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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction

“When you decide to become a teacher, your life forever changes. You will

be thinking about the children you teach not only while in the classroom, but

also while you are at home. That’s because you care so much.” These words

open the idea that teachers are inherently motivated to teach.

Motivation it is one way of getting the interest of the pupil. It is also their

fuel in listening and cooperating. Student will not be motivated if their teacher

is also not motivated. But what happened in the present is that lots of teachers

lose their love in teaching and helping student learns. They become a drop out

teacher, a clock watcher, always looking at the clock and hasten for the time to

end the class, they have little motivation and cannot think what changes to be

made, and they do not see reason for improvement; they become lazy and

irresponsible in doing their duties. The longer they are in service the lazier they

become. They forget the purpose of their profession and they encounter lack of

motivation in teaching and difficulties in making student understand. They

forget to learn on the lesson they impart and this results to an ineffective

teaching.

In the present K to 12 curriculum teachers factor has a great

contribution on why student failed in school. Teachers are the ones responsible
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on the learning of their students specially that there is “no read no move

policy”. But how can a teacher motivate and lead their students to learn when

even themselves they are not motivated. There are teachers who are not

fulfilling their responsibilities. They are only focusing on what they will gain

without knowing that there are students who need more attention and

scaffolding to be able to learn. Others are physically disturbed and there are

some students who want to be motivated by their teachers but the teacher is

too shiftless to recognize their presence.

With the above scenario, many students are affected. As the teacher

loses his or her motivation in teaching, students felt the same - losing their

interest in the topic and start to do unnecessary things to entertain them; thus

they never learn. This situation clearly affects their students learning, it may

result in failure and low grades. In the last two decades of educational reform,

teachers have been viewed as central to both of problems of education and its

solution.

The above situation has made quest for the researchers to search on

factors that affects teachers’ motivation. It is in this intention that this

research will be conducted.

The researchers hope that effected finding out the factors affecting

teacher motivation, solutions can be to the problems relating to teacher

motivation. This research then will serve as a blueprint.

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The researchers also hope that the findings of this study can contribute

meaningfully to the enhancement of the teachers’ motivation. The researchers

then will look deeper into the potentials of the motivation of the teacher.

Theoretical Framework

This study will seek anchorage on the following concept: In the 1980s,

state governments and local school districts enacted an array of incentives

plans designed to recruit, reward and retain the best teacher’s Merit pay and

career ladders were intended to provide financial incentives, varied work, and

advancement opportunities for seasoned teachers. These, along with across-

the-board pay raises, work environment premiums for difficult assignments,

and grants or sabbaticals for research and study, were expected to improve

teacher performance and motivation. This concept is supported by the theories

on motivation by Johnson (2000): the Expectancy Theory, the Equity Theory,

and Job Enrichment Theory.

According to Johnson (2000) measures developed to boost teacher

motivation are based on three theories of motivation and productivity. The first

is Expectancy theory which states that individuals are more likely to strive in

their work if there is an anticipated reward that they value, such as a bonus or

a promotion, than if there is none. The second is Equity theory which avers

that individuals are dissatisfied if they are not justly compensated for their

efforts and accomplishments. The third is Job Enrichment Theory where

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workers are seen to be more productive when their work is varied and

challenging.

The first two theories are justification for merit pay and career ladders, use

of organization incentives, and reform-oriented staff development. The third

theory gives justification to the notion that motivation can be a product of a

person’s self-motivation.

Zemmelman, Daniels, and Hyde (2000) support the three theories

presented by Johnson (2000). Their study explains that teachers’ attitudes are

crucial to the success of in –depth curricular innovation. Moreover, the

beneficial effort of teacher’s attitudes on education reform is reciprocal. Frase

and Sorenson (2000), in relation to Johnson’s theories, caution that not every

teacher will respond positively to educational reform approaches. Autonomy for

one may be isolation for another; one teacher may welcome feedback, another

may see it as infringement on his or her professionalism; and while one may

welcome collaboration, another may see it as stressful imposition. Lieberman

(2000), with the three of Johnson argues for a “radical rethinking” of

professional development that encourages teacher’s growth. She believes that

teachers must have opportunities to try out new practices by taking new roles

and creating a culture of inquiry. Darling-Hammond and Mc Lauglin (2000),

supporting Johnson’s suggest that staff development also means “ providing

occasions for teachers to reflect critically on their practices and to fashion new

knowledge and beliefs about content, Pedagogy, and Learners.

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Finally, Monahan (2000), trying to elaborate the three theories of Johnson

(2000) describes a new concept, comprehensive professional development (CPD)

that focuses on strategies for facilitating teacher growth through professional

dialogue with colleagues, collaborative curriculum development, peer

supervision, peer coaching and action research leading to school wide change.

