to believe what they proclaimed. and magical names. A. 1899 . and words of power. Yet the priests of Thebes made copies of works which contained texts to be recited at specified hours of the day and night. that God was sufficiently powerful to protect His emblem in the sky. August 28th. LONDON. xv magical ceremonies. nor cloud. with something of the same confidence which they placed in the death and resurrection of Osiris. the avowed object of such being to prevent the mythical monster Âpep from vanquishing the Sun-god.e. both living and dead. and His sovereignty over things celestial and things terrestrial with no uncertain voice. A matter for surprise is that they seem to see nothing incongruous in such a mixture of magic and religion. xiv after amulets and talismans. i. and the prescribed words be recited over them as they burn. the Sun-god will be delivered from Âpep.

Romans. But.p. and it is more than probable that from them they found their way into the literatures of the other great nations of antiquity. ANTIQUITY OF MAGICAL PRACTICES IN EGYPT. In its nonChristian aspect it represents a collection of ideas and superstitions which belong to a savage or semi-savage state of existence. 2 many respects the Christian religion of to-day. The facts of this statement were derived wholly from native religious works. p. and whether they are childish or foolish or both they certainly passed into the religion of the people of Egypt. We may think that such ideas and beliefs are both childish and foolish. or Copts. and Immortality. which would have been out of place in the former work. and the earliest of which may be said to possess an antiquity of between six and seven thousand years. the latest of which is some thousands of years old. wherein they grew and flourished. the "gods. the Resurrection. on the one it closely resembles in . and sublime in their religion." the Judgment. to sketch in brief outline much of what was beautiful. Reference is made to them in the best classical works of the ancient Egyptians. CHAPTER I. and noble. and were. In the following pages an attempt will be made to place in the reader's hands the evidence as to the magical side of the Egyptian religion. 1 EGYPTIAN MAGIC. and on the other the religion of many of the sects which flourished in the first three or four centuries of our era. IN the first volume of this series 1 an attempt was made to set before the reader a statement of the ideas and beliefs which the ancient Egyptians held in respect of God. and which may be said to have held beliefs which were part Christian and part non-Christian. Many writers on the Egyptian religion have somewhat blinked the fact that it had two sides. the extracts quoted in support of the deductions set forth in it were intended to enable the reader to judge for himself as to the general accuracy of the conclusions there given. and through the Greeks. Arabs. 3 . but there is no possible reason for doubting that they were very real things to those who held them. in short. and others into the countries of Europe. as p. adopted by the Egyptian converts to Christianity. the object of which was to describe beliefs of a more spiritual nature. at least many of them. and which maintained their hold in a degree upon the minds of the Egyptians long after they had advanced to a high state of civilization.

precious stones. considerable information about the powers of the Egyptian magician. and as a result wrong and exaggerated ideas of their religion were circulated among the surrounding nations. and to compel them to appear at their desire. and the magical ceremonies which were performed at their funerals were represented by the ignorant either as silly acts of superstition or as tricks of the "black" art. and halted not in his speech. the facts here given are drawn from papyri and other native documents. The turning of a serpent into what is apparently an inanimate. In the religious texts and works we see how magic is made to be the handmaiden of religion. 2 are . But whereas the magic of every other nation of the ancient East was directed entirely against the powers of darkness. The "magic" of the Egyptians was of two kinds: (1) that which was employed for legitimate purposes and with the idea of benefiting either the living or the dead." 1 and there are numerous features in the life of this remarkable man which shew that he was acquainted with many of the practices of p. and child in Egypt who could afford it wore some such charm or talisman. and was perfect both in giving the command and in saying the word. and the extracts are quoted from compositions which were actually employed by the Egyptians to produce magical effects. These great results were to be obtained by the use of certain words which.in the book on the Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life. like the goddess Isis. and as the possessors of powers which could. be employed to do either good or harm to man. and there can be no doubt that the chief object of magical books and ceremonies was to benefit those who had by some means attained sufficient knowledge to make use of them. wooden stick. and Roman writers referred to them as experts in the occult sciences. papyrus. 1 and the turning of the stick back into a writhing snake. From the Hebrews we receive." and declares that he "was mighty in words and in deeds. As almost every man. 5 Egyptian magic. and the like. must be uttered in a proper tone of voice by a duly qualified man. according to circumstances. and (2) that which was made use of in the furtherance of nefarious plots and schemes and was intended to bring calamities upon those against whom it was directed. 4 invented in order to frustrate their fell designs by invoking a class of benevolent beings to their aid. woman. But the Egyptians were unfortunate enough not to be understood by many of the strangers who found their way into their country. it is not to be wondered at that the Egyptians were at a very early period regarded as a nation of magicians and sorcerers. Saint Stephen boasts that the great legislator Moses "was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. The phrase "mighty in words" probably means that. it is true. Hebrew. and was p. and Greek. he was "strong of tongue" and uttered the words of power which he knew with correct pronunciation. when their effect could be transmitted to any distance. incidentally. and how it appears in certain passages side by side with the most exalted spiritual conceptions. to be efficacious. the Egyptians aimed being able to command their gods to work for them. and worn on the person. such words might be written upon some substance.

and there was "hail. he and Aaron possessed a wonderful rod 3 by means of which they worked their wonders. And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground. 7 Later on in the history of Moses' dealings with the Egyptians we find the account of how "he stretched out his hand over the sea. about B. 1550 but it is clear that the stories in it date from the Early Empire. But this was by no means the only proof which Moses gives that he was versed in the magic of the Egyptians." and the "flax and the barley was smitten. and the power to control and direct the movements of such venomous reptiles was one of the things of which the Egyptian was most proud. but the latter by the gods of Egypt at the command of man. and covered the chariots. and in which he was most skilful. and brought about the death of the firstborn among the Egyptians by the command of his God. by God's command Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea. p. or through the words of power which he had learned to recite. and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand. and on their left. and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them. as we may see from an interesting story preserved in the Westcar Papyrus. and there are many instances on record of Egyptian magicians utterly destroying their enemies by the recital of a few words possessed of magical power." When the Egyptians had come between the two walls of water.C. 2 This document was written in the early part of the XVIIIth dynasty. and the horsemen. he stretched out his rod. already in the time when the pyramids were being built. Now Moses did all these things. and the waters were divided. and frogs innumerable appeared. by the performance of some. and by means of the words which He told him to speak. Moses sprinkled ashes "toward heaven. and fire mingled with the hail. very grievous. for. 6 over the waters. apparently. and are in fact as old as the Great Pyramid. "and the sea returned to his strength. when the dust was smitten by the rod it became lice. and so on. 1 But one great distinction must be made between the magic of Moses and that of the Egyptians among whom he lived. simple ceremony. and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night." and it became boils and blains upon man and beast." 1 But the command of the waters of the sea or river was claimed by the Egyptian magician long before the time of Moses. At the word of Moses Aaron lifted up his rod and smote the waters and they became blood. the former was wrought by the command of the God of the Hebrews. and after them the darkness." he stretched out his rod and the locusts came. and as a proof of the wonderful powers of magic which were possessed by the priest 3 called . he stretched it out p. and made the sea dry land. it is quite certain that every Egyptian magician believed that he could perform things equally marvellous by merely uttering the name of one of his gods.feats which have been performed in the East from the most ancient period. and. like the sage Âba-aner and king Nectanebus. But although we are told by the Hebrew writer that the Egyptian magicians could not imitate all the miracles of Moses. The story is related to king Khufu (Cheops) by Baiu-f-Râ as an event which happened in the time of the king's father. and all the other magicians of Egypt from time immemorial." and the "waters returned.

'An ornament [of mine] made of new turquoise hath fallen into the water. she ceased to row. an ornament which is made of new turquoise and belongeth to one of the maidens who row hath fallen into the water. should be brought into his presence immediately." Then turning to the maiden who had dropped her ornament overboard. and to go for a sail on it in a boat which had been comfortably furnished with things from the royal house. "Our leader has ceased to row. 8 Tchatcha-em-ânkh. my brother.' Then I said to her. "O Tchatcha-emânkh. "Will ye not row?" and they replied. and hath ceased to row. and he applied to the nobles of his royal household expecting that they would find some means whereby his heart might be made glad.'" Thereupon the priest and writer of books Tchatcha-em- . I have done according to thy words. 'Why dost thou not row?' and she replied. and one of her ornaments which was made of "new turquoise" fell into the water and sank. while the young women were rowing him about hither and thither the king watched them. Seneferu said to him. and as soon as the sage had been brought into his presence he said to him. he gave orders that the priest and writer of books. I said to her. The virgins were to row and sing to his Majesty. but all the other maidens ceased to row also. When he had arrived." said he. and twenty nets wherein these virgins may array themselves instead of in their own ordinary p. and when thou seest the pretty banks thereof and the beautiful fields then shall thy heart feel happiness. and not herself only." He next begged that the king would allow him to organize the journey. Then the king commanded that Tchatcha-em-ânkh should appear before him at once. "My brother. But now. and also twenty young virgins having beautiful heads of hair and lovely forms and shapely limbs. and dost see the beautiful thickets which are on the lake. It seems that on a certain day king Seneferu was in low spirits. and hath disturbed the p. but they have found nothing for me. and when all was ready he took his place in the boat. To these proposals the king assented. whereupon she told him what had happened. "the heart of thy Majesty will rejoice and be glad when thou sailest about hither and thither. 10 rowing of those in her company. I turned to the nobles of my royal household seeking for some means whereby I might cheer my heart. Tchatcha-em-ânkh. he asked her why she was not rowing. she entangled herself in some way in her hair. and his heart became released from care. 'I will get it back for thee. Now as one of the young women was rowing. and in accordance with the royal command he was at once brought. When the king saw that the maidens had ceased from their work.p. he said to them. 9 garments. "For. and the heart of my Majesty became glad when I saw how the maidens rowed. and she hath in consequence become silent. but as they could do nothing to cheer up the king. On this the king promised that he would get back the ornament for her." Then the priest made answer and advised the king to betake himself to the lake near the palace. and asked his permission to let him bring twenty ebony paddles inlaid with gold.

though they misunderstood many things which they saw and heard there. but frequently when the classical writers were well informed they only ascribed to them the magical knowledge which the Egyptian magicians themselves claimed to possess. the following is narrated. that portion became four and twenty cubits deep. but when Tchatcha-em-ânkh had lifted up one section of the water on to the other. and to prevent this dead bodies must needs be watched at night. on the other hand Moses' miracle may well have some connexion with that of Tchatcha-em-ânkh." and the "black art. 3800. in order to make magical spells by means of them. p. and their craftiness was such that they could take the forms of flies and cast sleep upon the watcher. A striking instance of this is given in the second book of the Metamorphoses of Apuleius where. and not to close the eyes even to wink. the pieces of flesh torn away would have to be made good from the body of the watcher Telephron . The magician again uttered certain words of power. This was absolutely necessary because the witches were able to get out of their skins and to take the form of a bird. and the water of the lake became as it had been before he had caused one portion of it to go up on to the other. Egyptians. When Telephron asked if dead men were in the habit of running away the old man replied testily to the effect that the witches all over Thessaly used p. and having thus caused one section of the water of the lake to go up upon the other. and he was told that he would have to keep thoroughly awake all night. who reigned at the beginning of the IVth dynasty. and he took it and gave it to the maiden. Now the water was twelve cubits deep.ânkh spake certain words of power (hekau). If the watcher relaxed his attention and the body became mutilated by the witches. he found the ornament lying upon a pot-sherd. one on the right hand and one on the left. to look neither to the right hand nor to the left. some of the greatest of thinkers among the Greeks regarded that country not only as the home of knowledge and the source of civilization and of the arts. The student Telephron arrived one day at Larissa. 11 Among the Greeks and Romans considerable respect was entertained. and rewarded Tchatcha-em-ânkh with gifts of every kind. 12 to tear off pieces of flesh from the faces of the dead with their teeth. to gaze fixedly upon the dead body. and.C." In some respects they exaggerated the powers of the. not only for the "wisdom" of the Egyptians. but also as the fountain head of what has been called "white magic. it will be remembered. The Greek travellers who visited Egypt brought back to their own country much information concerning its religion and civilization. about B. The young man then asked what his duties would be if he undertook the post. or mouse. The copy of the story which we possess is older than the period when Moses lived. and the king prepared a feast for all his royal household. or dog. and thus there can be no possibility of our seeing in it a distorted version of the miracle of the waters of the sea standing like walls. and as he was wandering about in an almost penniless condition he saw an old man standing on a large block of stone issuing a proclamation to the effect that any one who would undertake to guard a dead body should receive a good reward. but also for the powers of working magic which they were supposed to possess. Such is a story of the power possessed by a magician in the time of king Khufu (Cheops).

in answer to her denial. finding that no injury had been done to it she ordered her steward to pay Telephron his fee. dwelleth among us. the famous prophet Zaclas the Egyptian. the small boys also threw stones at her. and he hath promised me that for much money he will make the soul of the dead man to return from the place of death p. were untouched and whole. and then fell fast p. and had called upon the gods to be witnesses of her innocence. until the dead of night when a weasel came into the chamber and looked confidingly at the watcher. if only for the smallest possible time. 13 asleep. and tore his clothes. and then he begged to be allowed to rest in peace. and pointing to Telephron. then. At length the husband declared that he would prove the truth of his own words. and with sobs and tears accused the widow of poisoning his nephew so that she might inherit his property and marry her lover. eyes. etc. and by the Inundation.agreed to undertake the duty for one thousand nummi. The wife at once contradicted the words of her husband. and that he died in consequence.. Behold. Having been provided with a lamp and some oil that night he began his watch. the lungs of the corpse began to fill with breath. and all went well. and having kissed his hands and embraced his legs he implored him by the stars. but he drove the animal--which was no doubt a witch--from the room. and was led by the old man to a house. chin. Divine Providence decide the truth. and by the island of the Nile. lips. With a groan he replied that the wife whom he had recently married gave him poison to drink. Soon afterwards. and immediately the servants of the house fell upon him. and was so grateful to him that she promised to make him one of her household. etc. . to cause the fiends to come and torture him. "Let. At this moment Zaclas addressed him. having been taken into the room where the dead body was. and to make it to dwell in his body again for a short time. and finally cast him out of the house. and raising his head and shoulders he asked why he had been called back to life. had his head shaved. and. he made use of some inauspicious words. and began to examine the body to see if it was intact. however. whilst wandering about. and plucked out his hair by the roots. and at that moment an old man went to the bier. he led forward a man dressed in linen. and buffeted him. so that the truth of his accusation against the widow might be proved. In attempting to express his thanks. and of the people who were standing round some took one side and some another. In the early morning he was suddenly wakened by the trumpets of the soldiers. ordered. and having turned his face to the East and prayed. through his prayers.. and his heart to beat. and almost immediately the widow of the dead man came to him with seven witnesses. who. found a man making notes on tablets to the effect that nose. When she had denied the accusation. the old man cried out. and telling him that he had the power." With these words. to restore life to the dead body. and by the gods of the underworld. and some people began to stone her. he saw the funeral procession pass through the forum. him to make known the means by which he had died. Thus adjured Zaclas touched the mouth and the breast of the dead man three times with some plant. like all the Egyptian priests. notwithstanding that he was greatly afraid. and wearing palm-leaf sandals. 14 in the underworld. Presently the mob which had gathered together wanted to set her house on fire. ears.

"It is a certain man called Teta. as we may see from the following story in the Westcar Papyrus. 16 B. "Up to the present thou hast only heard reports concerning the things which the men of olden time knew. whereupon his nose came off in his hand. and his cars slipped through his fingers on to the ground. who was famous as a learned man and whose name is preserved in the "Book of the Dead" in connection with the "discovery" of certain Chapters of that wonderful compilation. He knoweth how to fasten on again to its body a head that hath been cut off. and the shoulder of an ox. which happened to be Telephron. 1 was one day talking to his father. presumably on the subject of the powers of working magic possessed by the ancients." Now Khufu had for a long time past sought out the aptet of the sanctuary of Thoth. like that of his watcher. he knoweth how to make a lion follow him whilst his snare is trailing on the ground. and is one hundred and ten years old. 1 and that the power of bringing back the dead to life which Apuleius ascribes to the priest or magician was actually claimed some thousands of years before Christ by the sages of Egypt. and so we pass on to note that the act of touching the mouth which Zaclas performed is. told those present that the witches after making many attempts to elude his vigilance had cast deep sleep upon him. The end of the story does not concern us. because he was anxious to make one similar for his own "horizon.p. 15 who had attempted to guard his body. who at once put up his hands and touched the members. and man knoweth not whether they are true or not. and whilst he was endeavouring feebly to obey their spells. O Herutâtâf?" the young man replied.C." Though at the present it is impossible to say what the [paragraph continues] p. and to this very day he eateth five hundred loaves of bread." In reply to Khufu's question. and having taken off the nose and ears of the watcher they placed models of these members in their places. "Who is this man. and he knoweth the number of the aptet of the sanctuary of Thoth. it is quite clear that it was an object or instrument used in connection with the working of magic of some sort. who reigned about p. and it is clear that the king was as much interested in the pursuit as his subjects. but now I will cause thy Majesty to see a sage in thine own time. and one who knoweth thee not. and he drinketh one hundred measures of ale. In answer to some remark by Khufu he replied. his watcher rose up unconsciously and walked about. and was considered of extreme importance for the welfare of the dead. who dwelleth in TetSeneferu. Seeing this the witches forced their way into the room through some unknown place. In reply to his son's words Khufu told him to go and bring the sage . of course. A son of king Khufu (or Cheops. They next called upon himself by his name. Those who heard these words looked fixedly at the young man. a part of the ceremony of "opening the mouth" which is so often referred to in religious texts. 3800) called Herutâtâf. 17 aptet was.

he uttered words of magical power. Herutâtâf told him that he had come from a great distance in order to bring to him a message from Khufu his father. but upon some creature that belongeth to the sacred animals. . Teta was led in to him. behold. according to what is reported. p. he who is called cometh. and Herutâtâf went into the presence of his father. and when the boats had been tied to the quay the prince set out to perform the rest of the Journey. and the head on the east side. After this Teta had a khet-âa bird brought to him. After a suitable greeting and reference to the sage's honourable condition had been made. inlaid with gold." Then some one brought to him a goose. and upon it he performed the same miracle which he had wrought upon the goose. "O Prince. and since thou hast called me. Khufu gave orders that he was to be brought before him quickly. I do know how to do this thing. which straightway cackled. and the royal barge or boat having been brought. "Yea. an ox was brought to him. Herutâtâf set out for the place where the sage dwelt. and having gone forth into the colonnade of the palace. which was overland. in a sort of litter made of ebony.into his presence. "Let a captive who is shut up in prison be brought to me so that I may inflict his doom upon him. "Nay. and to prove that he had similar power over the animal creation. and the old man set out for the quay leaning upon the arm of the king's son. and the sage bade him "Welcome" heartily. Khufu said to him. whilst one servant shampooed his head. Two boats were at once prepared and filled with their complement of sailors. and Teta sailed down the Nile with Herutâtâf. and reported to him that he had brought Teta the sage for him to see. while his family followed. and the ox stood up and lived as before. 19 whereupon the body began to move and the head likewise. and each time that they moved the one came nearer to the other. my lord the king let not this thing be performed upon man. and prophesied that Khufu would greatly exalt his rank. which was borne by men by means of poles of sesnetchem wood. p. The greetings ended. Teta then stood up and spake certain words of magical power. he laid the body of the goose on the west side of the colonnade. "How is it. until at length the head moved to its right place on the bird." but Teta made answer. 18 and when he had arrived there he asked that a boat might be provided for the transport of his children and his books. Teta. "Is it true. that I have never seen thee?" and the sage replied. the litter was set down upon the ground." Khufu said to him. whom he found lying upon a basket-work bed or mattress. which fell upon the ground." And Khufu said. and having cut off its head. When he had arrived at the abode of Teta. and having cut off its head. that thou knowest how to fasten on again to its body the head which hath been cut off?" and the sage replied. and another rubbed his feet. verily. here I am. Herutâtâf assisted Teta to rise. Having sailed up the river some distance he and his party arrived at Tet-Seneferu. which had been placed for him in the courtyard of his house. O my lord the Prince. After a time the party arrived at Khufu's palace. and the prince came out to greet the sage.

and to . and the art of manipulating the metals. To this name the Arabs affixed the article al. But in addition to their skill as handicraftsmen and artisans the Egyptians were skilled in literary composition. Romans. Thus. If by chance any members of a desert tribe had been permitted to behold the ceremonies which were performed when the kings for whom the Pyramids had been built were laid to rest in them. and in the production of books.The two stories from the Westcar Papyrus given above are sufficient to prove that already in the IVth dynasty the working of magic was a recognized art among the Egyptians. and the knowledge of the chemistry of the metals and of their magical powers were described by. especially of that class which related to the ceremonies which were performed for the benefit of the dead. In a mystical manner this "black" powder was identified with the body which the god Osiris was known to possess in the underworld. unfortunately. and misunderstood matters in consequence. side by side with the growth of skill in performing the ordinary. that is to say. but it seems to be certain that it was chiefly by means of these that they obtained their reputation as workers of miracles. One of the oldest names of Egypt is "Kamt" or "Qemt. and. according to Greek writers. We have. there grew up in that country the belief that magical powers existed in fluxes and alloys. the Christian Egyptians or Copts p. From these processes there resulted a "black" powder or substance which was supposed to possess the most marvellous powers. which will perpetuate p. and thus we obtain the word Al-Khemeia. the name "Khemeia. and to contain in it the individualities of the various metals. or Alchemy. and both were thought to be sources of life and power." a word which means "black" or "dusky. and in it their actual substances were incorporated. however. no means of knowing what early contemporary peoples thought of the Egyptian funeral ceremonies. and to both were attributed magical qualities." and it was applied to the country on account of the dark colour of the mud which forms the land on each side of the Nile. the nations around. Syrians. 20 transmitted the word under the form Khême to the Greeks. they employed quicksilver in the processes whereby they separated the metals gold and silver from the native ore. and Arabs." that is to say "the preparation of the black ore" (or "powder") which was regarded as the transmutation of metals. they were possessed of the two kinds of "wisdom" which enabled them to deal with both the material world and the spiritual world. processes of metal-working. the stories that they took back to their kinsmen would be received as sure proofs that the Egyptians had the power to give life to the dead. confused the two kinds.. to animate statues. and everything we learn from later texts indicates that it is well-nigh impossible to imagine a time in Egypt when such was not the case. 21 the reputation of the Egyptians as successful students both of "white magic" and of the "black" art. in Egypt. At a very early period the Egyptians were famous for their skill in the working of metals and in their attempts to transmute them. But the "wisdom" of the Egyptians was of two kinds.

command the services of their gods by the mere utterance of their names as words of power. besides this she placed round the enclosure figures of crocodiles and other formidable animals. and he employed his time in working magic. It seems that when the army of Pharaoh had been drowned in the Red Sea. During the course of her reign of thirty years she filled Egypt with her temples and with figures of animals. the large figures of the gods which were sculptured or painted on the walls. plants. 22 held concerning the inscriptions and figures of gods in the temples of Egypt. and in the presence of Walîd ibn Ukbah. And it came to pass that if an army set out from any part of Arabia or Syria to attack Egypt. and the destruction of the figures on sculptures entailed the destruction of the hostile host. The columns of hieroglyphics with which the walls of the tombs were often covered. and made the phantom of an ass to pass through his body. and the hieroglyphic inscriptions which accompanied them. The historian Mas'ûdî mentions 1 an instance of the powers of working magic possessed by a certain Jew. in this difficulty they elected a woman called Dalûkah as their queen. and animals. This man was a native of the village of Zurârah in the district of Kûfa. He then transformed himself into a camel and walked upon a rope. who was addicted to the chase. In brief. he raised up several apparitions. from the attacks of wild beasts as Egypt from invasion by nomad tribes. and the figures of the gods. her object being as much to protect her son. 23 which they were riding to disappear beneath the ground. the queen made the figures of its soldiers and of the animals p. which proves that the magical practices of the Egyptians had passed eastwards and had found a congenial home among the Jews who lived in and about Babylon. who was mounted upon a horse. Dalûkah's first act was to surround all Egypt with a wall. and made a king of huge stature. wherever they might be on their journey. and in Syria. she also made figures of men in the form of the dwellers in the countries round about Egypt. In the Mosque at Kûfa. painted or sculptured upon stelæ or sarcophagi. and the same fate immediately overtook the living creatures which they represented. the women and slaves feared lest they should be attacked by the kings of Syria and the West. were considered by those who could neither understand nor read them to be nothing more nor less than magical figures and formulæ which were intended to serve as talismans. and of the beasts which they rode. and in the West. and . because she was wise and prudent and skilled in magic. gallop about in the courtyard of the Mosque. In the temples she collected all the secrets of nature and all the attracting or repelling powers which were contained in minerals. The following story from Mas'ûdî 1 will illustrate the views which the Arabs p. She performed her sorceries at the moment in the revolution of the celestial bodies when they would be amenable to a higher power. would still further impress the barbarian folk who always regard the written letter and those who understand it with great awe. which she guarded by men who were stationed along it at short intervals.

and read the service from a book. 97. see Chapter III. just as his magical powers are declared to be superior to those of the Egyptians. LXIV. magical names. 7:3 He was the chief kher heb. ii. tom. de Meynard and P. the head of the priests who officiated in funeral ceremonies.e. pp. We have now to describe briefly the principal means upon which the Egyptians relied for working magic. 5:2 That Moses' rod or serpent should swallow up the rods or serpents of the Egyptians is. 21:1 Les Prairies d'Or (ed. to be expected. pp. Paris. iv. . Footnotes Footnotes 1:1 The series referred to is Books on Egypt and Chaldaea. 6:1 For details. magical ceremonies. 16:1 Chapters XXX. i.. de Courteille). i. B. 141. (Magical Ceremonies). including the first. published by Kegan Paul. 1865. 8). This last act recalls the joining of the head of the dead goose to its body and the coming back of the bird to life which has been described above... Paris. 7:2 See Erman. Egyptian Religion. 1890. magical stones or amulets.p. 22. that is to say. 5:1 Exodus vii. 35-48. etc. Budge wrote several volumes in the series. 7:1 Exodus xiv. they united and the man came alive again. p. tom. Paris. magical pictures and formulæ. 267. magical figures. by B. 10 ff. 5:3 An interesting paper on the use of the rod by the Egyptians and Hebrews was published by Chabas in Annales du Musée Guimet. See my Chapters of Coming Forth by Day (text). Berlin. 15:1 See Chapter VI. 24 finally having slain a man. and such portions of the Book of the Dead as bear upon these subjects generally. (Magical Figures). of course. 1880. 23:1 Les Prairies d'Or (ed. tom. 266. 398 f. CXXXVII. and then by passing his sword over the two parts. pp.. Two of Moses' opponents were called "Jannes" and "Jambres" (See 2 Timothy iii. 21-28. Die Märchen des Papyrus Westcar. 1863. mentioned here. 309. de Meynard). he cut off the head and removed it from the trunk.--THE PUBLISHER 4:1 Acts vii.

and about it. and later by other nations. Amulets are of two kinds: (1) those which are inscribed with magical formulæ. and articles of dress and wearing apparel. however. As time went on the development of religious ideas and beliefs progressed. and at a comparatively early date words of magical p. either living or dead. and from the attacks of visible and invisible foes. and it is equally impossible to say when the belief in the efficacy of such and such an amulet sprang into being. It is not clear whether the amulet was intended first of all to protect the living or the dead body. decay and putrefaction were laid with a lavish hand in. it seems clear. and upon. at times. mildew. to carry. and between the bandages with which it was swathed. that certain amulets represent beliefs and superstitions so old that even the Egyptians were. doubtful about their origin and meaning. 25 CHAPTER II. was of the most vital importance for the life of the spiritual and incorruptible body which was believed to spring therefrom. to protect the human body. and as a result new amulets representing new views were invented.p. to protect the dead. When men in Egypt began to lay amulets on their dead cannot be said. 26 in the minds of those who wore them. MAGICAL STONES OR AMULETS. "AMULET" is a name given to a class of objects and ornaments. worms. The word "amulet" is derived from an Arabic root meaning "to bear. made of various substances which were employed by the Egyptians. as the preservation of the corruptible body. 27 . but it seems that it was originally worn to guard its owner from savage animals and from serpents. under the influence of the new beliefs the dead body became a veritable storehouse of amulets. Moreover. Each member was placed under the specific protection of some amulet." hence "amulet" is "something which is carried or worn. and a number of objects which were believed to protect the body generally from serpents. and (2) those which are not. from baleful influences. by an easy transition p." and the name is applied broadly to any kind of talisman or ornament to which supernatural powers are ascribed. In the earliest times formulæ or prayers were recited over the amulets that were worn by the living or placed on the dead by priests or men set apart to perform religious services by the community. and the objects which were able to protect the living were made. with the number of its members complete and intact. but it was not in the power of every man to employ them.

de Morgan has given. we probably have a survival of the green schist amulet of predynastic times in Egypt. and their place is taken by plaques of schist. king of Egypt about B. 2 they "belong to the cult. that a "book with words of magical power" was buried with him. THE AMULET OF THE HEART. or "words of power. of various shapes. But the custom of writing hekau. In the subsequent period the animal forms disappear. that is to say. and we see from the inscription on the walls of the corridors and chambers of the pyramid of Unas." The earliest Egyptian amulets known are pieces of green schist. 3266. had with him "hath effect upon the heart of the gods". and it sometimes typified the conscience. and was mummified separately. king of Egypt about B. etc. The heart was not only the seat of the power of life. so that he might be able to compel them to do his will. in rough outline. upon which are inscribed. p. The earliest name for the formulæ found upon amulets is hekau. and probably more than a thousand years earlier. etc. J. which thus became possessed of a twofold power. de Morgan said. papyrus. the power which was thought to be inherent in the substance of which the amulet was made. which were laid upon the breast of the deceased. with the lungs.C.C. for the reasons which M. amulet. and there is no doubt that the object of every religious text ever written on tomb. but with the advent of the p. and it was so necessary for the deceased to be provided with these hekau. these are found in large numbers in the pre-historic or predynastic graves at several places in Egypt. both as regards the object with which it was made and the material. 28 people whom we call Egyptians they become very rare. animal. rectangular in shape. will not hold. and then. was to bring the gods under the power of the deceased. 29 1." According to this writer their use was exceedingly widespread until the end of the neolithic period. coffin. but also the source of both good and evil thoughts. it is pretty certain that." that in the XVIth Century B. and otherwise. J. or words of power.C. a special section 1 was inserted in the Book of the Dead with the object of causing them to come to him from whatever place they were in. and that which lay in the words inscribed upon it. Its preservation was considered to be of such importance that a text 1 was introduced into the Book of the .. for. was preserved in a jar which was placed under the protection of the god Tuamutef..power and prayers were cut upon the amulets. in the green stone scarab which was laid upon the breast of the deceased in dynastic times. The theory that these objects were intended as whetstones. 3300. figures of animals. 1 Elsewhere 2 we are told that the book which Teta. as M. It is most unlikely that they were made by the aboriginal inhabitants of Egypt. Moreover. It was guarded after death with special care. or as slabs upon which to rub down paint. "swifter than greyhounds and quicker than light. notwithstanding the various conjectures which have been made as to their object and use. stele. upon papyrus is almost as old as that of writing them upon stone.

