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Grounding Transformer Application,


Modeling, and Simulation
M. Shen, Member, IEEE, L. Ingratta, and G. Roberts

interruption. However, Limitations to ungrounded power


Abstract—The grounding transformer is a transformer system began to develop with the growth of systems, both as
intended solely for establishing a neutral connection point on a to mileage and voltage. This increased the currents when a
three-phase ungrounded power system. The transformer is ground occurred, so that the increasing faults of transient
usually of the wye-delta or zig-zag transformer.
grounds (from lightning, or momentary contacts) were no
This paper first reviews the state of the art of the grounding
transformer to assist electric power engineers in the proper
longer self-clearing. More recent transient-overvoltage
understanding of the use and applications of these devices, and comparisons between isolated and grounded systems have
then a zig-zag grounding transformer is modeled in shown the former to give higher overvoltages, both during
PSCAD/EMTDC simulator. After a 27.6 KV ungrounded three- faults and switching operations [1]. Therefore, it is necessary
phase transmission system is constructed, different scenarios are to assume that an ungrounded-neutral system will result in
simulated and verified under different conditions with the more equipment damages than some form of grounded
connection of the grounding transformer.
system. Transformers must be designed on the basis of full
Index Terms—Fault Localization, Grounding Transformer, neutral displacement and in the higher voltage classes this will
Metering System, Modeling, Power System, Protection, Relaying, result in a somewhat higher cost.
Simulation, Ungrounded. Most grounded systems employ some method of grounding
the system neutral at one or more points. These methods can
I. INTRODUCTION be divided into two general categories: solid grounding and

T he way to ground a power system is probably more


difficult to select than any other features of its design.
Historically, there has been a gradual trend in American
impedance grounding. Impedance grounding may be further
divided into several subcategories: reactance grounding,
resistance grounding, and ground-fault-neutralizer grounding.
power system from ungrounded, to resistance grounded, to Each method, as named, refers to the nature of the external
solid or effective grounded [1]. The main reasons for this grounding circuit, from system neutral to ground rather than
trend can be readily traced. Most systems were initially to the degree of grounding [2].
operated with their neutrals free, i.e., the neutrals were not The best way to obtain the system neutral for grounding
connected to ground. This was the natural thing to do as the purpose in three-phase systems is to use source transformers
ground connection was not functional for the actual transfer or generators with wye-connected windings. The neutral is
of power. People had a strong argument in this favor, since an then readily available. The alternative is to apply grounding
insulator failure on one of the phases could be tolerated for transformers when some system neutrals may not be
some little time until the fault could be located and fixed. In available, particularly in many old systems of 27.6 KV or less
addition, most lines at that time were single circuit, and the and many existing 2400, 4800, and 6900 V systems. When
free-neutral feature permitted loads to be powered with fewer existing delta-connected systems are to be grounded,
interruptions than the neutral had been grounded. Another grounding transformers may be used to obtain the neutral.
important consideration was that relaying had not come into Grounding transformers may be the interconnected wye (zig-
general use, so that many prolonged outages were avoided by zag), the wye-delta, or the T-connected type [2].
the ungrounded operation.
The principal virtue of an ungrounded-neutral system is its II. INTRODUCTION TO GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS
ability, in some cases, to clear ground faults without A grounding transformer is a transformer intended solely
for establishing a neutral ground connection on a three-phase
ungrounded system. The transformer is usually of the wye-
M. Shen, L. Ingratta, and G. Roberts are with the Energy Division at
Wardrop Engineering Inc., Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1V2, Canada. (e-mail: delta or zig-zag arrangement as shown in Figure 1. The
mike.shen@wardrop.com) application of grounding transformers on delta-connected
Wardrop Engineering Inc. has been delivering solutions to power utilities ungrounded three-phase transmission/distribution systems is
and industrial clients since 1955. Wardrop is internationally recognized as a
provider of engineering services in the specialized fields of power transmission, well known. Ground-fault protection schemes that provide
distribution, and generation. selective and reasonably fast tripping are often incorporated
The vision at Wardrop is to create a company that stands for People, with these grounding transformers. Since grounding
Passion, Performance. Trusted Globally.