The Expectancy, Equity, and Job Enrichment Theories of Johnson (2000)

and the preceding concepts supporting and elaborating the three theories are

found by the researchers very relevant to the study because they explain the

sources of teachers’ motivation. They give better understanding of the study’s

intention and purpose.

Conceptual Framework

Pooling the contentions and view of the theories the researcher have

conceptualized the factors affecting teachers motivation should observed so

that teachers will be aware on factors that affects their motivation in teaching:

if a teacher is found affected by this in this factor, it finds itself tired of

teaching and become lazy on doing his duty to help young people to learn. This

conception of the researcher brings forward the salient notion that real-life

affects their profession. The researcher has raised quires like “how teachers

can motivates students if the teacher itself is not motivated?” the present

scenario, emerged in some of the teachers working in school.

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This study then takes Teachers’ motivation and the factors affecting

teachers’ motivation as the independent variables; the perceived effects of the

factors on teachers’ motivation are taken are the dependent variables. Since it

is assumed that the socio-economic profile of the respondents affects their

perceptions, the researchers opt to include it in this study and labeled it as the

moderating variable.

The researchers include an output variable to make this study more

significant and useful. The Teacher Motivation Enhancement Plan is placed as

the output variable.

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Figure 1 that follows clearly shows the flow of this study.

Factors Perception

Affecting of

Motivation respondent

Teacher Motivation

Enhancement Plan

Figure A. Schematic Diagram showing the interplay of the variables of this

Study.

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Statement of the Problem

This study will ascertain the factors that can affect the motivation of

teachers in North Central Mindanao College. It will also determine the level of

the influence of these factors on the motivation of the primary education

teachers

Specifically, this study will seek to answer the following question:

1. What is profile of the respondents of this study in terms of:

1.1 gender;

1.2 age;

1.3 Length of Service;

1.4 Salary?

2. What is the extent of teachers response on the factors that affects their

motivation in terms of:

2.1 Profession,

2.2 Self-Confidence,

2.3 Socio-Economic Status,

2.4 Anxiety in Class,

2.5 Relation to Colleagues,

2.6 Leadership of the Administration?

3. What teacher motivation enhancement plan should the respondents’

adopt or practice based on the findings of the study?

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Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be beneficial to the following;

School Administration. The results of this study can provide the

administration bases of enhancing the teacher’s strategies to motivate the

students. The information of the result of this study will provide the teachers

effective strategies on how they adopt and apply their motivations.

Teachers. The result of this study will help teachers examine their selves

to see in what aspects they failed to motivate their students. Teacher can do

many things to create a classroom environment that motivates students to

learn and behave in ways that promote their long-term success.

Parents. The results of this study benefit the parents in the sense that

they their children will be recipient of quality education. They will feel

satisfaction which will boost their motivation to support the education of their

education children.

Students. The motivation is described as a state that energizes, directs

and sustains behavior. Motivation involves goals and requires activities. Goals

provide the impetus for and the directions of action, while action entails efforts

and persistence in order to sustain activity for a long period of time. When

teachers enhance their motivation practices, they tend to teacher better. With

this, the students can benefit from the effective strategies of teachers.

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Future researchers. The findings of this study can be utilized by future

researchers as reference to similar studies or can be used as norms when

embark on comparative studies.

Scope and Limitations

This study well describe the factors affecting teachers motivation, seen by

the researchers to the related the problem that will be investigated. The profile

will be noted as impassionate, uncommitted, unwillingness to participate in

school activities poor attendance, unexpected absence, late coming, lack of

additional training, uncreative and non-stimulating, lack of interest in

meetings, unhelpful attitudes when assistance is needed, resistance to

contributing more than what is required of them and development of

arguments between colleagues.

The study will be conducted in North Central Mindanao Colleges

Maranding, Lala, Lanao del Norte. The respondent will be the Teachers in the

NCMC.

The limitations of this study will be on the gathering of data needed. The

researchers may experience some difficulties in producing and distribution of

the questionnaire since the target respondent may have not time, maybe not

available or reluctant to participate in the study due to lack of time. This

schedule may lead to the delay of the data gathering and may affect the time

schedule of the researchers to finish this study.

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Definition of terms

To make this understandable to the readers, the following terms are

conceptually and operationally defined.

Motivation- This is the attribute that moves us to do or not to do

something Broussard and Garrison (2004). In the context of this study, it is

defined as the act of making teachers feel that their work is recognized and

valued and at the same time they get the rewards worth their input.

Job Satisfaction- This is the feeling by the employee towards the job

they do with regard to conditions of work and the rewards accrued (Sullivan,

2012). In this study, this term refers to the positive feeling of the teachers, like

feeling of joy and contentment for a job well done or for something good done

for them.