the amulet of the heart. According to the Papyrus of Nekhtu-Amen. 30 two jaws unto me. I shall have the power to do whatsoever my ka (i. may he cause me to stretch apart my two legs which are bound together.. I shall gain the mastery over my heart.e. was to be made of lapis-lazuli. and the soul had the power to go where they wished and to do what they pleased. The text reads:-"May my heart be with me in the House of Hearts! May my breast 2 be with me in the House of Hearts! May my heart be with me. and my two hands and arms to overthrow my foe. and when he had gained the mastery over his heart. the heart. it was believed that he would at once obtain the powers which he wished to possess in the next world. and that the ideas embodied in it are of great antiquity. I shall understand with my heart. and there is no doubt that this stone was believed to p. which is referred to in the above Chapter. I shall gain the mastery over my legs. The mention of the god Ptah and of his consort Sekhet indicates that the Chapter was the work of the priests of Memphis. and may that which I command in the House of the Ka of Ptah be done. It will also be remembered that. may he open my two eyes which are blindfolded.Dead at an early period. or I shall not eat of the cakes of Osiris on the eastern side of the Lake of Flowers. open wide his p. and my two legs to walk therewith. may Seb. and may Anpu (Anubis) make my thighs to be firm so that I may stand upon them. My soul shall not be fettered to my body at the gates of the underworld. nor shall I be able to sail down the Nile with thee. and may it rest there. according to one tradition. 1 the text of the LXIVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead was found written in letters of lapis-lazuli in the reign of Hesep-ti. I shall gain the mastery over my two hands.C. with the view of providing the deceased with a heart in the place of that which had been removed in the process of mummification." When the deceased had uttered these words. nor another wherein to go up. the prince of the gods. 4300. but I shall enter in and come forth in peace. the double. double) pleaseth. king of Egypt about B. . and the way in which the fact is mentioned in the Rubric to the Chapter proves that special importance was attached to it. May the goddess Sekhet make me to rise so that I may ascend into heaven. 31 possess certain qualities which were beneficial to those who wore it. May my mouth [be given] to me that I may speak therewith. May the doors of heaven be opened unto me. neither shall I have a boat wherein to go down the Nile.

and who went about seeking for hearts to carry away. ye possessors of ever lastingness. ye who carry away hearts! Hail. who was part man and part beast. 2 the mighty one whose words are his limbs. p. I. XXVII. (From Naville. semi-transparent stone. His heart obeyeth him. plate 39. guarding his heart against the destroyer of hearts. I. and who make the heart of a man to go through its transformations according to its deeds. and he hath not been judged according to what he hath done. take ye not this heart of Osiris 1 into your grasp. The XXVIIth Chapter was connected with a heart amulet made of a white. and reads:-"Hail. he is the lord thereof. for it is the heart of Osiris. and cause ye not words of evil to spring up against it.) But although a heart might be given to a man by means of the above Chapter. XXXA. and it is made new before the gods: he hath gained power over it. O ye lords of eternity. He hath gotten power over his own members. a priest. Todtenbuch. let not what he hath done harm him before you! Homage to you.. XXVIII. 32 and XXXB) were written. and who sendeth forth his heart to dwell in his body. To prevent such a calamity no less than seven Chapters of the Book of the Dead (Nos. it is in his body.. The heart of Osiris is triumphant. and it belongeth unto him of many names. victorious in . and it shall never fall away therefrom. XXIXA. it was necessary for the deceased to take the greatest care that it was not carried off from him by a monster. Osiris. XXX.Nefer-uben-f. ye who steal hearts.. XXIX. vol..

and its importance from a religious point of view cannot be overstated." Another Chapter (XXIXB) was connected with a heart amulet made of carnelian. let therefore the soul of the Osiris come forth to do the will of his double. Let not that which is false be uttered against me before the great god. Their divine souls came forth upon earth to do the will of their doubles. 33 reads: "I am the Bennu. 1 the soul of Râ. the text p. and this step was taken as early as the IVth dynasty. may there be no opposition to me in the presence of the sovereign princes. and it seems that it formed a pendant or supplement to the LXIVth Chapter.C. 34 mouth. and let there be joy of heart unto us at the weighing of words. bid thee [O heart] to be obedient unto me in the underworld. for according to the Papyrus of Nu. my heart. the most popular among the Egyptians was that which is commonly known as XXXB. my mother! My heart whereby I came into being! May naught stand up to oppose me at [my] judgment. the lord of Amentet. and thus the amulet brought with it the protection of both Osiris and Râ. which shall be laid in the breast of the deceased where the heart would ordinarily be. my mother. But of all the Chapters which related to the heart. and the guide of the gods who are in the underworld. whilst his heart was being weighed in the Balance against the feather symbolic of right and truth. the son of Khufu (Cheops)." From reciting the words of the Chapter over a scarab to engraving them upon it was but a step. From certain papyri it seems as if the above words should. . May the Shenit. the dweller in my body. which professed to give the substance of all the "Chapters of Coming Forth by Day" in a single Chapter. In the rubric to the longer version of the Chapter. and triumphant in the beautiful Amenta and on the mountain of eternity." The Bennu was also the soul of Osiris. green stone scarab. king of Egypt about B. not make my name to stink. The antiquity of the Chapter is undoubted. it dates from the time of Hesep-ti. Mayest thou come forth into the place of happiness whither we go. this amulet would then perform for him the "opening of the p." 1 for the words of the Chapter would be indeed "words of power. The text is as follows:-"My heart. Let it be satisfactory unto us. and it is there ordered that the words of it be recited over a hard. 4300.peace. 3 Chapter XXXB is connected with Herutâtâf. may there be no parting of thee from me in the presence of him that keepeth the Balance! Thou art my double (ka). who form the conditions of the lives of men. a man famed for wisdom. Verily how great shalt thou be when thou risest in triumph. 2 a document of the early part of the XVIIIth dynasty. properly. given in the same papyrus. of which so many examples may be found in large museums." It was this Chapter which the deceased recited when he was in the Judgment Hall of Osiris. and let the listening be satisfactory unto us. the god Khnemu who knitteth and strengtheneth my limbs.

and the proper words of power be written upon it.) 2. But a stone heart. The scribe Nebsent being weighed in a balance against his heart in the presence of Osiris. (From the Papyrus of Nebseni. 36 Egyptian seems to have reasoned thus: since the physical heart is taken from the body before mummification. and even though by means of prayers properly recited it prevents the physical heart from being carried off by "those who plunder hearts. and the body has need of another to act as the source of life and movement in its new life. whether made of lapis-lazuli or carnelian. Moreover. But the scarab or beetle itself possesses remarkable powers.p. We can trace the ideas which the Egyptians held about this insect as far back as the time of the building of the Pyramids. was directed to be made in the form of the scarab at a very early date. 1 and there is no doubt that they represented beliefs which even at that early period were very old. another must be put in its place." it possesses nothing of itself which can be turned to account in giving new life and being to the body on which it lies. but also new life and existence will be given to him to whose body it is attached. THE AMULET OF THE SCARAB. is only a stone heart after all. and if a figure of the scarab be made. not only protection of the dead physical heart. the scarab . The p. 35 be said by the deceased when he is being weighed against his own heart. sheet 4. a conception which is quite different from that of the judgment of the heart before the gods. From what has been said above it will be seen that the amulet of the heart. which was connected with the most important and most popular of the Chapters for protecting the heart.

.was the type and symbol of the god Khepera. but amongst them are to be found some adorned with the richest metallic colours. They fly during the hottest part of the day. It does not appear that these beetles have the ability to distinguish their own balls. and the act of rolling gave to the scarab its name kheper. in the case of their having lost their own. which the insects have previously dug for their reception. the god Khepera also represented inert but living matter. from one aspect. p. but. particularly serviceable to its possessors in rolling the balls of excrementitious matter in which they enclose their eggs. being unconceived by a female. Porphyry. which was about to begin a course of existence. that is to say. These manœuvres have for their object the burying of the balls in holes. by degrees. The species are generally of a black hue. become rounded and harder. and at a very early period he was considered to be a god of the resurrection. The particular beetle chosen by the Egyptians to copy for amulets belongs to the family of dung-feeding Lamellicorns which live in tropical countries. as to give the insect a most p. nevertheless. he buries it in it for eight and twenty days. and the ball of eggs to be compared to the sun itself. But the dead human body. 1 Among the ancients several curious views were held about the scarab. caused the sun to roll across the sky. they are propelled by means of the hind legs. The unseen power of God. and so far from each other. it is said that several of them occasionally assist in rolling the same ball. and it is upon the dung thus deposited that the larvæ. and as the insect's ball contained the germs of the young scarabs it was identified also with the sun as a creature which produced life in a special way. the germ of the spiritual body." because it was a creature self-produced. The males as well as the females assist in rolling the pellets. "he who rolls. i. which are placed so near the extremity of the body. contained the germ of life. The fact that the scarab flies during the hottest part of the day made the insect to be identified with the sun. and during the process of rolling along. feed. as they will seize upon those belonging to another. and from it the scarabæi come forth. on the twenty-ninth day he opens the ball. made manifest under the form of the god Khepera. the invisible power of creation which propelled the sun across the sky. the beetle rolls it from east to west." The sun contained the germs of all life. whether of the type scarabæus sacer or the ateuchus Ægyptiorium. These balls are at first irregular and soft. Sometimes these balls are an inch and a half or two inches in diameter. which was called into being . and in rolling them along the beetles stand almost upon their beads. This peculiar formation is.e. Now. and throws it into the water. 38 and Horapollo declared that no female scarab existed. A remarkable peculiarity exists in the structure and situation of the hind legs. and since the scarab was identified with him that insect became at once the symbol of the god and the type of the resurrection. He goes on to say that. The last named writer stated that the scarab denoted "only begotten. with the heads turned from the balls. 37 extraordinary appearance when walking. 2 and Ælian. indeed. and having dug a hole. when hatched. having made a ball of dung.

and the varieties are exceedingly numerous. the god of the dead. blue glass. always provided that the proper "words of power" were first said over it or written upon it. 39 by means of the prayers that were recited and the ceremonies that were performed on the day of the funeral. also give potential life to the dead body upon which it was placed. from this point of view the insect's egg ball and the dead body were identical. The green stone scarabs are often set in gold. so. In rare instances. Now. pounded. it was thought. 1 The amulet of the scarab has been found in Egypt in untold thousands.) . green marble. The head and wings were then warmed up and steeped in the oil of the âpnent serpent. and when they had been once more boiled the man was to drink the mixture. would a model of the scarab. The idea of "life" appears to have attached itself to the scarab from time immemorial in Egypt and the Eastern Sûdân. green p. in the presence of Anubis. purple. which he boiled and laid in oil. "the soul of Râ. as the insect had given potential life to its eggs in the ball. In ancient days when a man wished to drive away the effects of every kind of sorcery and incantations he might do so by cutting off the head and wings of a large beetle. They are made of green basalt." and of the eye of Horus. plate 15. and sometimes the backs are inscribed with figures of the boat of Râ. or beetle. and mixed with water.p. the scarab has a human face or head. and then drunk by women who believe it to be an unfailing specific for the production of large families. and the words of power are usually cut in outline on the base. for to this day the insect is dried. limestone. (From the Papyrus of Ani. of the Bennu bird. on which is a figure of the boat of Râ containing a scarab. and have a band of gold across and The scribe Ani holding a necklace with pectoral.. itself the symbol of the god Khepera. blue and green glazed porcelain. etc. 40 granite. blue paste.

sculptured as described below. during the sacrifice take the ring out of the ointment. and such fruits as are in season. At the celebration let there lie near at hand some pure loaves. and turning towards the east shalt pronounce the words written below. and it is probable that the number of varieties of them was only limited by the ability of those who manufactured them in ancient days to invent new sorts. even in the period of the rule of the Greeks and Romans. it was found at Kûrna near Thebes and belongs to the period of the XIth dynasty. about B. When once the custom of burying scarabs with the bodies of the dead became recognized. a fact which proves the closeness of the relationship which existed between the amulets of the heart and scarab. there are no "words of power" on this interesting object. 41 large funeral scarabs were set in pylon-shaped pectorals. having first made it pure and clean. bore it and pass a gold wire through it. Thou shalt anoint thyself early in the morning. leave the ring for three days. under it put some olive wood. on the left stands Isis and on the right Nephthys. or cinnamon.C. the habit of wearing them as ornaments by the living came into fashion. made of porcelain of various colours. and set on the middle of the table a small censer wherein myrrh and kyphi shall be offered. upon which the boat of the Sun was either traced in colours or worked in relief. The name of the man for whom it was made (he appears to have been an official of the Temple of Amen) was traced on it in light coloured paint which was afterwards varnished. and take the ring and lay it in the ointment. and having made another sacrifice upon vine sticks. and under the table there shall be a pure linen cloth. 2600. The use of the scarab amulet passed into Western Asia and into several countries which lay on the Mediterranean. and to place it on a paper table. 42 Egyptians. Occasionally the base of the scarab is made in the form of a heart. and beneath the beetle carve the p. p. and as a result scarabs of almost every sort and kind may be found by the thousand in many collections.C. 43 . the p. and anoint thyself with the unction from it. and the scarab is placed so as to appear to be carried in the boat. or myrrh. Thus about the "ring of Horus" and the "ceremony of the beetle" we are told to take a beetle. that is to say about B. And have at hand a small vessel of chrysolite into which ointment of lilies. 1200. shall be put. From a Greek magical papyrus translated by Goodwin 1 we may see that certain solemn ceremonies were performed over a scarab before it was worn. 29. 1 The oldest green stone funeral scarab known to me is in the British Museum (No.224). and those who wore it seem to have attached to it much the same idea as its early inventors. The beetle shall be carved out of a precious emerald. and take it out and put it in a safe place. In late times. and offer it up in the censer with kyphi and myrrh.down the back where the wings join. sometimes the whole back is gilded. and sometimes the base is covered with a plate of gold upon which the words of power have been stamped or engraved.

21st. p. 14th. it had to be dipped in water in which ânkham flowers had been steeped." the inventor and founder of medicines and letters. and having consecrated it as above written." But before the buckle was attached to the neck of the deceased. THE AMULET OF THE TET. it is sometimes made of gold. Another object of the buckle was to give the deceased access to every place in the underworld. and the strength of Isis. red jasper. thou that art under the earth. which is frequently inscribed upon it. from the beginning of the month. which symbolized the reconstituting of the body of Osiris. 9th. and there is a legend to the effect that she smote the Sun-god Râ with severe sickness by the magical power which she possessed. The spell to be recited began. It is always associated with the CLVIth Chapter of the Book of the Dead. where the rubric ordered it to be placed. "I am Thoth. and of other substances of a red colour. THE AMULET OF THE BUCKLE This amulet represents the buckle of the girdle of Isis. and of her words of power. was one of the most solemn of all the ceremonies performed in connexion with the worship of . 16th. and which reads:"The blood of Isis. red glass. and when the words of the Chapter of the Buckle given above had been recited over it. It will be remembered that she raised the dead body of Osiris by means of her words of power. and of substances covered with gold. and 25th." 3. and the four cross-bars indicate the four cardinal points. 12th. and the setting up of the Tet at Busiris. and the words of power of Isis shall be mighty to act as powers to protect this great and divine being. and to enable him to have "one hand towards heaven. and is usually made of carnelian." 4.holy Isis. rise up to me. This amulet probably represents the tree trunk in which the goddess Isis concealed the dead body of her husband. 44 the amulet brought to the deceased the protection of the blood of Isis. 24th. "come to me. it became a symbol of the highest religious importance to the Egyptians. use it. on other days abstain. and to guard him from him that would do unto him anything that he holdeth in abomination. and one hand towards earth. 10th. The proper days for the celebration were the 7th. thou great spirit.

Nephthys. O Still-Heart! Place thou thyself upon p. p. I put water beneath thee. which reads:-"Rise up thou. O Osiris! Thou hast thy backbone. 34). 47 thy base. (From the Papyrus of Ani. Anubis. 45 The mummy of Ani the scribe. the four children of Horus. as some have thought. etc. The Tet represents neither the mason's table nor a Nilometer." . attended by Isis. It is always associated with the CLVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead. and I bring unto thee a Tet of gold that thou mayest rejoice therein. lying on a bier. O Still-Heart! Thou hast the fastenings of thy neck and back.Osiris. the ushabti figure. plates 33. his soul. the TET.

THE AMULET OF THE PILLOW. On coffins the right hand of the deceased grasps the buckle. and was made of gold in the form of a vulture hovering in the air with outstretched wings and holding in each talon the symbol of "life" and was placed on the neck on the day of the funeral. and the left the Tet. With this amulet the CLVIIth Chapter of the Book of the Dead was associated. never be carried away from thee. thou art raised up. They lift up thy head to the horizon. Thy head shall not be carried away from thee after [the slaughter]. and its object is to "lift up" and to protect the head of the deceased. and she goeth about seeking the secret habitations of Horus as he emergeth from his papyrus swamps. This amulet is a model of the pillow which is found placed under the neck of the mummy in the coffin. . and dost triumph by reason of what hath been done for thee. 5. the son of Hathor." p. and it was ordered by the rubric to it to be recited over it. and laid upon the neck of the deceased. it is usually made of hæmatite. thy head shall never. spirit) in the underworld. 48 6. to whom it gave the power to reconstitute the body and to become a perfect KHU (i. O sick one that liest prostrate. both are made of wood. THE AMULET OF THE VULTURE. .Like the buckle. and is inscribed with the text of the CLXVIth Chapter of the Book of the Dead. . Thou art Horus. which reads:-"Thou art lifted up. and she raiseth up his . this text reads:-"Isis cometh and hovereth over the city. This amulet was intended to cause the power of Isis as the "divine mother" to be a protection for the deceased. Ptah hath overthrown thine enemies. the Tet had to be dipped in the water in which ânkham flowers had been steeped.e. notwithstanding the fact that the rubric to the Chapter of the Te orders the Tet to be made of gold. which was ordered to be done for thee.. who givest back the head after the slaughter.

about B. who says. and appears to have been the expression of beliefs which grew up in the period of the XXVIth dynasty. The text of the Chapter reads:--"O my father. and. and I am not injured. He hath warred mightily.shoulder which is in evil case. THE AMULET OF THE PAPYRUS SCEPTRE. 550. it is ordered by the rubric to the CLVIIIth Chapter of the Book of the Dead to be placed on his neck on the day of the funeral. and I see. 49 7. judging from the text of the CLXth Chapter. In the XXVIth dynasty and later it seems as if the amulet represented the power of Isis. "It is in sound state. protecteth him. This amulet was intended to give the deceased power to free himself from his swathings." This amulet is very rare. it was made of mother-of-emerald. when the words of the CLIXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead had been recited over it." [paragraph continues] . THE AMULET OF THE COLLAR OF GOLD.C. who derived it from her father. and he maketh his deeds to be remembered. and the sovereignty of the whole world is decreed for him. 8. my brother. His mother the mighty lady. I am unswathed. At an earlier period. whom he vanquished through the might of Isis. or of light green or blue porcelain. it is not injured." The first allusion is to the care which Isis shewed for Horus when she was bringing him up in the papyrus swamps. and the second to his combat with Set. He is made one of the company in the divine boat. p. and I am not worn away. the goddess of abundant harvests and food. This amulet was intended to give the deceased vigour and renewal of youth. I am one of those who are unswathed and who see the god Seb. and to be made of gold. and she hath transferred her power unto him. he hath made the fear of him to exist and awe of him to have its being. it was placed on his neck on the day of the funeral. 50 Thoth into the hands of the deceased. the husband of Renenet. it is not worn away. my mother Isis. and I am in sound state. the amulet is put by the god p.

and other early kings. "Hail. and may its body neither perish nor suffer corruption for ever!" Thus the amulet of the soul was intended to enable the soul both to unite with the mummified body. and who make it to travel over Nut. rectangular in shape. 10. . and it was the aim of every good Egyptian to go there after death. grant that the soul of the Osiris 1 p. who make souls to enter into their spiritual bodies. Pepi. and that it may be true of voice with you in the east of the sky. 52 . . From the texts inscribed upon the walls of the corridors and chambers of the pyramids of Unas. The object of the amulet is apparent from the text in which the deceased is made to say. which also formed the sky of this world. .9. it was directed by the rubric to the Chapter to be placed upon the breast of the deceased. . and let me be true of voice with them wheresoever they may be. . . but the signification of them is not always apparent. was made of an immense plate of iron. On this plate of iron lived the gods and the blessed dead. Teta. when the words of the LXXXIXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead had been recited over it. 51 "may come forth before the gods. May it look upon its natural body. who tow along the boat of the lord of millions of years. thou god Pehrer. then let my soul be brought unto me from wheresoever it may be. THE AMULET OF THE LADDER In tombs of the Ancient and Middle Empires small objects of wood and other substances in the form of ladders have often been found. and to be with its spirit (khu) and spiritual body at will. who dwellest in thy hall! Grant thou that my soul may come unto me from wheresoever it may be. the four corners of which rested upon four pillars which served to mark the cardinal points. THE AMULET OF THE SOUL. and enjoy twofold peace in Amentet. At certain sacred spots the edge of p. ye gods. . and. who bring it above the underworld. Let me have possession of my soul and of my spirit. and follow unto the place where it was yesterday. This amulet was made of gold inlaid with precious stones in the form of a human-headed hawk. Hail. thou god Anniu! Hail. . If it would tarry. it is clear that the primitive Egyptians believed that the floor of heaven. . may it rest upon its spiritual body.

the model of a ladder was often placed on or near the dead body in the tomb. O thou Ladder that supportest the . with a view either of reminding these gods of their supposed duty. 1 the son of Isis. be hath collected his flesh. are invoked to bring the ladder to Pepi.e. and thou shalt give unto Pepi the Ladder of the god (i.e. identified with the god Osiris. He hath placed his Eye before his father Seb. etc. rejoice ye that Pepi journeyeth among you. 54 heareth shall feed him and nourish him when he appeareth in heaven from the Ladder. and Pepi is Horus. For Pepi is thy son. and the ladder itself is adjured to come with its name. and in another place 3 we read. O 'thou god of those whose doubles (kau) pass onwards. even as Horus is glad when he meeteth his Eye. O Ladder of Set! Stand thou upright. and a special composition was prepared which had the effect of making the ladder become the means of the ascent of the deceased into heaven. And the brethren of Pepi who axe the gods shall be glad when they meet Pepi. Pepi hath gathered together his bones. . and each god assisted Osiris to mount it. . O Ladder of Set! Stand thou upright. and O ye who are the brethren of the gods. and thou hast given birth unto Pepi even as thou hast given birth unto the god who is the lord of the Ladder (i.' nor to 'collect the offering'. and he hath (need neither to go to the Hall which is in Annu (Heliopolis). Horus). thou shalt give unto him the Ladder of the god Set whereby this Pepi shall come forth into heaven when he shall have made use of his magical power upon Râ. O men whose bodies [would go] into heaven. Pepi hath need neither to 'plough the earth. (when the Eye of Horus soareth upon the wing of 'Thoth on the east side of the divine Ladder (or Ladder of God). There existed a belief that Osiris himself experienced some difficulty of getting up to the iron plate. O divine Ladder! Stand thou upright. Elsewhere 2 the gods Khonsu. and every god and every spirit stretcheth out his hand towards Pepi when he cometh forth into heaven from the Ladder.the plate was so near the tops of the mountains that the deceased might easily clamber on to it and so obtain admission into heaven. and he hath gone quickly into heaven by means of the two fingers 1 of the god of the Ladder (i. who was. and when the 'Eye turneth itself to any place where he is. and that it was only by means of the ladder which his father Râ provided that he at length ascended into heaven. Homage to thee.e. Horus). and on the other stood Horus. But. or of compelling them to do it. O divine Ladder! Homage to thee. nor to the Hall of the Morning which is in Annu. On one side of the ladder stood Râ. Horus). . Pepi is the Eye of Horus.. Pepi riseth like the uraeus on the forehead of Set. of course. 53 came forth into heaven when he made use of his magical power upon Râ. whereby Osiris p. Pepi goeth side by side with the Eye of Horus. for that which he seeth and that which he p. Thus in the text written for Pepi 2 the deceased is made to address the ladder in these words: "Homage to thee... and there are several references in the early texts to the help which they rendered to the deceased. O Ladder of Horus. and every god and every spirit stretcheth out his hand to Pepi on the Ladder.. Originally the two guardians of the ladder were Horus the Elder and Set. Sept. but at others the distance between it and the earth was so great that he needed help to reach it.

granite. vigour. and together they represent the two eyes of Horus. safety. The Utchat is of two kinds. was white and the other black. protection. for in Chapter CXLIX. although the rubric of a late Chapter of the Book of the Dead 3 directs that the amulet p. "The p. and the like. THE AMULET OF THE EYE OF HORUS. and in Chapter CLIII. and its use seems to have been universal at all periods. But speaking generally. It was made of gold. probably the white one.. 55 Osiris Nu shall come forth upon your Ladder which Râ hath made for him. silver. according to an ancient text. when the custom of placing a model of the ladder in the tomb fell into disuse. from another point of view one Utchat represents the Sun and the other the Moon. wood. carnelian." Finally. good health. take him by the hand and lead him towards Sekhet-Hetep (i. and they had in their minds the Eye of Horus. etc. porcelain. or the Sun. and let him take his seat among the stars which are in the sky. as has been described above." In the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead the importance of the ladder is also seen. the priests provided for the necessity of the dead by painting a ladder on the papyri that were inscribed with the texts from the Book of the Dead and were buried with them. index and medius. 4 the deceased says. In religious texts the expression meh Utchat. 1 [paragraph continues] 11. when the Egyptians wore the Utchat as an amulet they intended it to bring to them the blessings of strength. the "filling of ..golden vase of the Spirits of Pe and the Spirits of Nekhen. "I set up a Ladder among the gods. one of which. hæmatite. lapis-lazuli. the Elysian Fields). The Eye of Horus amulet. one facing to the left and the other to the right. i.e. it is found in the interior of mummies and is usually made of obsidian or hæmatite.e. he says. or Utchat. and I am a divine being among them". or Râ and Osiris respectively. 12. and Horus and Set shall grasp him firmly by the hand. This amulet is intended to represent the two fingers. THE AMULET OF THE TWO FINGERS. stretch out thy hand to this Pepi.. and let him take his seat between the two great gods who (care in the place of this Pepi. which the god Horus employed in helping his father Osiris up the ladder 2 into heaven. is one of the commonest of all. 56 should be made either of lapis-lazuli or of mak stone.

Khrê. 58 with an arrangement of certain vowels on each side of it thus: ' && $$$$ ##### """""" !!!!!!! {Greek w uu iiii hhhhh eeeeee aaaaaaa} ! "" ### $$$$ ##### """""" !!!!!!! {Greek a ee hhh iiii hhhhh . and from many considerations it is clear that we must understand it to refer to the Sun at the summer solstice. I am sound. Kariôb. another had then to be made of jasper and. thus the amulet seems to have been intended to bring to its wearer strength and health similar to that of the Sun at the season of the year when it is most powerful. Bêri. and by the terrible names !""###$$$$%%%%%&&&&&&''''''' {Greek aeehhhiiiiooooouuuuuuwwwwwww}'" 3 Following these words we have a picture of the utchat p.the Utchat. and Nebseni. who has carried away such [and such] a thing Khalkhak. and it is sound. And take a common piece of wood. four for Râ-Temu. Khalkoum. pronouncing this spell:--'I adjure thee by the holy names. and strike with it upon the ear. if after the specified Chapter (CXL. Pharibou.) had been recited over it. it was laid on any part of the body of the deceased. Khar. Zbarkom. render up the thief. Zbar. In the CLXVIIth Chapter of the Book of the Dead the deceased is made to say. O Râ. Khroum. 57 make one in lapis-lazuli and to plate it with gold. At this solstice twelve altars 1 had to be lighted. is sound. and it is sound. Anoint and write upon a wall Khoô with these materials. and cut a hammer out of it. An interesting example of the use of the utchat occurs in a Greek spell for the discovery of a thief written as late as the IVth century of our era. It was grievously afflicted by the storm. he would become a god and take his place in the boat of Râ. press out the juice and burn the crushed leaves and mix the ashes with the juice. the lord of piety. I am sound." To obtain the full benefit of the Utchat amulet for the deceased it was obligatory to p. and then to offer to it offerings at the summer solstice. four for the Utchat. Khiam." is often used. and four for the other gods who had been mentioned in the Chapter. and he hath made it to rest after it departed. "The god Thoth hath brought the Utchat. but Thoth made it to rest after it departed out of the storm. 2 In it we are told to "take the herb khelkbei and bugloss.

to be a conventional representation of some object which in the remotest period had been used as an . every god carries it. and the arms which project from it support the disk of the sun as here seen. Whatever it may represent. 59 various substances. and of all the suggestions which have been made concerning it none is more unlikely than that which would give it a phallic origin.." (ÂNKH). amulet. The object which is represented by this amulet is unknown. THE AMULET NEFER. THE AMULET OF "LIFE." 1 13. In the Papyrus of Ani (2nd edit.eeeeee aaaaaaa} The spell continues. let the eye of the thief be smitten and inflamed until it betrays him. "Render up the thief who has stolen such [and such] a thing: as long as I strike the ear with this hammer. plate 2) the Ânkh rises from the Tet. and was chiefly employed as a pendant of a necklace. . and it seems.' Saying these words strike with the hammer. even in the earliest times. 14. it certainly symbolizes "life". This amulet is made of p.

This power had been transferred to it by means of the words of the XXXIVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead. and carnelian. red porcelain." (From the Papyrus of Ani. and the standard of the god Tenpu. Depart ye from me. This amulet was placed on the dead body to keep it from being bitten by snakes in the underworld or tomb. It is made of red stone. 15. for I am the divine Lynx. "the standard of young plants and flowers. and represents a musical instrument. and was a very favourite form for the pendants of necklaces and strings of beads. red jasper. 60 have thought that the snake's head represents the serpent which surmounts the ram's head on the urhekau instrument used in performing the ceremony of "Opening the mouth.. it was made of carnelian.This amulet signifies "happiness." Some p. THE AMULET OF THE SERPENT'S HEAD. red paste." or as others say. red stone. it seems as if the idea underlying the use of this amulet was to vanquish the snakes in the tomb by means of the power of the great snake-goddess Isis. and the like. plate 15) ." etc." 1 The Kher-heb priest touching the statue of the deceased with the urhekau instrument to effect the "opening of the mouth. good luck. and red is a colour peculiar to her. The text reads: "O Serpent! I am the flame which shineth upon the Opener of hundreds of thousands of years. which are often inscribed upon it. As the goddess Isis is often typified by a serpent.

eternity. and other substances. it is made of lapis-lazuli and other hard stone substances. but it is often worn on the neck. 61 strength. THE AMULET OF THE MENAT. was supposed to be united therein. kings. Figures of the shen were p. priestesses. This amulet was in use in Egypt as early as the VIth dynasty. THE AMULET OF THE SHEN. The amulet is made in bronze.e.. and when laid upon the body of the dead brought to it the power of life and reproduction. porcelain. Its object was to bring joy and health to the wearer. stone. and it was worn or held or carried with the sistrum by gods. 17. This amulet is probably intended to represent an organ of the human body. and in the late period is often found in the swathings of mummies. usually it is held in the hand. and it was believed to possess magical properties. it represented nutrition 2 and p. it was laid upon the body of the dead with the view of giving to it life which should endure as long as the sun revolved in its orbit in the heavens. In the picture of the mummy chamber 1 the goddesses Isis and Nephthys are seen kneeling and resting their hands on shen. and the might of the male and female organs of generation. 62 . THE AMULET OF THE SAM. i. priests. and it became the symbol of an undefined period of time. and its use is very ancient. This amulet is intended to represent the sun's orbit. Its primary meaning is "union. 18..16. etc. mystically considered." and refers to animal pleasure.

