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Bensen Notes

Jericho High School
United States History and Government

Social Studies: Colonial America to the Articles of Confederation

I. Early British Colonial Settlements

A. Jamestown
1. Facts
Land= Power= Wealth
- Found by men
- Successful 1615-1617
- Southern colony
- Financed (London company of Virginia)
2. Social
- Wanted to leave England in search of opportunity
- Harsh winter 1609-1610 (starving time) > tobacco
- Head right system- settlers who paid their own passage were given 50 acres for
every person they brought over the age of 15
- Indentured servants
- Contract labor
- 1619- First Africans brought to North America
3. Economic
- Wool trade In England boomed; merchants looking for more markets wanted to
establish colonies in the new world
- Joint stock companies formed
- 1606- King James I granted a charter to the Virginia company giving stockholders
permission to start a colony
- Tobacco saved the colony as a large cash crop
4. Political
- Virginia company granted the Jamestown colonists the right to elect a law-
making body
- Virginia house of burgesses; example of early colonial self-government
B. Plymouth
1. Social
- Practice religion freely
- Fled England because of religious persecution
- Very religious- colony as a religious sample of the world
- First thanksgiving – plague wiped out many colonists squant0 helped
- No religious tolerance- did not tolerate the expression of different religious
2. Economic
- Small farms; had trouble in cool weather
- Local natives taught them how to use fish as fertilizer
- Eventually will develop into a major fishing & whaling community
- Timber and shipbuilding

- May flower compact (signed by 41 men on the ship)
- Civil
- Body } Government by the People
- Politic
- Majority rule
C. Aim: What was life like in the thirteen English colonies?
1. New England Colonies
- New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island
- Social
- Family Groups- Hard work and obedience will get you far in life


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- Separatists- Hard work and obedience will get you far in life
- Political
- Town meetings- open discussions to manage town affairs
- Belief in democracy set the stage for the Revolution and democracy
- Economic
- Subsistence farming
- Fishing, whaling (blubber for oil lamps)
- Lumber for shipbuilding
2. Middle Colonies
- New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware
- Social
- Religious diversity (Quakers in PA and DE/ Anglican in NY, NJ)
- Wealthy merchant’s, artisans, farmers = grain, corn, wheat, oats
- Political
- Colonial legislatures
- Self-government (limited to landholding males)
- Economic
- Commercial (harbors) cities (NY and Philadelphia)
- Social classes based on wealth
- “bread basket” colonies- longer growing season with fertile soil
3. Southern Colonies
- Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
- Social
- Social system made distinct social classes
- Wealthy landowners lived different lives than poor backcountry
subsistence farmers
- Indentured servants became landless people
- Males dominated society
- Political
- Headright system- granted 50 acres to anyone who brought an
indentured servant to Virginia
- Bacons rebellion (1676)- backcountry revolt due to lack of security
against Native American attacks, showed class tension between elite
and poor
- Economic
- Very few wealthy plantation owners with slave labor
- Many tenant farmers rented land
- Relied on Cash crops- crops grown specifically for export (cotton,
tobacco, rice, indigo)
II. The French and Indian War (1754-1763) (Seven Years’ War)
A. Brain Pop
1. The French and Indian War was a conflict between English and French over territory in
Ohio River Valley.
2. The war lasted from 1754 to 1763.
3. In North America, the French economy revolved around Trade with the American
4. What happened in the Ohio River Valley?
- English trade with Indians
5. What did the French build to keep the British out of their territory?
- Military bases (fort system)
6. What did George Washington do in 1754?
- General for team that attack French marched into Ohio River Valley, though
they were unsuccessful


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7. Most Indians sided with the French at first.

8. What did William Pitt do in 1758?
- Raised support for the war
9. What did the British navy do on the coast? Was this effective?
- Naval Blockade, Yes
10. By 1759, the British captured the French city of Québec and Montreal the next year.
- Guerilla Warfare- natural surroundings, camouflage
11. What did the French give up in the Treaty of Paris?
- All of North America except half of an Island
12. What did the British do to the colonists to pay for the war? What was a long-term
result of this?
- British taxed American colonist which led to American War
B. Salutatory Neglect
1. “So long—see you later”- prior to the French and Indian war, Great Britain did not
always enforce its tax or trade laws on the colonists; this allowed the colonists to
develop a sense of self after the French and Indian war, this salutary neglect ends.
- Very active British involvement on colonial, economic, political, and social life.
C. Proclamation of 1763
1. King and parliament ban the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
- Control colonies
D. Summary – Hip History Video
1. Which Indian group sided with the British and Colonists?
- Iroquois
2. Which Indian group sided with the French?
- Huron
3. What did the French do in what is modern-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania?
- Built forts as in Duquesne
4. What happened when George Washington and his militia went to Fort Duquesne?
- The French attacked George Washington and his troops
5. The Albany Plan of Union (1754) was the first time the colonists tried to meet as one
Unit without the British.
6. Was the Albany Plan of Union successful? Why is it important?
- On July 10, 1754, representatives from seven of the British North American
colonies adopted the plan. Although never carried out, the Albany Plan was the
first important proposal to conceive of the colonies as a collective whole united
under one government.
7. Effects of the French and Indian War:
- How did the Colonists start to view the British after the war?
- Dangerous
- How did the British treat the natives?
- Horribly, brought them blankets full of small pox
- The Proclamation of 1763 tried to halt expansion west of the Appalachian
- What did the British do to pay for the war?
- Raise taxes
8. What is the big lesson of the French and Indian war?
- Conception of the republic
- Colonists see themselves as a separate entity
III. Causes of the American Revolution
A. Brain pop video- Causes of the American Revolution
1. Who ruled the original 13 colonies?
- King George III
2. The colonists had no representation in Parliament the British version of congress