©2008 IEEE.
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transformers are not encountered on a daily basis by most ungrounded electrical system.
electric power engineers, improper understanding and The internal connection of this transformer is illustrated in
applications of these devices and/or the associated ground- Figure 2. Consider a three-phase Y (wye) transformer with an
fault protection systems sometimes occurs. earth connection on the neutral point. Cut each winding in the
A middle so that the winding splits into two sections. Turn the
outer winding around and rejoin the outer winding to the next
B
phase in the sequence (i.e. outer A phase connects to inner B
C phase, outer B phase connects to inner C phase, and outer C
phase connects to inner A phase).
The impedance of the grounding transformer to three-
phase current is high so that when there is no fault or un-
balanced current on the systems, only a small magnetizing
current flows in the transformer windings. The transformer
impedance to ground current, however, is low so that it allows
high ground current to flow. The transformer divides the
ground current into three equal components; these currents
are in phase with each other and flow in the three windings of
the grounding transformer. The method of winding is seen
(a) Wye-delta grounding transformer
from Figure 2 to be such that when these three equal currents
flow, the current in one section of the winding of each leg is
in a direction opposite to that in the other section of the
winding on that leg. This tends to force the ground-fault
current to have equal division in the three lines and accounts
for the low impedance of the ground currents.

(b) Zig-zag grounding transformer

Figure 1. Wye-delta and zig-zag grounding transformer

The technical literature covering grounding transformers is


scattered. A number of technical publications [1]-[8] discuss
various aspects of the purpose, application, protection
Figure 2. Winding connections of the zig-zag grounding transformer
philosophy, and specifications of different types of grounding
transformers. However, some of these materials are not B. Why the Grounding Transformers are Necessary?
readily available. It appears that no single publication Grounding transformers have been applied to ungrounded
discusses all aspects of the grounding transformers. This three-phase power systems to 1) provide a source of ground-
paper first reviews the state of the art of the grounding fault current during line-to-ground faults, 2) limit the
transformer to assist electric power engineers in the proper magnitudes of transient overvoltages when restriking ground
understanding of the use and applications of these devices, faults occur and, 3) stabilize the neutral, and when desired,
and then a zig-zag grounding transformer is modeled in permit the connection of phase-to-neutral loads [4].
PSCAD/EMTDC simulator. After a 27.6 KV ungrounded Ungrounded three-phase systems are used mainly to
three-phase transmission system is constructed, different prevent an automatic shutdown when a ground fault on any
scenarios are simulated and verified under different one of the three phases occurs. The majority of all faults are
conditions with the connection of the grounding transformer. of the single phase-to-ground variety. Therefore, continuity of
A. What is the Grounding Transformer? power is maintained when no automatic tripping occurs for
this common type of fault. However, ultimately, the fault must
One type of grounding transformer commonly used is a
be located and fixed. It goes without saying that it can be
three-phase zig-zag transformer with no secondary winding.
annoying and time consuming to locate a ground fault by
One application is to derive an earth reference point for an
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switching loads on and off to pinpoint and remove the single helpful to system grounding because of the availability of a
phase-to-ground fault from the system. Consequently, neutral connection, that fact alone should not be the sole
grounding transformers are commonly used to enable criteria for the location of the system ground point.
automatic detection and, if desired, isolation of phase-to- The system ground point should always be at the power
ground faults. source. An old concept of grounding at the load or at other
Many electric utilities have converted ungrounded delta points in the system because of the availability of a