This amulet is typical of teeming life and of the resurrection. coffins. Osiris. THE AMULET OF THE FROG. The frog-headed goddess Heqt. and the throne of Osiris.painted upon stelæ. The amulet of the cartouche has been supposed to be nothing more than shen elongated. The frog is often represented on the upper part of the Greek and Roman terra-cotta lamps which are found in Egypt." i. According to one legend. This amulet seems to have two meanings: to lift up to heaven. he found that he was not tall enough to do so. etc. in this difficulty he made use of a flight of steps. supported by her stretched-out arms and legs.e. might form the sky." 19. and this amulet. and having mounted to the top of these he found himself able to perform his work. and in funeral vignettes this god is seen seated upon the top of a flight of steps and holding his usual symbols of sovereignty and dominion. when the god Shu wished to lift up the goddess Nut from the embrace of the god Seb. 63 20. "I am the resurrection.. as an amulet it is commonly made of lapis-lazuli or carnelian. In the XXIInd Chapter of the Book of the Dead the deceased prays that he "may have a portion with him who is on the top of the steps. THE AMULET OF THE STEPS. "name.e. and on one of them written in Greek is the legend." 1 . The amulet of the Steps is usually made of green or blue glazed porcelain. but it probably refers to the ordinary meaning of i. was intended to transfer to it her power. In the fourth section of the Elysian Fields 1 three such flights of steps are depicted. p. so that her body. the wife of Khnemu. when laid upon the body of the dead... was associated with the resurrection.

Chapter XXIV. . the horns. or ornament.. an angle. or pendant. e. the White crown of the South. or any object whatsoever. and goddesses. and formulæ.. The use of amulets was common in Egypt from the earliest times to the Roman Period. typifying protection. they. in common with the Gnostics and semi-Christian sects. or picture. p.g. and it seems that these powers remained active as long as the substance lasted and as long as the name. or picture. etc. which they employed in much the same way as they were employed in the days of old." 27:2 Ethnographie Prehistorique. Besides these. which is entitled. imported into their new faith many of the views and beliefs which their so-called heathen ancestors had held. the horizon. or emblem. and plumes. was not p. disk. 144. Maspero. any ring. became an amulet with protective powers. upon which was inscribed the name of a god or his emblem.The amulets described above are those which are most commonly found in the tombs and on mummies.. or place where the sun rises. and with them the use of the names of ancient Egyptian gods. 28:1 Unas. Footnotes 27:1 I. "The Chapter of bringing words of power unto Osiris in the underworld. the Red crown of the North. 64 erased from it. and demons. ed. but a few others are also known. line 584. and when the Egyptians embraced Christianity. or the plummet.e.

p." 29:2 Literally. 33:3 See sheet 21. p. i. 2nd edition. the god and judge of the dead. line 200. 204 ff. ed. 52:1 Unas. p. entitled. 29:1 Chapter XXVI. 37:1 See J. the deceased who was identified with Osiris. Das älteste Buch über Heilkunde. line 471. line 422). as messengers from heaven to earth" (Pepi. 55:2 See Pepi. 1800. 32:2 I. and in it is said. "pericardium. p. 52:2 Line 192 f. 32:1 I..e. "Pepi is the son of the Scarab which is born in Hetepet under the hair of the northern Iusâas" (Pepi. Maspero. 233. Westwood. the daughter of the great god. 1895. . the deceased. line 579. O. 33:2 Brit. 55:3 I. London. vol. 22. 37:2 See my Mummy. 35:1 King Teta is said to "live like the scarab" (Teta. 34:1 See Chapter VI. 10. "The Chapter of giving a heart to the deceased. who is identified with the god Osiris. 41:1 have given a summary of the chief varieties of the funeral scarab in my Papyrus of Ani.28:2 Teta. 1852).. 119). p. 54:3 Pepi. 1839." 31:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day (translation. 160. (Magical Ceremonies). No. translation. Berlin. line 196. p.477.. pl.e. 262. Thoth.e. 55:1 See the Papyrus of Ani. 54:2 Pepi... 270.. Mus. line 89). "Give thou to Pepi these two fingers which thou hast given to Nefert. 54:4 See my Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. 50:1 I. CXL. 39:1 See Joachim. Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects. 42:1 Fragment of a Græco-Egyptian Work upon Magic (Publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 33:1 The Bennu bird is usually identified with the phoenix. London. sheet 13. line 351. line 422).e. 54:1 Compare.

" Then all the priests and nobles went to a certain priest with whom "a devil . p. 333 f. But the Egyptians went a step further than this. 60:2 Menat is connected with the root from which the word for "nurse" (menât) is derived. if the name. 853. most powerful when used as a spell. p. or woman. 60:1 See the description of this ceremony in Chapter VI. knowing that if they were once shattered the spirits which dwelt in them would have no place wherein to dwell. therefore. "Le Menat et le Nom de l'Eunuque" in Proc. Fragment of a Græco-Egyptian work upon Magic. It will be remembered that it is stated in the Apocryphal Gospels that when the Virgin Mary and her Son arrived in Egypt there "was a movement and quaking throughout all the land. Arch. 7. or picture was not erased from it. 1891. or living creature. the soul of the being which it represented. 31. see the article by Lefébure. 63:1 See Lanzone.. 62:1 See Papyrus of Ani. p. 57:2 Kenyon. and all the idols fell down from their pedestals and were broken in pieces. Soc.57:1 One for each month of the year. p. and were. Dizionario. 58:1 See Goodwin. or emblem. or animal. and would thereby be rendered homeless and powerless. 57:3 The seven vowels were supposed in the Gnostic system to contain all the names of God. plate 35. Catalogue of Greek Papyri. MAGICAL FIGURES. IT has been said above that the name or the emblem or the picture of a god or demon could become an amulet with power to protect him that wore it. The statue of a god in a temple contained the spirit of the god which it represented. and from time immemorial the people of Egypt believed that every statue and every figure possessed an indwelling spirit. 66 the Greeks and Romans. 65 CHAPTER III. and its qualities and attributes. p. and that such power lasted as long as the substance of which it was made lasted. 2nd edit. 2nd edit. for they always endeavoured to throw down the statues of the gods of p. plates 33. When the Christianized Egyptians made their attacks on the "idols of the heathen" they proved that they possessed this belief. 61:1 See Papyrus of Ani. Bibl. and they believed that it was possible to transmit to the figure of any man.. 61.

used to speak from out of the idol. to which magical powers had been imparted by means of the performance of certain symbolic ceremonies and the recital of certain words of power. and the steward having taken the wax crocodile from his master went his way. But the steward. and beasts." So the house was made ready and provided with all good things." Then. but ordered him to bring him certain materials and his box made of ebony and precious metal. "behold. When all had been made ready she went to the house and stayed there the whole day drinking and making love with the man until sunset. who reigned about B. and when the evening had come he rose up and went down to the river and the tirewoman bathed him in the water thereof. 68 servant's report. Out of the box he took a quantity of wax. and how they could be employed to do both good and evil. The Egyptians acknowledged that the new god was greater than all their gods together. It seems that this king once paid a visit to one of his high officials called Âba-aner. he gave the wax crocodile to him and said. a king of the IIIrd dynasty. cometh down to wash in the water thou shalt cast the crocodile in after him". turning to the steward. and made a model of a crocodile seven spans long. There he saw the wife and made an appointment to meet her in a little house which was situated on her husband's estate. kept there for purposes similar to that to which a portion of it was now to be put. and they were quite prepared to set up a statue of him because they believed that in so doing they would compel at least a portion of the spirit of the "secret and hidden god" to come and dwell in it. who had made ready the house. declared that he must make the matter known unto his master. and apparently she made known to him her mistress's desire. he said. 3830.C. and when he had explained to them that the footstep of the son of the "secret and hidden god" had fallen upon the land of Egypt. and men. "When the man cometh down to bathe in my waters seize thou him." and they asked him the meaning of these things." she said. whose wife fell violently in love with one of the soldiers in the royal train. they accepted his counsel and made a figure of this god. he went to Âbaaner and related to him everything which had happened. This lady sent her tirewoman to him with the gift of a chest of clothes. according to his daily wont. And again the wife of Âba-aner ordered the steward who had charge of the estate to make ready the house which was in the garden. "for. no doubt. The official made no answer to his p. and on the following morning as soon as it was light. "When the man. p. I am coming to pass some time therein. for he returned with her to Âbaaner's house. 1 where we read that Prince Khâf-Râ told Khufu (Cheops) a story of an event which had happened in the time of Neb-ka or Neb-kau-Ed. which was. 67 One of the earliest instances of the use of a magical figure is related in the Westcar Papyrus. and . and she gave instructions to one of the stewards of Âba-aner to prepare it for the arrival of herself and her lover. and then reciting certain magical words over it. In the following pages we shall endeavour to describe the principal uses which the Egyptians made of the figures of gods.

the kher heb. where they led a life which was not very different from that which they had led upon earth. Here then we have already in the IIIrd dynasty the existence of a belief that a wax crocodile. But at the time when Âba-aner was working magic by means of wax figures. and that. or bread-cakes and ale. could change itself into a living reptile at pleasure. And by the royal command Âbaaner's wife was seized. And on the seventh day Âba-aner the kher heb 1 went out with the king for a walk. When they had come to the water Âba-aner adjured the crocodile. and seized upon the man and dragged him down in the water. and immediately the crocodile seized the man and sprang into the water with him. The existence of bread and ale presupposed the existence of wheat and barley." and the crocodile came out of the water bringing the man with him. 69 Meanwhile Âba-aner tarried with his king Neb-kau-Râ for seven days. 70 had been said. saying. in fact. 71 . so the king went with him. nor his servant. thought the working of magic inconsistent with his high religious office.e. Âba-aner stooped down and took it up into his hand. and that it was intersected by canals. when it straightway became a waxen crocodile as it was before. Now when the evening was come the man went down to the water to wash according to his daily wont. it was very much like an ordinary well-kept estate in the Delta. and her ashes were cast into the stream. The beings who lived in this place. According to one very early belief the dead made their way to a region called SekhetAaru. and the man remained in the depths of the water and had no air to breathe. whereupon the king said to the crocodile.. nor his king. And when the king remarked that the crocodile was a horrid looking monster. over which certain words p. neither himself. "Take that which is thine and begone". the priests were making provision for the happiness and well-being of the dead also by means of figures made of various substances. apparently. however. had the same wants as human beings. From the pictures of this place which are painted on coffins of the XIth dynasty. and invited His Majesty to come and see for himself a wonderful thing which had happened to a man in his own days. which straightway turned into a living crocodile seven cubits (i. probably to the harm and injury of his enemies. we see that it was surrounded by streams of water. was so much in the habit of performing such acts of magic that he kept in a room a box of materials and instruments always ready for the purpose. and having been led to the north side of the palace was burnt.she came with the man and passed some time with him there. about twelve feet) in length. "Bring hither the man. and disappeared in its depths. After these things Âba-aner related to the king what had happened between his wife and the man whom the crocodile had brought up out of the water. and the steward went down after him and threw into the water the wax crocodile. and that a man could be made by the same means to live at the bottom of a stream for seven days without air. that is to say. and p. and. We may also notice that the great priestly official. they needed both food and drink. p.

since the inhabitants of Sekhet-Aaru needed food and drink. I have come from the city of Unnu (Hermopolis). "I lift up the hand of the man who is inactive. any obstacles (or opposition) to thee will be done away with there--let the judgment fall upon thee instead of upon me always. such as were employed by the Egyptian labourer in carrying field produce. a work which had to be done by a man standing in water in the sun. which was called "Shabti":-"O thou Shabti figure of the scribe Nebseni. but before it was laid in the tomb the priests recited over it the words of power which would cause it to do for the deceased whatever work he might be adjudged to perform in the kingdom of Osiris. 72 provided with representations of the rope basket. and of bringing the sands from the east to the west. therefore he endeavoured to avoid this by getting the work done vicariously. and in ploughing. or instrument for raising water p. but one of the oldest. 73 . and [will do] whatsoever thou biddest me to do. or if I be adjudged to do any work whatsoever of the labours which are to be done in the underworld by a man in his turn--behold. and in threshing grain. But. The formula 1 or words of power which were inscribed on such figures varied at different periods. At first a formula 1 was composed. of filling the water-courses with water. makes the deceased say to the figure. and the toilsome task of working the shadûf. and plough . and when the deceased himself had said. Later." his existence was thought to be without toil. the recital of which was supposed to relieve the deceased from the necessity of doing any work whatsoever. and the necessary labours of the field must." After these words comes the answer by the figure. To meet the difficulty a small stone figure of the deceased was buried with him. similarly words of power said over a figure could make it to do good. and flail . But the Egyptian had no wish to continue the labours of ploughing and reaping and preparing the ground for the new crops in the world beyond the grave. which was in use in the XVIIIth dynasty. "Verily I am" here. in the matter of sowing the fields. I am the divine Soul which liveth. and later still the figure was p. be performed.the production of these presupposed the tilling of the ground and the work of agricultural labourers. and of sowing the seed. these words were inscribed upon the figure in hieroglyphics. If words of power said over a figure could make it to do evil. if I be called." The Egyptians were most anxious to escape the labours of top-dressing 2 the land. and I lead with me the hearts of the apes. in some manner. provision must be made for their production.

a certain high official.. and not bringing it forward against them. Not content with endeavouring to dethrone the king by an uprising of both soldiers and civilians. and these he succeeded in introducing into the royal palace by means of the official Athirmâ. Having gained possession of the book he next looked out for some place where he could carry on his magical work without interruption. and certain scribes. 75 it seems as if those who took them into the palace and those who received them were under the magical influence of Hui. and he obtained from him a book containing formulæ of a magical nature. and do thou thyself come to do wrong to thy lord". the Overseer of the Treasury included. and a military official of high rank in that country was drawn into it by his sister.from the Nile and turning it on to the land. king of Egypt about B.. king of Egypt about B.C. and p." and he became able to cast spells upon folk. but as to the object of the wax figures there is no doubt.C. and amulets inscribed with words of magical power which would provoke love. Hui. no less than seven hundred wooden ushabtiu inscribed with the VIth Chapter of the Book of the Dead. 1200. and at length found one. and so she was able to give her brother the latest information of the progress of the disaffection. and it is said that in the tomb of Seti I. and he succeeded in finding efficacious means for carrying out all the "horrible things and all the wickednesses which . They took into their counsels a number of the ladies attached to the court (some think they belonged to the harîm)." and so on. 1370. for they were intended to work harm to the king. another was charged with being cognizant of the whole matter. but several. who urged him to "Incite the men to commit crime. The next instance worth mentioning of the use of magical figures we obtain from the official account of a conspiracy against Rameses III. bethought him of applying magic to help their evil designs. and with this object in view he went to some one who had access to the king's library. who was the overseer of the [royal] cattle. It seems that a number of high officials. were found. and the chief abode of these ladies became the headquarters of the conspirators. The conspiracy soon extended from Egypt to Ethiopia. and directions for working magic. 74 "giving ear to the conversation held by the men conspiring with the women of the Perkhent. One official was charged with "carrying abroad their words to their mothers and sisters who were there to stir up men and to incite malefactors to do wrong to their lord". Here he set to work to make figures of men in wax. another was charged with aiding and abetting the conspiracy by making himself one with the ringleaders. when boxes full of ill-shaped. By means of this book he obtained "divine power. The use of the shabti figure continued unabated down to the Roman period. another with p. and with concealing his knowledge of it. In graves not one figure only is found. and covered with bitumen. uninscribed porcelain figures were buried in the tombs with the dead. now the sister of this official was in the Perkhent. It is probable that the love philtres were intended for the use of the ladies who were involved in the conspiracy. conspired together against this king apparently with the view of dethroning him. Meanwhile Hui studied his magical work with great diligence.

which consisted of six p. They were removed from their trusted positions before the king. 1200 as they were two thousand five hundred years earlier. of the king's personal friends. and dismissed him to his own death. we have also seen that the. the king's orders to them were that "those who are guilty shall die by their own hands. investigated the cases of those who were charged with having "stirred up men and incited malefactors to do wrong to their lord. and those of the ladies themselves. In another place Hui is accused of writing books or formulæ of magical words. 1 The above story of the famous conspiracy against Rameses III. was also compelled to commit suicide." The first court. who is also called by another name. but before their business was done three of them were arrested because it was found that the ladies had gained great influence over them. He was brought before the court of judges that he might receive sentence. for the most part. and because he had intent to do evil unto his lord. and tell me nothing whatever about it." The wretched man Hui. The second court. where he suffered death by his own hand. He was brought up on account of the offence which he had committed in connexion with his mother Thi when she formed a conspiracy with the women of the Perkhent.his heart could imagine". that they and the ladies had feasted together. which were intended to set the deceased free from the necessity of labour in the world beyond the grave. and the punishment of such crimes was death. That such figures were used in the pre-dynastic days when the Egyptians were slowly emerging into civilization from a state of semi-barbarism is not to . from the IIIrd to the XXth dynasty. 77 and suffering and death upon the king. and the whole matter was carefully investigated by two small courts of enquiry. impartial judges. But their efforts were in vain.C. use of ushabtiu figures. and having been examined and their guilt clearly brought home to them. and that the ideas which the Egyptians held concerning them were much the same about B. sat to investigate the offences of the husbands and relatives of the royal ladies. the members of which consisted. and to strike terror into them. and of making gods of wax and figures of men of the same substance. in the following terms:--"Pentaura. in consequence. and at length committed great crimes which were the horror of every god and goddess. their ears and noses were cut off as a punishment and warning to others not to form friendships with the enemies of the king. which consisted of five members. is most useful as proving that books of magic existed in the Royal Library. which should cause the human beings whom they represented to become paralysed and helpless. the effect of which would be to drive men out of their senses. was widespread. one by one. these means he employed in all seriousness. but definite works with detailed instructions to the reader how to perform the ceremonies which were necessary to make the formulæ or words of power efficacious. and that they had ceased to be. 76 members. and they found him guilty. We have now seen that wax figures were used both to do good and to do harm. and that they were not mere treatises on magical practices." and having found them guilty they sentenced six of them to death. the conspiracy was discovered. who made wax figures and spells with the intent to inflict pain p.

and it is still more remarkable that these services were performed at a time when the Egyptians were renowned among the nations of the civilized world for their learning and wisdom. but it is found. the gods have turned thy face backwards. could not be ruled by man and by his petty words and deeds. in many of the copies of the Book of the Dead which were made in the XVIIIth dynasty. and they have fettered him with fetters. Get thee back. and the god Hertit hath put him in chains. he divideth thy head at the two sides of the ways. which was deified under the form of Râ." which reads. and a hymn to Râ. 80 . and it need not surprise us that they existed as a survival in the early dynasties before the people generally had realized that the great powers of Nature. "Râ maketh thee to turn back. and Maât hath sent forth thy destruction. 79 thou enemy of Râ. but it contained two versions of the history of the Creation. "Fire be upon thee. he looketh upon thee. the ideas in it were developed. the god Rekes hath overthrown him. which they deified. thy members are hacked from off thee. O thou that art hateful to him. the Scorpion hath cast fetters upon thee. One company of priests attached to the temple was employed in transcribing hymns and religious compositions in which the unity." which contained twelve chapters. get thee back. Fiend. "Chapter of putting the fire upon Âpep. 2 Among the chapters of the former work was one entitled. 78 that the use of wax figures played a prominent part in certain of the daily services which were performed in the temple of the god Amen-Râ at Thebes. and might of God were set forth in unmistakable terms. and at the time of the Ptolemies it had become a book called "The Book of Overthrowing Âpep. thy bones are smashed in pieces. It is. however. At the same time another work bearing the same title also existed. from the attacks of a monster called Âpep! It will be remembered that the XXXIXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead is a composition which was written with the object of defeating a certain serpent. and of delivering the deceased from his attacks." 1 The age of this composition is unknown. and it is crushed in his land. and of the east. The gods of the south. O Âpep.be wondered at. and a list of the evil names of Âpep. he cutteth through thy face. the work itself was greatly enlarged. and the god Aker hath condemned thee. and the deceased says to him. to which many names are given. thou enemy of Râ! The Eye of Horus prevails over the accursed soul and shade of Âpep. with variants. p. of the west. before the darts of his beams! Râ hath overthrown thy words. In it we have a description of how the monster is vanquished. power. Âpep. He pierceth thy head. however. it was not divided into chapters. the Lynx hath torn open thy breast. Later. have fastened chains upon him. and of the north. very remarkable to find p. and the p. and at the same time another company was engaged in performing a service the object of which was to free the Sun. however mysterious and solemn. and was the type and symbol of God upon earth.

enemy of Râ! The flame which cometh forth from the Eye of Horus advanceth against thee. The text continues. and another at midnight." In another part of this book the reciter is told to say the following "firmly with the mouth":-. An end. Râ triumphs over Âpep. O Âpep. and another at eventide when Râ setteth in the land of life. 81 a wax figure 1 of Âpep upon which his name hath been cut and inlaid with green colour. Râ triumphs over Âpep. [and if necessary] thou mayest do thus every hour during the day and the night. and thou shalt lay them upon the fire so that it may consume the enemy of Râ. "thou shalt gay these words of power:--Taste thou death. "Back."Down upon thy face. Âpep. Âpep. By means of this Âpep. fall down. O enemy of Râ. and on the days of the festivals and every day. And when the figure of Âpep is placed in the fire thou shalt spit upon him several times each hour during the day. Taste thou death. life! strength! health! both in death and in life. and another towards evening. for Râ shall shine and Âpep shall indeed be overthrown. get thee back. and over p. and "thereby shall the sun be made to shine. retreat. Thou shalt do this and so p. and at dawn on the fifteenth day [of the month]. thou shalt say this chapter over a figure of Âpep which hath been drawn in green colour upon a sheet of new papyrus. When Âpep is given to the flame." And the papyrus and the figure "having been burnt in a fire made of khesau grass. Râ triumphs over Âpep. an end to thee! Taste thou death! An end to thee! Thou shalt never rise again." These last sentences were said four times. 82 prevent the coming of a shower or a rain-storm. and therefore have I made thee to be destroyed. O Âpep. be repulsed. and the flame of the Eye of Horus shall consume all the enemies of the Mighty God. and another at the eighth hour of the day. Taste thou death. Thou shalt do these things when tempests rage in the east of the sky as Râ setteth. that is to say. And thou shalt put such a figure on the fire at dawn. the remains thereof shall be mixed with excrement and thrown upon a fire. Râ triumphs over Âpep. Âpep. and therefore have I adjudged thee to evil. Âpep. in order to prevent the coming onward of the storms. thou shalt do this at the sixth hour of the night." says the rubric. and these are followed by the directions for performing the ceremony." Such are the words of power.flame of the Eye of Horus shall gnaw into that enemy of Râ. which read thus:-"If thou wouldst destroy Âpep. an end to thee! Therefore have I driven flame at thee. Thou art thrust down into the flame it of . shall be overthrown in the shower. Taste thou death. the enemy of Râ. once for each of the gods of the cardinal points. and I have cut thee in pieces. Fiend. Taste thou death. get back and retreat! I have driven thee back. until the shadow turneth round. and another at noon.

these are to be called "Children of inactivity. in order to destroy the fiends who are in the train of Âpep." Finally. Get thee back. must tie them up with black hair. . and what escapeth from it hath no being. 84 'Hauna-aru-her-hra.' Make another with the face of a duck. and having inscribed their names upon them. be who would benefit by the knowledge of them is bidden to "make the figure of a serpent with his tail in his mouth. and with a knife stuck in his back. Under the heading of "Magical Figures" must certainly be included the so-called PtahSeker-Ausar figure which is usually made of wood. and mist and cloud. forgotten. Seker (Socharis). thy accursed name is buried in oblivion. this done they are to be thrown into the fire. and with a knife stuck in his back. cast him down upon the ground and say.fire and it cometh against thee. and thou art forgotten. as well as those of their fathers. and when this has been done he is to write in green colour upon a piece of new papyrus the names of all the fiends who are in the train of Âpep. and to thy words of power. after the names of Âpep are enumerated. and to thy body. the great fire trieth thee. "'Âpep. after a series of curses which are ordered to be said over Âpep. and to thy spirit. it devoureth thee. Make another with the face of a crocodile. and tie it up and bind it tightly. Thou hast come to an end. "Make another serpent with the face of a cat. and call it 'Âpep the Enemy. and it darteth into thy form. thunder and lightning. and silence is upon it. and is usually let into a rectangular wooden stand which may be either solid or hollow. The lady of fire prevaileth over thee. The eye of Horus which is powerful against its enemy hath cast thee down. the flame pierceth thy soul. He must then make figures of all these fiends in wax. To make these words to be of effect the speaker is told to write the names of Âpep upon a new papyrus and to burn it in the fire either when Râ is rising. it is often solid.'" Then. and with a knife stuck in his back.' Make another with the face of a white cat. both upon earth and in the underworld." The papyrus then continues. and having stuck a knife in his back. and pierce them with a stone spear. Betet. the rubric directs that they shall be recited p. and Ausar (Osiris). Its flame is deadly to thy soul.'" Such are the means which the Egyptians adopted when they wanted to keep away rain and storm. "It is good for a man to recite this book before the august god regularly. the flame devoureth thee. thy soul is shrivelled up. and to thy shade. the Eye of Râ prevaileth over thee. and mothers. and to ensure a bright clear sky wherein the sun might run his course. it maketh an end of thy person." for the doing of it was believed to give great power "to him. The three gods or trinity of Ptah. or at sunset. etc. but is sometimes made hollow." etc. More than once is it said. and call it 'Hemhem' (Roarer). In another part of the work. and with a knife stuck in his back. and it hath fallen [out of remembrance]. and call it 'Aluti. or at noon. and call it p. thou hast been driven away. other images or figures of them must be made with their hands tied behind them. and children. forgotten. Fiend. 83 by a person who hath washed himself and is ceremonially clean. for thou art cut asunder. and then cast them on the ground and kick them with the left foot.

especially in the late period. and the name Seker means "He who is shut in." and is usually applied to the sun as the "opener" of the day. and thus the deceased was provided with additional security for the resurrection of his spiritual body in the world to come. he "opened" or began his life as Ptah. But the difficulty was how to obtain the protection of Ptah.are intended to represent the god of the sunrise (Ptah). as in the case of the priestess Anhai. but which prove that the artist had not the remotest idea of the meaning of the things which he was writing. as it begins a new life with renewed strength and vigour. it may be wondered why such a very large proportion of the figures of the gods which were worn by the living and attached to the bodies of the dead as amulets are made of almost every kind of substance except wax. the night sun. It is possible that they were employed largely by the poor. On the figure itself and on the sides of the stand were inscribed prayers on behalf of the man for whom it was made. and it is also possible that the fact of its having been employed from time immemorial for making figures which were intended to work harm and not . who in this instance is in the form of Osiris only. and. and Osiris. 85 of the new life which the Egyptian hoped to live in the world beyond the grave. Seker. it became the type p. and it was thought that if the three gods protected and preserved that piece. But the sun rises again when the night is past. a small portion of the body of the deceased was carefully mummified and placed in it. 2 It seems that the Ptah-Seker-Ausar figure was much used in the late period in Egypt. the whole body would be protected. Now the life of a man upon earth was identified with that of the sun. The name Ptah means "Opener. and the Egyptian believed that these prayers caused the might and powers of the three gods to come and dwell in the wooden figure. To attain this end a figure was fashioned in such a way as to include the chief characteristics of the forms of these gods. and was inserted in a rectangular wooden stand which was intended to represent the coffin or chest out of which the trinity Ptah-Seker-Ausar came forth. but occasionally." like it also. and after death he was "shut in" or "coffined. 1 inscribed with numerous texts and illustrated with vignettes. and revivified. The little rolls of papyrus p. the god of the night sun (Seker). But the reason of this is not far to seek: wax is a substance which readily changes its form under heat and pressure. for many inscribed examples have been found which are not only illegible." that is to say. and how to make them do for the man that which they did for themselves. and preserved. Returning once more to the subject of wax figures. who was regarded as the sun buried temporarily. a fine large papyrus. But in order to make the stand of the figure as much like a coffin as possible. and in this was laid a small roll of papyrus inscribed with the text of certain Chapters of the Book of the Dead. a cavity was made in the side of the stand. was placed inside the figure of the god. Frequently. and so secure their attributes. 86 are often inscribed with but short and fragmentary texts. and the god of the resurrection (Osiris). among whom they seem to have served the purpose of the costly tomb. and if they revivified it in due season.

good to man. and Serqet respectively. and represented the south. induced those who made amulets in the forms of the gods to select some other material. were called Mestha. (British Museum. As a matter of fact. Mestha was man-headed. now preserved in the British Museum. and with them were associated the goddesses Isis. and represented the . No. Hâpi. or the gods of the four cardinal points. Neith. Nephthys. and protected the stomach and large intestines. 89 made of wax to serve as protective amulets are known. 87 Ptah-Seker-Ausar figure with cavity containing a portion of a human body mummified. 9736). and a set of four. The four children of Horus. Tuamutef. Hâpi was dog-headed. several figures of gods p. are worthy of notice. p. and Qebhsennuf. however. representing the four children of Horus.

