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DETERMINATION OF REACTION HEAT

OBJECTIVES

a) To determine the enthalpy change (∆H) of three exothermic reactions.

b) To relates the three exothermic reactions with Hess’ Law.


SUMMARY

The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the enthalpy changes in several reaction
and relationship of three exothermic reaction with Hess’ law. After all data will have been collected
from the different reactions, the data will analyze in order to determine the enthalpy change of
three exothermic reaction. For part A was to determine the heat of NaOH solution by adding 0.5 g
NaOH to the Erlenmeyer flask that contain 25 ml of distilled water. From the experiment, the initial
temperature was 24 oC while final temperature was 29 oC. Heat (q) absorbed by the water (released
by the NaOH) was -0.523 kJ. The enthalpy change, ΔH1 was -40.231 kJ mol-1. This means that
40.231 kJ of energy is released when NaOH is produced from its elements, sodium and hydroxide,
in their standard states, Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq).For part B, was to determine heat of NaOH
Neutralization by adding 25 ml of 1M of NaOH solution into Erlenmeyer flask that contain 25 ml
of 1M of HCL solution. From the experiment, the temperature increased to 5 oC. Initially, the
temperature of the reaction mixture in the Erlenmeyer flask increases as 1M NaOH (aq) was added.
ΔH for a neutralisation reaction is negative. The enthalpy change, ΔH2 was -41.48 kJ/mol. For part
C,was to determine the heat of NaOH solution by adding 0.5 g of NaOH into the Erlenmeyer flask
that contain 25 ml of 0.5 M HCL. The change of temperature was 4oC. Heat (q) absorbed by the
HCl (released by the NaOH) was -0.4268 kJ. The enthalpy change, ΔH3 was -81.711 kJ mol-1 .
Hess' law states that the total enthalpy change for a chemical reaction is independent of the route
by which the reaction takes place, provided initial and final conditions are the same. The third
reaction is actually a combination of the first two reactions. Notice that the equation for third
reaction can be obtained by adding together first reaction and second reaction. Thus, the heat of
the reaction (ΔH3) could be equal to (ΔH1 + ΔH2) that attempt to verify Hess’s Law.
INTRODUCTION

This experiment is about determination of reaction heat. This chemical reaction requires
energy. Energy is defines as capacity to do work. This energy can be changed by heat and work.
During in the experiment, the energy that involves in the chemical reaction is calculated in terms
of the amounts of heat released or absorbed. Heat (q) is a form of energy that transfer in and out
of the system, stored in a random motion of the molecules and involved a difference in temperature
between the system and its surroundings. There are two sign convention for heat, 𝑞𝑠𝑦𝑠 > 0 and
𝑞𝑠𝑦𝑠 < 0, 𝑞𝑠𝑦𝑠 > 0 means heat is transferred from surroundings to the system (endothermic
reaction) while 𝑞𝑠𝑦𝑠 < 0 means heat is transferred from system to the surroundings (exothermic
reaction). Heat is absorbed is called endothermic reaction while heat is released is called
exothermic reaction.

Basically, this experiment need to determine the enthalpy change (∆H). Enthalpy change
(∆H) is not measured directly but measured through the energy released as heat at constant
pressure, (∆H= 𝐻(𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑠) − 𝐻(𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑠) ). This enthalpy change (∆H) is measured in kilojoules
per mole (kJ𝑚𝑜𝑙 −1 ). ∆H with negative sign is an exothermic reaction (heat is released) but ∆H
with positive sign is an endothermic reaction (heat is absorbed). There are three exothermic
reactions occur in this experiment involving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) that need to carry out. This
experiment also had been divided into three parts which were Part A, Part B and Part C. Part A-
the first reaction (∆𝐻1 ) is called heat of NaOH solution. This reaction using solid NaOH and
distilled water (𝐻2 𝑂). The solid NaOH will dissolve in distilled water and it will dissociate into
water (𝐻2 𝑂). Next, Part B-the second reaction (∆𝐻2 ) is called heat of NaOH neutralization. This
reaction involved HCl solution (acid solution) and NaOH solution (base solution). Last but not
least, Part C- the third reaction (∆𝐻3 ) is called heat of NaOH solution. This reaction (∆𝐻3 ) is the
combination of the first reaction (∆𝐻1 ) and second reaction (∆𝐻2 ), [(∆𝐻3 ) = (∆𝐻1 + ∆𝐻2 )]. This
third reaction use solid NaOH and HCl solution. The solid NaOH is dissolved in distilled water
form NaOH solution (first reaction, ∆𝐻1 ). Then, NaOH solution dissolve in HCl solution form
second reaction, (∆𝐻2 ).
Hess Law state that the standard enthalpy of an overall reaction is equal to the sum of the
standard enthalpies of the individual reactions. Based on the experiment, all of the three reactions
refer to the Hess Law which the third reaction (∆𝐻3 ) is equal to the sum of the standard enthalpies
of the individual reactions (∆𝐻1 + ∆𝐻2).
MATERIALS AND PROCEDURE