primary distribution systems to grounded wye systems to convenient grounding point is not recommended because of
provide for the automatic isolation of line-to-ground faults, to the problems caused by multiple ground paths and because of
help protect the system components, and to prevent or the danger that the system could be left ungrounded and
minimize possible injury to personnel. It is believed that the therefore unsafe. The National Electrical Code recognizes this
use of grounding transformers on new systems will phase out danger and prohibits system grounding at any place except the
in the future, because generally, it is cheaper and simpler to source and/or service equipment.
install a new grounded neutral wye system than a delta system It is generally desirable to connect a grounding transformer
having an associated grounding transformer. However, directly to the main bus of a power system shown in Figure 3,
grounding transformers would normally be retrofitted to without intervening circuit breakers or fuses, to prevent the
existing delta systems, particularly; systems rated for 27.6 KV grounding transformer from being inadvertently taken out of
or less. Most of the older systems in these voltage classes service by the operation of the intervening devices. In this
were designed to be operated ungrounded. case, the transformer is considered part of the source power
transformer and is protected by the relaying applied for
C. Use of Grounding Transformers
transformer/bus protection.
The grounding transformer provides a source for zero-
sequence current, stabilizes the system neutral, and, if
properly sized, permits the addition of a neutral conductor to
overhead lines.
The preferred location for the grounding transformer is at
the source substation, connected either to the power
transformer leads or the station bus. If the grounding
transformer is to be used to supply a four-wire distribution
system, care must be taken to insure that switching cannot
cause the grounding transformer to be disconnected while the
power transformer continues to energize the lines. If the
grounding transformer were to be disconnected, a system
ground fault could cause 173% voltage to be applied to the
phase-to-neutral distribution transformers connected to the
unfaulted phases. Also phase-to-neutral overvoltages are
possible due to load imbalances, even without a ground fault. Figure 3. General connection of grounding transformer to a
Small grounding transformers made from single-phase delta-connected or ungrounded power system
distribution transformers have sometimes been used on three- E. Rating of the Grounding Transformer
wire ungrounded distribution systems to derive a neutral for a
Since a grounding transformer is normally only required to
local four-wire system. Such applications must be carefully
carry short-circuit ground current until the circuit breakers
engineered since the presence of the grounding transformer
clear the fault and de-energize the faulted circuit, it is
on the distribution line will tend to degrade the sensitivity and
common to rate it on a short time such as 10 s. Under these
selectivity of residual ground relays. Application of small
circumstances the physical size (and resulting cost) is
grounding transformer on otherwise ungrounded systems
considerably reduced. If it is required to carry a continuous
should be avoided since it is usually not possible to provide
percentage of unbalanced current, this will reduce the amount
ground-fault relaying that is fully selective and yet protects
of savings possibly.
the grounding transformer from continuous overcurrent.
The rating of a three-phase grounding transformer, in kVA,
The calculations necessary to specify a grounding
is equal to the rated line-to-neutral voltage in kilovolts times
transformer are discussed in [3].
the rated neutral current that the transformer is designed to
D. Location of System Grounding Points carry under fault conditions for a specified time. Most
The selection of a system grounding point is influenced by grounding transformers are designed to carry their rated
whether the transformer or generator windings are connected current for a limited time only, such as 10 s or 1 min.
‘wye’ or ‘delta’. ‘delta-wye’ or ‘wye-delta’ transformers Consequently, they are much smaller in size than an ordinary
effectively block the flow of zero-sequence current between three-phase continuously rated transformer with the same
systems. Although the wye connection is generally more rating.
4