. 1 The four children of Horus played a p. it might well be said that the organ of the deceased which was put in it was actually placed inside the god. and p. The custom of embalming the intestines separately is very old. For some unknown reason the set referred to above was made of wax. The various internal organs of men were removed from the body before it was mummified. this could be done by burying with him four models or "dummy" jars. 91 . and Qebhsennuf was hawk-headed. and having been steeped in certain astringent substances and bitumen were wrapped up in bandages. and laid in four jars made of stone. Osiris rising from the funeral chest holding the symbol of "life" In each hand. or wood. and its cover was made in the form of the head of the god who was represented by it.) stone jars. and as the jar by means of the inscription upon it became an abode of the god. porcelain. and drawn along in the funeral procession immediately after the coffin. and protected the small intestines. In later times we find that many attempts were made to secure for the deceased the benefit of the protection of these four gods without incurring the expense of The Four Children of Horus. even at that early period the four jars of mummified intestines were placed in a funeral chest. or four wax ones. or coffer. plate 8. . Tuamutef was jackal-headed) and represented the east and protected the lungs and the heart. (From the Papyrus of Ani. and as it was hollow. . and represented the west. or four porcelain figures of the four gods.north. marble. 90 several examples of it in the XIth dynasty are known. . Each jar was placed under the protection of one of the four children of Horus. earthenware. which was mounted on a sledge. and protected the liver and the gall-bladder.

he retired into a certain chamber. and also of his own men and ships. but very soon each was regarded as the god of one of the four quarters of the earth. even so did the real ships and men sink through the waters to the bottom of the sea. and this he did by the following means. and a score of other languages and dialects. and he continued to occupy his kingdom in peace for a considerable [paragraph continues] p. the last native king of Egypt. as we shall see. they originally represented the four supports of heaven. and the subterranean demons. and uttering words of power he invoked the gods who help men to work magic. When the king heard the news he laughed. Syriac. and he was deeply learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. he filled it with water. both on earth and in heaven. In this way he succeeded in maintaining his power. this king was famous as a magician and a sage. and then. and pouring water into the bowl began to work magic in the usual . and those of the enemy on the other. or over jars made to represent them. By their means the figures of the men in wax sprang into life and began to fight. 93 period. his men on one side. and having said some scornful words about his enemies. it was absolutely necessary for his welfare that he should propitiate these gods and place himself under their protection. in interpreting omens. was the chief. and having brought forth a bowl which he kept for the purpose. and the ships of wax began to move about likewise.C. He knew what was in the depths of the Nile and of heaven. and as the figures of the ships and men of the hostile fleet sank through the water to the bottom of the bowl. he set them upon the water in the bowl. which straightway came to his aid. in casting nativities. As the constant prayer of the deceased was that he should be able to go about wherever he pleased. and in working magic of every kind. Arabic. and the versions of his works which were translated into Pehlevi. if we may believe Greek tradition. he was said to be the lord of the earth.very important part in the funeral works of the early dynasties. and also of that quarter of the heavens which was above it. p. If the enemy came against him by sea. and in predicting the future of the unborn child. He then came out. and that their allied forces were at that moment marching against him. and having put on the cloak of an Egyptian prophet and taken an ebony rod in his hand. which could only be secured by the recital of certain words of power over figures of them. in telling fortunes. According to Pseudo. Nectanebus. he was skilled in reading the stars. But it fell out on a day that certain scouts came and informed Nectanebus that a multitude of the nations of the East had made a league together against Egypt. and the winds. 318. about B. he returned into the chamber.Callisthenes. and to rule all kings by means of his magical powers. But of all the Egyptians who were skilled in working magic. instead of sending out his sailors to fight them. he went into his private chamber. 92 Whenever he was threatened with invasion by sea or by land he succeeded in destroying the power of his enemies. having made wax figures of the ships and men of the enemy. but the figures which represented his own men vanquished those which represented the enemy. and in driving them from his coasts or frontiers.

To do this he left her presence. we come to the passage in which the story of the way in which he sent a dream p. he understood that the end of the kingdom of Egypt was at hand. and to lend him their help whenever he had need of it. mentions a tradition that Aristotle gave to Alexander a number of wax figures nailed down in a box. in which the casting of the nativity of Olympias by Nectanebus is described. The Arab writer. who was regarded as the father of all the kings who ascended the throne of Egypt. clearly. Now as soon as Nectanebus saw this. in connexion with the Egyptian use of wax figures. 2 Here. and coming to him told him what things he should see in his dream. for when he wanted to make Philip of Macedon to see certain things in a dream. and Aristotle taught him to recite certain formulæ over it . Nectanebus then lit his lamp. and going out into the desert he collected a number of herbs which he knew how to employ in causing people to dream dreams. and having brought them back with him be squeezed the juice out of them. Omitting. The box was to go wherever Alexander went. 94 to the queen by means of a wax figure is told. He then quitted the chamber hastily. and in a single night the hawk flew from Macedonia to the place where Philip was. But when he had spoken the words of power. and to take a certain view about what he saw. that the gods of Egypt were steering the enemies' ships. and told her that she should give birth to a man-child who should avenge her on her husband Philip. he sent a hawk. He then made the figure of a woman in wax. and disguised himself by putting on common apparel. who flourished in the XIIIth century of our era. he adjured the demons to such purpose that Olympias dreamed a dream in which the god Amen came to her and embraced her. But the means described above were not the only ones known to Nectanebus for procuring dreams. where he established himself as a physician. and leading their soldiers to war against himself. and he saw them. and as an Egyptian soothsayer. derived from Egyptian sources. must be mentioned one or two stories and traditions of Alexander the Great which are. he looked at the wax figures. On the morrow Philip had the dream explained by an expounder of dreams. 95 and he was satisfied that the child 1 to whom his wife Olympias was about to give birth was the son of the god Amen (or Ammon) of Libya. or at least out of that of one of his confidential servants. and. which he had previously bewitched by magical words. which was fastened by a chain. for the present. be took ship and fled to Pella in Macedonia. to Philip as he lay asleep. to his dismay. and wrote upon it the name of Olympias. just as the priest of Thebes made the figure of Âpep in wax and cut his name upon it. p. His object was to persuade the queen that the Egyptian god Amen would come to her at night. who did not belong to the royal stock of that country. Abu-Shâker. and having shaved off his hair and his beard. having poured the juice of the herbs over the wax figure of the queen. and saw.way. for hitherto the gods had been wont to hold converse with him readily. and which he ordered him never to let go out of his hand. any reference to the contents of the IVth chapter of PseudoCallisthenes.

whenever he took it up or put it down. 97 and snap at the lover. he is directed to make a figure of a dog in wax mixed with pitch. in providing Alexander with these models and the words of power to use with them. If a lover wished to secure the favours of his mistress. it is clear that. gum. and so they would be powerless to attack him. and the male figure is to stand over her with his sword at her throat. In the second example the lover is ordered to make two waxen figures. "I pierce" (here he mentions the name of the limb) "that she may think of me. and some had bows with cut strings. and when this has been done. eight fingers long. When this has been done the lover must recite the words of power which are written on the dog's side. If he snarls and snaps the lover will not gain the object of his affections." The lover must next write certain words of power on a leaden plate. the use of p. and if all these things be done in a proper manner the lover will obtain the woman's affections. and both figure and plate are to be buried in the grave of some one who has died young or who has been slain by violence. one in the form of Ares.. and certain words of power are to be written over the place where his ribs should be. Some of the models held in their hands leaden swords which were curved backwards.. on this tablet the figure of the dog must be placed. all these were laid face downwards in the box. and one of two things will happen: i. Aristotle believed he was giving him the means of making his enemies to become like the figures in the box. which must be tied to the wax figures with a string containing three hundred and sixty-five knots. or he will bark. and stick them in her limbs. The figures in the box were intended to represent the various kinds of armed forces that Alexander was likely to find opposed to him. Viewed by what we p. The female figure is to be in the posture of kneeling upon her knees with her hands tied behind her. 98 . and the tablet is made to rest upon a tripod. etc. or the names of beings who were supposed to possess magical powers. 96 know of the ideas which underlay the use of wax figures by the Egyptians and Greeks. and the two following examples indicate that the ideas which underlay their use had not changed in the least. and the other in the form of a woman. the dog will either snarl p. the lover must take thirteen bronze needles.e. Next it was necessary to write on a tablet other words of power. On the limbs of the female figure a large number of the names of demons are to be written. and some had spears in their hands pointed head downwards. 1 In the Græco-Roman period 2 wax figures were used in the performance of magical ceremonies of every kind. but if he barks the lady will come to him. by way of Greece and Rome. saying as he does so. and also the names which have been inscribed on the tablet. 1 From Egypt. He must then recite a long incantation to the infernal gods.

and the words of enchantment prevented him from the refreshment of sleep. and basting the figure with a poisonous liquor. and their death much more painful." The two following extracts from Thomas Middleton's The Witch 2 illustrate the views held about wax figures in England in the time of this writer. Is the heart of wax Stuck full of magique needles?" Stadlin. "Heccat. and of how the people that were represented by such figures gradually lost the power over their limbs. A sodaine and a subtle.) II. If pins and needles were stuck into the wax figures at stated times the sufferings of the living were made more agonizing. reciting certain words of enchantment. and could not sleep. Good: Then their marrowes are a melting subtelly And three monethes sicknes sucks up life in 'em. scene 2. and slowly sickened and died. so that they might melt away slowly. not too close to the fire. And is the Farmer's picture. Lay'd downe to th' fire yet? Stadlin. and his wives. the body of the king should decay. Heccat.. Many stories are current of how in Italy and England ignorant or wicked-minded people made models of their enemies in wax and hung them up in the chimney. and in the Middle Ages it found great favour with those who interested themselves in the working of the "black art. Sharpe relates 1 that about the end of the VIIth century king Duffus was so unpopular that "a company of hags roasted his image made of wax upon a wooden spit. What death is't you desire for Almachildes? Duchesse. 'Tis done Heccat. "Heccat. . They are a roasting both too." (Act i. 3 p. Heccat." or who wished to do their neighbour or enemy an injury. These women when apprehended declared that as the wax melted. 99 I.wax figures passed into Western Europe and England.

subtily. The art of making such figures King James I. for the not concurrence of these spirites. attributes to the "Divell. Again. in her trouble she consulted a "white witch. Wishing them neither rest nor peace Till they are dead and gone." At intervals her son George sprinkled salt on the fire which added greatly to the weirdness of the scene. They can bewitch and take the life of men or women. and having stuck it full of pins 1 set it to roast before a fire. even by the same measure that his conjured slaves. Here lye the guifts of both. and at length. so . as may make him on the one part. scene 2) Mr. as a sprite. whilst her friends and neighbours sang:-It is not this heart I mean to burn. by roasting of the pictures." and says in describing the p. and by his orders she acted thus. may be continually melted or dried away by continuall sicknesse. I say at these same times. may hee not.e. how to make pictures of waxe or clay: That by the roasting thereof. a black cat jumped out from somewhere and was.Heccat. for faintnesse. and in 1890 another was found nailed up inside the "clavel" in the chimney of an old house at Staplegrove. a "wise" man. melts that waxe at the fire. Then I have fitted you. of course. .. which causes his digestion." (Act v. for although (as I said before) that instrument of waxe have no vertue in that turne doing. yet may hee not very well. sodaine and subtle: His picture made in wax. as I spake of before. so weaken and scatter the spirites of life of the patient. and gently molten By a blew fire kindled with dead mens' eyes Will waste him by degrees. But the person's heart I wish to turn. 1882. She obtained a sheep's heart. so sweate it out the humour of his bodie: And on the other parte." i. when the roasting had been continued until far into the night. the persons that they beare the name of. Thus an old woman at Mendip had a pig that fell ill. 100 in recent years. Elworthy in his very interesting book "The Evil Eye" 1 relates some striking examples of the burning of hearts stuck full of pins for magical purposes p. 101 things which witches are able to "effectuate by the power of their master 1":--"To some others at these times hee teacheth. . . a heart stuck full of pins was found in a recess of a chimney in an old house in the village of Ashbrittle. which likewise is verie possible to their Maister to performe. in October. and she at once made up her mind that the animal had been "overlooked". instantly declared to be the demon which had been exorcised.

onely at sometimes. so neere betwixt the working of the one and the other. When the merchant arrived in port he was so ill through the wound in his eye that he could not be moved. that this humour radicall continually sweating out on the one part. The merchant's eye then healed. and. he at last shall vanish away. According to an Ethiopic manuscript in the British Museum 1 this man was a shipowner as well as a merchant. wherein the Virgin Mary was reported to work miracles by means of a picture of herself which was hung up in it. he stopped the combat and then sailed for a port which was situated near a monastery. however. having stuck in one eye a model of the arrow which had struck him. When the wax figure had been taken back to the ship. in the course of which he was shot in the eye by an arrow. and be was wont to send his goods to market in his own ships. and it was found that a portion p. in his day. When this had been done. makes a proportion. This chapter may be fittingly ended by a notice of the benefits which accrued to a Christian merchant in the Levant from the use of a wax figure. and a fight at once took place between his crew and the robbers. and he lost greatly through their successful attacks upon his vessels. and he recovered his sight. and punish them for their robberies in times past. even as his picture will die at the fire? And that knavish and cunning workeman. for lacke of digestion on the other. the sea was infested with pirates. carried the figure to the monastery.debilitate his stomacke." Thus we have seen that the belief in the efficacy of wax figures is at least six thousand years old. and no new good sucke being put in the place thereof. . 102 that both shall end as it were at one time. . Soon after he had sailed he fell in with a pirate vessel. and unless he could obtain the Virgin's help speedily he felt that his death was nigh. p. In this difficulty a certain Christian came to the ship and made a wax figure of the merchant. it was found that the piece of broken arrow had been extracted from the merchant's eye at the very moment when the Virgin had drawn out the arrow from the eye of the wax figure. the figure of the Virgin stretched out its hand. and straightway pulled the model of the arrow out of the eye of the wax figure of the merchant in such a way that no broken fragment remained behind. At length he determined to travel in one of his own ships with a number of armed men. by troubling him. and judging from passages in the works of modern writers its existence is not unknown in our own country at the present time. which was some miles off. and prayers had been made to her. 103 of the arrow which had struck him remained embedded in it. and caused the monks to allow him to bring it nigh to the picture of the Virgin. so that he might be able to resist any attack which the pirates might make.

e..564.) the lady spinning her wheel and addressing the Lynx says. with the god to aid. 98:3 Born about 1570. 12). and the example of the use of the sphere of Democritus (p. 7 and 8..573. 53. Pythia. 20. No. 89. . F. 27 ff.e.. 98:2 London. 10.e. pp. so speedily may he by love be molten!" (Lang's Translation. Vol. 96:2 The Greeks used incantations at an early date.578 in the Second Egyptian Room. iv. p. 99:1 London. London. of the Book of the Dead. of the Book of the Dead. 86:2 British Museum. Erman. 21. p. xvi.563. 86:1 This papyrus is preserved in the British Museum (No. Le Papyrus Magique Harris. 1778. Sharpe. 15. 97:1 I owe the facts of these two examples of the use of wax figures and the two spells for procuring visions and dreams (see p. Assistant Keeper in the Dept. 230). 71:1 I. 169 ff. p. p. Chapter V. 15. Le Papyrus Judiciaire de Turin in Journal Asiatique. "Even as I melt this wax. 95:2 For further mention of dreams. with translations.e. 95:1 i. 77:1 See Devéria. and 15. 98:1 See C.868. 1895. pp. British Museum. 90:1 Nos. see the last chapter in this book.472). as we may see from Pindar. he was always a man of great learning. 72:2 This is. died about 1626. 79:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. 15. in Archæologia. p. the priestly official who performed the most important of the funeral ceremonies. and Chabas. of MSS. 72:1 I. 56. and generally of high rank. 69:1 I. 213.. K. 1 think. LII. 96:1 See my Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great (one volume edition).Footnotes 67:1 Ed.. 81:1 Theocritus has preserved for us a proof that the Greeks made use of wax figures at an early date. Alexander the Great. this writer lived in the first half of the fifth century before Christ. 1865. G. 1884. 79:2 I have given a hieroglyphic transcript of both works. the meaning of bringing the sand from the east to the west. Kenyon. to Mr. Chapter V. Witchcraft in Scotland. 96). Thus in Pharmakeutria (1.

If this fact be borne in mind a great many difficulties in understanding religious texts disappear. Besides this. Chap. . V. 105 were painted on the walls of tombs. and of divine beings and things. pp. It was not altogether the result of pride that such pictures p. for at the bottom of his heart the Egyptian hoped and believed that they were in reality representations of what he would do in the next world. fol. he believed greatly in the efficacy of representations or pictures of the gods. 45. Folk-lore and Customs of the North Riding of Yorkshire. and cranny and crevice stuffed up" (see Blakeborough. and he trusted that the words of his prayers would turn pictures into realities. 102:1 Oriental 646. p. window. London. and many apparently childish facts are seen to have an important meaning. Second Booke. The wealthy Egyptian left behind him the means for making the offerings which his ka. 104 CHAPTER IV. If we look into the tombs of the early period we see painted on the walls numbers of scenes in which the deceased is represented making offerings to the gods and performing religious ceremonies. MAGICAL PICTURES AND FORMULÆ. SPELLS. and to make it work either on behalf of or against his fellow man. 1898. and drawings into substances. 1603.100:1 In the Worth Riding of Yorkshire evil influences were averted by means of a living black cock which "was pierced with pins and roasted alive at dead of night. London. ETC. FROM what has been said above it is clear that the Egyptian believed it possible to vivify by means of formulæ and words of power any figure made in the form of a man or animal. 205). as well as numbers of others in which be is directing the work of his estate and ruling his household. 101:1 The following words are put into the mouth of Epistemon in Dæmonologie. 44. 29b ff. provided that words of power properly recited by properly appointed people were recited over them. Wit. with every door. in Forme of one Dialogue. p. Character.

That which is an abomination unto me. 106 found in its path. that which is an abomination unto me let me not eat. needed. that which is an abomination unto me is filth. It was ail article of faith among all classes that unless the ka was properly fed it would be driven to wander about and pick up filth and anything else of that nature which it p. in which the deceased says. let me not eat of it instead of the cakes [which are offered unto] the Doubles (kau). (From the Papyrus of Ani. let me not be obliged to take it into my hands. and was able to provide for the maintenance of his tomb and of the ka chapel and of the priest or priests who ministered to it.) or double. "That which is an abomination unto me. as we may see from the LIInd Chapter of the Book of the Dead. Let it not light upon my body. and let .The goddess Hathor giving the scribe Ani meat and drink from out of a sycamore tree which grows by the side of a stream. plate 16.

but little by little men ceased to provide the numerous articles connected with the sepulture of the dead which the old ritual prescribed. 107 To get out of this difficulty the model of an altar in stone was made. was not certain that the appointed offerings of meat and drink could or would be made in his tomb in perpetuity: what then was the poor man to do to save his ka from the ignominy of eating filth and drinking dirty water? p.The scribe Ani and his wife standing in a stream drinking water. nor model nor picture of an altar was placed in the tomb. fruit. and as long as it existed through the prayers recited. Sometimes neither altar.. his ka was provided with a fresh supply of meat and drink offerings.C. where even the expense of an altar could not be borne by the relatives of the dead. about B." And in the CLXXXIXth Chapter he prays that he may not be obliged to drink filthy water or be defiled in any way by it. were placed upon it. and the prayer that sepulchral meals might be given to the deceased by the gods. meat. and models of cakes. in cases where this was not possible figures of the offerings were sculptured upon the stone itself. was the only provision made for the wants of the ka. 2500. plate 16. About a thousand years later. and they trusted to the texts and formulæ which they painted on the coffin to turn pictures into substances. the ka did not lack food. On the insides of the wooden coffins of the XIIth dynasty. The rich man. in still earlier times. (From the Papyrus of Ani. 108 besides the pillow they placed little else in the tomb. and [paragraph continues] p. even. were actually placed in the tombs with the mummy. etc.) me not be obliged to walk thereon in my sandals. are painted whole series of objects which. a large number of illustrations or . an altar with offerings painted upon it was placed in the tomb. for the models or pictures of them in the inscription straightway became veritable substances. but every time any one who passed by the tomb recited that prayer. which was inscribed upon some article of funeral furniture. when the religious texts which formed the Book of the Dead were written upon papyri instead of coffins. vases of water. in others. and coupled with it the name of the man who was buried in it.

vignettes were added to them. and his body hath been anointed with ânti unguent. and he shall be brought in along with the Kings of the North and South. the knowledge of which is most important for the welfare of the deceased. and the east wind to Nephthys. upon which neither a pig nor any other animal hath trodden. and when he is arrayed in apparel. "My mouth and my nostrils are opened in Tattu (Busiris). as well as food. and to enjoy the air which came through each. we have an excellent example of the farreaching effects of a picture accompanied by the proper words of power. and he shall not be turned back at any door in the underworld. According to several passages and chapters the deceased was terrified lest he should lack both air and water. and every picture in the Book of the Dead was equally efficacious in producing a certain result. It will be remembered that the CXXVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead contains the socalled "Negative Confession" which is recited in the Hall of Maâti. and p. and bread. 110 keep watch over the Egg of the Great Cackler. and he shall be in the following of Osiris always and for ever. and a number of names of gods and beings. . and wine. and garden herbs. and I have my place of peace in Annu (Heliopolis) which is my house. and his children shall flourish. and is shod with white leather sandals." "Hail. I germinate as it germinateth. and his name shall never fall into oblivion. it was built for me by the goddess Sesheta. and the god Khnemu set it upon its walls for me. And behold. and I p. in the underworld. and his eyes have been painted with antimony. thou god Tem. and. that result being always connected with the welfare of the dead. 109 cakes. 1 were painted on his papyrus. grant thou unto me the sweet breath which dwelleth in thy nostrils! I embrace the great throne which is in Khemennu (Hermopolis). and birds. and ale. and texts similar to the following were written below them. and standing up to his ankles in water. and incense. The north wind belonged to Osiris. I live as it liveth." 1 But yet another "exceeding great mystery" had to be performed if the deceased was to be enabled to enter into heaven by its four doors at will. to do away with all risk of such a calamity happening. This power could only be obtained by causing pictures of the four doors to be painted on the coffin with a figure of Thoth opening each. . And if thou writest upon it this chapter the deceased shall flourish. in which he is represented holding a sail (the symbol of air and wind and breath) in his hands. thou shalt paint a picture of what shall happen in the Hall of Maâti upon a new tile moulded from earth. and when he hath made offerings of oxen. . to many of these special importance was attached. the west wind to Isis. . and meat shall be given unto him at the altar of the great god. and the following are worthy of note. and cakes. pictures. then. and sweetmeats. At the end of the Chapter we find the following statement:--"This chapter shall be said by the deceased after he hath been cleansed and purified." Here. the south wind to Râ. and my breath is its breath. and for the deceased to obtain power over each and all of these it was necessary for him to be master of the doors through which they blew.

Some special importance was attached to these, for the rubric says, "Let none who is outside know this chapter, for it is a great mystery, and those who dwell in the swamps (i.e., the ignorant) know it not. Thou shalt not do this in the presence of any person except thy father, or thy son, or thyself alone; for it is indeed an exceedingly great mystery which no man whatever knoweth." 2 One of the delights coveted by the deceased was to sail over heaven in the boat of Râ, in company with the gods of the funeral cycle of Osiris; this happiness could be secured for him by painting certain pictures, and by saying over them certain words of power. On
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a piece of clean papyrus a boat is to be drawn with ink made of green âbut mixed with ânti water, and in it are to be figures of Isis, Thoth, Shu, and Khepera, and the deceased; when this has been done the papyrus must be fastened to the breast of the deceased, care being taken that it does not actually touch his body. Then shall his spirit enter into the boat of Râ each day, and the god Thoth shall take heed to him, and he shall sail about with Râ into any place that he wisheth. 1 Elsewhere it is ordered that the boat of Râ be painted "in a pure place," and in the bows is to be painted a figure of the deceased; but Râ was supposed to travel in one boat (called "Âtet ") until noon, and another (called "Sektet") until sunset, and provision had to be made for the deceased in both boats. How was this to be done? On one side of the picture of the boat a figure of the morning boat of Râ was to be drawn, and on the other a figure of the afternoon boat; thus the one picture was capable of becoming two boats. And, provided the proper offerings were made for the deceased on the birthday of Osiris, his soul would live for ever, and be would not die a second time. 2 According to the rubric to the chapter 3 in which these directions are given, the text of it is as old, at least, as the time of Hesepti, the fifth king of the Ist dynasty, who reigned about B.C. 4350, and the custom of painting the boat upon
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papyrus is probably contemporaneous. The two following rubrics from Chapters CXXXIII. and CXXXIV., respectively, will explain still further the importance of such pictures:-1. "This chapter shall be recited over a boat four cubits in length, and made of green porcelain [on which have been painted] the divine sovereign chiefs of the cities; and a figure of heaven with its stars shall be made also, and this thou shalt have made ceremonially pure by means of natron and incense. And behold, thou shalt make an image of Râ in yellow colour upon a new plaque and set it at the bows of the boat. And behold, thou shalt make an image of the spirit which thou dost wish to make perfect [and place it] in this boat, and thou shalt make it to travel about in the boat [which. shall be made in the form of the boat] of Râ; and he shall see the form of the god Râ himself therein. Let not the eye of any man whatsoever look upon it, with the exception of thine own self, or thy father, or thy son, and guard [this] with great care. Then shall the spirit be perfect in the heart of Râ, and it shall give unto him power with the company of the gods; and the gods shall look upon him as a divine being like unto themselves; and

mankind and the dead shall fall down upon their faces, and he shall be seen in the underworld in the form of the radiance of Râ." 2. "This chapter shall be recited over a hawk
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standing and having the white crown upon his head, [and over figures of] the gods Tem, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Suti, and Nephthys, painted in yellow colour upon a new plaque, which shall be placed in [a model of] the boat [of Râ], along with a figure of the spirit whom thou wouldst make perfect, These thou shalt anoint with cedar oil, and incense shall he offered up to them on the fire, and feathered fowl,

The soul of the scribe Ani visiting his mummified body as it lies on its bier in the tomb. (From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 17.) shall be roasted. It is an act of praise to Râ as he journeyeth, and it shall cause a man to have his being along with Râ day by day, whithersoever the god voyageth; and it shall destroy the enemies of Râ in very truth regularly and continually." Many of the pictures or vignettes carry their own interpretations with them, e.g., the picture of the soul hovering over the dead body which lies beneath it on the bier at once suggests the reunion of the soul with
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the body; the picture of the deceased walking away from a "block of slaughter" and a knife dripping with blood suggests escape from a cruel death; the picture of a soul and spirit standing before an open door suggests that the soul has freedom to wander about at will; and the picture of the soul and the shadow in the act of passing out through the door of the tomb indicates clearly that these parts of man's economy are

Anubis holding the mummy of the scribe Ani; by the door of the tomb stand the soul and spirit of the deceased in the form of a human-headed hawk and bennu bird respectively. (From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 16.) not shut up in the tomb for all eternity. But the ideas which prompted the painting of other vignettes are not so clear, e.g., those which accompany Chapters CLXII.-CLXV. in the late or Säite Recension of the Book of the Dead, although, fortunately, the rubrics to these chapters make their object clear. Thus the picture which stands above Chapter CLXII. is that of a cow having upon her head horns, a disk, and two plumes,
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and from the rubric we learn that a figure of it was to be made in gold and fastened to the neck of the deceased, and that another, drawn upon new papyrus, was to be placed under his head. If this be done "then shall abundant warmth be in him throughout, even like that which was in him when he was upon earth. And he shall become like a god in the underworld,

The scribe Ani passing through the door of the tomb. outside are his shadow and his soul in the form of a human-headed bird. (From the Papyrus of Ani, plate 18.)

" And again we are warned that the words are "a great mystery" and that "the eye of no man whatsoever must see it. and was of benefit to him. when the papyrus had been mounted upon linen." The figure on the opposite page well illustrates the object. It is quite evident that the words of power. strictly speaking an amulet. for it is a thing of abomination for [every man] to know it. With the figures magical texts were inscribed and in course of time. it superseded the gold figure of the cow which was fastened to the neck of the deceased. though its usual name among archaeologists is "hypocephalus. and p. Hide it.. turn thy face upon the dead body of thy son." Now the cow is. are a charm of the greatest importance) we are told. and when his habitation was surrounded by a company of beings of fire. and became. Isis-Hathor." The words of the chapter have great protective power (i. the Book of the lady of the hidden temple is its name. It will be noticed that the p. who art in heaven. or charm. "for it was made by the cow for her son Râ when he was setting. 117 .and he shall never be turned back at any of the gates thereof. 116 both the words and the picture refer to some event in the life of Râ. of course. and that the cow is only one figure among a number of others which were drawn on the same papyrus. and the idea is that as it delivered the god." An examination of mummies of the late period shews that the Egyptians did actually draw a figure of the cow upon papyrus and lay it under the head of the deceased. The words of power read:--"O Amen. or Horus. O Amen. even so will it deliver the deceased and be of benefit to him. and make him sound and strong in the underworld. therefore.e. uttered by Isis-Hathor delivered the god out of some trouble.

The two following prayers from the hypocephalus will illustrate the words of power addressed to Amen. I am a perfect spirit among the companions of Râ. who in still later times became the being whose name under the form of Khnumis or Khnoubis occupied such an important position among the magical names which were in use among the Gnostics. Horus in his boat. is a mystical form of Khnemu. and the god with the rams' heads. two lions. I am the mighty Soul of . and of reproduction and life. and Horus-Râ. In the other scenes we have the god Khepera in his boat. the cow of IsisHathor described above. a member of the human body. and I have gone in and come forth among the perfect souls. and Horus-Sept in his boat. The god with two faces represents the double aspect of the sun in setting and rising. who is being adored by apes.Hypocephalus or object placed under the head of the deceased Shai-enen to keep warmth in the body.e.. this is due to the fact that it represents the pupil of the Eye of Horus. "I am the Hidden One in the hidden place. The first group of gods are:--Nehebka offering to Horus his Eye. the four children of Horus. the Hidden One. 119 hypocephalus is round. a goddess with the Eye of Horus for a head. and the boat of the Moon. quoted above:--1. i. In the second are the boat of the Sun being poled along by Horus. one of the great gods of reproduction. which from time immemorial in Egypt was regarded as the source of all generative power. p. the pylon of heads of Khnemu the god of reproduction. with Harpocrates in the bow.