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3. Parliament could pass laws on the colonies even though none of the colonists voted
4. 1765- What was the quartering act?
- British soldiers in colonies could stay in whatever private house they wanted
5. James Otis said, “Taxation without Representation is tyranny”
6. The Stamp Act of 1765 taxed all legal documents including contracts, newspapers, and
Playing cards
7. How did the colonists respond to all of these taxes?
- Boycott
8. What was taxed under the Townshend Acts?
- Glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
9. The Townshend Acts also allowed British officials to search any home they wanted
without a warrant of assistance
10. 1770- Boston Massacre- 5 colonists were killed
11. How did the colonists respond to the Tea Act?
- Boston Tea party
12. Coercive Acts- naval blockade of Boston harbor. The coercive Acts were known to the
colonists as the Intolerable Acts.
13. What did the first continental congress do?
- Decided to ban all trade with England
14. Where did the fighting begin in 1775?
- April 19 beginning of Revolutionary war
IV. Road to the American Revolution: a timeline
A. Introduction
1. 1754-1763- French Indian war
- Fought over control of Ohio River Valley
- French and Huron vs. British and Iroquois
B. Big Ideas
1. France lose most of their North American territory (Haiti)
2. Salutary Neglect ends; this means that the British govt./ parliament enforcing their
laws and taxing on the colonists
3. Proclamation of 1763- bans the colonists from moving west of the Appalachian
4. 1754- Albany Plan of Union
- Inter- colonial governments meet for recruiting troops, collecting taxes etc.
- Plan fails
5. 1763- Proclamation of 1763
- British prohibit colonists from settling lands west of Appalachian Mountains
6. 1763- George Grenville becomes British Prime Minister
7. 1764- Sugar Act
- Lowers duty (tax) on imported molasses
- Enforces smuggling laws
8. 1764-Quatering Act
- Colonists responsible for accommodating British troops in their homes
9. 1765- Stamp Act
- Required stamp on all actual material to show payment of tax
- Patrick Henry- “No taxation without representation”
- Stamp Act congress (NY)- calls for repeal of act
- Creation of Sons and Daughters of Liberty
- Colonial legislatures want to make their own taxes
10. 1766- Repeal of Stamp Act but….
11. 1766- Declaratory Acts
- British government could make laws for colonies “in all cases whatsoever”
12. 1767- Townshend Acts


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- Tax on tea, paper, glass, paint, etc.

- British only needed writs of assistance to search colonial homes for smuggled
- Invasion of Privacy
13. 1770- Townshend Acts repealed
- Boycott
Rule of Law
14. March 1770- Boston Massacre
15. 1773- Tea Act
- lowered duty on tea from East India Company
- Hated because it recognized right of parliament to tax
16. Dec. 1773- Boston Tea Party
17. 1774- Intolerable or Coercive -Acts
- Port Act- closed Boston Harbor
- Reduced power of Massachusetts Legislature
- Martial law
- Justice Act- royal officials to be tried in England for crimes
- Stricter quartering acts- troops quartered in colonial homes
18. 1774- Quebec Act
- Redistributes land in Canada
- Colonists see it as taking away their land in the north
19. Sept. 1774- First Continental Congress
- Radicals- P. Henry, S. Adams, J. Adams
- Moderates- G. Washington, J. Dickinson
- Conservatives- J. Jay, J. Galloway
- Suffolk Resolves- rejected intolerable acts; urged colonists to resist
until repeal
- Dec. of Rights and grievances
- Association- creation of comities in every town to enforce sanctions
- Committees of correspondence
- If needs are not met- agree to have 2nd CC (continental congress) in
May 1775
- April 1775- Battles of Lexington and Concord
- “Shot heard around the world”
- May 1775- Meeting of Second Continental Congress
- Philadelphia, PA
- Provide for colonies to have troops
- Appt. G. Washington as head of colonial army
i. Militia
- Olive Branch Petition sent to King George- rejected!
- June 1775- Battle of Bunker Hill
- January 1776- Pamphlet- Thomas Paine- Common Sense
C. Do now video—The history Channel – Lexington and Concord
1. Who Fired the 1st shot at Lexington? What is the nickname given to this shot?
- No one knows who fired the first shot at Lex and Concord
- “Shot heard around the world”
- First time colonies are fighting the mother country
2. The British (red coats) fired at four times the rate of the militia (minutemen)
3. Within minute of the first shots, how many casualties were there on the American
(patriots) side?
- 8 Patriots dead, 10 Patriots wounded
4. What do the militia do while the Red Coats search for their hidden weapons?
- Spread the word