Work Situations – This is the school environment where teachers teach

(Clarke, 2000). In this study, this meaning extends to include the events or

activities that happen in the workplace.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents relevant literature on teacher motivation, job

satisfaction, reward system, training and development and work situation

factors. The chapter ends with a summary of the literature review

Related Literatures

Teacher Motivation

Motivation is an important issue in any organization because it is

involved in energizing or initiating human behavior, directing and channeling

that behavior and sustaining and maintaining it. Work motivation is one of the

most influential constructs in organizational psychology, and it has been

analysed in many work contexts ( Gomes & Borba, 2011). In education, teacher

motivation is considered to be a key construct due to its impact on student

motivation and effective school functioning (Rufini, Bzuneck, & Oliveira, 2012;

Zenorini, Santos, & Monteiro, 2011). According to Jesus (2003), studies in this

area increased significantly during the 1980s, but they focused solely on the

impac tof salary incentives. In the opinion of Müller and Hanfstingl (2010),

additional research on teacher motivation is needed to develop a consistent

field of study, clarify contradictory findings, and develop new research

guidelines.

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However, teacher motivation should be considered extremely important.

Teachers are fundamental to student motivation through their teaching quality

and the development of the teacher-student relationship (Santisi, Magnano,

Hichy, &Ramaci, 2014). Since the foundation of the European Higher

Education Area, numerous studies (e.g., Ariza, Quevedo-Blasco, &Buela-Casal,

2014) have addressed the professional motivation of university teachers and

the impact of performance appraisals. Jesus (1996) remarked that in addition

to the importance of the role of teachers in the classroom, they are very

important in the implementation of educational policies. In short, teacher

motivation is important due to its impact on the classroom and the school

because it influences both the organization and individuals (Bentea &

Anghelache, 2012; Müller & Hanfstingl, 2010). Therefore, it is imperative to

understand which aspects influence this construct.

Aloe, Shisler, Norris, Nickerson, and Rinker (2014)and Jesus (2010)

observed that teachers had higher levels of distress and burnout compared

within dividuals in other human service professions. Several studies ( e.g.,Aloe

et al., 2014; Bascia & Rottmann, 2011;G uglielmi, Panari, Simbula, & Mazzetti,

2014;Roness& Smith, 2010) concluded that work-related variables such as (a)

monetary incentives;(b) large class sizes;(c) poor working conditions;(d) few

promotion opportunities; (e) student misbehavior; and (f) high workloads

contributed significantly to teacher demotivation and could induce teacher

turn-over. A study realized in Portugal (Jesus, 1996) demonstrated that in a

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sample of 576 teachers, over 50% wanted to leave teaching. Another study that

examined Portuguese and Brazilian teachers showed similar results (Jesus et

al., 2011). In conclusion, teachers are exposed to difficult working conditions

that influence their motivation and may result in negative psychological

outcomes, leading to teacher turnover.

Moreover, the risk of a decrease in salaries, sometimes accompanied by a

decline in the status of the profession relative to others, is that teachers

incentives to provide quality teaching might become (or remain) insufficient.

This worry has been expressed by the UNICEF (2000) that underlines the fact

that low wages drive teachers into other activities to the detriment of teaching,

or by the African Development Bank (2000) that identifies low salaries as the

most harmful factor for the education sector in general. In recent years, in

many developing countries high levels of teacher turnover and absenteeism

have indeed become entrenched.

Organizational climate is an organizational attribute that refers to

working experiences (Schneider, Ehrhart, & Macey, 2013). According to Kohl,

Recchia, and Steffgen (2013) and Schneider et al. (2013),an organization is

heterogeneous because it tends to have several climates. Despite this,Bocchi,

Dozza, Chianese, and Cavrini (2014) felt that interpersonal relationships and

social interactions were the most important dimensions of a school's

organizational climate.

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Arrangement of the Workspace and Teacher Motivation

Whereas size measures the amount of space per employee, arrangement

refers to the distance between people and facilities. Robbins (2003) says that

the arrangement of one‘s workspace is important primarily because it

significantly influences social interaction. An employee‘s work location

therefore is likely to influence the information to which one is privy and one‘s

inclusion or exclusion from organization‘s events. Whether you are on a certain

grapevine network or not, for instance, will be largely determined by where you

are physically located in the organization.

Luthans (2000) argues that if people work in a clean, friendly

environment they will find it easier to come to work. If the opposite should

happen, they will find it difficult to accomplish tasks. Working conditions are

only likely to have a significant impact on job satisfaction when, for example,

the working conditions are either extremely good or extremely poor. Moreover,

employee complaints regarding working conditions are frequently related to

manifestations of underlying problems. Teachers’ workload, changes in the

education system and a lack of discipline amongst some of the learners may be

some of the reasons why teachers want to exit the profession. According to

Bishay (2000), the working environment of teachers also determines the

attitude and behavior of teachers towards their work. He indicates that

research has shown that improvement in teacher motivation has a positive

effect on both teachers and learners.