120 saffron-coloured form." Chapter CLXIII. This figure was painted in black. the figure had a pair of wings. The first head was like that of the goddess Pekhat and had plumes. I have come forth from the underworld at pleasure. and having plumes and a back like a hawk. "in the pupil of which p. grant that my soul may live for ever! May the great god in his disk give his rays in the underworld of Heliopolis! Grant thou unto me an entrance and an exit in the underworld without let or hindrance. I have come. and he shall be protected from the hands of the enemy for ever and ever. and the claws of a lion." 1 The words of power which form the CLXIVth Chapter to be effectual had to be recited over a figure of the goddess Mut which was to have three heads. and yellow colours upon a piece of anes linen. a homestead shall be given unto him in Sekhet-Aaru. "May the god. he shall set out to do battle with the serpent fiend Nekau and with Tar. who himself is hidden. 1 or Eye of Horus. his flesh and his bones shall be like p. and to deliver him from the souls which were so unfortunate as to be shut in the various places thereof. These figures having been made. who are in the . one being that of a hawk and the other that of a man." 2. he shall eat. in front of it and behind it was painted a dwarf who wore plumes upon his head." If these things be done for the deceased "he shall not be turned back at any gate of the underworld. never be turned back. and heaven for my soul. "in the pupil of which shall be a figure of the God of the lifted hand with the face of a divine soul. and a hidden place for my mummy. the third was like that of a vulture and had upon it plumes. I have come forth from the underworld with Râ from the House of the Great Aged One in Heliopolis. and having plumes and a back like a hawk". the body of each was fat. 122 those of one who hath never been dead. he shall become a star of heaven. and perform the natural functions of his body as he did when he was upon earth. we are told that the deceased shall be "like unto a god with the gods of the underworld. having a disk and two horns upon its head. (2) an utchat. and whose face is concealed. and in the underworld. and drink. he shall drink water at the source of the stream. 121 there shall be a figure of the God of the lifted hand with the face of the goddess Neith. green. or Eye of Horus. I am one of the spirits who come forth from the underworld: grant thou unto me the things which my body needeth. he shall never. who shineth upon the world in his forms of existence. of the Book of the Dead was written to prevent the body of a man mouldering away in the underworld. and each had two faces.p. (3) an utchat. One hand and arm of each dwarf were raised. but in order to make it thoroughly efficacious it was ordered to be recited over three pictures: (1) a serpent with legs. and none shall rise up to cry out against him. the second was like that of a man and had upon it the crowns of the South and North. I have come forth from the Eye of Horus.

and he shall make an end of all his enemies for p. of course. these offerings would be received mystically by the gods and goddesses whom the figures represented. above its right shoulder shall there be the head of a ram. offerings. and charms or words of power which needed . how both the substance of the amulet and the words which were inscribed upon it possessed magical powers. 123 drink water from the source of the stream. in the description of the amulets which the Egyptians used. and he shall be a strength protecting him. Now the deceased would be provided with "abundance of food regularly and continually for ever. and in every place wherever he may enter. Moreover. and the four rudders refer to the four quarters of the earth and to the four cardinal points. and certain prayers for sepulchral. "if this be done. And it shall be recited over a figure with a head like unto that of a man. of course. And thou shalt paint the figure of the God of the lifted hand upon a piece of linen immediately over the heart of the deceased." 1 Again. The text of the Chapter contains the names of the cows and of the bull. the seven cows have reference to the seven Hathor goddesses. "Râ shall be a rudder for the deceased. which shall have plumes upon its head. the words of power which form the CLXVth Chapter to be effectual were ordered by the rubric to "be recited over a figure of the God of the lifted hand. and upon earth. and above its left shoulder shall there be the head of a ram. but we may learn from several instances given in the papyri that the written words alone were sufficient in some cases to produce remarkable effects. contains pictures of seven cows "and their bull. the Sun-god." It is probable that Chapters CLXIL-CLXV. a form of Râ. he shall have power to deliver himself wherever he may be. rose upon them the friends of the deceased were to place offerings before them." If these things be done. and in return they would bestow upon the deceased all the offerings or gifts of meat and drink which he would require. and the hands and the arms thereof shall be stretched away from his body." We have seen above. and the middle portion of it shall be in the form of a beetle. the legs thereof shall be wide apart. and worms shall not devour him. The vignette of Chapter CXLVIII. Yet another example of the magical pictures of the Book of the Dead must here be given." and of four rudders. a very natural development. and thou shalt paint the other over his breast. he shall not be shut in along with the souls which are fettered.underworld. "the deceased shall p." if the following things were done for him. This is. were composed at a comparatively late date. and in heaven. and of the rudders. but let not the god Sukati who is in the underworld know it. and when Râ. and it shall be painted blue with a paint made of lapislazuli mixed with qamai water. 124 him in the underworld. Figures of the cows and of their bull and of the rudders were to be painted in colours upon a board (?)." we are told. the bull is. and he shall shine like the stars in the heavens above.

about B. and may each and every one of the company of the gods withstand them. A curious passage in the text inscribed on the inside of the pyramid of Unas reads (1. return.nothing but to be written on papyrus or linen to produce a magical effect would be popular with all classes of men and women. for I live by reason of the words of power which I have .C. and a copy of a sacred writing or text is worn or carried about to this day with much the same ideas and beliefs about its power to protect as in the earliest times. 126 copied with such additions or omissions as the means of the friends of the deceased allowed or made necessary. get thee back. the writing of Unas is under the great seal. it is not under the little seal. and give him abundance of meat and drink. We may see this view which was held concerning words of power from the following passages:--"May Thoth. It is interesting to note how persistently certain chapters and formulæ occur in funeral papyri of different periods. and from any person with whom it is. and the explanation seems to be that a popular selection was made at an early date. as far back as the Ist dynasty. even the bandages of Set which fetter my mouth. swifter than greyhounds and quicker than light. I gather together the word of power from wherever it is. and considering the great length of such compositions this is not to be wondered at." and the modern Egyptian looks upon the Koran in the same light as his ancestor looked upon the older work. but. 583). and especially among the poor and the ignorant. behold. whilst the "finding" of the longer form is attributed to the reign of Men-kau-Râ (Mycerinus). One thing is quite certain: every man in Egypt died in the firm belief that in the course of his journey into the next world he would be provided with words of power which would enable him to make his way thither unhindered. was intended to be a summary of the whole work." and that it is declared to date from the time of Hesepti. Certain passages or sections of the religious books of ancient nations have always been held to be of more importance than others. who is filled and furnished with words of power. thou crocodile fiend Sui! Thou shalt not advance to me. come and loose the bandages. Now as concerning the words of power and all the words which may be spoken against me. as well as the various sections of it which are usually copied on papyri." 1 "Behold. and there is no doubt whatever that the shorter form. a king of the IVth dynasty. The written word has been regarded in the East with reverence from time immemorial. 1 It is a remarkable fact that this form is called "The Chapter of knowing the 'Chapters of Coming Forth by Day' in a single Chapter. and behold. and that this selection was p. about B. may the gods resist them. 125 difficult to explain the passage fully. a king of the Ist dynasty." 2 To the crocodile which cometh to carry off from the deceased his words of power he says." It is p. about B. consisted of a series of "words of power.C. Among the Egyptians two forms of the LXIVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead were in use. and that the recital of it was held to be as efficacious as the recital of all the rest of it. .C. 4300. . but there is no doubt that we have here an allusion to the custom of placing writings believed to be possessed of magical powers with the dead. "The bone and flesh which possess no writing are wretched. 4300. 3600. "Get thee back. In ancient Egypt the whole Book of the Dead. .

"I am Thoth.with me. From the evidence of the texts we know that it was not by physical might that Thoth helped these three gods. I am Horus the son of Isis. the lord of might. but by giving them words of power and instructing them how to use them. . Heaven hath power over its seasons." 4 "Hail. my mouth therefore shall have power over the words of power which are p. who bringeth to a prosperous end that which he doeth. but also that the sources from which they sprang were the gods Thoth and Isis. ." the "lord of divine words." etc.. I have gained the mastery over my words of power. It is this belief which makes the deceased cry out. . and I have come to see my father Osiris. who madest Osiris victorious . It will be remembered that Thoth is called the "scribe of the gods. and became the king of the underworld and god of the dead." the "master of papyrus. and in the earth beneath Me. O Râ. I shine from the Sektet boat. "May the blood of Isis. 1 From the above passages we not only learn how great was the confidence which the deceased placed in his words of power. At the creation of the world it was he who reduced to words the will of the unseen and unknown creative Power. who is in the boat of p." the "lord of writing. and that he reconstituted his body. and in the address which Thoth makes to Osiris he says. and the powers of Isis." i. and the words of power of Isis be mighty to protect this mighty one. the holy writings or scriptures. the mighty one of words of power. let not my mouth be shut fast by reason of the words of power which thou hast within thee. and of Isis. . "My message to you is my words of power. . 128 millions of years. and slittest brows. 129 and which he had taught him to pronounce properly and in a proper tone of voice. . . and it was he who proved himself by the exercise of his knowledge to be the protector and friend of Osiris. the subduer of the two lands. "Hail. We know that Osiris vanquished his foes. the which are in the heaven above me. and who uttered them in such wise that the universe came into being. and it is decreed for me to be a spirit. but he was only able to do these things by means of the words of power which Thoth had given to him. p. the favoured one of Râ. .e. thou who puttest away the memory of evil things from the mouth of the spirits by means of the words of power which they have within them." the maker of the palette and the inkjar. and of their son Horus. and the words of power have dominion over that which they possess." 3 "I have become a spirit in my forms. 127 therein. and depart before the words which the goddess Isis uttered when thou didst come to cast the recollection of evil things into the mouth of Osiris." 2 To the two Sister-Mert goddesses the deceased says. and as he was the lord of books and master of the power of speech. .." 5 On the amulet of the Buckle we have inscribed the words. he was considered to be the possessor of all knowledge both human and divine. the lord of laws." 1 "I am clothed (?) and am wholly provided with thy magical words. Get thee back." etc. thou that cuttest off heads. Thoth.

and sending forth light from the sheen of her feathers. and similarly the dead man. Journeying on they came to Teb. no water could quench the fire. The words of a hymn declare that she knew "how to turn aside evil hap." or in any other place. and to him. would have passed out of existence at his death but for the words of power provided by the writings that were buried with him. and halted not in her speech. and also set the place on fire. and at length she roused the dead to life by her words of power. and there was no rain to do it.over his enemies. 131 admit Isis on account of the scorpions that were with her. After a time she was persecuted by Set. she owed more than this. In the Judgment Scene it is Thoth who reports to the gods the result of the weighing of the heart in the balance. 2 and to the town of the two goddesses of the sandals where the swampy country of Athu begins. who. 3 where the chief of the district had a house for his ladies. who was always identified with Osiris. but at this moment a poor woman who lived in the marshes opened the door of her cottage to Isis. however. Mestetef. Without the words of power given to him by Thoth. as the result of the embrace which followed this meeting Horus was born. make thou Ani to be victorious over his enemies in the presence of the great and sovereign princes who are in Tattu. and stung the son of the lady of the house. Befen. making air by the beating of her wings. 1 called respectively Tefen. and was perfect both in giving the command and in saying the word. to the help which Thoth gave her. Thoth was the refuge to which Isis fled in her trouble. Thetet. she hovered about over it in the form of a bird." and that she was "strong of tongue. now the mistress of the house would not p. shut her and her son Horus up in a house as prisoners. Owing. she came forth by night and was accompanied on her journey by seven scorpions. Meanwhile the scorpion had crept under the door into the house of the governor. Osiris would have been powerless under the attacks of his foes. and whatever can be said in favour of the deceased he says to the gods. Mestet. and his mother suckled him and tended him in her hiding-place in the papyrus swamps." 1 but this description only p. and the poor creature wandered about the streets of the city uttering loud cries of grief and distress because she knew not whether her boy would live or die. Petet. and whatever can be done for him he does. When she found the dead body of her husband Osiris. for it was not then the rainy season. On this the scorpions took counsel together and wished to sting her by means of the scorpion Tefen. and uttered the words of power which she knew with correct pronunciation. The guide of the way brought her to the swamps of Per-sui. it seems. and who has supplied its owner with the words which he has uttered in his supplications. indeed. for she had looked out of her door and watched Isis coming. But apart from being the protector and friend of Osiris. and the goddess took shelter therein. . Now these things happened to the woman who had done no active harm to Isis. her husband's murderer. 130 proves that she had been instructed by Thoth in the art of uttering words of power with effect. and Matet. the last three of which pointed out the way.

for I am the daughter of his own body. "The boy liveth. and I will do away the evil by means of the word of my mouth which my father hath taught me. and I rejoiced greatly because of this. appear upon the ground. After this Isis lamented that she was more lonely and wretched than all the people of Egypt. upon an island (or nest) in Athu the region of swamps. "The boy liveth and the poison dieth. and the fire in the house of the woman was extinguished. I hid him most carefully and concealed him in my anxiety. "Come to me. saying. O poison. I am a daughter well known in thy city also. so the poison dieth." were uttered. retreat. and said. the goddess." the words of the cry. "Turn away. 133 Khebt. a goddess. for I regarded Horus as a gift which would repay me for the loss of his father. and as he was blameless in the matter of the door of his mother's house being shut in the face of the goddess. and p. and the son of the woman recovered. [paragraph continues] Isis then continues her narrative thus:--"I Isis conceived a child." were again uttered. come not nigh! "Come poison of Befen. draw not nigh! O Matet. O every reptile that stingeth. the son of Isis. the lady of words of power. get away. depart hence. 132 in order to bring back the spirit into his body said-"Come Tefen. as she turned to the scorpions. come to me! For my word is a talisman which beareth life. and she ordered the scorpions to turn away their looks from her and to show her the way to the marshes and to the secret place which is in the city of p. she determined to save him. Then the words of the cry." Then Isis laid her hands upon the body of the boy. I am Isis. When Isis had said that the "son of the woman had been stung because his mother had shut the door of her house in her face. who doeth deeds of magic. and indeed he was well hidden. the words of whose voice are charms. appear upon the ground. Thereupon she cried out to the distraught mother. "Obey me. and was great with child of Horus. and then I went away to the . I. and heaven rejoiced at the words of Isis. and that she had become like an old man who hath ceased to look upon and to visit fair women in their houses." adding the words "Mer-Râ" in the morning and "The Egg of the Goose appeareth from out of the sycamore" in the evening. mount not upwards! "O poison of Petet and Thetet. the poison dieth! As the sun liveth. and had done nothing for her.When Isis saw this she was sorry for the child who had been stung. Both these sentences were talismans. fall down headlong!" The goddess Isis then uttered certain words of the charm which had been given to her by the god Seb in order to keep poison away from her. gave birth to Horus. and fall down headlong! "O poison of [Mestet and] Mestetef.

and he spake to Isis. and no man knew how to bring back life into Horus. who asked continually. for every one was in deep sorrow for me. who. 135 the heart" had wounded him. but none of them opened his mouth to speak. that the plants among which he had been hidden could not be penetrated by any hostile being. and the dwellers in the papyrus swamps ran to me straightway from out of their houses. and she tried to rekindle the life in Horus. evident. I have come this day in the divine boat of the Disk (Aten) to the place where it was yesterday. "who is in heaven." and the Sun stood still and his boat moved not from its place by reason of the goddess's petition. no suffering shall come upon thy child Horus. for she belonged to a noble family. for his health and safety depend upon the boat of Râ. the father of the gods. and forthwith Isis sent forth her cry up to heaven. At this juncture Nephthys arrived. "What hath happened to the child Horus?" Then Nephthys said to Isis. in any case. 1 Then I uttered a bitter cry p. "Cry out in prayer unto heaven. and they bewailed the greatness of my calamity. But I found my sucking-child Horus the fair golden one. The child Horus was restored to life. with her also was Serqet. who was more . and no muscle in any of his limbs moved. 134 of grief. and at length it was discovered that Horus had been stung by a scorpion. the light shall vanquish it for the health (or safety) of Horus for the sake of his mother Isis and similarly shall it happen unto every one who p. to the great joy of his mother Isis. and let the mariners in the boat of Râ cease to row. 136 possesseth what is [here] written(?). had been protected against his wickedness. but although her heart was full of her knowledge my son remained motionless. his heart was still. saying "O thou goddess Isis. Out from the boat came the god Thoth provided with magical powers." should have preserved the life of Horus. and let not the boat of Râ move further on its course for the sake of the child Horus". his body was stiff. so that I might give him suck and take him in my arms again. and bearing with him the great power to command in such wise that the words of his mouth must be fulfilled straightway. well nigh dead! He had bedewed the ground with the water from his eye and with the foam from his lips.city of Am. and made her request come unto the "Boat of millions of years. the goddess of scorpions. that Set his brother could not possibly have had access to where the child was. and that the reptile "which destroyeth p. When I had saluted the inhabitants thereof I turned back to seek the child. that the words of power of Temu. and went round about among the papyrus swamps weeping bitterly because of the affliction of her sister Isis." What took place next is." Meanwhile the folk remarked that the son of the divine mother Isis had been protected against his brother Set. When darkness (or night) ruleth. Then there came to me a certain woman who was well known in her city. and had probably killed him. whose mouth knoweth how to utter charms (or talismans). of course.

indebted than ever to the god Thoth for coming to deliver her out of her trouble on the death of her son. p. 'Cannot I by means of the sacred name of God make myself mistress of the earth and become a goddess like unto Râ in heaven and upon earth?' Now behold. The way in which she did this is told in a hieratic papyrus preserved at Turin. saying. and reptiles. his spittle fell upon the earth. and the fowl of the air and the fish of the sea. he hath one period of life (?) and with him periods of one hundred and twenty years each are but as years. And Isis kneaded it with earth in her hand. she did not set it upright before her face. the merit of first discovering the correct meaning of the text belongs to M. and the sacred serpent bit him. into his double kingdom. and which written upon papyrus or linen formed a magical formula against the poison of reptiles of all kinds. . As time went on the Egyptians revered her more and more. Now the divine one (i. just as he had done on the death of her husband. Râ) had grown old. Lefébure.e. "The Chapter of the divine god. and the fire. each day Râ entered at the head of his holy mariners and established himself upon the throne of the two horizons. and beasts. The holy god opened his mouth. according to a legend which has come down to us. and the winds [which give] life. power equal to that possessed by Râ himself was ascribed to her. and his slobbering dropped upon the ground. his company of gods said. Indeed. saying. the self-created being) who made the heavens and the earth. When the great god had stablished his heart. and the cry of his majesty reached unto heaven. his names are manifold and unknown. and cattle. her heart was wearied with the millions of men. for eternal life and death were in her hands. but she esteemed more highly the millions of the spirits (khu). 'What hath happened?' and his gods exclaimed. therefore she chose the millions of the gods. he is the king of men and of gods. the poison spread swiftly through his flesh just as the Nile rusheth through all his land. 1 from which the following rendering has been made. she made a bold attempt to wrest the power of Râ from him and to make herself mistress of the universe. he cried unto those who were in his train. 138 whereby the great god went forth. and as she was the lady of the gods and of heaven. and men. the gods even know them not. The flame of life departed from him. 'What is it?' But Râ could not answer. and formed thereof a sacred serpent in the form of a dart. and he who dwelt among the cedars (?) was overcome. Now the holy god arose. 137 THE LEGEND OF RÂ AND ISIS. for his jaws trembled and all his members quaked. and he came forth according to his daily wont. And she meditated in her heart. and the gods who followed him as though he were Pharaoh went with him.. Now because Isis had revivified both her husband and her son by the words of power and talismans which she possessed. according to his hearts desire. "Now Isis was a woman who possessed words of power. he dribbled at the mouth. mortal man thought it was absolutely necessary for him to secure her favour and protection at any cost. but let it lie upon the ground in the path p. and the gods.

'Come unto me, O ye who have come into being from my body, ye gods who have come forth from me, make ye known unto Khepera that a dire calamity hath fallen upon me. My heart perceiveth it, but my eyes see it not; my hand hath not caused it, nor do I know who hath done this unto me. Never have I felt such pain, neither can sickness cause more woe than this. I am a prince, the son of a prince, the sacred essence which hath proceeded from God. I am the great one, the son of the great one, and my father planned my name; I have multitudes of names and multitudes of forms, and my being is in every god. I have been
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proclaimed by the heralds Temu and Horus, and my father and my mother uttered my name; but it hath been hidden within me by him that begat me, who would not that the words of power of any seer should have dominion over me. I came forth to look upon that which I had made, I was passing through the world which I had created, when lo! something stung me, but what I know not. Is it fire? Is it water? My heart is on fire, my flesh quaketh, and trembling hath seized all my limbs. Let there be brought unto me my children, the gods, who possess the words of power and magical speech, and mouths which know how to utter them, and also powers which reach even unto the heavens. Then the children of every god came unto him uttering cries of grief. And Isis also came, bringing with her her words of magical power, and her mouth was full of the breath of life; for her talismans vanquish the pains of sickness, and her words make to live again the throats of those who are dead. And she spake, saying, 'What hath come to pass, O holy Father? What hath happened? Is it that a serpent hath bitten thee, and that a thing which thou hast created hath lifted up his head against thee? Verily it shall be cast down by my effective words of power, and I will drive it away from before the sight of thy sunbeams.' The holy god opened his mouth and said, I was passing along my path, and I was going
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through the two regions of my lands according to my hearts desire, to see that which I had created, when lo! I was bitten by a serpent which I saw not. Is it fire? Is it water? I am colder than water, I am hotter than fire. All my flesh sweateth, I quake, my eye hath no strength, I cannot see the sky, and the sweat rusheth to my face even as in the time of summer.' Then said Isis unto Râ, 'O tell me thy name, holy Father, for whosoever shall be delivered by thy name shall live.' And Râ said, 'I have made the heavens and the earth, I have knit together the mountains, I have created all that is above them, I have made the water, I have made to come into being the goddess Meht-urt, and I have made the Bull of his mother, from whom spring the delights of love. I have made the heavens, I have stretched out the two horizons like a curtain, and I have placed the soul of the gods within them. I am he who, if he openeth his eyes, doth make the light, and, if he closeth them, darkness cometh into being. At his command the Nile riseth, and the gods know not his name. I have made the hours, I have created the days, I bring forward the festivals of the year, I create the Nile-flood. I make the fire of life, and I provide food in the houses. I am Khepera in the morning, I am Râ at noon, and I am Temu at even.' Meanwhile the poison

was not taken away from his body, but it pierced deeper, and the great god could no longer walk.
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"Then said Isis unto Râ, 'What thou hast said is not thy name. O tell it unto me, and the poison shall depart; for he shall live whose name shall be revealed! Now the poison burned like fire, and it was fiercer than the flame and the furnace, and the majesty of the great god said, 'I consent that Isis shall search into me, and that my name shall pass from me into her.' Then the god hid himself from the gods, and his place in the Boat of Millions of Years was empty. And when the time had arrived for the heart of Râ to come forth, Isis spake unto her son Horus, saying, 'The god hath bound himself by oath to deliver up his two eyes (i.e., the sun and moon).' Thus was the name of the great god taken from him, and Isis, the lady of words of magical power, said, 'Depart, poison, go forth from Ea. O Eye of Horus, go forth from the god, and shine outside his mouth. It is I who work, it is I who make to fall down upon the earth the vanquished poison, for the name of the great god hath been taken away from him. Let Râ live, and let the poison die! Let the poison die, and let Râ live!' These are the words of Isis, the mighty lady, the mistress of the gods, who knew Râ by his own name." Now from a few words of text which follow the above narrative we learn that the object of writing it was not so much to instruct the reader as to make a magic formula, for we are told that it was to be recited over
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figures of Temu and Horus, and Isis and Horus, that is to say, over figures of Temu the evening sun, Horus the Elder, Horus the son of Isis, and Isis herself. Temu apparently takes the place of Râ, for he represents the sun as an old man, i.e., Râ, at the close of his daily life when he has lost his strength and power. The text is a charm or magical formula against snake bites, and it was thought that the written letters, which represented the words of Isis, would save the life of any one who was snake-bitten, just as they saved the life of Râ. If the full directions as to the use of the figures of Temu, Isis, and the two Horus gods, were known unto us we should probably find that they were to be made to act in dumb show the scenes which took place between Râ, and Isis when the goddess succeeded in taking from him his name. Thus we have ample evidence that Isis possessed marvellous magical powers, and this being so, the issues of life and death, as far as the deceased was concerned, we know from the texts to have been in her hands. Her words of power, too, were a priceless possession, for she obtained them from Thoth, who was the personification of the mind and intelligence of the Creator, and thus their origin was divine, and from this point of view were inspired. From a papyrus of the Ptolemaic period we obtain some interesting facts about the great skill in working magic and about the knowledge of magical formulæ
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which were possessed by a prince called Setnau Khâ-em-Uast. He knew how to use the powers of amulets and talismans, and how to compose magical formulæ, and he was master both of religious literature and of that of the "double house of life," or library of magical books. One day as he was talking of such things one of the king's wise men laughed at his remarks, and in answer Setnau said, "If thou wouldst read a book possessed of magical powers come with me. and I will show it to thee, the book was written by Thoth himself, and in it there are two formulæ. The recital of the first will enchant (or bewitch) heaven, earth, hell, sea, and mountains, and by it thou shalt see all the birds, reptiles, and fish, for its power will bring the fish to the top of the water. The recital of the second will enable a man if he be in the tomb to take the form which he had upon earth," etc. When questioned as to where the book was, Setnau said that it was in the tomb of Ptah-nefer-ka at Memphis. A little later Setnau went there with his brother and passed three days and three nights in seeking for the tomb of Ptah-nefer-ka, and on the third day they found it; Setnau recited some words over it, and the earth opened and they went down to the place where the book was. When the two brothers came into the tomb they found it to be brilliantly lit up by the light which came forth from the book; and when they looked they saw not only Ptah-nefer-ka, but his wife Ahura, and Merhu their
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son. Now Ahura and Merhu were buried at Coptos but their doubles had come to live with Ptah-nefer-ka by means of the magical power of Thoth. Setnau told them that he had come to take away the book, but Ahura begged him not to do so, and related to him the misfortunes which had already followed the possession of it. She was, it seems, the sister of Ptah-nefer-ka whom she married, and after the birth of her son Merhu, her husband seemed to devote himself exclusively to the study of magical books, and one day a priest of Ptah promised to tell him where the magical book described above might be found if he would give him a hundred pieces of silver, and provide him with two handsome coffins. When the money and the coffins had been given to him, the priest of Ptah told Ptah-nefer-ka that the book was in an iron box in the middle of the river at Coptos. "The iron box is in a bronze box, the bronze box is in a box of palm-tree wood, the palm tree wood box is in a box of ebony and ivory, the ebony and ivory box is in a silver box, the silver box is in a gold box, and in the gold (sic) box lies the book. The box wherein is the book is surrounded by swarms of serpents and scorpions and reptiles of all kinds, and round it is coiled a serpent which cannot die." Ptah-nefer-ka told his wife and the king what he had heard, and at length set out for Coptos with Ahura and Merhu in the royal barge; having arrived at Coptos he went to the temple of Isis and Harpocrates and offered up
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a sacrifice and poured out a libation to these gods. Five days later the high priest of Coptos made for him the model of a floating stage and figures of workmen provided with tools; he then recited words of power over them and they became living, breathing men, and the search for the box began. Having worked for three days and three nights they came to the place where the box was. Ptah-nefer-ka dispersed the serpents and scorpions

for the name of Nectanebus I. From the two illustrations of it here given we see that it is both sculptured and engraved with figures of many of the gods of ancient Egypt. Meanwhile these acts had stirred the god Thoth to wrath. "I will make him bring back this book soon. and when he returned he laid them upon Setnau. and on the way back to Coptos Ahura and Merhu fell into the river and were drowned. with rounded tops. 360. As he went up from the tomb light went before him. and having covered the papyrus with incense dissolved it in water and drank it. the last but one of the native kings of Egypt. on the front of which are inscribed figures of the god Horus standing upon crocodiles: they are usually known as "cippi of Horus. and while returning to Memphis with the book Ptah-nefer-ka himself was drowned also. and although Ptah-nefer-ka tried to cheat Setnau. and he insisted on having the book which he saw in the possession of Ptah-nefer-ka. Setnau. who straightway flew up to heaven grasping the wonderful book in his hand. and this time it did not take its old form again." Of the bewitchment of Setnau by a beautiful woman called Tabubu and of his troubles in consequence thereof we need make no mention here: it is sufficient to say that the king ordered him to take the book back to its place. We are fortunately enabled to date the stele. however. 147 1n connexion with the subject of the magical powers of Isis must be briefly mentioned the curious small stelæ. thus he acquired the knowledge which was in the magical book. and we know from many sources that such a monument could have been produced only about this period. he lost the game. in it and so enchanted or bewitched the heavens and the earth that he learned all their secrets.C." which was found in the year 1828 during the building of a cistern in a Franciscan monastery in Alexandria." The largest and finest example of this remarkable class of object is the famous "Metternichstele. Ptah-neferka then copied the writings on a piece of new papyrus. the third time he cut it into two pieces. who reigned from B. and that the prophecy of Ptah-nefer-ka was fulfilled. and twice succeeded in killing the serpent coiled round the box. but it came to life again. He next read one of the two formula-. gods well known from the monuments of the earlier dynasties. His wife Ahura then read the book and saw all that her husband had seen. he read the second and he saw the sun rising in the heavens with his company of the gods. and laid sand between them. He then opened the boxes one after the other. At this juncture Setnau sent his brother Anhaherurau up to the earth to bring him his talismans of Ptah and his other magical writings. 1 p. The game was for fifty-two points. and the darkness closed in behind him.. with a knife and a rod in his hand and a vessel of fire upon his head. but Ptahnefer-ka said to his wife.C. etc. As a result the decree p. the latter then proposed to play a game of draughts and to let the winner have the book. and he told Râ what Ptah-nefer-ka had done. and was presented by Muhammad Ali Pasha to Prince Metternich. occurs on it.which were round about the nest of boxes by his words of power. 146 went forth that Ptah-nefer-ka and his wife and child should never return to Memphis. 378 to B. and taking out the gold box with the book inside it carried it to the royal barge. and also with figures of a series of demons and monsters and animals which have both mythological . refused to be diverted from his purpose.

is probably intended to represent that of Râ (or Bes) as an old man. In his hands he grasps serpents. the allusion here is clearly to the god who "is old at eventide and who becomes young again. (3) Osiris. or Harpocrates. (5) The goddess Nekhebet. (2) a papyrus standard with plumes and menats 2. standing upon a papyrus sceptre. in the form of a vulture. and standing on a serpent coiled up. in the form of a hawk standing upon a sceptre. and wearing the atef crown. hawk-headed. standing upon two crocodiles. which is usually said to represent that of Bes. in the form of a serpent. (3) the god Thoth standing upon a serpent coiled up. p. on his brow is the uraeus. On his left are:--(1) An utchat with human hands and arms. a lion. 1 with human hands and arms.and magical importance. and wearing the sun's disk and uraeus. On his right are:--(1) an utchat. Now Horus typifies youth and strength and the rising sun. and mythological allusions. standing upon a papyrus sceptre. Above his head is a bearded head. 148 magical names. and it is clear by the look on his face that he is in no wise afraid of them. and the head above him. 149 . and he wears on the right side of his head the lock of hair emblematic of youth. and an antelope. (4) The goddess Isis standing upon a serpent coiled up." The utchats and the figures of the gods symbolize the solar powers and the deities p. In the principal scene we see Horus. (2) Horus-Râ. Many of these are accompanied by texts containing magical formulæ. (4) the goddess Uatchet.

The texts which fill all the spaces not occupied by figures describe certain incidents of the eternal combat which Horus wages against his brother Set. a sketch of which we have given above (see pp. reptiles. and that renewed life comes after death. and tell the story of the wanderings of Isis with her son Horus and of her sufferings in the country of the papyrus Swamps. ed. Above and about this scene are several rows of figures of gods and sketches of mythological scenes. many of which are evidently taken from the vignettes of the Book of the Dead. or a gigantic amulet engraved with magical figures and words of power. 130-136). (See Metternichstele.Clippus of Horus. undoubtedly. The whole monument is nothing but a talisman. by which the young god Horus vanquishes all hostile animals. Golénischeff. plate 1.) p. and creeping things which live in water and on land. prayers to certain gods are introduced. and it was. and the object of all of the latter is to prove that light overcomes darkness. that good vanquishes evil. both in the South and in the North. besides these. 151 who are masters of the words of power. placed in .