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5. The American version was written on April 15th in 1775, the British version was written
on June 10th in 1775.
V. Conflicting Versions of the Outbreak of War (Lexington & Concord) (1775)
A. Questions:
1. How do the colonists describe the “Battle of Lexington and Concord”?
- The British had shot first.
2. How did the British describe the “Battle of Lexington and Concord”?
- The Rebels had shot first.
3. Why are these accounts different through they describe the same event? What might
cause a different point of view?
- They describe the situation in whatever way the other person reading it will feel
pity for them.
VI. Common Sense by Thomas Paine
A. Questions
1. What are his explicit arguments?
- That America deserves the right to have their own government.
- Britain was only interested in making money off the colonies and protecting
their land, they didn’t really care about the individual people.
2. Why he Title it “Common Sense”?
- Its “Common Sense” that America should have a government of their own, and
it is their natural right.
- Its common sense that a continent should not be controlled by an island, three
thousand miles away
3. What logic, reason, and emotion are used to persuade?
- “…it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool
deliberate manner, while we have it in our power, than to trust such an
interesting event to time and chance.”
- “The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature, cries ‘tis time to part.”
4. Why was this essay so popular with the people?
- It separates America from England by stating “…it is evident they belong to
different systems. England to Europe, America to itself…”
- Logical and reasonable and easy to understand
VII. John Dickinson, July 1, 1776
A. Questions
1. What are John Dickinson’s explicit arguments?
- We the colonies are not ready for independence
- Their unity will be weakened for war makes them harsh
2. What logic, reason, emotion is used to persuade?
- “we should have waited to settle our problems before we declared our
- They were not ready they had no army
3. Why did members of the Second Continental Congress vote for the Declaration of
- Because it would make the colonies stronger
- They thought they needed independence to flourish as a nation. King of
parliament violated natural right
VIII. What Actions were taken by the King to anger the colonists?
A. Social
1. Coercive or intolerable acts
- Mass. Legislature 1774
2. Proclamation of 1763
- Prevented people from moving west
3. Quartering act


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4. Intolerable acts/ closing Boston harbor

- Cutting off trade with every other part of the world
- Tea act/ Stamp Act/ Sugar act ****
B. Political
1. Dissolved representatives house repeatedly
C. Economic
1. Not enough funding for the new colonies
IX. The Declaration of Independence (1776)
A. Purpose of the Declaration
B. Three parts of the declaration
C. The declarations key ideas of government
X. Chalkboard Notes:
A. The Important/ Significant battles of the American Revolutionary War
1. 1775-
- May, Battles of Lexington and Concord
- June, Battle of Bunker Hill/Breeds hill
2. 1776-
- Declaration of Independence
- Aug + Sept- Battles of Long Island and NYC > For entire War
3. 1777-
- Battle of Saratoga, NY—turning point
- USA Victory
- British have to change their strategy
- Northern States= USA (except for NYC and LI)
- War moves South
- Men
- Money
- Military Leadership
- French Navy
- French provide help because we didn’t have money
4. 1781 -
- Battle of Yorktown, VA
- British general Cornwallis Surrenders to George Washington

XI. The Effects of the Revolutionary War Treaty of Paris

A. Social
1. Loyalists Barred from returning to their homes
- T of P- USA will pay war reparations
2. Native Americans lost territory to new settlers and expanding territories of the
- Proclamations of 1763 is null and void
3. African Americans were often emancipated in northern states
B. Economic
1. Loyalists had to be paid for lost/ damaged property
- Reparations
2. Americans now free to trade with any country of their choice (not just Great Britain)
C. Political
1. Land area more than doubled; extended to the Mississippi river
- Boundaries
- N= Great lakes
- S= North Florida


United States History and Government

- W=Mississippi River
- E= Atlantic
2. Inspired other revolutions around the world (IE: French Revolution)
3. Created a new Confederate form of government giving the states more power than the
central government (articles of confederation)


United States History and Government


United States History and Government

Social Studies: The Constitution

I. Constitution Unit Outline and Vocabulary

A. Preamble –
1. We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish
justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the
general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do
ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
B. Article I – The Legislative Branch
1. Section 1 – The Legislature
2. Section 2 – The House
3. Section 3 – The Senate
4. Section 4 – Elections & Meetings
5. Section 5 – Membership, rules, journals, adjournment
6. Section 6 – Compensation
7. Section 7 – Revenue Bills, Legislative Process, Presidential Veto
8. Section 8 – Powers of Congress
9. Section 9 – Limits on Congress
10. Section 10 – Powers prohibited of the States