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Moreover, within the teaching profession, for example, there are different

working conditions based on the past allocation of resources to schools. Ngidi

and Sibaya (2002) found that, in disadvantaged schools, working conditions

are often not conducive to teaching and learning.

Related Studies

Studies on Factor affecting the motivation of the teacher are found in this

section the studies of Barmby (2006), Hallinger and Heck (2000),and Eimers,

(2000)

According to Hallinger and Heck (2000), school leaders can play a critical

role in the success of educational institutions. To the extent that school leaders

can control the outcomes of teachers' efforts, they can influence the levels of

motivation teachers experience (Silver, 2000). This can be through their

influence on teachers' morale and motivation. Studies have lent proof

(Hallinger and Heck, 2000; Leithwood and Jantzi, 2005; Leithwood and

Mascall, 2008) that School leadership affects the way teachers teach, and

hence, impact directly on student performance. Since school leaders can, in

one way or the other, affect the intrinsic factors listed, they, thus, play an

extremely role in motivating teachers.

Indeed, in an attempt to study teachers' motivation, Pitre (2003) found

significant relationship between school leadership and teacher motivation. A

school head should not only be an effective leader, manager and counselor, but

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also an effective motivator. Motivated teachers are productive teachers

(Osterloh, Bruno and Frost, 2001) as they have job satisfaction. School leaders

should bear in mind that without these, educational programmes may be

deeply weakened (Snowden and Gorton, 2002). This is supported by Brown's

study (2005), which found significant link between political, local and

organizational factors and the use of incentives to motivate teachers in charter

schools. Motivation was higher where more external incentives were provided.

In fact, School leadership and Teacher Motivation are two things that are

inextricably linked.

INSIGHT LEARNED FROM THE RELATED STUDIES

The reading of the researchers made them realized that the teachers are

influenced by intrinsic, extrinsic factors and altruistic reasons. This knowledge

help the researcher to identify whether of these factors are most influenced to

the motivation of the teachers.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODS

This chapter describes the research design, study population, sampling

design and procedure, data collection instruments, data collection procedures

and data analysis. It explains various scientific methods used in achieving the

study objectives.

Research Design

This study used descriptive survey design. The main advantage of this

type of design is that it enables the researcher to assess the situation within

the study area at the time of the study. The researcher therefore used the

design to assess the factors affecting teacher motivation in North Central

Mindanao College. According to Cooper (2000), a descriptive study is concerned

with finding out who, what, where and how of a phenomenon which is the

concern of this study. Thus, the researcher deemed the design appropriate for

the study as it allowed for investigation of how different factors affect teacher

motivation in the area of study.

Research Environment

This study will be conducted at North Central Mindanao College building.

The school is located at Maranding lala Lanao del Norte, it is composed of three

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buildings. One for elementary students, one for college and another one for

high school

The school will be seen along the way to Salvador, Lala, Lanao Del Norte.

It was built on the year 1989 and was owned and leads by Mr. Archer Undag.

The school has over thousandths students. It is composed of 5 floors,

with library, canteen, and playground and deans office. They have hundreds of

faculties in this building working together with their own will.

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Respondents and Sampling Procedures

The respondents of the study will be teachers of North Central Mindanao

College in Maranding lala Lanao Del Norte. Their number is pre-determined by

the researchers through the help of the research adviser. The simple random

sampling through fish bowl technique is used to determine the individual

respondent. Table A below shows the distribution of the respondents.

Table A. Distribution of Respondents

Level N. Respondents

High School Department 28

Total 28

Data Gathering Procedure

The Data from the field will be collected through questionnaire. The

researcher will administer the questionnaire personally. The researcher will

visit the departments mentioned in the sample for obtaining the opinions of the

teachers at North Central Mindanao College.

The researcher will assure the respondents on the confidentiality of their

answer, so sincere answers will come out from respondents.

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This data gathering will follow right after the granting permission from

the department researcher authorities. In every made the researchers will

always refer to their research advisers to assured of doing an accurate process.

The Research Instrument and Their Validity

The research instrument of this study will be a structured survey

questionnaire. It will be divided into two parts. The first part is to gather data

with the profile of the respondents. The second part will be the extent of the

perception of the respondents pertaining to the factors affecting their

motivation. The aforementioned instrument will be tested for reliability and

validity with the steps, guidance and, suggestions of the researchers research

adviser. It will be tailored to accurately collect the relevant data from this

study.