MATERIALS
1) Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solid
2) 1 M NaOH solution
3) 0.5 M and 1M Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
4) Distilled water (H2O)

APPARATUS
1) Analytical Balance
2) Pipette 25 ml
3) Spatula
4) Thermometer
5) Erlenmeyer Flask 50 ml
6) Small Beaker
7) Glass Rod

PROCEDURE

Part A : Heat of NaOH Solution (Solid NaOH + Distilled water)

1) 25 ml of distilled water was pipette into a 50 ml Erlenmeyer flask and it was allowed
to reached the room temperature.
2) Temperature of the distilled water in the Erlenmeyer flask was measured and
temperature was recorded as Ti.
3) 0.5g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was weighed exactly by using a spatula.
4) NaOH was added into the Erlenmeyer flask. The mixture was stirred by using a glass
rod until the NaOH was completely dissolved. The changes of the temperature in the
flask was observed while stirring.The highest temperature was recorded as Tf.
5) The solution was discarded. The thermometer was rinsed off.
Part B : Heat of NaOH Neutralization (NaOH Solution + HCl Solution)

1) 25 ml of 1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was pipette into a 50 ml Erlenmeyer flask.The


acid was allowed to stand until it reached the room temperature.The temperature was
recorded as Ti.
2) 25 ml of 1 M NaOH was added exactly into the flask.It was stirred using a glass rod
and the changes of the temperature was observed.The highest temperature was
recorded as Tf.
3) The solution was discarded.The thermometer was rinsed off.

Part C : Heat of NaOH Solution (Solid NaOH + HCl Solution)

1) 25 ml of 0.5 M HCl was pipette into a 50 ml Erlenmeyer flask. It was allowed to


stand until it reached the room temperature. The temperature of HCl solution in the
flask was measured and recorded as Ti.
2) 0.5 g NaOH was weighed by using a spatula and was transferred into the Erlenmeyer
Flask.
3) The mixture was stirred by using a glass rod until the NaOH was completely
dissolved. The changes of the temperature in the flask was observed while stirring.
4) The highest temperature was recorded as Tf.
5) The solution was discarded. The thermometer was rinsed off and keep it safely.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

RESULT

Part Ti (°C) Tf (°C)


Solid NaOH + DH2O 24 29
1M NaOH solution + 1M HCL solution 24 29
Solid NaOH + 0.5M HCL 25 29

CALCULATION

Part A: Heat of NaOH solution (solid NaOH + Distilled water)

1. Find the heat (q) absorbed by the water (released by the NaOH)
heat released, q = m x c x ΔT

mass = density x volume


1.00 g ml-1 x 25 ml
= 25 g
m = m(H2O) = 25 g

c(H2O) = 4.184 J/g.oC

ΔT = 5oC

q = 25 g x 4.184 J/g.oC x 5 oC = -523 J (heat released)


q = -523 J ÷ 1000 J/kJ = -0.523 kJ

2. Find the heat (q) released per gram of NaOH


25 g = -0.523 kJ
1 g = -0.523 kJ ÷ 25
= -0.02092 kJ
3. The enthalpy change, ΔH1 in kJ/mol

(moles of solute = n(NaOH) = mass(NaOH) ÷ M(NaOH)


Mass (NaOH) = 0.5 g
M(NaOH) = 22.99 + 16.00 + 1.008 = 39.998 g mol-1
n(NaOH) = 0.5 g ÷ 39.998 g mol-1 =0.013 mol

ΔH1 = q ÷ n(NaOH)
q = -0.523 kJ
n(NaOH) = 0.013 mol
ΔH1 = -0.523 kJ ÷ 0.013 mol = -40.231 kJ mol-1 (exothermic)

Part B : Heat of neutralization (NaOH solution + HCl solution)