C. Article II – The Executive Branch

1. Section 1 – the President
2. Section 2 – Civilian Power over the Military, Cabinet, Pardon Power, Appointments
3. Section 3 – State of the Union, Convening Congress
4. Section 4 – Disqualification
D. Article III – The Judicial Branch
1. Section 1 – Judicial Powers
2. Section 2 – Trial by jury, Original jurisdiction, Jury trials
3. Section 3 – Treason
E. Article IV – The States
1. Section 1 – Each state to honor all others
2. Section 2 – State citizens, extradition
3. Section 3 – New states
4. Section 4 – republican government
F. Article V – Amendment
G. Article VI – Debts, Supremacy, Oaths
H. Article VII – Ratification
I. Foundations of Our Government
1. Mayflower Compact
2. Enlightenment
3. John Locke
4. Natural Rights
5. Consent of The Governed
6. Social Contract
7. Montesquieu
8. Separation of Powers
9. Checks and Balances
10. Limited Government
11. Popular Sovereignty
12. Articles of Confederation
J. The Constitutional Convention
1. Delegates
2. New Jersey Plan


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3. Virginia Plan
4. Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
5. Bicameral Legislature
6. Senate
7. House of Representatives
8. Congress
9. Three-Fifths Compromise
10. Proportional Representation
11. Federalism
K. Constitution
1. Preamble
2. Article I, Section 8
3. Bills
4. Committees, Subcommittees
5. Article II
6. Cabinet
7. Commander in Chief
8. Electoral College
9. Impeachment
10. Veto
11. State of The Union Address
12. Article III
13. Supreme Court
14. Judicial Review
15. Elastic Clause
16. Amendments
17. Delegated Powers
18. Enumerated Powers
19. Implied Powers
20. Concurrent Powers
21. Reserved Powers
22. Living Document
23. Unwritten Constitution
24. Supremacy Clause
L. Ratification of The Constitution
1. Federalists
2. Anti-Federalists
3. Federalists Papers
4. Bill of Rights
II. Brain Pop – The Constitutional Convention
1. Philadelphia, New Jersey. Discuss changes to the articles of confederation.
1. Declare war and levy peace.
1. America goes into debt.
1. Nothing.
1. Instability, making the country unstable and vulnerable.

1. George Washington


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1. Three Branches of Government, and called for two houses, and branches
1. SKIP States by the people with proportional representation
1. Thought they would lose power.
1. Unicameral (one house legislature). Each state had one vote.
1. Each state has two senators. House is proportional.
1. Northern states would abolish statements
1. For every five slaves, they are counted as three representatives.
1. Keep argument going on how to run the country.
1. Change or Amend the constitution
1. We had skipped eight
III. Was there a need for a Constitutional Convention?
A. Do you think there was a need to address the articles of Confederation with a Constitutional
Convention? Recall some of the problems that existed under the articles.
1. Yes, because they were the original rules of the old Untied States
B. Why might it have been difficult to design a government in the new Untied States?
1. They may not agree on the same topics, and it’s difficult to appeal everyone
IV. The Delegates – Who was there?
A. Why is it important to note who was and who was not in attendance at the constitutional
1. To know who was in support of the new United States
B. How did the professional backgrounds off the men attending the meetings at Independence
Hall in Philadelphia in May 1787 from the majority of the population?
1. It affected point of views of those who are making the laws.
C. Why did patriots like Patrick Henry refuse to attend the Convention?
1. Because they suspected that the convention would try to create a strong national
D. Why do some people view the Constitutional Convention as undemocratic?
1. It does not support the women, Native Americans, African Americans, or poorer white
V. The Constitution: Our plan of Government
A. Reading
B. Comprehension Questions
1. Define “Constitution”
- Written plan of Government
2. The constitution has been amended _______
- 27 times
3. The first _______ amendments to the constitution make up the bill of rights
- 10
4. The three parts of the constitution are _______, _______, and _______.
- Preamble, Seven Articles, and Bill of Rights
5. Why was it necessary for the framers of the constitution to provide a way for the
document to be amended?
- Society is always changing and it provides a way to accommodate change


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- Constitution can be improved

- To keep up to date and make the constitution a living document
C. Constitution was written through compromise
1. “A bundle of Compromises”
D. The Constitutional Convention
1. May 1787- Sept 1787
VI. Aim: Why is the United States Constitution considered a “Bundle of Compromises”?
A. Great Compromise
1. Issue: Representation in Legislature
- Virginia Plan (large states):
- Bicameral (Two house legislature)
- representation based on population
James Madison
- New Jersey Plan (small states):
- unicameral (one house) legislature
- Equal representation for all states
William Patterson
- Great compromise (Connecticut Plan):
- Two separate houses (Bicameral)
- House of Representatives based on state population
i. Census- Every Ten Years
- Senate has Equal representation for each state
Robert Sherman