Statistical Treatment

The following statistical tools will be used to treat the data of this study:

1. Frequency and Percentage- this will be used to describe the profile of the

respondents.

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CHAPTER IV

RESULT, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents, analyze and interpret the data gathered from the

survey. Table 1 through 4 shows the frequency and distribution of respondents’

profile by gender, age, salary income, and length of service. Tables 5 to 10 show

the factors that affect the motivation of the teachers in terms of teachers’

profession, self-confidence, socio-economic status, anxiety in classroom, their

relation with their colleagues and leadership of the administration.

Problem: What is profile of the respondents of this study in terms of

gender, age, salary income, and length of service?

RESPONDENTS’ PROFILE

This variable in this study includes the gender classification, age, salary

income and length of service of the teachers in North Central Mindanao College

particularly in High School Department for the year 2015-2016.

Gender

The respondents were asked to indicate first their gender. It turned out

that there were 9 (32.14%) males and 19 (67.86) females. Research by

Davidson et al. (2005) showed that female-male composition of teaching is not

new: the majority of teachers are women. From the findings of the study, it can

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be said that there are many women teachers in North Central Mindanao

College, High School Departments. These are as presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Teacher`s Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage (%)

Male 9 32.14

Female 19 67.86

Total 28 100

Age

Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents’

age. It shows that there were 11 or 39.29% of the teachers interviewed aging

22-25 years old. 12 or 42.86% of the teacher interviewed were belonging to

ages 26 to 29, and there were 5 or 17.86% ages 30 and above. This means that

there are relatively few experienced teachers who can serve as mentors and

provide professional support and leadership thus motivating teachers. A study

by Bennell and Mukyanuzi (2005) on teacher motivation crisis, they found that

individual teacher characteristics can also adversely impact on motivation

levels. They added that age profile of teachers has become younger in many

countries due to the rapid expansion of primary and, more recently, secondary

school enrolments and/or higher rates of teacher attrition.

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Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents` Age

Age (years) Frequency Percentage (%)


22 – 25 11 39.29
26 – 29 12 42.86
30 and above 5 17.86
Total 28 100

Salary Income

Motivation of employees and their productivity can be enhanced through

providing them effective recognition which ultimately results in improved

performance of organizations. The entire success of an organization is based on

how an organization keeps its employees motivated and in what way they

evaluate the performance of employees for job compensation (Andrew, 2004).

Table 3 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents’

salary income. The results show that there were 18 or 64.29% of the

respondents were having a salary amounting to PHP7000-8000 while 10 or

35.71% of the respondents were having a salary amounting to PHP9000 and

above. This could be possible for teachers in North Central Mindanao College

particularly in High School Department were being compensated according to

their qualifications. Qualified teachers were compensated amounting to

PHP9000 and above while non-qualified teachers were compensated lower than

the aforementioned amount.

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Table 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents` Salary Income

Salary Income Frequency Percentage (%)


5000-6000 0 0
7000-8000 18 64.29
9000 and above 10 35.71
Total 28 100

Length of Service

This variable of this study indicated the number of years of teaching

experience or service rendered by the respondents. Table 4 shows the

frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents’ length of service. The

results show that there were 4 or 14.30% of respondents having below 1 year

length of service. 19 or 67.85% of the respondents were having 1-2 years length

of service while 5 or 17.85% of the respondents were having 3 and above year’s

length of service. This could be possible for some of the teachers were fresh

graduate or newly employed.

Table 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents` Length of


Service

Length of Service Frequency Percentage (%)


Below 1 Year 4 14.30
1 – 2 years 19 67.85
3 and above 5 17.85
Total 28 100

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Problem: What is the extent of teachers’ response on the factors that

affects their motivation in terms of Profession, Self-Confidence, Socio-

economic Status, Anxiety in Class and Relation to Colleagues?

Factors that Affects Teacher’s Motivation

The motivation of teachers is affected by many factors. Amongst those

factors a few are: teachers’ profession, self-confidence, anxiety in the classroom

and their relation with their colleagues.

The application, screening and recruitment of teachers in the public

schools are spelled out in DepEd Order No. 12, s. 2012 -Revised Guidelines on

the Hiring of Teacher 1 Positions Based on the Reform Actions in BESRA). It is

a requirement that the applicant has passed the Licensure Examination for

Teachers (LET) administered by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC).

Certified teachers are usually those who have graduated from accredited

teacher education programs. Some of these teachers are also required to

complete an induction program or pass a national teacher examination test in

order to obtain a license (Hammond, 2001).

Table 5 shows the responses of the teachers in terms of teachers’

profession. Results show that 67.86% of the teacher selected their own

profession on their own choice while 39.29% want to pursue to any other

profession. Majority of the teachers (89.29%) were not pressurized in selecting

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their profession by anybody else. Moreover, majority of the teachers (60.71%)

didn’t get any other job and having a special objective in his/her field (71.43%).

