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• ohms law

• Kirchhoff's current node rule

• define resistor

• define capacitor

• s = jw

j notation,

t ti w=2 2pii f

• filter transfer functions

• Most bioelectric signals are small

• voltages in micro-volts range

• currents in pA and nA range common

• op-amp, resistors and capacitors

• integrated circuit and surface-mount technology

on a digital signal processor.

• little change in amplification/filtering requirements over last 40 years

• but new interest in putting DSP algorithms into analog circuits

• due to demand for low power portable/implantable instruments

Ideal Op-Amp

• Operational amplifier (op-amp) is a high-DC-gain differential

amplifier

ideal op-amp

• Design circuits assuming op-amps are ideal

• then verify/modify using simulations/prototyping A

vo 0

• Ideal op-amp model

Rd

• “open loop” gain: A =

• differential

diff ti l input

i t resistance:

i t Rd = Ro 0

• output resistance: Ro = 0

• input current = 0

• output voltage:

• vo = 0 when v1-v2 = 0

ECE 445: Biomedical Instrumentation Ch3 Amplifier Basics. p. 3

Op-Amp Properties

• Properties

• open-loop gain: ideally infinite: practical values 20k-200k

• high open-loop gain virtual short between + and - inputs

• input impedance: ideally infinite: CMOS opamps are close to ideal

• output impedance: ideally zero: practical values 20-100

• zero output offset: ideally zero: practical value <1mV

• gain-bandwidth

i b d idth product

d t (GB):

(GB) practical

ti l values

l ~MHz

MH

• frequency where open-loop gain drops to 1 V/V

• low noise

• low input current

• low power

• high bandwidth

• low/high supply voltage

• special purpose: comparator, instrumentation amplifier

Basic Op-Amp Principles

• since A is very large, v1-v2 must be very small

• two input terminals are at (essentially) the same voltage

• i.e., “virtual ground” between op-amp inputs

• rely

l on this

thi for

f DC/bias

DC/bi calculations

l l ti

• most modern ICs use single supply

• “ground”

“ d” in a d

duall supply

l becomes

b VDD/2

/ in single

l supply

l

• mid way between VDD and Ground

• Voltage Comparator

• digitize input

• assumes veryy high

g DC gain

g

• Vcc = supply voltage

Vref

• Negative Feedback

• output tied back into negative input Vout = Vcc (sign(Vin-Vref))

terminal

• generally avoid positive feedback

• Voltage Follower

• buffer

• prevents input signal from being

loaded down by a low-resistance

load

Rin =

Inverting/Non-Inverting Configurations

• Inverting Amplifier (uses negative feedback)

vo R f

A

vi Ri

• Non-Inverting

N I ti A Amplifier

lifi (also

( l uses negative

ti feedback)

f db k)

vo R f Ri R f

A 1

vi Ri Rf

• Ideal op-amp conditions (simplify derivation)

• virtual short at inputs (voltage at + same as at - )

• no current into input terminals

• Inverting amplifier gain transfer function

• write equations of operation from schematic using Ohms law

• VVx – Vin = R1 * i1

• Vout – Vx = R2 * i2

i2

• apply ideal op-amp conditions

• virtual short Vx = 0

• no input current i1 = i2 = i Vx

• thus i1

• -Vin = R1 * i i = -Vin/R1

• Vout = R2 * i i = Vout/R2

• and setting i = i…

• -Vin/R1 = Vout/R2 Vout= -Vin (R2/R1)

More Opamp Configurations

• Summing Amp

• weighted sum of

p inputs

multiple p

• inverting or non??

• Differential Amp

• match R1s and R2s

• inverting or non??

Single-Ended

l d d Amplifier

l f Representation

noise

signal

Vout

V in V out Av

gnd gnd Vin

Noise Amplification

• even smallll interference

f at input gets amplified

l f d at output

• Define

• x+ = input at + terminal

• x- = input at – terminal

• c = common mode signal on both inputs

• Differential inputs Vout x x

d iinputt

• c rejected by differential amplifier (not amplified)

• c must be small enough to keep op-amp biased in linear operation

Vout ( x c) ( x c)

x x x x

c

2

ECE 445: Biomedical Instrumentation Ch3 Amplifier Basics. p. 10

Noise in Differential Amplifiers

• Global interference (e.g., supply voltage variations)

• assumed to be located far away from amp. input terminals

• same interference on both the terminals

• appear as common mode disturbance.

• example: clock noise

• Differential amplifiers

• amplify only the difference

• reject the interference (common-mode)

Vin + -

Vout

- +

Vin

Vout

common-mode g

gone at

input noise output

• High differential gain, Av

Vin + -

Vout

Vout

Vout

Av

Vin

- +

Vout Vin Vin

= high

hi h “common

“ mode

d rejection”

j ti ”

Common-mode signal Vin Vin

Vout

Vout

2 ACM

Vin Vin

Vin + - Vout

2

- +

Vin common mode rejection ratio: Av

Vout CMRR

Acm

3-Op-Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

• Differential amplifiers

• low common mode gain = Great!

• lower than ideal input resistance – Bad!

• 3-op-amp structure

• keeps

k llow common mode d gaini

• provides very high input resistance

• why?

• call “instrumentation

instrumentation amp

amp”

• will discuss in detail later

A

2 R R1 R4 R1

Gd 2

R1 R3

Acom 1

ECE 445: Biomedical Instrumentation Ch3 Amplifier Basics. p. 13

Comparator

• Compare an input voltage vi to a reference voltage vref

• Output digital value (hi/low)

• llow if vi > vref why

h low

l and

d nott hi?

• high if vi < vref

• Output voltage = supply voltage

• Op-amp comparator

• hysteresis

y = rising

g transition point

p different that falling

g transition point

p

• R3 controls hysteresis

Logarithmic Amplifiers

• Uses non-linear current-voltage relationship of BJT in feedback

path IC

VBE k log

IS

• for compressing and multiplying/dividing signals

A 10

A=10

A=1

A 1

A=1

A=10

Integrating/Differentiating Configurations

• Integrating Amp

t

1

v i dt 2f

Co

• Differentiating Amp

dv

iC

dt

Converting Configuration

• Current-to-Voltage

• Voltage-to-Current

Active Filters

• Passive low pass filter

( Rf / jCf )

-3dB

3dB frequency

Vo ( j ) Z [(1 / jCf ) Rf ]

f 0 1 R C

Vi ( j ) Zi Ri f f

Rf R

f

1 =2f

(1 jRf Cf ) Ri Ri 1 s

0

Vo ( j ) Rf 1

Vi ( j ) Ri 1 jR f C f

Active Filters

• Active high pass filter

Vo ( j ) R f jRi Ci

Vi ( j ) Ri 1 jRi Ci

0 1 R C

i i

Active Filters

Band Pass Filter

Vo ( j ) Rf jR f Ci

Vi ( j ) Ri (1 jR f C f )(1 jRi Ci )

Non-ideal Characteristics

• Offset voltage

• output not zero when the inputs to the amplifiers are equal

• could be in order of millivolts

• cancel offset voltage by adding an external “nulling” potentiometer

• Temperature Drift

• offset voltage can drift by 0.1 microvolts over one degree variation

• can cause errors at input

• High output impedance

• limits load driving capabilities

• Noise

• Thermal noise or high

high-frequency

frequency noise

• Flicker noise: low-frequency noise

ECE 445: Biomedical Instrumentation Ch3 Amplifier Basics. p. 21

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