Rated voltage of a grounding transformer is the line-to-line


voltage for which the unit is designed.
In an application on a multigrounded neutral system, the
grounding transformer must have the capability to carry some
continuous neutral current. An estimate must be made of the
maximum expected load imbalance in order to specify this
rating. A grounding transformer constructed in accordance
with IEEE Std 32-1972 will have a continuous rating of 3%
for a 10 s rated unit. This value would correspond to a 200 A
continuous rating for the 6600 A transformer specified above.
If higher values of continuous current are required, the size
and cost of the grounding transformer may increase. A 1 min
rated unit would have 7% of the continuous current rating.
F. Protection of the Grounding Transformers (b) Differential protection with backup ground relay
When a grounding transformer is used on a system, the
protection philosophy should be as follows [5]:
• The system must be protected against faults in the
grounding transformer; however, any isolation of a
grounding transformer must not leave a system in a
totally ungrounded or in an inadequately grounded mode.
• Back-up protection should be provided for ground faults
that are not cleared by the primary protection device.
• Protection should be selective to prevent unnecessary
outages.
When a zigzag or grounded wye-delta transformer is used,
the effective grounding impedance is selected to provide
sufficient current for selective ground relaying. The available
(c) Time-overcurrent protection
ground fault current is generally on the order of 400 A.
The electrical protection scheme for the grounding Figure 4. Ground-fault protection with zig-zag grounding transformer
transformer is simple, consisting of overcurrent relays
connected to delta-connected CTs, as shown in Figure 4 (a), A phase-to-ground fault should not be allowed to persist on
or differential protection with backup ground relay, as shown a grounding transformer with low or no neutral impedance
in figure 4 (b). that permits a fault current magnitude greater than the
Each power transformer, bus, and feeder breaker would continuous current rating. Therefore, the selection of a CT
have primary ground overcurrent relaying. This protection ratio associated with the grounding transformer depends more
could be sensitive instantaneous overcurrent relaying. Backup on the pickup of the ground relay than the rating of the
protection would be provided by a time-overcurrent relay grounding transformer. However, if a fault is allowed to
connected to a CT in the neutral of the grounding transformer persist, then the CT ratio must be selected with the continuous
as shown in figure 4 (C). current in mind.
G. Fault Locating in Ungrounded or High-Resistance
Ground System
Common methods of localization are: 1) fault isolation by
network switching, and 2) circuit tracing using a signal
injector and a hand-held signal detector.
Network switching is the simplest method. The system
operator deenergizes one feeder at a time until the fault
disappears. Then branch circuits are switched, eventually
loads are tested. This identifies the faulted network section.
This search process interrupts the continuity of service, which
is the advantage of these systems. In practice, the search is
postponed until there is a scheduled break in production.
However, often the search is frustrated by the disappearance
of the fault when all the manufacturing equipment is shut
(a) Overcurrent protection down. And the search is manpower intensive and requires
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well-trained personnel that are familiar with the entire power A. Topology of Delta-connected Transmission System with
system network [9]. Grounding Transformer
Circuit tracing with a superimposed signal is a preferred In addition to the grounding transformer model introduced
method for locating a fault. The signal can be supplied in a in pervious section, a delta-connected transmission system is
number of ways. For high-resistance grounded systems, a also constructed in PSCAD (shown in Figure 6). The
common signal source is the modulation of the ground-fault grounding transformer is directly connected to the wye-delta
current through the grounding resistor. This may be source power transformer. System simulations and analyses
accomplished with a second resistor switched in parallel with will be taken place based on this system topology.
the grounding resistor or by shorting out a portion of the Depends on different system data, in this system, a 0.04
grounding resistor. With either method, a pulsing circuit Ohm resistor is applied to this model as the winding
operates a contactor, which switches in a lower resistance for impedance of this grounding transformer. Different balanced
the grounding circuit. This increases the ground-fault current and unbalanced loads are connected to the system.
momentarily, enough for detection by ammeters or by a A RRL A
50.0 [MVA]
A
Va

clamp-on detector [10].


B RRL B B
#1 #2
Vb
C RRL C 115.0 [kV] C

For an ungrounded system, a pulsating electronic signal 27.6 [kV]


Vc

injector (commonly referred to as a thumper circuit) is

1000 [ohm]

500 [ohm]

100 [ohm]
attached to the faulted network, and hand-held detectors sense
the signal along the faulted circuit. The thumper circuit is an

#2

#2

#2
5.0 [MW]

#1

#1

#1
electronic oscillator within the audio frequency range and is Balanced 3-phase
load Un-Balanced And more ...
coupled between the faulted phase and ground. The signal 3-phase load

