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Upsetting,

upset forging
Introduction
Definition:
Upset forging is a bulk forming process where the effect
of the pressure is on the longitudinal axis of the workpiece.

Application:
Production of mass-produced parts :
screws, rivets, head bolts, valves etc.
Introduction

Production

0 shear off stock


1 pre-form head
2 finish head
3 reduce shank to diameter
for thread rolling
4 stamp out hexagon
5 chamfer shank (round off)
6 thread rolling
Introduction

Engine valve

1 initial blank
2 pre-form
3 final heading
Limits - material

Limits: material and geometry

Material’s formability

ℎ 𝑑
Equivalent logarithmic strain 𝜑 = 𝑙𝑛 ℎ0 = 2𝑙𝑛 𝑑1
1 0
Limits - material

Permissible deformation for some materials

Material 𝝋𝒎𝒂𝒙
Al 99.88 2.5
Al MgSil 1.5 – 2.0
CuZn 37 1.2 – 1.4
St 42–St 50 1.3 – 1.5
34 CrMo 4 0.8 – 0.9
42 CrMo 4 0.7 – 0.8
Limits - geometry

a) free length of bolt not inserted in the die.


1 bottom die
2 ejector
3 stock before upset forging;

b) open-die upset forging, between parallel surfaces

buckling Upsetting ratio


ℎ0
s=
𝑑0
h0 stock’s free length
d0 initial diameter
Limits - geometry

Maximum upsetting ratio – forming in one step

ℎ0ℎ𝑑
s= <2
𝑑0
h0hd stock’s free length
d0 initial diameter

Maximum upsetting ratio – forming in two steps

ℎ0ℎ𝑑
s= < 4.5
𝑑0
h0hd stock’s free length
d0 initial diameter
Preforming

forming in two steps


Calculations

Upsetting force

F upsetting force
A1 surface after upset forging
Kstr1 flow stress at the end of upsetting
µ coefficient of friction (0.1 – 0.15)
d1 diameter after upset forging
h1 height after upset forging
Calculations

Upset forging work

or

W upset forging work


V volume involved in the deformation
kstrm mean flow stress
𝜑p principal strain
ηF deformation efficiency (0.6 – 0.9)
h0 stock height
x process factor
Fm mean force
Fmax maximum force
Tooling

a) pressure plate
b) punch (snap die)
c) retaining ring (shrink fit)
d) counterpunch
e) ejector

Reinforced die
Tooling

a) shearing blade
b) shearing bottom die
c) pre-former
d) heading punch
e) bottom die / reducing die
f) reinforcement
g) ejector

1) bottom die
2) punch
3) ejector
Precision

Cold upsetting

Nominal size in mm 5 10 20 30 40 50 100


Head height tolerance in mm 0.18 0.22 0.28 0.33 0.38 0.42 0.5
Head diam. tolerance in mm 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.25 0.3

Hot upsetting

Tolerances are approximately five times higer.


Defects

Defect Cause Solution

Buckling
Upsetting ratio s Reduce s by pre-
too high forming

Longitudinal crack in
the head Die scars or surface
Check the stock for
damage in
surface damage.
the starting material.

Shear cracks in the


head Reduce degree of
Deformability deformation
exceeded Divide forming into two
Internal cracks in the operations.
head