- In 1911 the final number of Representatives was 411 with 50 states we have 435
B. Three Fifths Compromise
1. Issue: Representation of Slaves
- Southern States:
- Slaves should count for representation in the House of Representatives
- Slaves should not be counted for taxation
i. House of Representation
- Northern States:
- Slaves are considered property, not population
- Slaves should be taxed, not counted towards representation
- Three-Fifths Compromise:
- Three-fifths: (3/5) of all slaves would count for representation and
i. 5 people
1. three counted for representation
- Legislated slavery
- People of slavery were considered property
C. Commerce Compromise
1. Issue: Trade
- Northern States:
- Slave trade must be ended
- must have a protective tariff, a tax on imports to protect American
- Southern States:
- opposed any regulation of slaves
- opposed an export tariff, tax on goods sold to other nations
- Commerce Compromise:
- Slavery could exist but the slave trade was forbidden after 1808


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- Congress could only tax on imports

- What a tariff does is make foreign goods more expensive
D. Presidency Compromise
1. Issue: Election of Executive
- Large States
- Wanted a strong central (national) government
- Direct election of the president
- Small states
- Wanted a small central government, favored states’ rights
- State legislatures to select the president
- President would answer to the states
- Presidency Compromise-
- Indirect election of the president through the Electoral College
- 4-year Term
VII. Compromise to the Constitution
A. Issue: Representation
1. How would the legislature be chosen?
- Larger states wanted representation based in population; smaller states wanted
all states represented equally
B. Issue: Slavery
1. How would slaves be counted?
- The North wanted slaves counted for tax purposed the South wanted slaves
counted for the Purpose of Representation in Congress
2. Would Slavery Continue?
C. Issue: The Presidency
1. How would the president be elected?
2. How long a term would he serve?
D. Issue: Power of the Federal Government
1. How would the powers of the states be protected?
- Most colonists at the time felt more like “New Yorkers or Pennsylvanians” than
2. How would the central governments powers be limited so that it could not take away
people’s rights?
VIII. Principles of the Constitution
A. Popular Sovereignty = People Power > Preamble
B. Separation of Powers= 3 branches of government, legislative, executive, judicial
C. Federalism= National government and individual state governments divide and Share some
D. Checks and Balances= Balance of 3 Branches

E. Republicanism= Elect our Representatives

F. Limited Government} Bill of Rights
G. Flexibility} Amending Process- Article 5
IX. How do we know that the constitution is a living document?
A. Flexibility
B. Bill of Rights
C. Amending Process
X. Aim: What are the roles and powers of the different branches of government?
A. Legislative Branch
1. Powers defines in Article I of the constitution
2. Congress:
- Bicameral legislature


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- House of Representatives (435 members)

- Senate (100 members)
3. Lawmaking body of government
- Requires majority vote in both houses and presidential signature
- Can override presidential veto with 2/3 vote in each house
4. “Necessary and Proper” or Elastic clause:
- Allows government to adapt to changing times
- Article I: Section 8: Clause 18
- The elastic clause stretched the power of congress
- FAA – Federal Aviation Administration
- FCC – Federal Communication Commission
XI. Separation of Powers Worksheet
A. Three branches of the US Government
1. How many branches of Government are there?
- 3
2. What is the primary role of the Legislative Branch?
- Make Laws
3. What is the primary role of the Executive Branch?
- Enforces Laws and treaties
4. What is the primary role of the Judicial Branch?
- Explains and interprets laws
5. Which branch can approve treaties, declare war, and regulate money?
- Legislature
6. Which branch can recommend bills to Congress and veto laws?
- Executive
7. Which branch can settle disputes between states?
- Judicial
B. Federal Officeholders
1. Legislative Branch (House of Reps.)
- 25 years or over
- citizen for 7 years
- resident of state in which elected
2. Legislative Branch (Senate)
- 30 years or over
- citizen for 9 years
- resident of state in which elected
3. Executive Branch (President and Vice President)
- Age 35 or over
- Natural born citizen
- Resident of U.S. for 14 years
4. Judicial Branch (Supreme Court & Federal Courts)
- No requirements
XII. Powers of Legislative Branch
A. Section I:
1. List the two chambers of Congress:
- Senate and House of Representatives
2. What is the function of Congress?
- Make and Pass laws
B. Section II:
1. How long is a term of a representative before he/she is up for re-election?
- 2
2. How many years must be a U.S. citizen in order to become a representative?
- 7