travels along the fault path, and is detected by a receiver Zig-Zag

0.04 [ohm]
Grounding
Transformer

circuit. Such test equipment is portable and only needs to be


attached when looking for the fault.
The current practices for locating ground faults have Figure 6. Delta-connected transmission system topology
certain weaknesses, which have troubled many industrial
operations. These weaknesses stem from three conditions that IV. SYSTEM SIMULATIONS AND VERIFICATIONS
are frequently not considered by the localization methods.
A. Normal Operation
They are: 1) intermittent fault conditions; 2) multiple faults on
the same phase; and 3) inverted ground faults [11]. A new As presented above, the grounding transformer creates a
location technique which can uniquely identifies a fault neutral point for the 3-wire delta-connected transmission
location by discerning the zero-sequence fault current is system; therefore the original 3-phase ungrounded system is
proposed [11]. converted to 3-phase grounded system, which now can supply
any unbalanced or single-phase loads. The unbalanced current
III. MODELING OF THE GROUNDING TRANSFORMER IN will go to ground and pass through the grounding transformer
PSCAD/EMTDC back to the main transformer.
The transmission system model is shown in Figure 7. The
As introduced in Section II, the internal connection of the
main power transformer is a wye/delta (115kV/27.6kV)
zig-zag grounding transformer is illustrated in Figure 2. In
transformer. Beside the main power transformer, a zig-zag
PSCAD/EMTDC simulator, three single-phase 2-winding
grounding transformer is connected to the system. Therefore,
transformers are used to model the zig-zag grounding
a neutral point is obtained and connected to the ground.
transformer. Oppositely connect the secondary winding of A
RRL
A
50.0 [MVA]
A

each single-phase transformer to the primary winding of next B RRL B


#1 #2
B
Va

single-phase transformer in the sequence; a zig-zag grounding


Vb
C C 115.0 [kV] C
RRL
27.6 [kV]
Ia_Ground

Ib_Ground

Vc
Ic_Ground

transformer model is obtained (Shown in Figure 5).


Line Leads
1000 [ohm]

500 [ohm]

100 [ohm]
#2

#2

#2

5.0 [MW]
#1

#1

#1
#2

#2

#2
#1

#1

#1

0.04 [ohm]
I_Fault

Figure 7. 115/27.6 kV wye/delta transmission system with grounding


transformer
Neutral Lead

Figure 5. The zig-zag grounding transformer model in PSCAD/EMTDC


6

Scenario 1. With Un-balanced loading Scenario 2: With Balanced Loading


As shown in Figure 7, the system is powering some If the un-balanced load is disconnected from this system,
balanced loads and some un-balanced loads. With with the simulation, an almost zero kA current is measured in
PSCAD/EMTDC simulator, an un-balanced current, I_Fault grounding transformer (shown in Figure 10), which verifies
(about 0.14kA, shown in Figure 8), is measured in the that the grounding transformer has very high impedance to
grounding transformer. balanced three-phase currents.
Main : Graphs Main : Graphs
I_Fault I_Fault

0.20 0.20
0.10 0.10
y [KA]

0.00 0.00

y [KA]
-0.10
-0.10
-0.20
-0.20

[s] 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160


[s] 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140

Figure 8. Un-balanced ground current


Figure 10. Ground current with balanced loading

By measuring the currents in each winding of the B. Fault Analyses and Simulation Verifications
grounding transformer, 3 current signals, Ia_Ground, From the above simulation, it is clear that the grounding
Ib_Ground, and Ic_Ground are also measured and shown in transformer creates a neutral point for the transmission
Figure 9. system, and allows the un-balanced ground current pass by. In
Main : Graphs
I_Fault Ia_Ground addition, when the phase-to-ground fault is applied to the
system, the grounding transformer will also create a path for
0.20
the fault current. Mean while, the fault current will be sensed
0.10
by the CTs for the protection purpose. More important
y (KA)

0.00
characteristic, the grounding transformer has, is the grounding
-0.10
transformer minimizes the overvltage on other un-faulted
-0.20
phases, which will be simulated and analysed in this Section.
[s] 0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160
Scenario 1: Phase A to Ground Fault Applied
I_Fault
Main : Graphs
Ib_Ground
On this wye/delta transmission system, if a fault is applied
on the Phase A to ground during 0.08s to 0.12s shown in
0.20

0.10
Figure 11. Because the fault is applied on the Phase A, the
0.00
voltage on phase A will be dramatically decreased. However,
y[kA]

-0.10
the voltage on Phase B and C are still maintained nearly at the
-0.20
normal operating rate. Simulation verification is shown in
Figure 12 and Figure 13.
[s] A A A
0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160 RRL 50.0 [MVA]
Va
B RRL B B
#1 #2
Vb
Main : Graphs C C 115.0 [kV] C
RRL
27.6 [kV]
I_Fault Ic_Ground
Ia_Ground