1. Find the heat (q) produced by the reaction of NaOH solution and HCl solution
V (HCl) = 25 ml
V (NaOH) = 25 ml
C (HCl) = 1 M
C (NaOH) = 1 M
ΔT = 5 oC
d = 1 g ml-1
m(HCl), m(NaOH)
mass =dxV
= 1 g ml-1 x 25 ml
m(HCl), m(NaOH) = 25 g

q = mtotal x c x ΔT
= (25+25) g x 4.184 J/g.oC x 5 oC
= 1046 J
= 1.046 kJ
2. The enthalpy change, ΔH2 in kJ/mol

a. Moles of water produced:


OH-(aq) + H+(aq) → H2O(l)
1 mol OH-(aq) + 1 mol H+(aq) → 1 mol H2O
moles(H2O) = moles(OH-(aq))
moles(OH-(aq)) = concentration (mol L-1) x volume (L) = 1.0 x (25.0/1000) = 0.025
mol
moles of water produced = 0.025 mol

b. The heat liberated per mole of water produced, ΔHneut :


ΔHneut will be negative because the reaction is exothermic
ΔHneut = heat liberated per mole of water = -1 x q ÷ moles of water
ΔHneut = -1 x 1.046 kJ ÷ 0.025 mol = -41.48 kJ/mol

Thus, ΔH2 = -41.48 kJ/mol

Part C: Heat of NaOH solution (Solid NaOH +HCl solution)

1. The heat (q) absorbed by the HCl (released by the NaOH)


Mass NaOH = 0.5 g
V (HCl) = 25 ml
C (HCl) = 0.5 M
ΔT = 4 oC
d = 1 g ml-1

m(HCl) = d x V
= 1 g ml-1 x 25 ml
= 25 g
q = mtotal x c x ΔT
= (25+0.5) g x 4.184 J/g.oC x 4 oC
= 426.768 J
=- 0.4268 kJ

2. Find the heat (q) released per gram of NaOH


0.5 g = -0.4628 kJ (heat released)
1 g = -0.4628 kJ ÷ 0.5
= -0.9256 kJ

3. Find the enthalpy change, ΔH3 in kJ/mol

ΔH3 =ΔH1 + ΔH2

ΔH3 = -40.231 kJ mol-1 + (-41.48 kJ/mol)

= -81.711 kJ mol-1
DISCUSSION

In this experiment, three related exothermic reactions involving sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
has to be studied and to relate it with the Hess’ Law. Hess’s Law states that the energy change for
a reaction depends on the enthalpy of the reactants and products and is independent of the pathway
of the reaction.

In the first reaction, solid sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissociated into water (H2O). The heat
produced by the reaction ΔH1 was called as heat of NaOH. Solid NaOH was dissolved in water.
From the experiment part A, the initial temperature was 24 oC while final temperature was 29 oC.
Heat (q) absorbed by the water (released by the NaOH) was -0.523 kJ by using formula of
q = (m)(c)(ΔT). In this first reaction, heat is released when the solute dissolves and temperature of
solution increases. So, the reaction is exothermic, q and ΔH is negative. From the previous
research, it tells that exothermic reaction gives net energy to its surroundings. That is, the energy needed
to initiate the reaction is less than the energy released. , so the enthalpy of solution is negative and that
is the process of exothermic. During first reaction, the energy released is a product. When NaOH
is added to water, the temperature was increase. The enthalpy change, ΔH1 was -40.231 kJ mol-1.
This means that 40.231 kJ of energy is released when NaOH is produced.

In the second part of experiment, an aqueous solution of NaOH react with an aqueous
solution of HCl. The heat produced by the reaction ΔH2 was called the heat of NaOH
neutralization. Neutralisation is the name given to the reaction that occurs between an Arrhenius
acid and an Arrhenius base. In this part, an aqueous solution of NaOH (strong monobasic base)
react with an aqueous solution of HCl (strong monoprotic acid). From the experiment, the
temperature increased to 5 oC. Initially, the temperature of the reaction mixture in the Erlenmeyer
flask increases as 1M NaOH (aq) was added. This is due to when an aqueous solution of base is
added to an acid, the temperature of the solution increases. Heat produced by the reaction of NaOH
solution and HCl solution was 1.046 kJ. Heat energy is produced when an acid reacts with a base.
This reaction is called neutralisation reactions and it is exothermic. The enthalpy change, ΔH2 was
-41.48 kJ/mol. ΔH2 solutions of NaOH and HCl are mixed. From previous research, the assumption
was made that strong acids and strong alkalis are fully ionised in solution, and that the ions behave
independently of each other which were dilute hydrochloric acid contains hydrogen ions and
chloride ions in solution. Sodium hydroxide solution consists of sodium ions and hydroxide ions
in solution. The equation for any strong acid being neutralised by a strong alkali is essentially just
a reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions to make water. The other ions present which
were sodium and chloride, were just spectator ions that taking no part in the reaction.