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C. Section III:
1. How many senators does each state have?
- 2
2. How long is the term of a senator before he/she must run again for re-election?
- 6
1913- 17th amendment
Changes constitution with direct election of senators
D. Section VIII:
1. List the Powers that Congress has been given by the Constitution.
- The Congress will have power to make and collect taxes; to provide for an army;
to borrow money for the united states; to regulate foreign trade; to control
immigration; to coin money; to control weights and measures; to create post
offices and roads; to declare war
Article 1 Section 8- where you’re going to find most of the
powers of congress
2. Why do you think that the national Congress was given these powers and not the
- To do the opposite of the Articles of Confederation
Implied powers are powers that are decided to meet the needs of the
Elastic Clause
XIII. Brain pop: How a Bill becomes a law
A. Questions
1. What is a bill?
- Document he explains how such a law would work
2. True or False: A bill can only be introduced by the senate
- False
3. For a bill to become a law it must first pass through
- A committee
4. What is a committee?
- Groups of congress man who specialize in certain types of laws
5. Where does the bill go after committee?
- Full House of Congress
6. Where does it go if ½ approve it?
- Another House
7. How many must vote “yay” in the house? In the senate?
- 218 in the House of Representatives
- 51 in the Senate
- Where does the bill go if it passes both the House and Senate?
- It goes to the president
8. What happens If the president signs the bill?
- Becomes a law
9. If _______ of both houses override the president’s veto, the bill becomes a law
- 2/3rds of each house
10. How many votes are needed in the House to override? The Senate?
- House of Representatives 290/435
- Senate67/100
XIV. Executive Branch
A. Comprehension Questions:
1. List one powers the President has in each of the following categories:
- Executive
- Legislative
- Diplomatic


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- Military
2. List and three ceremonial duties performs by the president
3. What happens in the president can no longer perform his or her duties?
B. Powers of Executive Branch
1. Section 1:
- How long owes the president hold power before he/she is up for re-election?
- Four years
- What are some of the requirements before someone can be eligible to be the
XV. Electoral College & The Presidential Election
A. Indirect Election
B. Questions
1. Do Americans directly elect the president of the United States?
- No
2. Why did the Framers of the constitution create the Electoral College?
- They didn’t trust the American people
- Illiterate
- Only white men could vote
3. California has 55 Electoral College votes. Where does this number 55 come from?
- 53 House of rep and 2 senates
4. Do electors have to cast their vote for their party’s nominee?
- No
5. Do you think we should have a “winner-take-all” Electoral College system, or do you
support what Maine and Nebraska does?
- I support what Maine and Nebraska does because we get a more accurate vote
6. Do you think we should have an Electoral College System? Why or Why not?
- Yes, because it’s been very helpful to us
7. A national census (survey) is taken every ten years to determine the number of people
living in each state. How would a significant change in a state’s population affect its
number of Electoral College votes for President? Explain.
- If the state’s population doubles then they double the amount of people who
are in Electoral College
XVI. Judicial Branch
A. Questions
1. The constitution established only the
- Supreme court
2. There are 94
- District courts
3. Each state and territory has at least one
- District courts
4. U.S. courts of appeals
- Rule on cases from district courts
5. The only judges known as justices are those who sit on the
- Supreme court
6. What is a court that has only appellate jurisdiction able to do? What can it not do?
- U.S. courts, they can’t try cases.
B. Brain Pop: Supreme Court
1. What does the Supreme Court do?
- Highest court in the US/ decides on legal cases that deal with federal cases/
interprets laws/ determines if laws and acts are constitutional
2. How many justices are there?
- 9
- John G. Roberts, Jr., Chief Justice of the United States


United States History and Government

- Anthony M. Kennedy, Associate Justice

- Clarence Thomas, Associate Justice
- Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Associate Justice
- Stephen G. Breyer, Associate Justice
- Samuel A. Alito, Jr., Associate Justice
- Sonia Sotomayor, Associate Justice
- Elena Kagan, Associate Justice
- Neil M. Gorsuch, Associate Justice
3. How does a justice get appointed?
- Nominated by the President and approved by the senate
4. How long can a justice be on Supreme Court?
- Life term
5. What is judicial review?
- Right to declare laws unconstitutional/ see next page
6. What kind of cases get to the Supreme Court
- When some cases are appealed they go to a supreme court
C. The power of judicial review
1. What is judicial review?
- Deciding if cases involving local, state, state, and federal laws or government
actions violate the constitution
2. What power of the Supreme Court is a part of the “Unwritten Constitution”?
- If the supreme court finds them in violation, it will declare these laws or actions
“null and void” unconstitutional
3. Identify the Supreme Court Case that established the principle of judicial review:
- Mulberry vs. Madison
D. Principles of the Constitution
1. Popular sovereignty
- Preamble
2. Republicanism
- Vote
- Elect representatives
3. Separation of powers
- 3 branches
- legislative
i. vote for our representatives
ii. vote for our senate
- judicial
i. appointed by president
- executive
i. indirectly vote for president or vice president
4. Checks and balances
5. Federalism
6. Flexibility
7. Limited government
XVII. Checks and Balances
A. Questions:
1. How does the executive branch “check” or limit the power of the legislative branch?
- May adjourn Congress in certain situations
- May veto bills
2. How does the executive branch “check” or limit the power of the judicial branch?
- Appoint judges