Ib_Ground

Vc
Ic_Ground

C
0.20
1000 [ohm]

500 [ohm]

100 [ohm]

A->G
FAULTS

0.10
#2

#2

#2

0.00 5.0 [MW]


y[kA]

#1

#1

#1

-0.10
Timed
Logic
Fault

-0.20
0.04 [ohm]

[s] 0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160
I_Fault

Figure 9. Un-balanced ground current vs. three currents in individual winding of


the grounding transformer Figure 11. Fault applied between Phase A and ground

From Figure 9, we can see that the grounding transformer


creates a path for the un-balanced current, and also divides
the ground current to three in-phase, equal components. This
also verified one of the very important characteristics of the
grounding transformer, which we mentioned in Section II-A.
7

Main : Graphs Main : Graphs


Va Vb Vc I_Fault Ia_Ground
30 200

150
20
100

10 50

y (KA)
0
y (KV)

0
-50

-10 -100

-150
-20
-200
[s] 0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160
-30
[s] 0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160

Figure 16. Ground current under Phase A and B to ground fault condition
Figure 12. Phase voltages under Phase A to ground fault condition

Main : Graphs
V. REVENUE METERING SYSTEM INSTALLATION ON THREE-
200
I_Fault Ia_Ground
PHASE UNGROUNDED SYSTEMS
150

100
Currently, in Ontario Electricity market, the utility
50 companies are conducting the wholesale revenue metering
system upgrade. According to the standard, the new metering
y (KA)

-50

-100
installations in the IESO-administered market shall conform
-150 to Blondel’s Theorem. On this wye/delta with grounding
[s]
-200
0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160
transformer system (shown in Figure 17), if the metering
system will be installed at point between the power
transformer and the grounding transformer, two elements
Figure 13. Ground current under Phase A to ground fault condition
could be selected because the power source is a three-phase;
Scenario 2: Phase A and Phase B to Ground Fault three-wire system before the grounding transformer.
In some cases, some faults could be applied between two However, if the metering installation point is selected after the
phases and ground. In Figure 14, one scenario, phase A and grounding transformer, a three-element system must be
Phase B fault to ground is shown. With the grounding installed because the power source now actually is a three-
transformer connected to the system, the Phase C voltage phase; 4-wire system.
should be maintained at the normal operation level. The If a 3-element metering system is considered, it can be
simulation result again verified this conclusion, which is concluded that there is no difference between installation
shown in Figure 15 and Figure 16. before grounding transformer point and installation after
A RRL A
50.0 [MVA]
A
Va
grounding transformer point (shown in Figure 17). In
addition, because the distance between these two points is
B RRL B B
#1 #2
Vb
C RRL C 115.0 [kV] C

only few meters physically. The line impedance between these


27.6 [kV]
Ia_Ground

Ib_Ground

Ic_Ground

Vc

two points sure can be neglected. Therefore, no voltage


A

AB->GC
1000 [ohm]

500 [ohm]

100 [ohm]

difference should be considered between these two points.


FAULTS

The metering instrument transformers, such as VTs, the


#2

#2

#2

5.0 [MW]
#1

#1

#1

connections are shunt connection on the system. Usually they


Timed
Logic
Fault

are used as single purpose to supply the meters. Depends on


the VT’s secondary loads, but normally the loads are very
0.04 [ohm]

light. So the VT’s impedance to the system is very high.


I_Fault

Probably, only few mA current is drawn from the line on


Figure 14. Fault applied between Phase A, Phase B and ground which the VT is connected. Compare to the hundred and
Main : Graphs thousand amperes fault current, this mA current definitely
Va Vb Vc
30
could be neglected. The metering system will sure not affect
20 the relaying system at all unless the metering system itself
10 causes the faults on the system.
After all, the metering system itself could be treated as a
y (KV)

normal 3-phase load on the system, but just very light load.
-10

-20

-30
[s] 0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160

Figure 15. Phase voltages under Phase A and Phase B to ground condition
8

After
Grounding
Transformer
simulator, and different scenarios are simulated and verified
Point
under different conditions. Finally, the concern from the
revenue metering system installation on wye/delta
A A A
RRL 50.0 [MVA]
Va
B RRL B B
#1 #2
Vb transmission systems in Ontario power network is addressed.
C C 115.0 [kV] C
RRL
27.6 [kV]
Vc