A teacher is a highly valued personality in a society and teaching is

considered to be the most sacred and distinctive profession. History is full of

evidence about the nations where education has distinguished progress. The

profession of a teacher has never been so challenging and demanding as it has

become now. Global emphasis on literacy shows the world’s concern for the

teacher’s role in the development of society. Young teachers joining this

profession take five to seven years to understand the chemistry of this

profession and 30% might depart for good, leaving 70% behind who would

remain in this profession for almost 30 years (CFNC.org, 2016).

Table 5 Teachers` Profession

Indicators YES % NO %
Teachers` Profession
1. Did you select teaching 19 67.86 9 32.14
profession on your own choice?
2. Did you want to go to any other 11 39.29 17 60.71
profession?
3. Did somebody pressurize you to 3 10.71 25 89.29
select this profession?
4. Didn't you get any other job? 11 39.29 17 60.71
5. Do you have any special 20 71.43 8 28.57
objective in this field?
Average 12.8 45.716 15.2 54.284

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Table 6 shows the responses of teachers’ self-confidence. Majority of the

teachers do feel that they are given importance in the society (89.29%) and they

are ready to face all kinds of situation in the class (82.14%). Moreover, they are

confident on having a lot of abilities (67.86%). However, most of the teachers

are not confident that they are better than others (60.71%) while a hundred

percent like themselves. Additionally, they think that they are good persons

(100%). Nevertheless, their family does not depend on them (64.29). Majority of

the teachers do not hesitate to meet other people (89.29%). However, fifty

percent of the teachers were satisfied on their present performance. People do

love them (89.29%) and they have self-confidence (85.71%).

According to Bandura (1997), confidence is akin to self-efficacy. Those

teachers who are confident, or self-efficient have demonstrated: a) the ability to

generate and test alternative courses of action when initial success is not met;

b) enhanced functioning through elevated levels of effort and persistence; and

c) enhanced ability to deal with a problem situation by influencing cognitive

and emotional processes related to the situation (Martin, 2006). Conversely,

according to Bandura (1997) teachers with low confidence tend to dwell on

their deficiencies and view situations as more difficult than they really are.

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Table 6 Teachers` Self - Confidence

Indicators YES % NO %
Teachers` Self – Confidence
1. Do you feel that you are given importance
in the society? 25 89.29 3 10.71
2. Are you ready to face all kinds of situations
in class? 23 82.14 5 17.86
3. Do you think that you have a lot of
abilities? 19 67.86 9 32.14
4. Does your family depend on you? 10 35.71 18 64.29
5. Do you feel yourself better than others? 11 39.29 17 60.71
6. Do you like yourself? 28 100 0 0
7. Do you hesitate to meet other people? 3 10.71 25 89.29
8. Are you satisfied with your present
performance? 14 50 14 50
9. Do you think that you are a good person? 28 100 0 0
10. Do people love you? 25 89.29 3 10.71
13. Have you self-confidence? 24 85.71 4 14.29
Average 19.09 68.18 8.91 31.82

Teachers have a very tough job and have to deal with a ton of difficult

tasks, work-load children, and people in their career. “In the process of

working to achieve educational goals, it may be observed that the motivation of

teachers is lower and that their stress levels are higher than those of

individuals working in other fields” (Gokce, 2010; Jesus and Conboy, 2001).

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Table 7 shows the responses of the teachers on the factors affecting

teachers’ motivation in terms of their socio-economic status. Results show that

majority of the teachers think that they receive their salary lower as compared

to their work (64.29%) and they are not receiving it on time (71.43%). They also

have other earning hand in their family (67.86) while seventy-five percent were

not living in an extended family system. Moreover, 60.71% of the teachers said

that low income does not affect their teaching work. On the other hand, most of

the teachers were aspiring that their present economic status should improve

(82.14%). Hence, it was concluded that low salaries of the teachers affected

their teaching. Most of the teachers were not fully satisfied with their economic

states and they wanted to upgrade the standard of life.

Table 7 Teachers’ Socio-Economic Status

Indicators YES % NO %
Teachers` Socio – Economic Status
1. Do you think that you receive less salary as
compared to the work you do? 10 35.71 18 64.29
2. Do you receive your salary in time? 8 28.57 20 71.43
3. Is there any other earning hand in your family? 19 67.86 9 32.14
4. Do you live in an extended family system? 7 25 21 75
5. Do you aspire that your present economic
status should improve? 23 82.14 5 17.86
6. Does the low income affect your teaching work? 11 39.29 17 60.71
Average 13.00 46.43 15.00 53.57

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Table 8 shows the responses of the respondents towards teachers’

anxiety in classroom. Most of the teachers do not feel anxious in class

(67.86%). Most of the teachers think that they can control the classroom

carefully (89.29%). They also think that their students feel comfortable with

them (96.43%). Students understand what they want to communicate

(85.71%). A good number of teachers think that students like them (92.86%).