For last reaction, solid NaOH reacted with an aqueous solution of HCl. The solid NaOH
dissociated into its ions as it dissolved in the acid solution before being neutralized by the acid.
The heat produced by the reaction ΔH3 was called the heat of NaOH solution. In this part, an
aqueous solution of HCl (strong acid) react with solid NaOH (strong base). From this experiment,
the initial temperature was 25 oC while final temperature was 29 oC. Thus, the change of
temperature was 4 oC. Heat (q) absorbed by the HCl (released by the NaOH) was -0.4628 kJ by
using q = (m)(c)(ΔT). Hess' law states that the total enthalpy change for a chemical reaction is
independent of the route by which the reaction takes place, provided initial and final conditions
are the same. The third reaction is actually a combination of the first and second reactions (part A
and B). Solid NaOH is dissolved in HCl solution. The enthalpy change, ΔH3 was -81.711 kJ mol-
1
. ΔH3 Thus, the heat of the reaction (ΔH3) could be equal to (ΔH1 + ΔH2) that attempt to verify
Hess’s Law.
CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the objectives of the experiment were to determine the enthalpy change (ΔH)
of three exothermic reactions and to relate the three exothermic reactions with Hess’ Law. Based
on the results obtained, it can be conclude that all the reactions are exothermic as it releases heat.
This is because all the results from every part of experiment show that the temperature increases
from its initial temperature. For part A, the value of enthalpy change is = -40.231 kJ mol-1. Then,
for part B the enthalpy change is ΔH = -50.2 kJ/mol-1 and for part C, the ΔH =- 90.431 kJ mol-1.
The sum of the enthalpy change for part A and part B is equal to the value of enthalpy change of
part C. So, the reactions do obey to the Hess Law.

RECOMMENDATION

There are some steps to overcome or to solve the possible errors that occurred during carrying
the experiment. First of all, using a digital thermometer is better than using a simple thermometer.
This is to ensure much more accurate temperature changes are obtained. Other than that, to ensure
the reading of analytical balance is precise, it should be calibrated first before using. Moreover,
the dissolving of NaOH solid should be done quickly to avoid it melting as it melts easily. Lastly,
to always make sure that the fan is switch- off so that the heat from the experiment carried out
does not loss easily. By, doing the steps above, it may help to get a more accurate reading while
carrying out the experiment.
LABORATORY QUESTION

Pre-lab Questions

1. Define the term “calorimeter”.

Calorimeter is an apparatus or a device used to measure the heat of chemical reactions or


physical changes as well as heat capacity.

2. State the units of energy normally used to measure heat.

Joules (J)

3. Explain the concept of Hess Law.

Hess’s Law states that when reactants are converted to products, the change in enthalpy is the
same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in the series of steps.

Post-lab Questions

1. Write all ionic equations for the three reactions in the experiment.

Part A: NaOH (s) ---> Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) + heat

Part B: NaOH (s) + H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) ---> Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + H2O

Part C: Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) ---> Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + H2O

2. List down all possible sources of error in the experiment.

The possible sources of error found in this experiment are lack of skills on how to take the

pipette reading, calibration errors of the analytical balance and lack of understanding of the

procedure.
REFERENCES

Websites

CHEMGUIDE. (2013) Enthalpy Change Of Neutralisation. [Online]. July 2013. Available from:
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/energetics/neutralisation.html. [Accessed: 14th October
2015]

Stretton, T. (2004, October). Tom Stretton's Chemistry Pages. Retrieved from


www2.ucdsb.on.ca/tiss/stretton/welcome.html

Book

Thermochemistry. (2014). In A. K. Mohd, CHEMISTRY-Foundation In Science And


Technology Semester 2 (pp. 13-14). Kuala Nerang: Kolej Mara Kuala Nerang.

Ira N. Levine, (2009), Physical Chemistry, McGraw-Hill.

Chang, R, (2000), Physical Chemistry for Chemical and Biological Science, University Science
Book.