Ia_Ground

Ib_Ground

Ic_Ground
VII. REFERENCES

1000 [ohm]

500 [ohm]

100 [ohm]
Before
Grounding [1] Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, ABB, 1997.
Transformer
Point [2] IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial
5.0 [MW]
Power System, IEEE Std 142-1991, June 1991.
#2

#2

#2
[3] IEEE Guide for the Application of Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility
#1

#1

#1
Systems, Part IV—Distribution, IEEE C62.92.4-1991, December 1992.
[4] Edson R. Detjen, and Kanu R. Shah, “Grounding Transformer
Applications and Associated Protection Schemes”, IEEE Transactions on
Industry applications, Vol. 28, N0.4, July / August 1992
0.04 [ohm]

[5] L. J. Carpenter, “Connecting a Grounding Transformer to the System”,


General Electric Co., GER-1062.
I_Fault

[6] Peter E. Sutherland, “Application of Transformer Ground Differential


Protection Relays”, IEEE Transactions on Industry applications, Vol. 36,
Figure 17. Potential revenue metering system installation points before or after NO. 1, January/February 2000
[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zigzag_transformer
grounding transformer
[8] http://ecmweb.com/mag/electric_basics_zigzag_transformers
[9] D. J. Love and N. Hashemi, “Considerations for ground fault protection in
The electric power systems, which are operated with no medium-voltage industrial and cogeneration systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind.
intentional ground connection to the system conductors, are Applicat., vol. 24, pp. 548–553, July/Aug. 1988.
generally described as ungrounded. In reality, these systems [10] D. H. Lubich, Sr, “High resistance grounding and fault finding on three
phase three wire (Delta) power systems,” IEEE Paper-7803–4090-6/97,
are grounded through the system capacitance to ground 1997.
(shown in Figure 18). The line conductors have capacitances [11] T. Baldwin, F. Renovich, L. Saunders, and D. Lubkeman, “Fault locating
between one another and to ground, as presented by the delta- in ungrounded and high-resistance grounded systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind.
Applicat., vol. 37, pp. 1152–1159, July/Aug. 2001.
and the wye-connected sets of capacitances. In most systems,
this is extremely high impedance, and the resulting system
VIII. BIOGRAPHIES
relationships to ground are weak and easily distorted.
Mike Shen (Member’2006) was born in Jiangsu,
If one conductor, for example phase A, becomes faulted to China, in 1972. He received the B.Sc. degree in
the ground, the line A to ground voltage will be close to zero electrical engineering from Jiangsu University,
voltage, and the line B and C to ground voltage will increase Jiangsu, China, in 1994, and the MASc degree in
to phase-to-phase voltage. electrical engineering from the University of
Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, in 2006. His
A A A
RRL 50.0 [MVA] research interests are power system protection,
B RRL B B
control and telecommunication, distributed
#1 #2 generation, SCADA system, metering system, power
C C 115.0 [kV] C quality, power electronics, electrical control,
RRL
27.6 [kV] electromechanical systems.
Mr. Shen has over 10 years of professional experiences in Electrical Engineering
from Electrical Automation, Mechatronics, AC/DC Motor Drives, Power
Electronics, Substation Automation, SCADA Systems, Power System Protection
and Control, Distributed Generation, Demand-side Management, Renewable
Energy, Electric System Modeling and Simulations. Currently, He is employed
at Wardrop Engineering Inc. as a design engineer.
Figure 18. Three-phase ungrounded system

This overvoltage is 1.732 times the voltage normally on the


insulation. This sustained overvoltage or the transient
overvoltages on the ungrounded system may not immediately
cause failure of insulation, but may tend to reduce the life of
the insulation.
For metering system installation on above ungrounded
system, the voltage classes of CTs, VTs, and other
instruments should be carefully considered.

VI. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, first of all, the state of the art of the
grounding transformer is reviewed. Then, the electrical model
of the grounding transformer is built in PSCAD/EMTDC