After much thought Alexander devised a plan whereby he p. and the walls had begun to rise up. certain savage animals came up each night from the sea. and there is not a demon. watchmen were appointed to drive them away. or hewn in stone." and it. Certain of the figures of the gods on the cippi were cast in bronze in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. When the foundations of the city had been laid. The small cippi of Horus contain nothing but extracts from the scenes and texts which we find on the "Metternichstele. and as the legend is of Egyptian origin. and dates from a period not greatly removed from that in which the Metternich stele was made. The Arab historian Mas'ûdî has preserved 1 a curious legend of the talismans which were employed by Alexander the Great to protect the city of Alexandria whilst it was being built.some conspicuous place in a courtyard or in a house to protect the building and its inmates from the attacks of hostile beings. and threw down everything which had been built during the day. or evil animal or reptile. visible and invisible. who is not depicted upon it in a vanquished state. undoubtedly formed the source from which so many of the figures of the strange gods which are found on Gnostic gems were derived. There is not a god of any importance whose figure is not on it. the knowledge of the ancient Egyptian mythology p. but in spite of this each morning saw the work done during the previous day destroyed. and were buried in tombs and under the foundations of houses to drive away any of the fiends who might come to do harm either to the living or the dead. it is worthy of mention. 152 and the skill shewn by the designer of this talisman are very remarkable. and its power was believed to be invincible. 153 . or similar objects.

and having been closed it was towed out to sea by two vessels. together with two skilful draughtsmen. and depicted their hideous countenances. Alexander and his two companions were able to watch the various marine monsters which passed by. it began to sink. and . When the box touched the bottom of the sea. plate 3. and stature. and when weights of iron. As they passed in front of the box Alexander and his two draughtsmen copied their forms upon paper with great exactness. and he saw that although they had human bodies they had the heads of beasts. Golénischeff. ed. and he proceeded to carry it into effect. In this box Alexander placed himself.) p. 155 might thwart the sea monsters. lead. etc. some had saws. and some had hammers. resin. thanks to the clearness of the glass sides and the water of the sea. He made a box ten cubits long and five cubits wide with sides made of sheets of glass fastened into frames by means of pitch. and stone had been attached to the under part of it. being guided to the place which Alexander wished it to reach by means of cords which were worked from the ships. some had axes. and they all closely resembled workmen. (See Metternichstele.Clippus of Horus.

the talismans were placed at their bases. the city had been built and was inhabited.. 81. p. 162. 126:1 See Chapter of Coming Forth by Day... 55 121:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. this done. according to Mas'ûdî. and continued his work of building the city. p. and rested upon a plinth of brass. p. 294. to prevent this Alexander placed talismans upon the pillars which. 289. of the Book of the Dead. however. 70. and to the chapter which declares the Unity of God (CXII. and each morning a considerable number of people were found to be missing.). and when they were finished he caused them to be set up on pedestals along the p. and as they were put in position after careful astronomical calculations had been made for the purpose we may assume that they produced the effect desired by the king. or opening chapter. 71 127:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. 106.shape. 110:2 Ibid. p. p. When the night came. the sea monsters made their appearance again.-LX. p. and the box was drawn up to the surface. 111:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. p. When. 122:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. but as soon as they saw that figures of themselves had been put up on the shore they returned at once to the water and did not shew themselves again. 125:1 In a similar way the Arabs attach as much importance to the Fatha. Each pillar was in the shape of an arrow and was eighty cubits in height. 111:2 Ibid.e. p. as to the rest of the Koran. CXXX. p. 126:2 Ibid. As soon as Alexander reached the land he ordered his stone and metal workers to make reproductions of the sea monsters according to the drawings which he and his friends had made. 212. 111:3 I. p. were there in his day. the sea monsters appeared as usual. a signal was made. 156 sea-shore. and were in the form of figures or statues of certain beings with suitable inscriptions. . Footnotes 109:1 See the vignettes to Chapters LIV. 120:1 See above. 110:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. 292..

147 Archéologique. iv. p. and at sundown she was breathing comfortably. 127:3 Ibid. pp. 1871. Roman von Sfne Ha-m-us. and the whole camp was distressed. 130:3 The city of the two sandals.e. Paris. see also Lefébure in Ægyptische Zeitshrift. 128:1 See Chapters of Coming forth by Day. Monuments Égyptiens. Leipzig. pll.. pl. 1895. 45-82. 2nd series. tom. Griffith and others immersed her body in pails of very hot water for several hours. Vol. 1897. vol. 129-148. 425 ff. Religion der alien Ægypter. pp. 29-32. I saw Colonel W. 129. Wiedemann. p. xxii.. p. 1869-1876. 127:5 Ibid.. 1857. i. pll. and in about an hour she was in the state of Horus as described above. tom. 1877. Paris. and my Papyrus of Ani. 27 ff. p.. 161 ff. 1883. 148:1 See above. pp. 1890.. Maspero. When it was no longer possible to administer spirit to her. and First Steps in Egyptian. Leipzig. 130:1 The story is told on the famous Metternichstele.. by a black scorpion.. . R. ii.. Le Papyrus de Turin. ed. ff. xvi. 81. ed. de Meynard and Pavet de Courteille. 127:4 Ibid. 55. p. 65 ff. H. pp. 1888. 29 ff. 1895. Revue Archéologique. p. Le Roman de Setnau (in Revue p. Ledrain.). p. The two sandals were made of leather from the skin of the god Nehes or Set. 87. Le Roman de Setna. p. p. 1877. Drage's dog "Shûbra" bitten at Merâwî in September. 130:2 I. 1882. 1867. 150.. lxxxix. Golénischeff. 60. p.127:2 Ibid. 179-188. p. for both master and dog were great favourites. and for a recent translation see my First Steps in Egyptian. 241-256. 148:2 See above. and 131-138. Hess. 31-37. and she soon afterwards recovered. 1861. p. Paris. 134 been stung by the small black scorpion in Egypt and the Sûdân... p. Les Papyrus du Musée de Boulaq. B. 129:1 Chabas. Crocodilopolis. 152:1 See Les Prairies d'Or. Major G. 146:1 For translations see Brugsch. 133:1 This is an exact description of the state of an animal which has p. 340 f. Records of the Past. 136:1 See Pleyte and Rossi. and for the original Demotic text see Mariette. the opponent of Horus. Revillout.. Contes Égyptiens..

his everlasting building. Pepi goeth forward with his flesh. and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Nut in the House of Shenth in Annu . 157 CHAPTER V. he hath his panther skin upon him. we read. and it is noteworthy what importance is attached to the name in this passage. and he passeth through them. the doors of the iron which is the ceiling of the sky open themselves to Pepi. like most Oriental nations. "Pepi hath been purified. Ed maketh Pepi to sail to the West. "O Great Company of the gods who dwell in Annu (Heliopolis). MAGICAL NAMES. The doors of Pekh-ka which are in the abyss open themselves to Pepi. Thus in the text which is inscribed on the walls inside 1 the pyramid p. shall flourish! If the name of Tefnut. and he writeth down Pepi at the head of those who live. which is of such interest that a rendering of it in full is here given: it reads. the lord of the upper shrine in Annu. 159 Temu. he hath provided himself with his throne. THE Egyptians. the chief of the nine gods. or his body. and his pyramid. 158 of Pepi L. just as if these three constituted his whole economy. To the Egyptian the name was as much a part of a man's being as his soul. the name of Pepi shall be established. attached very great importance to the knowledge of names.C. In the text from the pyramid of another king 1 we have a prayer concerning the preservation of the name. and the knowledge of how to use and to make mention of names which possessed magical powers was a necessity both for the living and the dead. and it is quite certain that this view was held by him in the earliest times. even as the name of p. his ever lasting building." Curiously enough only the body and name and double of the king are mentioned. and similarly the name that was the object of a blessing or prayer for benefits secured for its master many good things.' then the name of Pepi shall flourish. he was bound to answer him and to do whatever he wished. 3200. then Pepi shall flourish. He hath taken in his hand the mâh staff. and that his pyramid. If the name of Shu. the lady of the lower shrine in Annu. The name that was the object of a curse brought down evil upon its owner. and the staff and whip are in his hand.p. Pepi is happy with his name. or his double (KA). and addressed him by it. and he liveth with his ka (double). and this his pyramid shall be established to all eternity! If the name of Seb flourisheth at the 'homage of the earth. and this his pyramid shall flourish. and the possession of the knowledge of the name of a man enabled his neighbour to do him good or evil. king of Egypt about B. and he hath taken his seat in the boat of the great and little companies of the gods. It was believed that if a man knew the name of a god or a devil. may flourish. doth flourish. flourisheth. flourisheth. grant that Pepi Nefer-kaRâ may flourish (literally 'germinate'). he stablisheth his seat above those of the lords of doubles.

and the son who assisted in keeping green his father's name. the god Khepera says. According to the story of the Creation which is related in the Papyrus of Nesi-Amsu. only the great god Neb-er-tcher existed. that is to say. then the name of Pepi shall flourish. I developed ct myself from the primeval matter which I made. and I uttered my own name as a word of power. 161 judgment. and the above facts have only been mentioned to prove that a man's name was regarded as an essential part of himself. then the name of Pepi shall flourish. But in the present chapter we are not so much concerned with the ordinary as with the extraordinary uses to which a name might be put. and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Osiris flourisheth in the nome of Abydos. and that the blotting out of the name of an individual was synonymous with his destruction. and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Uatchet in Tep flourisheth. for even the gods were not born. and this his pyramid shall flourish. Without a name no man could be identified in the p. Ptolemaic. performed a most meritorious duty. and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Set. so the future life could only be attained after the gods of the world beyond the grave had become acquainted with it and had uttered it. 160 eternity! If the name of Râ flourisheth in the horizon." and which were copied so frequently in the Saïte. and this his pyramid shall flourish. and this his pyramid shall flourish. and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Osiris Khent-Amentet flourisheth. and Roman periods. then the name of Pepi shall flourish. Nothing existed on this earth [before me]. and this his pyramid shall flourish. fashioned) my mouth. I made all things. and this his pyramid shall flourish. and this his building shall flourish unto all p. and as a man only came into being upon this earth when his name had been pronounced. Elsewhere. All these compositions show that from the earliest to the latest times the belief as to the importance of the preservation of the name never changed in Egypt.e.flourisheth.. then the name of Pepi shall flourish. and this his pyramid shall flourish. There was none other who worked with me at that time. and thus I evolved myself under the evolutions of the god Khepera. then the name of Pepi shall flourish. 1 before the world and all that therein is came into being. the name of Pepi shall flourish. and this his pyramid shall flourish. and I developed myself out of the primeval matter which had evolved multitudes of evolutions from the beginning of time. then the name of Pepi shall flourish. and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity!" The above prayer or formula was the origin of most of the prayers and texts which had for their object the "making the name to germinate or flourish. Now when the time had come for the god to create all things be says. and in consequence his memory. in the other version of the story. then the name of Pepi shall flourish. and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Horus flourisheth. I developed myself out of . "I brought (i. and this his building shall flourish unto all eternity! If the name of Khent-merti flourisheth in Sekhem (Letopolis). and this his pyramid shall flourish. the dweller in Nubt (Ombos) flourisheth.

lintels. the creator of the name[s] of his limbs. thou Lord of Maâti. "What does this mean?" or "Who is this?" is asked." Here. 163 fettered. 162 chapter. the roads and paths would have been blocked to him. and that a name of a god was the god himself." From this we see that all the "gods" of Egypt were merely personifications of the NAMES Of Râ. The floor of the Hall will not permit him to walk upon it unless he p. the gates of the mansions of the underworld would have been irrevocably shut in his face. "Homage to thee. which came into being in the form of the gods who are in the following of Râ. these facts are best illustrated by the following examples:-When the deceased comes to the Hall of Judgment.' the germ of primeval matter. and door-posts. 164 . and who made his name to become the company of the gods. and I have brought myself hither that 1 may behold thy beauties. O Great God. implied dominion over that being. in answer to questions asked by the bolts. is described as the god of "many names. and the hostile powers which dogged his footsteps would have made an end of him. And this is the answer: "It is Râ." and it is only after he has uttered this name that the gods say "Pass onwards. Again. at the very beginning of his speech he says. and that each god was one of his members." Next the gods invite him to enter the Hall of Maâti. told their names." 1 But although the gods may be favourable to him. O my Lord. We have seen elsewhere that Râ. who gave birth unto himself. and to make him very ill. or human being. she was powerless to do as she wished in heaven and upon earth until she had persuaded the god to reveal to her his name by which he ruled the universe. we have a proof that the Egyptians regarded the creation as the result of the utterance of the name of the god Neb-er-tcher or Khepera by himself." and in that wonderful composition the XVIIth Chapter of the Book of the Dead. and I know the names of the two and forty gods who exist with thee in this Hall of Maâti. but he is not allowed to pass in until he has." Then the question. socket. and he be found righteous in the judgment. and I know thy name. we have seen that although Isis was able to make a serpent and to cause it to bite Râ. Without the knowledge of the names of the gods and devils of the underworld the dead Egyptian would have fared badly. threshold. then. or devil. for his personal liberty would have been p. given in the preceding p. In yielding up his name to the goddess he placed himself in her power. My name is' Osiris. the type and symbol of God. After the judgment he acquires the mystical name of "He who is equipped with the flowers and the dweller in his olive tree. and in this example we have a striking instance of the belief that the knowledge of the name of god. he cannot make his way among the other gods of the underworld without a knowledge of the names of certain parts of the Hall of Maâti. in the story of Râ and Isis. fastenings. 1 we have the following statement:--"I am the great god Nu. I have come to thee.the primeval matter. door-leaves. I know thee.

Res-hra. and Tebherkehaat. 165 violence and rend the places where hearts are fixed. of the third. who make slaughterings in the Lake of Fire. I say? (i. Am-huat-ent-pehfi. Meanwhile the thigh. But all these ceremonies would not help the deceased to pass through the gates. whose walls [are surmounted by] living uraei. 166 Sabes. learnt the name of the Great God. ye seven beings who make decrees. "Hail. and he says. begins. and Metes-hra-ari-she." and the deceased utters the name "Mâau-Taui. ye who made the Halls for Osiris! Hail. and p.e. even as I know your names. and the floor of whose house is a stream of water.tells not only its name. and ale. And the text. and the seven heralds who guarded them. and says. but each of the gates was guarded by a doorkeeper. of the seventh. and it required special provision on the part of the deceased to satisfy these beings that he had a right to pass them. "Osiris. ye Halls! Hail. Seqet-hra. therefore know ye me. and I know your names. Akentauk-ha-kheru. "Hail. "'Discerner of hearts and searcher of the reins' is thy name." In reply to this the guardian says." But still the guardian is not satisfied. has no further apprehension that evil will befall him. but also the mystical names of his two legs and feet wherewith he is about to tread upon it. and Neteka-hra-khesef-atu. of course. as well as a figure of the deceased: the latter was made to approach each of the gates and to stand before it and to recite an address which had been specially prepared for the purpose. I know you. Res-ab. of the fourth.." In another Chapter 1 the deceased addresses seven gods. ye who herald the affairs of the . and he further promises that the cakes. An-hra. who hack necks in pieces. and the seven watchers. the head. Ashebu. Ânkh-em-fentu. Semetu. The gods of the first gate were:--Sekhet-hraâsht-aru. who take possession of hearts by p. and Hukheru. who support the Balance on the night of the judgment of the Utchat. and he says. which the deceased recites to the Halls collectively. who cut off heads. unless be knew the names of the seven doorkeepers. "I will not announce thy name [to the god] unless thou tellest me my name". In one portion of the kingdom of Osiris there existed seven halls or mansions through which the deceased was anxious to pass. figures of the seven gates had to be made in some substance (or painted upon papyrus). having declared that the seven gods know his name and he their names. a watcher. When all this has been done the guardian of the Hall says to him. verily thy name shall be mentioned to him". and a herald. of the fifth. "If I announce thy name thou must utter the name of the god who dwelleth in his hour. "Advance. and Uâau. "If I announce thy name thou must tell me who is he whose heaven is of fire. and Khesef-hra-khemiu. those of the second. Tun-hât. what is his name?)" But the deceased has. Metes-sen. and the hoof of a red bull were offered at each gate. Khesef-hra-âshtkheru. of the sixth. the heart. as well as a very large number of miscellaneous offerings which need not be described in detail. and the deceased replies. and sepulchral meals which the deceased shall enjoy shall come from the "Eye of Râ. Who is he. and he replies." The deceased. In the first place. Ââa-kheru." The guardian of the Hall is now content. ye who watch your Halls! Hail.

" D. or Field of Reeds.two lands for the god Osiris each day. it was not possible for him to take a boat with him. was intersected by canals and streams. thou art pure. "I have made my way. the post to which it was tied up. this difficulty a boat and all its various parts were p. with lofty walls." At the second pylon he says. the deceased knoweth you. Thus to the first pylon he says. Thy name is 'Lady of tremblings. and the name of thy doorkeeper is Neri. But before he could enter it. 1 "Lord of the two lands. 167 travelleth along the way'. thus:-Post at which to tie up. and he knoweth your names. and a knowledge of the text of the chapter which belonged to it made the drawing to become an actual boat." and so on at each of the pylons. But beside the seven halls the deceased had to pass through the twenty-one hidden pylons of the house of Osiris in the Elysian Fields. To meet. the sovereign lady. dweller in the shrine. and I know the name of the god who guardeth thee. "Tell me my name. and every part of the boat itself. the mistress of destruction." After the speech the god of the pylon says. "Pass on." 1 The names having been uttered. Thy name is 'Lady of heaven." D. then. the mistress of the world." When we remember that one of the oldest beliefs as to the future life made it appear that it would be lived by man in the Sekhet-Aaru. and in order to do so he had to declare the names of the pylon and the doorkeeper of each.' The name of thy doorkeeper is Mes-Ptah. I know thee. who knoweth mankind. "I have anointed myself with hâti "unguent [made from] the cedar. who setteth in order the words which drive back the whirlwind and the storm. who devoureth with fire. "Tell me my name. . and to make a short address besides. and I know thy name. who delivereth from destruction him that p. and I know the name of the god who guardeth thee. "I have made [my] way. 168 drawn upon the papyrus. and I have with me my sceptre made of heti wood. a region which." is thy name. the lady of mortals. "Leg of Hâpiu" is thy name. Even assuming that he was fortunate enough to have made his own way into this region. Rudder. In the later and longer version of the chapter which was written to supply the deceased with this knowledge he informs the god of each pylon what purification he has undergone. I know thee and I know thy name. I have arrayed myself in apparel of menkh (linen). and the addresses duly recited. it is at once clear that in order to pass from one part of it to another the deceased would need a boat. as we know from the drawings of it which have come down to us. thus to the god of the first pylon he says. the deceased went wherever he pleased in the seven Halls of Osiris. upon which the selection of Chapters from the Book of the Dead had been inscribed for him. demanded that he should tell them their names.

"Mestha." D. Haqau. Planks. "Tell me my name." is thy name. 169 are made from the hide of the Mnevis Bull. Hull. "Tell us our name." D. "Tell me my name." D. and the ground their mystical names. "Standard of Ap-uat" is thy name. "Nut" is thy name. "Tell me my name. "Tell us our name. Rudder. Shiner in the water." D." D." D." D.Rope. This done. which cometh from Tem to the nostrils of Osiris. Oar-ruts. Ari-nef-tchesef. Pump (?). "Tell us our name." D. "He who is at the head of his nomes" is your name. the boat . "Tell me my name." D." D. "The North Wind. "Tell me my name. Qebhsennuf." is thy name. "Tell me my name. "The hand of Isis which wipeth away the blood of the Eye of Horus. Tuamutef. Thet-emâua." is thy name. "Tell me my name. "Tell me my name. "Those who p. "Throat of Mestha" is thy name." D. Mast. "Tell us our names. Sail. "Traveller" is thy name." is your name. Upper Post. "Akau" is thy name. Leather Straps. "Hairs with which Anpu finisheth the work of my embalmment" is thy name. "Bringer back of the lady after her departure" is thy name. Wind. "Tell us our name. "Pillars of the underworld" is your name. Rows. Hâpi." D. Paddles." D. "Tell me my name." are your names. which Râ cut off with the knife to bring blood into the Sektet boat." D." D. "Tell me my name. Lower deck." D. "Mert" is thy name. "Thigh of Isis." is thy name. Sailor. before he could set out on his journey he was obliged to tell the river. "Fingers of Horus the firstborn" is your name. "Tell me my name. hidden beam. and the river-banks. "Âqa" is thy name. which was burned by Suti. "Tell me my name. Hold. Maa-an-tef. Keel. And when the deceased had declared to these their names." D.

to have absolute power over a god of many forms it was necessary to know all his names. and who work the nets. cloud. and of the hooks.e. but it is quite certain that they have reference to certain events in the lives of the gods who are mentioned.. sufficient to help him out of his difficulties. Qetu (i. Saatet-ta (i." etc. and that these were well known to the writers and readers of religious texts. and he was able to sail about to any part of the Elysian Fields at will. p. Sekhem-hra. Devourer). in some cases.e. All these names represent.. Âmam (i. and of the pole.e. Khermuti.. Kharebutu the fourfold fiend. the above-mentioned book 2 therefore supplies us with a list of his names.p.e. Nâi. and the . as may be seen from the few of which translations are given. Iubani. But among the beings whom the deceased wished to avoid in the underworld were the beings who "lay snares. but also to write his name upon it. rain. lightning. the god their leader is called "the god whose face is behind him. Roarer)." To escape from the net which was worked by "the fishers who lay snares with their nets and who go round about in the chambers of the waters. mist.e. and as each form carried with it its own name. Hau-hra (i.. amulet or otherwise. the devil of thunder. and of each and every part of it. without this knowledge nothing could save him from calamity." and "the god who hath gained the mastery over his heart.. some gods and devils were thought to have the power to assume different forms. From the above descriptions of the means whereby the deceased made his way through the gates and the p. But Âpep possessed many forms and therefore many names. Moreover. "Backward Face).e. 171 halls of the underworld and escaped from the fowler and his net. for a whole chapter of the Book of the Dead was written with the view of enabling him to escape from them unharmed. We unfortunately understand very few of the allusions to mythological events which are contained in the names of the various parts of the machinery which work the net." and who would draw him into their nets. Thus in the "Book of Overthrowing Âpep" 1 we are told not only to make a wax figure of the monster. so that when the figure is destroyed by being burnt in the fire his name also may be destroyed. but in others it was necessary to have the name which was possessed of magical power inscribed upon some object. among which occur the following:--"Tutu (i. It seems as if it were absolutely necessary that he should fall in with these beings and their nets. storm. and who are fishers. Doubly evil one). Evil-doer). it will be readily understood that the knowledge of the name alone was." the deceased had to know the names of the net. and unless he could be invoked by these names he still had the power to do evil. 172 Khesef-hra. Unti. Khak-ab. Beteshu. various aspects of Âpep. 170 admitted him as a passenger. Uai. Hemhemti (i. this is a striking example of the belief that the name was an integral part of the economy of a living creature. Darkener of earth). Karauememti.. and of the ropes.

and cause thou heat to exist under his head. Thus he says. Kherserau is thy name. whose names are Khukheperuru and Barekathatchara. O . whose name meant the "hidden one. I adore thy name. O God. Ireqai is thy name. and thy divine name is in my mouth. Kharsatha is thy name. . Nasaqbubu is thy name. Amen-na-an-ka-entek-share. Prince of the gods of the east. and the crocodiles which come forth from the river. O Amen. 174 views on the subject of names which the Egyptians held. and Panemma that of the other. he is the soul of the great divine Body which resteth in Annu (Heliopolis). Kasaika is thy name. . O Amen. 1 we notice that the god Amen. and we have now to consider briefly the manner in which the knowledge of a name was employed in uses less important than those which had for their object the attainment of life and happiness in the world to come. and the bite of all poisonous reptiles which crawl forth from their holes." The examples of the use of names possessing magical powers described above illustrate the semi-religious p. saying. In the famous magical papyrus 1 which Chabas published 2 we find a series of interesting charms and magical formulæ which were written to preserve its possessor from the attacks of sea and river monsters of every kind. whose opportunity escapeth her not. the mighty runner whose strides are might thou art the god the mighty one who comest and rescuest the needy one and the afflicted from him that oppresseth him. Rerei is thy name." possessed numerous names. Arethikasathika is thy name. for. thus is [the name uttered] in the speech of the Negroes. even I." In another place 3 the deceased addresses Sekhet-Bast-Râ. p. "Thou art the mighty one of names among the gods. and of the people of Nubia. thy name is Na-ari-k. or (as others say) Thek-shareAmen-kerethi. O Re-Iukasa. O Amen. "O Amen. and I will utter it. O God. or (as others say) Ka-ari-ka. and of the Anti. Atareamtcherqemturennuparsheta is the name of one of thy divine sons." And in yet another chapter 1 the deceased addressing the god Par says. know thy name. for I. Haqabakaher is thy name. Marqathai is thy name.like. Amen is thy name. Thanasa-Thanasa is thy name. I am the Cow. Thou art like unto the mighty flame of Saqenaqat which is in the bow of the boat of thy father Harepukakashareshabaiu. of which the following is an example. O be gracious unto the deceased. "Hail. Sefiperemhesihrahaputchetef is thy name. O Amen. and the anxiety to personify these so that the personifications might be attacked by means of magical ceremonies and words of power seems positively childish. O God. thy name is Kaharesapusaremkakaremet. . Âurauaaqersaanqrebathi is thy name. I praise thy name . 173 "Thou art the fire-goddess Ami-seshet. indeed. 2 Amen. is thy name. for behold. Passing now to certain chapters of the Book of the Dead which are rich in names of magical power. give heed to my cry. Shareshatha-katha is thy name. upon the knowledge of which the deceased relied for protection. lord of the gods! Drive away from me the lions of the country of Meru (Meroë?). let me make supplication unto thee. Get thee back.

let us suppose that some water monster wished to attack a man in a boat. Haubailra-Haari. that didst create night and day. Tâuuarehasa.. O crocodile Mâk. handed down to the prophets of Israel." In this passage the name Osoronnophris is clearly a corruption of the old Egyptian names of the p. and p. who sang hymns of praise to Râ when he rose daily." When he had said these words he would appear to the animal in the water in the form of the god Amsu. which were current in Egypt from the time of the Ptolemies to the end of the Roman Period. thou didst make men to love one another and to bate one another. essence of the divine apes. and Syrian philosophers and magicians. i. . etc. Listen to me.. the ceremonies of Israel. the rod was to have four rams' heads upon one neck. under his feet was to be a figure of the crocodile Mâk. the transformed spirits of the dawn. thou didst produce seeds and fruits. 2 .e. with whom he had identified himself. beliefs. Thou art Osoronnophris.D. taking a hard egg in his hand. that didst create earth and heaven. Hebrew. thee the creator of light and darkness. whom no man hath seen at any time. I have been with thee in thy nest. he said. 1 Again. I am Moses thy prophet. thou hast distinguished the just and the unjust. I am Amsu of Coptos. At the end of the papyrus in which the above extracts occur we find a series of magical names which may be read thus:--AtirAtisa. Samutchakaretcha-Atisa. SenentutaBatetsataiu. . Atirkaha-Atisa. 175 to the right and left of him were to be the dog headed apes. "O egg of the water which hath been spread over the earth. who dost dwell in the nests which are in the waters. Samuanemui-Atisa. O thou who wast fettered with links of iron before the boat of Râ! Get thee back. Samutekabaiu-Atisa. the great one in the heaven above and in the earth beneath. thou son of Set!" These words were to be said over a figure of the god Amen painted on clay. and it would be afraid and flee.C. Samumatnatmu-Atisa. 176 inscribing upon their amulets and upon the so-called magical papyri. and from a passage like the following 1 we may get a proof of this:--"I call thee. 177 . I have come forth with thee from the water. Qina. formulæ. I am Amsu. thou art Iabas. 150 to A.crocodile Mâk. 200 the papyri exhibit traces of the influence of Greek. Samutekaari-Atisa. the headless one. O thou whom the thirty-seven gods did make. thou didst produce the moist and the dry and all manner of food. Anrehakatha-sataiu. lord of Kebu. and whom the serpent of Râ did put in chains. to whom thou didst commit thy mysteries. thou art Iapôs. but from about B. this is thy true name. Hama. From these and similar magical names it is quite certain that the Gnostics and other sects which held views akin to theirs obtained the names which they were so fond of p. The last class of documents undoubtedly contains a very large proportion of the magical ideas. thou didst make female and male. thou son of Set! Move not by means of thy tail! Work not thy legs and feet! Open not thy mouth! Let the water which is before thee turn into a consuming fire. Listen to me: I am an angel of Phapro Osoronnophris. To avoid this the man stood before the cabin of the boat and.

178 and all Lights. Iabraam. "great house") or "Pharaoh." and Phapro seems to represent the Egyptian Perâa (literally. Bôth. blinds. and Sabaôth is another well-known Hebrew word meaning "hosts". Lailam. reference to the three vowels "Iaô" 2 which were intended to represent one of the Hebrew names for Almighty God." with the article pa "the" prefixed. that didst divide the light from the darkness. do thou not disregard the Hebrew appellation Ablanathanalb. brings dreams. For I am Silthakhôoukh. p. spirit of spirits. Adonai. It is interesting to note that Moses is mentioned.great god of the dead "Ausar Unnefer. Sabaôth. the great god. high-thundering Zeus. Iaoth. lord. In another magical formula we read. hear my voice. the ruler of the gods. the immoveable Aeon. Blasalôth. and all flesh and all spirit. The spell ends with the statement that it "loosens chains. Zeus. 1 "I call upon thee that didst create the earth and bones. it may be used in common for whatever purpose you will." 1 The seven vowels have. "Jâh. Nau. that disposest everything. Siph." etc. IAOOUÊI. I am he that invokes thee in the Syrian tongue. creates favour. Elôai. and all Powers. Abrasilôa. that didst establish the sea and that shakest the heavens." are also derived through the Hebrew from the Bible. eye of the world. the great regulative mind. Iaô. Baroukh Adonai. Sabiothar. Barbarauô. by Hebrew and Syriac words." The names "Adonai. the lord of spirits. king." In the above we notice at once the use of the seven vowels which form "a name wherein be contained all Names. of course. a fact which seems to indicate Jewish influence. Nebouth. god of gods. Zaalaêr. Zagourê. the following are examples:-- . with them are often found the names of the seven archangels of God. On papyri and amulets the vowels are written in magical combinations in such a manner as to form triangles and other shapes. Elôai. some of the remaining names could be explained. Iphphou. I call upon thee. Arbathiaô. if space permitted. Patoure. Ieô. Iaoouêe.

179 sometimes engraved upon plaques.3 4 5 In combination with a number of signs which owe their origin to the Gnostics the seven vowels were p. The example printed below is found on a papyrus in the British Museum and accompanies a spell written for thepurpose of overcoming the malice of enemies. and for giving security against alarms and nocturnal visions. with the view of giving the possessor power over gods or demons or his fellow creatures. or written upon papyri. 1 .