This could be possible for some of the teachers were approachable with their

students though the teaching-learning process in school could be Spartan-like

sometimes as they tried to discipline their students.

Table 8 Teachers` Anxiety in Classroom

Indicators YES % NO %
Teachers` Anxiety in Classroom
1. Do you feel anxious in class? 9 32.14 19 67.86
2. Do you think that you can control the
classroom carefully? 25 89.29 3 10.71
3. Do you think that your students feel
comfortable with you? 27 96.43 1 3.57
4. Do you think students understand
what you want to communicate? 24 85.71 4 14.29
5. Do you think that students like you? 26 92.86 2 7.14
Average 22.20 79.29 5.80 20.71

Table 9 presents the responses of the teachers towards relation with

their colleagues. Most of the teachers do not think that they have more abilities

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than their colleagues (57.14%). A good number of teachers also think that their

colleagues are happy with them (96.43%) as the same time a hundred percent

of the teachers do not think that their colleagues are jealous with them.

According to sociologists, current school environments are a reward-

scarce setting for professional work and often seem to work against teachers’

best efforts to grow professionally and improve student learning (Peterson

1995). Much of teachers’ work is carried out in self-contained classrooms that

isolate them from the support of their colleagues. Because of this

organizational structure, teachers are difficult to supervise, do not receive

regular feedback from others, and often find it hard to collaborate.

Table 9 Teachers` Relation with their Colleagues

Indicators YES % NO %
Teachers` Anxiety Relation with their
Colleagues
1. Do you think that you have more abilities
than your colleagues? 12 42.86 16 57.14
2. Do you think that your colleagues are
happy with you? 27 96.43 1 3.57
3. Do you think that your colleagues feel
jealous of you? 0 0 28 100
Average 13.00 46.43 15.00 53.57

Table 10 shows the responses of the teachers on factors affecting

teachers’ motivation in terms leadership of the administration. Results show

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that most of the teachers (53.57%) were not satisfied with the administration

though they were given moral support from their leader (60.71%). Majority of

the teachers said that their leader is a good motivator (64.29%). Hence, a good

number of teachers said that the leadership affects their teaching work

(71.43%). As observed by the researchers, the administration always gives

evaluation remarks for all teachers. This could be another way to evaluate the

effectiveness of the teachers for future development of teachers’ training.

Table 10 Leadership of Administration

Indicators YES % NO %

Leadership of Administration

1. Are you satisfied with the Administration? 13 46.43 15 53.57

2. Do you receive moral support from your

leader? 17 60.71 11 39.29

3. Does your leader a good motivator? 18 64.29 10 35.71

4. Does the leadership affect your teaching

work? 20 71.43 8 28.57

Average 17 60.72 11 39.29

Table 1 shows the summary of the extent of factors affecting teachers’

motivation. Figure 2 shows the comparisons of these factors. Results show that

anxiety in classroom (79.29%) has the greatest influence towards teachers’

motivation followed by self-confidence (68.18%) and leadership of the

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College of Educaion

administration (60.72%). Socio-economic status (46.43%) and relation to

colleagues (46.43%) has a fair position followed by the teachers’ profession

(45.71%).

Clearly, education leaders need to find ways to keep teachers in the

profession and keep them motivated. A motivated teacher, as described here, is

one who not only feels satisfied with his or her job, but also is empowered to

strive for excellence and growth in instructional practice.

Table 11 Summary of the Extent of Factors Affecting Teachers’ Motivation

INDICATORS AVERAGE %
Profession 45.71
Self-Confidence 68.18
Socio-Economic Status 46.43
Anxiety in Classroom 79.29
Relation to Colleagues 46.43
Leadership of Administration 60.72

Figure 2 Comparisons of the Factors Affecting Teachers’ Motivation

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Profession Self-Confidence Socio-Economic Anxiety in Relation to Leadership of
Status Classroom Collegues Administration

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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary of Findings

This study had dealt with the factors affecting the motivation of the basic

education teachers of North Central Mindanao College: Basis of Teacher

Motivation Enhancement. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following

questions: What is profile of the respondents of this study in terms of gender,

age, length of service; salary? What is the extent of teachers’ response on the

factors that affects their motivation in terms of: Profession, Self-Confidence,

Socio-Economic Status, Anxiety in Class, Relation to Colleagues, and

Leadership of the Administration? What teacher motivation enhancement plan

should the respondents’ adopt or practice based on the findings of the study?