United States History and Government

- Grant Pardons
3. How does the legislative branch “check” or limit the power the power of the Executive
- May reject appointments
- May reject treaties
- May withhold funding for presidential initiatives
- May impeach (formerly excuse) president
- May override a veto
4. How does the legislative branch “check” or limit the power of the judicial branch?
- May propose constitutional amendments to overrule judicial decisions
- May impeach Supreme Court justices
- May reject appointments to the Supreme Court
5. How does the Judicial Branch “check” or limit the power of the executive branch?
- May declare executive actions unconstitutional
6. How does the Judicial branch “check” or limit the power of the legislative Branch?
- May declare laws unconstitutional
7. Do you think any one branch has more power that the others? How so? Explain.
- At different times, we feel like one branch has more power than others
XVIII. Federalism
A. In their attempt to balance order with liberty, the founders identified several reasons for
creating a government based on federalism
B. Definition:
1. Division of power between the central and state governments and the sharing of some
powers -- > Ratify Treaties -- > Immigration
- Delegated -- > Coin Money -- > Nationalization
- Enumerated } Powers -- > Declare Wars -- > Post offices
- Expressed -- > Regulate Trade
- Article 1; Section 8
- Find a list of powers of congress
C. Federal Powers:
1. Central/ National government powers
- Ratify Treaties
- Immigration
- Coin Money
- Nationalization
- Declare Wars
- Post offices
- Regulate Trade
D. Concurrent Powers:
1. Shared Powers
- Concurrent powers
- Build roads and highways
- Maintaining roads
- Taxes
- Education
- Court systems
- Health care
E. State Powers:
1. Reserved powers
- Amendments 9 + 10; says that anything that is not reserved for the constitution,
is left to the people and the state
- Driver’s License
- Birth Certificate


United States History and Government

- Death Certificate
- Marriage Certificate
- Divorce Decree
- School Year and curriculum
F. Federalism:
Power Delegated Concurrent Reserved
Controlling Public Education -
Borrowing money -
Declaring war -
Establishing post office -
Selling bonds (IOU) -
Governing the national capital -
Setting up voting requirements -
Creating a national bank -
Regulating televisions -
Establishing a navy -
Licensing dentists -
Controlling marriages and divorces -
Coining money -
Providing health services -
Controlling U.S. citizenship -
Collecting taxes -
XIX. The Amending Process
A. Amending the Constitution Bill of Rights
1. Article V (five) Limits the power of the congress
2. Questions
- Why is the Amendment process to the Constitution important?
- It is to ensure that the government meets the nation’s changing needs
- Who is involved in amending the constitution (Hint: think about federalism!)
- Both national and state governments
- Identify the most common method of amending the Constitution:
- Two- thirds vote in each house of Congress
XX. Bill of Rights
A. Number 1-10 are the Bill of Rights
B. 1-8 are our amendments
C. Know Amendment 1
D. Freedom of Religion
1. Establishment Clause
2. Congress can make no law about establishing religion
E. Due Process
1. Legal procedure
F. 9 and 10
1. reserved powers
2. they are left to the states and the states of the people
XXI. Amendments that deal with
A. The President
1. 12
2. 20
3. 22
4. 23
5. 25


United States History and Government

B. Voting
1. 12
2. 15
3. 17
4. 19
5. 26
XXII. Bill of rights Practice
A. Scenario 1
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Right to retain counsel
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 6
B. Scenario 2
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Prohibiting cruel and unusual punishments
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 8
C. Scenario 3
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Declares that the government may not require people to house soldiers during
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 3
D. Scenario 4
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Freedom of speech
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 1
E. Scenario 5
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Unreasonable search
- Not a violation of our rights
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 4
F. Scenario 6
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Right to an attorney
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 6
G. Scenario 7
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- None
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- TLL vs New Jersey
H. Scenario 8
1. Which right (if any) is being violated?
- Freedom of religion
2. Which amendment (if any) offers protection against such a violation?
- Amendment 1
XXIII. Constitution Ratification Debate
A. The Federalists vs. The Anti-Federalists
B. Questions
1. How did the Anti- federalists feel about the proposed Constitution?


United States History and Government

- They believed it would create a strong central government that would threaten
individual freedom and that government leaders might build a string army and
use it to collect unpopular taxes, also they thought that there was no bill of
rights in the new constitution to protect individual liberties.
2. How did the Federalists feel about the Articles of Confederation? What changes would
they want in the new constitution?
- They pointed out that government under the Articles of Confederation had
broken down because it was too weak to enforce its laws. They argued that a
stronger central government was needed to the new United States.
XXIV. Views on the Constitution Federalists vs. Antifederalists
A. Federalists
B. Questions
1. Who were typical Federalists? What did they want?
- Northern citizens
- In favor of business and industry
- Supported import tariffs to reduce competition with foreign imports
2. Who were typical Anti-Federalists? What did they want?
- Supported the Articles of Confederation
- Southern citizens
- Interests in agriculture and exports
- Opposed export tariff
3. How did the Federalists and Anti-Federalists differ on their views of state power and a
bill of right?
- Federalists
- Federal power
i. Wanted a strong central government
- Antifederalists
- Federal Power
i. Constitution gave too much power to the federal