(From Brit. seemingly.. Khnoubis (or Khnoumis). in one hand he holds a knife or dagger. and in the later times. Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the meaning and derivation of the name Abrasax. The name was believed to possess magical powers of the highest class. 180 refer to the seven heavens. This figure has two bodies. . His face is grotesque. and Abrasax (or Abraxas). but there is no doubt that the god who bore it was a form of the Sun-god." The god stands upon an oval wherein are depicted figures of various "typhonic" animals. for it is often found inscribed on amulets side by side with scenes and figures with which. The first is usually represented as a huge serpent having the head of a lion surrounded by seven or twelve rays. are the seven vowels of the Greek alphabet. Judging from certain Gnostic gems in the British Museum. in the Egyptian monuments he has at times the head of a hawk. or "Fashioner" of man and beast. Khnemu is. Abrasax is to be identified with the polytheistic figure that stands in the upper part of the Metternich stele depicted on p. and from each of his knees projects a serpent. and above it a pair of horns which support eight knives and the figure of a god with raised hands and arms. but never that of a lion. Mus. and that it p." he has four heads.--4th or 5th century. from these extend four wings. or the sun as an old man. It is probable. and the other a sceptre. however. i. which typifies "millions of years.. and in the other a shield upon which is inscribed the great name ()* {Greek IAW}.) But of all the names found upon Gnostic gems two. 1 who gave it currency in the second century. Greek Papyrus. CXXIV. are of the most frequent occurrence. the other pair is pendent. the right hand grasping the sign of life. seems to have regarded it as an invincible name. Whether in the Gnostic system Abraxas absorbed all the names and attributes of this god of many forms cannot be said with certainty. a form of the ancient Egyptian god Khnemu. it cannot have any connexion whatever. Khnoumis is. or JÂH. and that he was intended to represent some aspect of the Creator of the world." "stability. the bead of a hawk or cock. often depicted with the head of a ram. one being that of a man. Over the seven rays. each hand holding the symbols of "life. and probably represents that of Bes. 181 soon degenerated into a mere magical symbol. and from each side of his crown proceed several symbols of fire.e. of course. is usually found the sign of the triple S and bar. and the other that of a bird. one on the point of each. however. He has two pairs of hands and arms. 153. and legs terminating in serpents. that its exact meaning was lost at an early date. the god to whom many of the attributes of the Creator of the universe were ascribed." and two knives and two serpents. as the "beautiful ram of Râ. and Basileides." and "power. The god Abrasax is represented in a form which has a human body. on his head is a pylon-shaped object with figures of various animals. which some suppose to p. one pair is extended along the wings. and on the back of the amulet. Nu. on which the figure of Khnoumis occurs.Amulet inscribed with signs and letters of magical power for overcoming the malice of enemies.

vol. p. 172:3 Ibid. 146). Abeu.. Fragment of a Græco-Egyptian Work upon Magic. 49. 173:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. G. . 6. Chalon-sur-Saône. p. 178:1 See Kenyon. No. Greek Papyri. 172:2 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. 175:1 See the scene in the rounded portion of the Metternichstele illustrated on p. 293.. 168:1 D. p. col. Gnostic gem. Vol. 128. 172:1 Chapters CLXII. 669. p. p. p. 63. 178:3 British Museum. 1893. 158:1 Pepi II. 1... 166:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. xii. 161:1 See my paper in Archæologia. Recueil. 21. 162:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. 7. 1860. p. 177:1 Goodwin. London. CLXV. 171:1 Papyrus of Nesi-Amsu. 164:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. LII. p. Athelebersthe. No. 176:2 Here follow a number of names of which Reibet. 13 f. p. CLXIII.. op. p. 33. 1. CLXIV. Ebenphi. Blatha. p. 10. (ed. 174:2 Le Papyrus Magique Harris. Greek Papyri in the British Museum. 1. 163:1 See Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. 289. 123.042. tom. 174:1 British Museum. London. p. = the deceased. cit. 191. Maspero. ff.. 178:2 For Iaoouêi we should probably read Iaô ouêi. xxiii. 211. 1892.) 171:2 Ibid. 178:4 Kenyon. (Archæologia. LII.Footnotes 157:1 Line 169. are examples. xxxii.. 295. 149. col. 1891. 176:1 See Goodwin.

179:1 Kenyon. king and priest. it seems strange to find the Egyptians studying carefully how best to provide the dead with a regular supply of sepulchral offerings. any one of these would have been enough for the purpose. in the performance of deeds both good and evil. He was a disciple of Menander. But that the preservation of the p. For example. it is hard to understand why the Egyptians took such pains to preserve the physical body from decay. 182 CHAPTER VI. but it was thought best in such an important matter to make assurance .. and unless there was some good reason. who lived about A. 121. Raphael. for when we come to think about it we notice that in arranging for the well-being of the dead nothing whatever was left to chance. and magical names. and to perform the symbolic acts which would restore its natural functions. Souriel. These names read Michael. 180:1 He of Alexandria. too.D. Gabriel. a papyrus will contain several prayers and pictures with appropriate formulæ. p. and with the highest objects. and Suliel. the object of each of which is to give the deceased meat and drink. 123. Badakiel. and with the performance of rites which were of no avail.. IN the preceding pages we have seen how the Egyptians employed magical stones or amulets. it remains to consider these magical ceremonies in which the skill of the magician-priest was exerted to its fullest extent. 120. p. besides the observance of conservative custom and traditional use. that is to say. for they declare in no uncertain manner that it remains upon the earth whilst the soul dwells in heaven. why it should do so. and rich and poor. and declared that he had received the esoteric doctrine of Saint Peter from Glaucias. gentle and simple. and magical pictures.178:5 Ibid. No Egyptian who believed his Scriptures ever expected that his corruptible body would ascend into heaven and live with the gods. MAGICAL CEREMONIES. When we think of the sublime character of the life which the souls of the blessed dead were believed to lead in heaven with the gods. to preserve the human body in a mummified condition. a disciple of the Apostle. P. 183 body was in some way or for some reason absolutely necessary is certain. At first sight. for the art of mummification flourished for several thousands of years. Zaziel. cit. would never have burdened their relatives and heirs with the expense of costly funeral ceremonies. op. and magical words.

. He mummified his dead and swathed them in linen bandages. is wanting.doubly sure. He believed that he would feed upon the celestial and imperishable food whereon the gods lived. the greatest care was taken in mummifying its various members. upon which he relied so implicitly. . The Egyptian declared that he was immortal. thy smell in the Hall [of Judgment]. and if there was the least doubt about the efficacy of one Chapter one or more of the same class were added. lest perchance any one of them should be neglected accidentally. and thy soul shall appear over thy body in Ta-neter (i." After this the priest or mummifier was to take a vase of liquid which contained ten perfumes. and talk. and to smear therewith the body from head to foot twice. . or through the lax p. 185 and the means adopted for disposing of the more corruptible portions of the body are well known from classical and other writers. and the words of power which were spoken as each bandage was laid in its place. and burial. we must have. Maspero under the title of Le Rituel de l'Embaumement. and should. yet he attempted by the performance of magical ceremonies and the recital of words of power to make his corruptible body to endure for ever. Thy members shall become young in Arabia. cakes. taking especial care . feathered fowl. The examination of mummies has shown us with tolerable clearness what methods were adopted in preparing bodies for bandaging and final ornamentation. all the evidence now forthcoming seems to prove that be never succeeded in bringing himself to think that the gods could do without his help. The text opens with an address to the deceased in which it is said. and believed that he would enjoy eternal life in a spiritual body. and the like. the tendency of the natural body after death being to decay. could possibly fail to be as efficacious as the actual power of the god himself. which probably gave instructions for the evisceration of the body. to make perfect . and resurrection of Osiris. 184 performance of some ceremony. or that the pictures or representations of the scenes which took place in the life. and think. decay and perish. O sweet-smelling soul of the great god. and death. and a list of the unguents and other materials employed in the process. and move at will. and only the section which refers to the bandaging is at all perfect. and then by the performance of magical ceremonies and by the recital of words of power sought to give back to their members the strength to eat. Indeed. the 'divine land'). 1 The first part of the papyrus. p. Similarly. thou dost contain such a sweet odour that thy face shall neither change nor perish. But for an account of the manner in which the body was bandaged. and drink. bread. but at the same time he spared no effort or expense to provide for his tomb being supplied at stated intervals throughout the year with perishable food in the shape of offerings of oxen.. .e. . Here are brought to thee liquids which have come forth from Râ. "The perfume of Arabia hath been brought to thee to make perfect thy smell through the scent of the god. either by the omission of the words of power that ought to have been said over it. recourse to a very interesting papyrus which has been edited and translated by M.

p. 186

to anoint the head thoroughly. He was then to say, Osiris (i.e., the deceased), thou hast received the perfume which shall make thy members perfect. Thou receivest the source [of life] and thou takest the form of the great Disk (i.e., Aten), which uniteth itself unto thee to give enduring form to thy members; thou shalt unite with Osiris in the great Hall. The unguent cometh unto thee to fashion thy members and to gladden thy heart, and thou shalt appear in the form of Râ; it shall make thee to be sound when thou settest in the sky at eventide, and it shall spread abroad the smell of thee in the nomes of Aqert. . . . Thou receivest the oil of the cedar in Amentet, and the cedar which came forth from Osiris cometh unto thee; it delivereth thee from thy enemies, and it protecteth thee in the nomes. Thy soul alighteth upon the venerable sycamores. Thou criest to Isis, and Osiris heareth thy voice, and Anubis cometh unto thee to invoke thee. Thou receivest the oil of the country of Manu which hath come from the East, and Râ riseth upon thee at the gates of the horizon, at the holy doors of Neith. Thou goest therein, thy soul is in the upper heaven, and thy body is in the lower heaven . . . O Osiris, may the Eye of Horus cause that which floweth forth from it to come to thee, and to thy heart for ever!" These words having been said, the whole ceremony was repeated, and then the internal organs which had been removed from the body
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were placed in the "liquid of the children of Horus," so that the liquid of this god might enter into them, and whilst they were being thus treated a chapter was read over them and they were put in the funeral chest. When this was done the internal organs were placed on the body, and the body having been made to lie straight the backbone was immersed in holy oil, and the face of the deceased was turned towards the sky; the bandage of Sebek and Sedi was then laid upon the backbone. In a long speech the deceased is addressed and told that the liquid is "secret," and that it is an emanation of the gods Shu and Seb, and that the resin of Phoenicia and the bitumen of Byblos will make his burial perfect in the underworld, and give him his legs, and facilitate his movements, and sanctify his steps in the Hall of Seb. Next gold, silver, lapis-lazuli, and turquoise are brought to the deceased, and crystal to lighten his face, and carnelian to strengthen his steps; these form amulets which will secure for him a free passage in the underworld. Meanwhile the backbone is kept in oil, and the face of the deceased is turned towards the heavens; and next the gilding of the nails of the fingers and toes begins. When this has been done, and portions of the fingers have been wrapped in linen made at Saïs, the following address is made to the deceased:--"O Osiris, thou receivest thy nails of gold, thy fingers of gold, and thy thumb of smu (or uasm) metal; the liquid of Râ entereth into thee as well
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as into the divine members of Osiris, and thou journeyest on thy legs to the immortal abode. Thou hast carried thy hands to the house of eternity, thou art made perfect in gold, thou dost shine brightly in smu metal, and thy fingers shine in the dwelling of Osiris, in the sanctuary of Horus himself. O Osiris, the gold of the mountains cometh to thee; it is a holy talisman of the gods in their abodes, and it lighteneth thy face in the lower heaven. Thou breathest in gold, thou appearest in smu metal, and the dwellers in Re-stau receive

thee; those who are in the funeral chest rejoice because thou hast transformed thyself into a hawk of gold by means of thy amulets (or talismans) of the City of Gold," etc. When these words have been said, a priest who is made to personify Anubis comes to the deceased and performs certain symbolical ceremonies by his head, and lays certain bandages upon it. When the head and mouth and face have been well oiled the bandage of Nekheb is laid on the forehead, the bandage of Hathor on the face, the bandage of Thoth upon the two ears, and the bandage of Nebt-hetep on the nape of the neck. Over the head was laid the bandage of Sekhet, in two pieces, and over each ear, and each nostril, and each cheek was fastened a bandage or strip of linen; over the forehead went four pieces of linen, on the top of the head two, outside the mouth two, and inside two, over the chin two, and over the nape of the neck four large pieces; there were
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to be twenty-two pieces to the right and to the left of the face passing over the two ears. The Lady of the West is then addressed in these words:--"Grant thou that breathing may take place in the head of the deceased in the underworld, and that be may see with his eyes, and that he may hear with his two ears; and that he may breathe through his nose; and that he may be able to utter sounds with his mouth; and that he may be able to speak with his tongue in the underworld. Receive thou his voice in the Hall of Maâti and his speech in the Hall of Seb in the presence of the Great God, the lord of Amentet." The addresses which follow these words have, reference to the delights and pleasures of the future life which shall be secured for him through the oil and unguents, which are duly specified and described, and through the magical figures which are drawn upon the bandages. The protecting properties of the turquoise and other precious stones are alluded to, and after a further anointing with oil and the placing of grains of myrrh and resin, the deceased is declared to have "received his head," and he is promised that it shall nevermore depart from him. On the conclusion of the. ceremonies which concern the head the deceased has the power to go in among the holy and perfect spirits, his name is exalted among men, the denizens of heaven receive his soul, the beings of the underworld bow down before his body, the dwellers upon earth adore him, and the
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inhabitants of the funeral mountain renew for him his youth. Besides these things, Anubis and Horus make perfect his bandages, and the god Thoth protects his members by his words of magical power; and he himself has learned the magical formulæ which are necessary to make his path straight in the underworld, and also the proper way in which to utter them. All these benefits were secured for him by the use of bandages and unguents which possess both magical names and properties, and by the words of power uttered by the priests who recited the Ritual of Embalmment, and by the ceremonies which the priest who personated Anubis performed beside the body of the deceased in imitation of those which the god Anubis performed for the dead god Osiris in remote days. Next the left hand of the deceased was mummified and bandaged according to the instructions given in the Ritual of Embalmment. The hand was stretched out on a piece of

linen, and a ring was passed over the fingers; it was then filled with thirty-six of the substances which were used in embalming, according to the number of the forms of the god Osiris. This done, the hand was bandaged with a strip of linen in six folds, upon which were drawn figures of Isis and Hâpi. The right hand was treated in a similar way, only the figures drawn upon the bandages were those of Râ and Amsu; and when the appropriate words had been
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recited over both hands divine protection was assured them. After these things the ceremonies concerning the right and left arms were performed, and these were followed by rubbing the soles of the feet and the legs and the thighs, first with black-stone oil, and secondly with holy oil. The toes were wrapped in linen, and a piece of linen was laid on each leg; on each piece was drawn the figure of a jackal, that on the right leg representing Anubis, and that on the left Horus. When flowers of the ânkham plant and other substances had been laid beside and on the legs, and they had been treated with ebonygum water and holy oil, and appropriate addresses had been said, the ceremony of bandaging the body was ended. Everything that could be done to preserve the body was now done, and every member of it was, by means of the words of power which changed perishable substances into imperishable, protected to all eternity; when the final covering of purple or white linen had been fastened upon it, the body was ready for the tomb. But the Ritual of Embalmment which has been briefly described above seems to belong to a late period of Egyptian history, and although the ideas and beliefs contained in it are as old as Egyptian civilization itself, it seems as if it was intended to take the place of a much older and more elaborate work which was in use as far back as the period in which the Great Pyramid was built, and which was intended to be
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recited during the performance of a complex series of ceremonies, some of which are still not completely understood. It seems as if the performance of all the ceremonies would require several days, and it is clear that only the wealthy could afford the expense which must have attended such elaborate obsequies; for the poorer classes of men the various ceremonies must have been greatly curtailed, and at a very early period we find that a shortened form of ritual had taken their place. Of all the ceremonies, the most important was that of the "Opening of the Mouth and Eyes," which was performed either on the mummy itself or upon a statue which represented it. It has already been stated that the Egyptians believed that they could transmit to a statue the attributes of the person in whose image it was made, and similarly that that which was done to the statue of the mummified person was also done to it. The use of a statue instead of the actual mummy has obvious advantages, for the ceremony could be performed at any time and in any place, and the presence of the mummy was unnecessary. As a matter of fact the ceremony was performed in a chamber at the entrance to the tomb, or outside the tomb at a place which had been made ceremonially pure or consecrated, and those who took part in it were:--(1) The Kher-heb, or chief officiating priest, who held a roll of papyrus in his

" which the other men in turn repeat. and fish. At this stage the Sem priest dressed himself in the skin of a cow. From the scenes 2 which accompany the texts 3 relating to the ceremony of opening the mouth and eyes we see that it began with the sprinkling of water round about the statue or mummy from four vessels. When the bull had been slain. at some very early period. however. and the heart taken out. "I have seen my father in all his forms. 195 the soul of Horus dwelt in an eye. (9) The Am-khent priest. 1 or the gods with the heads of a hawk. Set. or woman who represented Nephthys. one for each quarter of the earth. and the shadow having been joined to the body once more. The preliminary purifications being ended. and that Set nearly succeeded in devouring it. The sacrifice consisted of a bull (or cow) or two. and the men those of the gods who helped them in the performance of their pious duties. and . the statue or mummy is approached by the men who represent the armed guard of Horus. or slaughterer. The Kher-heb next made ready to perform the sacrifice which was intended to commemorate the slaughter. the four men together represented the four children of Horus. contrived to escape. the two women took the parts of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys. The meaning of this portion of the ceremony is hard to explain. a jackal. The burning p. an ape. having taken upon himself the character of Horus. It seems that. Thoth. and ducks. and birds. the son of Osiris and Isis. Set. The sprinkling of water was followed by a purification by means of incense. and lying down upon a kind of couch pretended to be asleep. and Sept. (10) A number of people who represented the armed guard of Horus. or woman who represented Isis. Maspero 2 thinks that it was intended to bring back to the body of the deceased its shadow (khaibit). this act restored to the deceased the use of his head. 194 of this sweet-smelling substance assisted in opening the mouth of the deceased and in strengthening his heart. (6) The Tcherau-sheraut. touches its mouth with his finger. of the fiends who were the friends of Set. also contained in four vases. which had departed from it when it died. one of the forelegs was cut off.hand. but they were caught. perhaps. who was concealed in the form of a pig. but Horus vanquished Set and saved his eye. two gazelles or antelopes. one for each of the four quarters of the earth. (7) The Menhu. some intimate friend of the deceased. but he was roused up by the Am-asi priest in the presence of the Kher-heb and the Am-khent priest. Set's associates then changed themselves into the forms of animals. with whom the deceased is now identified. but M. p. 193 (4) The Sa-mer-ef. All these became actors in scenes which were intended to represent the events which took place in connexion with the burial of Osiris. (5) The Tcherau-ur. and their heads were cut off. and when the Sem priest had seated himself upon a seat. and one of their number. 1 or man who was either the son of the deceased or his representative. (3) The Smer. (8) The Am-asi priest. (2) The Sem priest. and a man respectively. who was. The Sem priest then said. p. and with the recital of addresses to the gods Horus.

I have opened thy mouth with the instrument of Anubis. or words of power. I love thee. whilst the Kher-heb recited a long address in which he declared that this portion of the ceremony had secured for the deceased all the benefits which accrued to the god Osiris from the actions of Nut. Now that the mouth. and afterwards with a little bag filled with pieces of red stone or carnelian. When this had been done. i. open the mouth! Horus hath opened the mouth of the dead. "I have come to embrace thee. called "Seb-ur" and "Tuntet" respectively. I have opened for thee thy mouth with the instrument of Anubis. 196 gods were opened. "Thy mouth was closed. and his body shall be with the great company of the gods in the Great House of the Aged One in Annu. and touched the mouth and the. The Sem priest next said to the statue. it was all important to give p. Thy mouth was closed. I open for thee thy two eyes. The slaughtered gazelles or antelopes and ducks were simply offered before the statue." a curious. open the mouth! Horus. the mouth and eyes with it four times. It has been said above that every dead man hoped to be provided with the hekau. In order to do this he took in his hand a metal chisel and touched the openings of the mouth and of the eyes. whilst the Kher-heb said.offered to the statue or mummy. the "mighty one of enchantments. which were necessary for him in the next world. and Set. several other ceremonies were performed with the object of allowing the "son who loveth him" or his representative to take part in the opening of the mouth of his father. and then the Sem priest touched them first with his little finger. I am thy son. or rather the use of it. Horus. with the iron instrument with which he opened the mouths of the gods. but I have set in order for thee thy mouth and thy teeth. M. or pretended to touch. of restoring to the lips and eyelids the colour which they had . 197 him not only the words of power. The Sem priest then took in his hand the instrument called ur hekau. eyes of the statue or mummy four times. I open for thee thy mouth. with the iron implement with which the mouths of the p. when he was in a similar state. Maspero thinks. and he shall receive there the ureret crown from Horus. with the iron which came forth from Set." Thus the mouth and the eyes of the deceased are opened. with the idea.e. sinuous piece of wood. The deceased shall walk and shall speak. the Sem priest then took the bleeding leg and touched.. I am thy son Horus. . one end of which is in the form of a ram's head surmounted by a uraeus. but without a mouth it was impossible for him to utter them. I have pressed thy mouth. . Horus. ." He then brought two instruments. He hath opened thy mouth with it. but also the ability to utter them correctly and in such wise that the gods and other beings would hearken to them and obey them. four touches of the ur hekau instrument on the lips endowed the deceased with the faculty of uttering the proper words in the proper manner in each of the four quarters of the world. as he in times of old opened the mouth of Osiris. was restored to the deceased. but I have set in order for thee thy mouth and thy teeth. the lord of mankind. and touched the mouth of the statue or mummy with them.

198 in thy face. that is to say." and touches the mouth of the mummy or statue therewith. and the four divisions thus made were apportioned to the four children of Horus. In later days each section was divided into two parts. hence prayers and formulæ p. and when this portion of the ceremony was ended. 199 . "O Osiris. all of whom had to be propitiated by the deceased.lost during the process of mummification. From the earliest times the South and the North were the two great sections into which the world was divided. The "son who loves him" then took four objects called "iron of the South. and by the order of the Kher-heb offered them to the mouth of the mummy. and iron of the North. But it must be remembered that hitherto only the "bull of the south" has been sacrificed. and that the "bull of the north" has yet to be offered up. but with what object is not clear. I have stablished for thee the two jaw-bones p. hence most religious ceremonies were ordered to be performed in duplicate. and waved it before its face four times. and they are now separated". After the Pesh-en-kef had been used the Sem priest brought forward a basket or vessel of some kind of food in the shape of balls. and all the ceremonies which have been already performed must be repeated if the deceased would have the power to go forth at will over the whole earth." and laid each of them four times upon the mouth and the eyes while the Kher-heb recited the proper address in which the mummy or statue is said to have had his mouth and lips established firmly. This done. the bandages with which they have been tied up can no longer prevent their movement when the deceased wishes to eat. the Sem priest brings an instrument called the "Pesh-en-kef. the Sem priest took an ostrich feather. and says. and each section possessed its own special gods. Such are the ceremonies which it was thought necessary to perform in order to restore to the deceased the functions which his body possessed upon earth.

in the other. Anubis and the mummy stand upon a layer of sand which has been placed there with the object of sanctifying the ground. and another offers four vases of unguent. stands weeping before the mummy. and a vase. embraces the mummy. the god of the dead. On the right we see the pyramidal tomb in the Theban hill with its open door. the wife of the deceased. probably his daughter. One ministrant holds the two instruments "Tun-tet" and "Seb-ur" in the right hand. In the limited space of this book it is not possible to reproduce all the scenes of the ceremony of opening the mouth and the eyes which are depicted in the tombs and elsewhere. 1350 (From the Papyrus of Hunefer.The ceremony of "opening the mouth" being performed on the mummy of Hunefer. 201 were usually said four times.C. In the lower register are a cow and her p. 202 . once in honour of each god. and the "Ur hekau" instrument in the left. and at his feet kneels another weeping woman. Nasha. thus indicating his readiness to take the deceased under his protection. Anubis. but on page 199 is a general view of the ceremony as it is often given in the papyri of the XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties. sheet 5) p. A priest clad in a panther's skin holds a censer containing burning incense in one hand. about B. from which he sprinkles water. and the rubrical directions on this point are definite. and with a prayer to the god for sepulchral offerings. and by the side of it is the funeral stele with a rounded top inscribed with a figure of the deceased standing in adoration before Osiris.

and incense hath been offered unto Thoth of thy incense. and incense hath been offered unto Horus of thy incense. Incense hath been offered unto thee of p. and incense hath been offered unto Sep of thy incense. remain soft for all time. Thou art pure with the purification of Sep. It seems to have been used with the idea of effecting transformations by the former. the bags of colour. and so that the curative properties of the oil might heal the wounds which the mummifiers had made. the royal scribe. and Sep is pure with thy purification.'" The above words are all the text that the scribe considered it necessary to give in the Papyrus of Hunefer.calf. and the important place which they occupied in the ceremonies and rituals of many nations proves that remarkable effects were expected to follow their use.' [Say] four times. Pure. [and when it is set] upon the sand behind him. and Horus is pure with thy purification. 203 the incense of Sep. which is to be performed [when] its face [looketh] towards the south. And the Kher-heb shall say four times unto the Sem priest as he goeth round about him bearing four vases of water: 'Thou art pure with the purification of Horus. A glance at the medical papyri of Egypt will shew that oil appears in scores of prescriptions. but sufficient importance was attached to them to make the performance of them almost obligatory. and the heart which has just been taken out of him. Hunefer. two sets of four vases for holding unguents and oil. Incense hath been offered unto thee of the incense of Seb. To certain kinds of oil. magical properties have been attached from time immemorial in the East. and that he curtailed the representation of the ceremony of opening the mouth and eyes as much as possible is evident. and this is not to be wondered at. and Seb is pure with thy purification. The performance of the ceremony of opening the mouth was followed by a number of other less important ceremonies which had for their object the providing of the mummy or statue with scents. 204 magical words which were pronounced whilst it was being rubbed on them. Among the objects presented to the deceased in these ceremonies scents and perfumed unguents play a prominent part. and various articles of wearing apparel. these were not essentials." and Pesh-enkef. On a table we see lying a number of objects. and unguents. The living made use of oil to soften the skin and to preserve it from the parching heat of the sun. Thou art pure with the purification of Seb. and incense hath been offered unto Seb of thy incense. Incense hath been offered unto thee of the incense of Thoth. the iron of the south and north. Thou art pure with the purification of Thoth. and it was no less useful to the magician 1 than to the physician in producing good or evil results. 'Incense hath been offered unto thee of the incense of Horus. and Thoth is pure with thy purification. Pure. etc. and the dead were anointed with it during the process of mummification so that their skins might." and other instruments. The text which runs in short vertical lines above the scene reads: "The Chapter of the opening of the mouth of the statue of Osiris. the "Meskhet. and two men are carrying along to the mummy the haunch which we must assume to have been recently cut from the slaughtered bull. just as it was employed by the priest in the performance of . through the p.

193:3 See Schiaparelli. and Champollion. 204:2 Lucius Sive Asinus. ii. vol. Turin. she flew upwards and. 159 ff.)/2($$*(* {Greek Xrísmati memageuménwj e?paleípsasa ó?non poih'seie} (see Lucius sive Asinus. contained oil. In a very short time she resembled a bird in every respect. Paris. but as they only illustrate the beliefs described above they need not be mentioned here. Didot. ed. iii. uttering the cry of a night-raven. 1875. and taking out one which. from head to foot. 205:1 From the words. 1884. Footnotes 185:1 In Mémoire sur quelques Papyrus du Louvre. xlii. i. and when she saw that she was well feathered." 193:2 See Dümichen. Tuamutef and Qebhsennuf. xv. 194:2 Op.. horny beak took the place of her nose. rubbed all her body with the liquid. p. and a hooked. Mestha. 42. tom. the writer thinks. Didot. 1882. iii. it is clear that the person who is speaking believed that he had been transformed into an ass by means of the use of "bewitched oil. p. p.e.. 466).. "the son who loveth him. Monuments. see also Maspero. 204:1 See the description of the ceremony of the beetle. beginning with the ends of the nails. Paris..certain important religious ceremonies.e. !"#$%&'()%*%&+*. tom. 1891." .. 1885. 1 In connexion with the recital of certain Chapters of the Book of the Dead a number of interesting ceremonies were performed. Il Libro dei Funerali degli antichi Egiziani.. plates 213-248. p. p. 205 disappeared through the window. 466). 194:1 I. 54.. The woman first undressed herself. 2 who relates that a woman transformed herself into a night-raven by its means..). Leipzig. 12 (ed. vol.. and a curious survival of this use is mentioned by Lucian. 168.%-. 419).. Compare also 54 (p. Hâpi. Der Grabpalast des Patuamenap. and going to a lamp threw two grains of incense into the flame and recited certain words. p. 193:1 I. vol. cit. she then went to a large chest containing several bottles.2. and suddenly feathers and wings began to grow upon her. 1845. Le Rituel du sacrifice funéraire (Revue de l'Histoire des Religions.! "/&0*#1&$& #. xlii.

behold. he did homage before him. O thou Sun of the nations. and lapis-lazuli. on behalf of the lady Bent-ent-resht. Among others there came the Prince of Bekhten. DREAMS. and took her to Egypt. and when they arrived in that country the king married her. GHOSTS. which had the power of entering into human bodies and of vexing them in proportion to their malignant nature and influence. It appears that king Rameses II. so that all men might read and know what a marvellous cure his priests had effected. HOROSCOPES. When the king saw her he thought her the most beautiful girl he had ever seen. but that others needed not only drugs but the recital of words of power to effect their cure. PROGNOSTICATIONS. One day during the fifteenth year of the king's reign. AND THE WORSHIP OF ANIMALS. TRANSFORMATIONS. the younger sister of the royal spouse Râ-neferu. an evil . who was very beautiful. DEMONIACAL POSSESSION. was in Mesopotamia "according to his wont. believed that certain sicknesses and diseases might be cured by certain medicaments pure and simple. 1 but the texts do not afford much information on the matter." the Sun-god). and he bestowed upon her the title of "Royal spouse. THE Egyptians. in common with many other Eastern nations." and all the chiefs of the countries round about came to pay their respects to him. Râ-neferu" (i. year by year. "Glory and praise be unto thee. O my sovereign Lord. and said. "I have come unto thee. and turquoise. There is good reason for thinking that some diseases were attributed to the action of evil spirits or demons.p. When he had been led into the king's presence. when His Majesty was in Thebes celebrating the festival of Amen-Râ. however. and at the head of all the offerings which he presented to His Majesty he placed his eldest daughter. for. LUCKY AND UNLUCKY DAYS. 206 CHAPTER VII. saying. p. by bringing to him gifts of gold. and they sought to obtain his goodwill and protection. and the exercise of their power p. chief lady. probably even an alliance.e. we have one interesting proof that foreign peoples believed that the Egyptians were able to cure the diseases caused by demoniacal possession. a messenger came to the king and reported the arrival of an ambassador from the Prince of Bekhten who had brought rich gifts for the royal lady Râneferu. and of every kind of valuable thing which the land produced.. Incidentally. 207 on the occasion described was considered to be so noteworthy that the narrative of it was inscribed upon a stele 1 and setup in the temple 2 of the god Khonsu at Thebes. grant that we may live before thee!" Having said these words be bowed down and touched the ground with his head three times. "the beauties of Râ. 208 and every man sought to outdo his neighbour by the lavishness of his gifts.

disease hath laid hold upon her body. 209 . I beseech thy Majesty to send a physician 1 to see her." Then the king straightway ordered the books of the "double house p.