In order to answer these questions, the researchers used convenience

sampling in selecting their research subjects/respondents who are the teachers

of North Central Mindanao College in High School Department. Statistical

treatments were used to analyze and interpret the data gathered in a survey

interview such as frequency and percentage. The respondents were asked to

indicate first their gender. It turned out that there were 9 (32.14%) males and

19 (67.86) femalesIt shows that there were 11 or 39.29% of the teachers

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interviewed aging 22-25 years old. 12 or 42.86% of the teacher interviewed

were belonging to ages 26 to 29, and there were 5 or 17.86% ages 30 and

above. There were 18 or 64.29% of the respondents were having a salary

amounting to PHP7000-8000 while 10 or 35.71% of the respondents were

having a salary amounting to PHP9000 and above. There were 4 or 14.30% of

respondents having below 1 year length of service. 19 or 67.85% of the

respondents were having 1-2 years length of service while 5 or 17.85% of the

respondents were having 3 and above year’s length of service. Results show

that 67.86% of the teacher selected their own profession on their own choice

while 39.29% want to pursue to any other profession. Majority of the teachers

(89.29%) were not pressurized in selecting their profession by anybody else.

Moreover, majority of the teachers (60.71%) didn’t get any other job and having

a special objective in his/her field (71.43%). Majority of the teachers do feel

that they are given importance in the society (89.29%) and they are ready to

face all kinds of situation in the class (82.14%). Moreover, they are confident

on having a lot of abilities (67.86%). However, most of the teachers are not

confident that they are better than others (60.71%) while a hundred percent

like themselves. Additionally, they think that they are good persons (100%).

Nevertheless, their family does not depend on them (64.29). Majority of the

teachers do not hesitate to meet other people (89.29%). However, fifty percent

of the teachers were satisfied on their present performance. People do love

them (89.29%) and they have self-confidence (85.71%). Results show that

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College of Educaion

majority of the teachers think that they receive their salary lower as compared

to their work (64.29%) and they are not receiving it on time (71.43%). They also

have other earning hand in their family (67.86) while seventy-five percent were

not living in an extended family system. Moreover, 60.71% of the teachers said

that low income does not affect their teaching work. On the other hand, most of

the teachers were aspiring that their present economic status should improve

(82.14%). Most of the teachers do not think that they have more abilities than

their colleagues (57.14%). A good number of teachers also think that their

colleagues are happy with them (96.43%) as the same time a hundred percent

of the teachers do not think that their colleagues are jealous with them. Most of

the teachers do not feel anxious in class (67.86%). Most of the teachers think

that they can control the classroom carefully (89.29%). They also think that

their students feel comfortable with them (96.43%). Students understand what

they want to communicate (85.71%). A good number of teachers think that

students like them (92.86%). Results show that most of the teachers (53.57%)

were not satisfied with the administration though they were given moral

support from their leader (60.71%). Majority of the teachers said that their

leader is a good motivator (64.29%). Hence, a good number of teachers said

that the leadership affects their teaching work (71.43%).

Results show that anxiety in classroom (79.29%) has the greatest

influence towards teachers’ motivation followed by self-confidence (68.18%) and

leadership of the administration (60.72%). Socio-economic status (46.43%) and

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College of Educaion

relation to colleagues (46.43%) has a fair position followed by the teachers’

profession (45.71%).

Conclusions

The results of this study have formulated the following conclusions:

 Most of the teachers think that they have more capabilities than their

colleagues.

 Low salaries of the teachers affected their teaching. Most of the teachers

were not fully satisfied with their economic states and they wanted to

upgrade the standard of life.

 Some of the teachers were approachable with their students though the

teaching-learning process in school could be Spartan-like sometimes as

they tried to discipline their students.

 The administration always gives evaluation remarks for all teachers. This

could be another way to evaluate the effectiveness of the teachers for

future development of teachers’ training.

 Education leaders need to find ways to keep teachers in the profession

and keep them motivated. A motivated teacher, as described here, is one

who not only feels satisfied with his or her job, but also is empowered to

strive for excellence and growth in instructional practice.

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College of Educaion

Recommendations

The following were the recommendations of the researchers to the

Teachers, School Administrators and Future Researchers.

Teachers

 There should be positive, and open-mindedness on the individual

teachers.

 Attend seminars for team-building for teachers organization

 Avoid competition and improve collaboration with co-subordinate

School Administrators

 Organize a team-building activity to improve relation with colleagues

 Compensate teachers according to qualification and outcomes

 Look for best and win-win solution in any problem to avoid

misunderstanding

Future Researchers

 Use larger sample size

 Better study the effects of motivation factors to the students and

teaching process.

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