.

the god. set out from Egypt." (From Prisse. and I will depart unto the place whence I came that I may gratify thee. and five days. he and all his people rejoiced exceedingly. And I beseech thy Majesty to command that the Prince of Bekhten and I may hold a festival together. however. 212 boats with figures of gods in them. the demon departed from her and she was cured straightway. this having been done by the command of Khonsu the demon departed to his own place.Stele recording the casting out of the devil from the Princess of Bekhten. for the king says.) p. The god. and on the left a priest is offering incense to Khonsu. When the ambassador from Bekhten arrived in Egypt the king was in Thebes. and he determined that the god should not be allowed to return to Egypt. saying. seeing that the priest was unable to afford relief to his daughter. and their choice fell upon one Tehuti-em-heb. and when they had come into his presence he ordered them to choose from among their number a man "wise of heart and cunning of finger. where they were received with great honour. and he departed. sent once again to the king. When the Prince of Bekhten saw that Khonsu was thus powerful. the inhabitants thereof are thy slaves. "the great god who driveth away devils. "I have come once again into thy presence". in addressing. plate 24. they did so. and on hearing what was asked he went into the temple of Khonsu Nefer-hetep. The Prince of Bekhten. and five other p. and a fourfold measure of magical power was imparted to the statue of the god which was to go to Bekhten. four months. having performed a magical ceremony over her. Monuments." that he might send him to Bekhten. On a certain day. thou vanquisher of the hosts of darkness! Bekhten is thy city. "Grateful and welcome is thy coming unto us. and after travelling for seventeen months arrived in Bekhten. and as a result Khonsu remained in Bekhten for three years. but in any case Khonsu Nefer-hetep agreed to his request. This sage having come before the king was ordered to set out for Bekhten in company with the ambassador." To the demon's request Khonsu agreed. and I am thy servant. and. O great god. The god Khonsu went to the place where Bent-ent-resht was. accompanied by chariots and horses on the right hand and on the left. the Prince was . for unto this end hast thou come thither. 211 of life" to be brought and the learned men to appear. and entreated him to send a god to his help. and besought that god to allow his counterpart Khonsu to depart to Bekhten and to deliver the daughter of the prince of that country from the power of the demon that possessed her. and when they had arrived there the Egyptian priest found the lady Bent-ent-resht to be possessed of a demon or spirit over which he was powerless. It seems as if the sage Tehuti-em-heb had been sent to Bekhten by the advice of the god. seated in his boat. On the right the king is offering Incense to Khonsu Nefer-hetep. and he commanded his priest to tell the Prince of Bekhten to make a great festival in honour of the demon. Then the demon addressed the Egyptian god.

like a vanquished king. In it the god appeared to him. of all Egypt. 1450.e. In early Christian literatures we find a number of examples of demoniacal possession in which the demon who has entered the body yields it up before a demon of greater power than himself. promised him that if he would clear away from the Sphinx. as we may see from the example of Joseph. i. As instances of dreams recorded in the Egyptian texts may be quoted those of Thothmes IV. he wished to make the best terms he could with his conqueror. and that his chariot must now be sent back. was one day hunting near this emblem of Râ-Harmachis. The fact that it was believed possible for the demon of Bekhten and the god Khonsu to fraternize. and he sat down to rest under its shadow and fell asleep and dreamed a dream. the drift sand in which it was becoming buried. The Prince woke up in a state of great perturbation. the figures of the gods and the scenes which they saw when dreaming seemed to them to prove the existence of another world which was not greatly unlike that already known to them. and to be present together at a festival made by the Prince of the country.. and he departs from before him with every sign of wrath and shame. and having inquired of the Egyptian priest was told by him that the god had departed to Egypt. 214 dreams. 1 Of Nut-Amen. and. The knowledge of the art of procuring dreams and the skill to interpret them were greatly prized in Egypt as elsewhere in the East. and they were taken to Egypt and laid before the god Khonsu Nefer-hetep in his temple at Thebes. and they attached considerable importance to them. king of Egypt about B. having declared that he was the god Harmachis-Khepera-RâTemu. his own image. but the demon who is expelled is invariably hostile to him that expels him. Then the Prince gave to Khonsu great gifts. the successor of the great Piânkhi who came down from Gebel Barkal and conquered all . and. he would give to him the sovereignty of the lands of the South and of the North.. In due course the prince became king of Egypt under the title of Thothmes IV. 670. proves that the royal dreamer carried out the wishes of the god.C. and the stele p.. according to the stele which he set up before the breast of the Sphinx at Gizeh. and having mounted into the air he flew away to Egypt. and he dreamed a dream in which he saw the god Khonsu come forth from his shrine in the form of a hawk of gold. 215 which is dated on the 19th day of the month Hathor of the first year of Thothmes IV. and Nut-Amen. and to be on good terms with him. king of the Eastern Sûdân and Egypt. A prince. honour in the state. and the priest or official who possessed such gifts sometimes rose to places of high. 213 sleeping.C.. about B.p. 1 for it was universally believed that glimpses of the future were revealed to man in dreams. The demon who possessed the princess recognized in Khonsu a being who was mightier than himself. shews that the people of Bekhten ascribed the same attributes to spirits or demons as they did to men. The Egyptians believed that the divine powers frequently made known their will to them by means of p.

No. Anuth. Fold it up and make it into a lamp-wick. and 359 ff. c Send the truthful seer out of the holy shrine. As the result of his dream Nut-Amen invaded Egypt successfully and brought back much spoil. the mistresses of the South and North respectively. quickly. 1 "To obtain a vision from [the god] Bes. now. Chambré. when you are p. as shewn below.Egypt from Syene to the sea. Make a drawing of Besa. [saying]. the only god. Approach the lamp and repeat seven times the formula given below: then extinguish it and lie down to sleep. shall be with thee. The formula is this: 'Sachmu . when he awoke they had disappeared. quickly. lines 64 ff. cinnabar. epaëma Ligotereënch: the Aeon. 122. the Thunderer. Lailamchoüch. do thus. rain-water. Sumarta. which you must do without touching food [or. Dardalam." 2 The two serpents were the symbols of the goddesses Nekhebet and Uatchet. black writing-ink. Having asked for an interpretation of the dream he was told:--"The land of the South is thine. O lords of the gods. I require. Come in this very night. and envelope your hand in a strip of black cloth that has been consecrated to Isis (?) and lie down to sleep without speaking a word. the blood of a white dove. mulberry juice. Chreps. . and thou shalt have dominion over the land of the North: the White Crown and the Red Crown shall adorn thy head.'" 2 "To procure dreams: Take a clean linen bag and write upon it the names given below. I beseech thee. Thou that hast swallowed the snake and dost exhaust the moon. According to them a man consisted of a . 217 going to bed. such as drawing magical pictures and reciting magical words. give me the information that I desire. we read that in the first year of his reign he one night dreamed a dream wherein he saw two serpents. and dost raise up the orb of the sun in his season. Baribas. Phtha. pouring pure oil over it. Breïth. . even in answer to a question. Iorlex: O Lord send the sacred deity Anuth. and the god Amen. Seth. Lampsuer. The following p. The length and the breadth of the land shall be given unto thee. Wind the remainder of the cloth round your neck. taken from British Museum Papyrus. Since dreams and visions in which the future might be revealed to the sleeper were greatly desired. the Egyptian magician set himself to procure such for his clients by various devices. myrrh. 216 are examples of spells for procuring a vision and dreams. Chthetho is thy name.' Then in the evening. fresh (?) frankincense. pure from all defilement]. on your left hand. and the juice of wormwood and vetch. Archentechtha. The ink with which you write must be composed of the blood of a cow. and set it alight. Arsenophrephren. one on his right hand and the other on his left.'" The peculiar ideas which the Egyptians held about the composition of man greatly favoured the belief in apparitions and ghosts. With this write your petition before the setting sun. Salbana. a portion of which he dedicated to the service of his god Amen. now. The word to be written is this: 'Armiuth.

but an instance is known in which a husband complains to his wife. a shadow. or "spirit. It is clear from many texts that. then went to her tomb and read it there. and enjoyed again all the delights which his body had enjoyed upon earth. and to their territories. to all intents and purposes. and meat.physical body. double or spirit of some person whom he has disturbed. a soul. He describes his own merits and the good treatment which he had vouchsafed to her when she was alive. the double lived in the tomb with the body. the spirit of the deceased. and the double. read the writing and understand it. good reason for stating that the immortal part of man which lived in the tomb and had its special abode in the statue of the deceased was the "double. or double. and like the ka. then. When the body died the shadow departed from it. was sometimes to be found in the tomb. and declares that the evil with which she is requiting him is not to be endured. In later times the khu. who has been dead for three years. and the spirit of the dead tells some details of his ." seems to have been identified with it. a name. Whether there was any general belief that the ka p." This is proved by the fact that a special part of the tomb was reserved for the ka. and was there visited by the soul whose habitation was in heaven. from one aspect. or double.. since her double or spirit lived in the tomb she would. who was searching for a suitable place in which to build his tomb. one of the chief objects of sepulchral offerings of meat and drink was to keep the double in the tomb and to do away with the necessity of its wandering about outside the tomb in search of food. a double. however. as well as the flowers. But besides the shadow. a heart.e. of the troubles which she has brought upon him since her death. unless the double was supplied with sufficient food. The double enjoyed the smell of the incense which was offered at certain times each year in the tomb." was specially appointed to minister therein. 1 It is a pity that we have no means of knowing what was the result of the husband's complaint. To make his complaint to reach her he first reduced it to writing upon papyrus. and there are frequent allusions in the texts to the sanctity of the offerings made to the khu. i. which usually had its abode in heaven. 219 or khu could or did hold intercourse with his relatives or friends whom he left alive upon earth cannot be said. which was called the "house of the ka. and could only be brought back to it by the performance of a mystical ceremony. a spirit called the khu. in very early times was. of course. Elsewhere 2 we have a fragment of a conversation which a priest of Amen called Khonsu-em-heb. holds with the. The soul was. The ka. 218 it would wander forth from the tomb and eat any kind of offal and drink any kind of dirty water which it might find in its path. and drink." and that a priest. the ghost of the Egyptians. and the statue of the deceased in which the double dwelt took pleasure in all the various scenes which were painted or sculptured on the walls of the various chambers of the tomb. and the soul. and a spiritual body. and herbs. There is. or double. a power. and finally tied the papyrus to a statue or figure of his wife which was therein. called the "priest of the ka. p. the districts in which their mummified bodies lie. was believed to partake of the funeral offerings which were brought to the tomb. a material thing.

But another goddess. in the battle of Abû Hamed. 220 who dwelt in them. 222 The Egyptians believed that a man's fate or destiny was decided before he was born. 'Guard. for the essence of every god was contained in her. if we exclude the "antiquity grubber. Their sages." they came to see her. and that he had no power whatever to alter it. "He shall be a king who shall have dominion over the whole land." And this came to pass. if they were told the date of his birth. "is watched regularly every night by the ghosts of the native soldiers who were killed at Abû Hamed." and she is usually accompanied by another goddess called "Renenet. August 7th. professed to be able to declare what the fate might be." 1 p.life to the living man. however. and Heqet. where they seem to watch the weighing of the heart on behalf of the deceased. and as each child was born Meskhenet declared. in any case she was able to predict what that future was to be. for in the well-known "Tale of Two Brothers" it is related that. "Her death will be caused by the knife. when the god Khnemu. Thus we read that she and Isis. whose wife Râ-Tettet was in travail. for the three boys became three of the kings of the Vth dynasty. according to the [paragraph continues] . 1 The Seven Hathor goddesses also could predict the future of a human being. disguised as women." who is commonly regarded as the lady of fortune. when they had been taken into her room they assisted her in giving birth to triplets. approach the grave. and who mount guard over their dead commander's tomb. Meskhenet. had created for Bata a wife "who was more beautiful in her person than any other woman in all the earth. turn out!' are often (so the story goes) plainly heard repeated at some distance off across the desert. saying. that is to say. 1 The modern peoples of the Sûdân firmly believe that the spirits of those slain in battle dwell on the field where they fell." p. is sometimes present." have them in great respect for the same reason. all passers-by. 1897. 223 And this prophecy was fulfilled. The cemeteries were regarded with awe by the ancient Egyptians because of the spirits of the dead p. and even the Arabic-speaking peoples of Egypt and the Sûdân. So implicitly is this legend credited by the blacks that none of p. with every military detail. and she also seems to have had influence over a man's future. challenging. they both appear in the Judgment Scene. 221 them will. went to the house of Râ-user. and even the words (in Arabic). and Nephthys. or where their bodies are buried. and if they were able to ascertain the position of the planets and stars at that time. and that they spake with one voice. who was shot while charging at the head of his regiment. for. after dusk. and the soldiers in the tenth battalion of Lord Kitchener's army declare that the grave of the gallant Major Sidney. provided that they were given certain data. Any one doing so is believed to be promptly halted by a phantom sentry. at the request of Râ-Harmachis. The goddess of fate or destiny was called "Shai.

and it was not until he saw a certain splendour in the sky and knew that all the heavenly bodies were in a favourable position that he permitted her to brine. When Olympias was about to give birth to Alexander the Great. Similarly. 2 Thus it is quite evident that the future of a child depended even upon the hour in which he was born. 2 The moral of all such stories p. forth her child. he entered into judgment with her in the presence of his chiefs and nobles. 224 is that there is no possibility of avoiding fate. and why others were only partly so 1. And when he had said. however.e. each of which was lucky or unlucky. when the king whose wife she became heard from her first husband that she had left him and had wrought evil against him." the child fell upon the ground while the earth quaked. or a dog. and from time to time he besought her to restrain herself until the auspicious hour had arrived. Nectanebus stood by her making observations of the heavenly bodies. "He shall die by means of a crocodile. the Seven Hathors came to see the son who had been born to a certain king in answer to his prayers to the gods. and when they had seen him they said. and began. and though the end is wanting. In magical papyri we are often told not to perform certain magical ceremonies on such and such days. and it is most probable that the modern Egyptian has only inherited his ancestors' views as to its immutability. Taking the month Thoth. they sentenced her to death and she was executed. we find that the days are marked as follows:-- . There have come down to us. 1 A man's life might. which was the first month of the Egyptian year. or a serpent. now thou wilt give birth to a governor of the world. fortunately. on August 29th. and the thunder roared.. in which each third of every day for three hundred and sixty days of the year is marked lucky or unlucky." The story goes on to say how be escaped from the crocodile and the serpent. in another story. 225 those to which the petitioner would appeal will be in the ascendant. papyri containing copies of the Egyptian calendar." i. it is quite clear that he was wounded by an accidental bite of his dog and so died. according to the Gregorian Calendar.story. the idea being that on these days hostile powers will make them to be powerless. and "one carried out their decree. and we know from other papyri why certain days were lucky or unlucky. and that gods mightier than p. be happy or unhappy according as the hour of the day or the day itself was lucky or unlucky. and the lightnings flashed. "O queen. and every day of the Egyptian year was divided into three parts.

"This was the day of the fight between Horus and Set." They first fought in the form of men. and Horus thereupon cut off his mother's head. but work of any kind is absolutely forbidden. It must be noted that the priests or magicians who drew up the calendar had good reasons for their classification of the days. in the above list. of course. It is the day when flame was hurled upon those who followed the boat containing the shrine of the gods. as we may see from the following example. The calendars of lucky p. 227 . and adds the reason:--"It is a day of festival in heaven and upon earth in the presence of Râ. 226 Now the sign means "lucky. the reason being. But in both lists the 26th day is marked wholly unlucky. 1 also marks it wholly lucky. and in this state did battle with each other for three days and three nights. and the man who consulted the calendar would. On this day offerings are to be made to Osiris and Thoth. and on this day the gods gave praises being content. then they took the form of bears. act accordingly. each third of it is lucky. i. thus at a glance it could be seen which third of the day is lucky or unlucky.. The 19th day of Thoth is.p." etc." and means "unlucky". which Thoth transformed by his words of power into that of a cow and put on her body.e. marked wholly lucky. Isis aided Set when he was getting the worst in the fight. and the papyrus Sallier IV.

On the first Osiris was born. the son of the god. and so on. but in the papyrus Sallier IV. "Go not forth from thy house from any side of it. for the serpent Uatch. nor to receive a stranger. and no work of any kind was to be undertaken on them. 228 a man born on the twenty-third day would die by drowning. and on the fifth Nephthys." Again. and then emptied out of a small box upon it models of the seven stars 2 that were in the belts. Concerning the fourth day of the next month. This is the day wherein all things were performed in the divine presence. and that knowing the exact moment of the birth of a man they proceeded to construct his horoscope. But the use of the horoscope is much older than the time of Alexander the Great. upon the second the twelve signs of the Zodiac were represented. Thus in the list given above the 20th day of Thoth is marked wholly unlucky. and fifth of these days were unlucky. and the majesty of the god Menthu was satisfied therein. always agree as to a given day.and unlucky days do not. Whosoever is born on this day shall die of excessive venery. Nectanebus employed for the purpose a tablet made of gold and silver and acacia wood. on the fourth Isis. nor to slay oxen. it also directs that figures of the five gods mentioned above shall be drawn with unguent and ânti scent upon a piece of fine linen. and put into the middle belt eight precious stones. and then told her fortune from them. on the second Heru-ur (Aroueris). to which were fitted three belts. these he arranged in the places wherein he supposed the planets which they represented would be at the time of the birth of Olympias. evidently to serve as an amulet. The rubric which refers to these days 1 states that whosoever knoweth their names shall never suffer from thirst. on this day the gods who are in the following of Râ slew the rebels. that he shall never be smitten down by disease. on the sixteenth day it was forbidden to listen to songs of joy because on this day Isis and Nephthys wept for Osiris at Abydos. But to the three hundred and sixty days given in the calendars of lucky and unlucky days must be added the five epagomenal days which were considered to be of great importance and had each its peculiar name. on the fifth day of Hathor no fire was to be kindled in the house. for to a . the twenty-sixth day of Paophi was a lucky day for making the plan of a house. goeth forth at this time. it is wholly lucky. "Go not forth from thy dwelling at eventide." Concerning the fifth day it says. 229 outer belt was Zeus with the thirty-six decani surrounding him. "Whosoever is born on this day shall die of old age." and concerning the fifteenth. and upon the third the sun and moon. but the reader is told not to do any work in it. "Go not forth from thy house from any side of it. whosoever is born on this day shall die of the disease aat. and hold no intercourse with women. and that the goddess Sekhet 2 shall never take possession of him. on the third Set. 1 He set the tablet upon a tripod. Upon the p. third." Concerning the ninth day it says. Paophi. however. the papyrus Sallier IV. From the life of Alexander the Great by Pseudo-Callisthenes 3 we learn that the Egyptians were skilled in the art of casting nativities. p. says. whosoever shall see him shall lose his eye straightway. the first. and misfortunes follow him.

and a crocodile. then note in the table the number of days left over. he will live. 230 papyrus 1 we are told to "ascertain in what month the sick man took to his bed. and in the form of Ptah he became "more powerful than the lord of time. urging him to be very exact and careful in his application of the laws which he ancient Egyptians. which they pleased. and if the number comes in the upper part of the table. named Hermon. but if in the lower part. and see how many periods of thirty days have elapsed.e." Thus we have good reason for assigning the birthplace of the horoscope to Egypt. In connexion with the horoscope must be mentioned the "sphere" or "table" of Democritus as a means of making predictions as to life and death. or bird. and shall gain . and another chapter 1 enabled him to transform himself into "whatever form he pleaseth. the god Ptah. 231 providing the deceased with the words of power. or plant. Calculate the [course of] the moon. in the form of a serpent he could glide over the rocks and ground. and soar up and perch himself upon the bow of the boat of Râ." "the god who giveth light in the darkness. This is proved by the fact that no less than twelve 2 of the chapters of the Book of the Dead are devoted to p.." Both from the religious and profane literature of Egypt we learn that the gods and man in the future life were able at will to assume the form of any animal. had discovered and handed down to posterity. and one of the greatest delights to which a man looked forward was the possession of that power." a lotus. with their laborious devotion to the art. in the form of the lotus he had mastery over the plants of the field." a swallow.Greek horoscope 3 in the British Museum is attached "an introductory letter from some master of the art of astrology to his pupil. he will die. a "living soul. a heron. in the form of the birds mentioned above he could fly through the air. In a magical p. and the name he received at his birth. the recital of which was necessary to enable him to transform himself into a "hawk of gold. or living thing." a "divine hawk." Armed with this power he could live in the water in the form of a crocodile. a bennu bird (i. phœnix)." "the governor of the sovereign princes. the serpent Sata.

because they considered that they possessed certain of the characteristics of the gods to whom they made them sacred. It is noteworthy that no beast of the field or wild animal is mentioned as a type of his possible transformations into animals. in spite of invasions. and foreign wars. every sacred animal and living thing possessed some quality or attribute which was ascribed to some god." who in many respects closely resembled them. The p." which provoked the merriment of the cultured Greek. The Egyptians paid honour to certain birds. and reptiles. this was the fundamental idea of the so-called "Egyptian animal worship. The bull was a type of the strength and procreative power of the god of reproduction in nature. the quality or attribute ascribed to him was that of the Sun-god himself." and by assuming this form the deceased identified himself with Khepera. and as each god was only a form of Râ. so the "gods. but it is wrong to say that the Egyptians worshipped animals in the ordinary sense of the word.the mastery over millions of years. Holding the views he did about transformations there was nothing absurd in the reverence which the Egyptian paid to animals. and the reverence paid to animals in Egypt was in no way different from that paid to the king. What is remarkable. and internal dissensions. who was the visible symbol of the Creator. no doubt. But if the matter be examined closely its apparent stupidity disappears. and thus acquired the attributes of the soul of the Sungod. When a sacred animal died the god whom it represented sought out another animal of the same species in which to renew his incarnation. The relation of the king to Râ was identical with that of Râ to God. from the earliest to the latest times. no doubt. but only as an incarnation of a god. in order that it might enjoy immortality. and this fact cannot be too strongly insisted on. was mummified and treated in much the same way as a human body after death. and as a result they grossly misrepresented their religion. and drew down upon the Egyptians the ridicule and abuse of the early Christian writers. it will be remembered. In the Elysian Fields he was able to assume any form and to swim and fly to any distance in any direction. and external influences of all kinds. but they formed an integral part of the religious beliefs of the Egyptians. could and did take upon themselves the forms of birds and beasts. The educated Egyptian never worshipped an animal as an animal. was said to be the "soul of Râ." The bennu bird. the great god of creation. These views seem strange. often mistook the symbol for what it symbolized. and the dead body of the animal. and animals. is the fact that. inasmuch as it had once been the dwellingplace of a god. and the cow was the type of his female counterpart. and Romans never understood the logical conception which underlay the reverence with which the Egyptians regarded certain animals. to us when judged by modern ideas. 233 Hebrews. the Egyptians clung to their gods and the sometimes childish and illogical methods which they adopted in serving them with a conservatism and zeal which [paragraph continues] . who was regarded as "divine" and as an incarnation of Râ the Sun-god. however. p. The ignorant people. Greeks. 232 Now the Egyptians believed that as the souls of the departed could assume the form of any living thing or plant.

p. assisted by J. 215:2 See Brugsch. Chapters xi. Vol. 118. W. vol. J. A herbalist called Denis Ganey was present at the time. Egypt under the Pharaohs. ." meaning the evil spirit. Kennedy 18 months. pl. and others. the Egyptian might be more or less religious according to his nature and temperament. judging. Whatever literary treasures may be brought to light in the future as the result of excavations in Egypt. Johanna Burke swore that boiling herbs out of a saucepan on the fire were forced down the throat of the deceased. 215:1 See Vyse. Kennedy. but.. Dunne. if not unknown. J.. while her husband recited the words "Away with you. aged 27. 216:1 See Catalogue of Greek Papyri. Kennedy. Michael Kennedy 6 months. Cleary 20 years. 3. 216:2 A sketch of the god Besa is given at the end of the papyrus. if she was his wife. threw her on the floor. being charged as an accessory before the fact. de Rougé. and pouring paraffin over her. 207:2 It is now preserved in the Bibliotèque Nationale at Paris. p. i. 259. 234 antiquity.. W. 24. Étude sur une stele Égyptienne. thus causing her death. P. Cleary. 114 ff. 1842. it is most improbable that we shall ever receive from that country any ancient Egyptian work which can properly be classed among the literature of atheism or freethought. for being a witch. for a full description and translation of it see E. for according to the Times of April 2.have earned for them the reputation of being at once the most religious and most superstitious nation of p. 207:1 Originally published by Prisse. See the description of the "Metternichstele" above. Appendix. 207 county Tipperary. Paris. Kennedy 5 years. Monuments Égyptiens. iii. Dunne 3 years. P. p. xii. and Holy Ghost. ii. p. her husband asking her in the name of the Father. Michael Cleary was charged on April 1 at Clonmel with having. Footnotes 206:1 As recently as 1895 this belief existed in Ireland. or spirits. from the writings of his priests and teachers which are now in our hands. p. Boland Kennedy 6 months. Son. and at six o'clock on the morning of the 15th of March the priest was sent for to exorcise the spirits with which the house was thought to be filled. the man who was without religion and God in some form or other was most rare. vol. The prisoners were found guilty and were sentenced to terms of imprisonment as follows:--M. 147 ff. 208:1 Bekh khet. on March 14. set her on fire. He then stripped her naked. next took her to the fire and forced her to sit upon it in order to "drive out the witch" which possessed her. 1817. "knower of things. and 8. Kennedy 18 months. burnt his wife Bridget. 1858. at Baltyvadhen." 214:1 See Genesis. 6. She was next laid upon the bed and shaken. Paris. London.

D. and it is worth giving in full. to await the officer's recovery. the vessel mentioned. but he answered "It is not the custom of our country to go there. for some reason. pp. 1868. pll. having set up a wooden cross to mark the grave. and having seated himself be recited prayers from the Koran in an undertone. and.M. and. . The Consul accordingly communicated with the Governor of the prefecture in which the island is situated. Berlin. Partie IL. hieroglyphic transcript. pll. I pressed him to come. The following from the Times of July 7. The story was appended by the Governor to a formal despatch of his own.S. during which time the islanders have not neglected to take good care of the tomb. 1899. inquiries were made. iii. departed. Awaburi Tokwan.. and other sympathisers. corresponding to A. Having come to within half a mile of the pyramids the three stopped and wished me to ride on by myself. in the district of Naka.B. old style. such as Oka Ryohaku. May and June. He was firmly convinced that the prismatic compass which I used was a talisman. when this monument had almost decayed from the effects of wind and rain. mourn for and console the spirit of the dead. province of Sanuki. 3-7. fell ill. 1880. at the village of Hiroshima. there are still persons found who every year clean and sweep the grave. Sylvia was proceeding on a voyage through the Inland Sea when an officer on board. p. The Sylvia. Monuments Égyptiens. named Lake. and the Governor was able to send to the Consul a history of the lonely grave. the shêkh arrived with the boy. When I had been in the pyramid field for about two hours taking photographs and measurements. and a man and a boy to look after the donkeys. but nothing would persuade him to walk about there. is worth quoting:-"THE GRAVE OF A BRITISH NAVAL OFFICER IN JAPAN.--Recently a report came to the ears of the British Consul at Hiogo that the grave of a British naval officer existed near a village on the island of Hiroshima. June 7. No. he died. 277. for a transcript into hieroglyphics see Maspero. and when he reached home he thanked God fervently that he had not been molested by the spirits of the dead. the shore folk all with one accord p.. in the Inland Sea of Japan-a place rarely visited by any foreigner-and that. pp. the work was finally brought to completion. Journal Asiatique. tom. John buried his remains in ground belonging to the temple of Ikwoji above Enoura shrine. 219:2 See Golénischeff in Recueil de Travaux. tom. Several years afterwards. it was carefully kept in order by the peasants in the neighbourhood. This was on the 7th day of the eleventh month of the fourth year of Meiji--that is. In particular. Since then nearly 30 winters have passed. The Sylvia proceeded along the coast of Hiroshima and cast anchor at Enoura Bay. and that it would not be seemly for him and his companions to "trouble" them. Leyden. however. 29-46. 1899. and Captain St.219:1 For the text see Leemans. and prefecture of Kagawa. and was obviously drawn up by the village headman or some equally humble official. and at intervals urged me to return to his straw house on the river bank as soon as possible. frost and snow. 1871." Thereupon Terawaki Kaemon. 1846. Sér. head of a village guild. H. pp. who has become a spirit in a strange land. and others said:--"Truly it would be too sad if the grave of our solitary guest from afar. were suffered to pass out of all knowledge. 9 and 10. 222 lending their help. set on foot a scheme for the erection of a stone monument. 365-420. 184. Superior of Ikwoji Temple. offering up flowers and incense. 183. 223:2 See Maspero. 15.'" 223:1 See Erman. 220:1 When I visited the Pyramids of Meroë in 1898 1 took with me the local shêkh. 332. 7. Westcar Papyrus. In a few days." so I walked on by myself. He was landed on the island of Hiroshima. fol. from the 10th to the 16th day of the seventh month. and. was for many years engaged in surveying off the coasts of Japan:--'In the first year of Meiji. Contes Égyptiens. and when I asked them why they did not want to come up the hill to the pyramids with me the shêkh replied that they had been built by kings whose spirits still dwelt there. 221:1 See the illustrated paper The Sketch. 1890.

p.. 228:3 I.474. Papyrus. and that the sutures are the writing. I. cit. p. See the words of Zayn al-Mawasif in Burton's Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 1 ff. Zeus. see Chabas. p. Chapters LXXVII. however. p. . to LXXXVIII. 231:1 I. Moon.224:1 The uneducated Muhammadan believes that man's fate is written upon his skull.e. xi. viii. p. 4. 229:3 Published for the first time by Kenyon. 229:1 quote from my History of Alexander the Great. i. 24. 10. 228:1 See Chabas. 132 ff.. Mus.. col. vol. 230:2 I. Cambridge. Chapter LXXVI. 230:1 Leyden Pap. op. 5. 1889. p. Le Calendrier. No. Leemans).. 229:2 I.. 224:2 See Pseudo-Callisthenes. (ed.. 12. and Hermes. 226:1 See Chabas. 78. we must add Mars according to Meusel's Greek text. 104. 237.. 225:1 See Brit.e. V. cit. Aphrodite. Kronos. can read them. No man. 228:2 The Eye of Sekhet seems to have taken the form of noxious vapours in the fields at sunrise.e. Sun. 1. op. Catalogue of Greek Papyri vol.

Semna and other Nubian sites. He later studied at Christ's College at Cambridge. Gebel Barkal. Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis (1857 .Budge. and between 1894 and 1924. . He went to work for the British Museum after graduation in 1883. Budge studied Egyptology under Samuel Birch at the British Museum between 1870 and 1878.1934) An Englishman. Budge was known as a prolific author with over 140 titles to his credit. Meroe. He excavated at Aswan. some of which continue to be printed. was a Keeper in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities.

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