United States History and Government


United States History and Government

Social Studies: President

I. Board Notes
A. President George Washington
1. Precedents
- An Example
- “So, Help Me God”
II. George Washington Handout
A. Questions
1. According to Washington, what was the job of the newly formed government?
- To address the problems of the people
2. Why did Washington choose not to retire after the end of the revolutionary war?
- He realized he still had more jobs to deal with and more things to do
3. Why can it be argued that Washington had the most difficult job of any president?
- He was the first president, so he had to establish to basis for all other presidents
III. Washington’s Cabinet Handout
A. Board Notes
1. Cabinet= unwritten Constitution
2. Executive Branch Worksheet from unit 2
3. President powers
- Chief Executive
- Enforce Laws
i. “Big Boss”
ii. The Nations CEO
- Commander in Chief
- Civilian Leader of the military
- Chief Legislator
- Can veto and propose (suggest) laws
- Chief Diplomat
- International organizations
- Chief of State
- Watch over the states
B. Questions
1. Why do you think Washington established a cabinet?
- Because he knew that he couldn’t make all the decisions of the executive branch
by himself
2. Is who the president chooses to be in his cabinet as important as the policy decisions a
president makes? Your Opinion.
- Both are equally important because they are the people who makes the
decisions for us
3. Do you think Washington did a good job creating his cabinet? Why?
- Yes, he created many positions that were very helpful to dividing the powers of
the president. And he also chooses many influential leaders in his cabinet to
provide help and guidance.
4. Can you name any cabinet positions today? Can you think of new cabinet positions that
should be created?
IV. Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Plan
A. #1: The National Bank
1. What financial responsibilities would the Bank of the United States have?
- Provide Credit
- Issue paper money


United States History and Government

- Public and private investment

- Lend the government money and safely hold its deposits
- Uniform currency
- promote business and industry by expanding credit
2. How would the Bank of the United States provide support to Hamilton’s financial
- It would help place the United States on an equal financial footing with Europe
B. #2: The Assumption Plan
1. What was the Assumption Plan?
- The government assume, or take over owing, the entire debt of the federal
government and of the states, and use tax money collected from the states and
sell bonds to pay off the debts
2. Why did the southern states not approve of Hamilton’s plans for the National
Government to pay off state debts?
- States like Maryland, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Virginia, which has
already paid off their debts, saw no reason why they should be taxed by the
federal government to pay off the debts of other states like Massachusetts and
South Carolina
3. How was a compromise reached?
- In exchange for southern votes on his financial plan, Hamilton promised to
support locating the national capital on the banks of the Potomac River, the
border between two southern states, Virginia and Maryland
C. #3: Tariffs, Bonds, and Excise Taxes
1. Why would the Tariff of 1789 be a good source of revenue for the federal government?
- It set tax rates on certain imported items such as steel, indigo, salt, cloth and
2. What is a bond?
- Paper notes promising to repay money with interest after a certain length of
time. Basically, a wealthy person in the U.S. would buy a $100 bind from the
Federal Government
3. Why did many believe the U.S. wasn’t good with its credit?
- Few people believed the bonds would ever be repaid in full. Many of the bonds
were also sold at a fraction of their face value. Meaning you could get a $100
bond for $1 and still be repaid the $100 after a certain period of time. Seems
like a great deal! But, what would it eventually mean for the federal
government to pay people back $100 plus interest when the government never
even got the $100 to begin with| stability, credit, posterity
4. Why did Hamilton believe it was essential to pay back bond purchasers in full?
- Because if you pay them back in full now they would lend money to the
government later in the future
5. Why did Hamilton believe excise taxes would be particularly useful?
- Are taxes on certain products, usually considered luxuries. Could be used to help
repay bond holders
6. Why were excise taxes unpopular?
- Farmers who used their leftover grain and corn to make whiskey and the used
this whiskey as a form of exchange for other products were forced to pay this
new tax
V. The Whiskey Rebellion
A. Questions
1. Why did farmers in western Pennsylvania rebel in 1791?
- The tax effectively eliminates any profit by the farmers from the sale or barter of
whiskey and became a lightning rod for a wide variety of grievances by the
settlers of the region against the federal government.


United States History and Government

2. Why did the Whiskey rebellion prove about the newly formed federal government?
- That the new federal government is going to do what need be done to make
ends meet
VI. Washington’s Diplomacy: Jay’s Treaty, Pinckney’s Treaty, and Neutrality
A. Questions
1. In what situation did Washington declare neutrality?
- When the French declared war on England
2. Why did Washington send John Jay to Britain?
- Seek a solution
3. What did the Americans agree to in Jay’s Treaty?
- It forced the US to agree to many concessions with Britain in order to avoid war
with them.
4. Why was Jay’s Treaty criticized? Was it, in the end, a good idea for Washington to sign
- The United States agreed that the British would leave their forts on American
territory and granted Great Britain “most favored nation” status in the eyes of
the united states. Washington reluctantly signed the treaty, but what’s more
important is that he avoided war and protected the American economy.
5. How did America benefit from Pinckney’s Treaty?
- It granted the US the rights to navigate the Mississippi and deposit goods at New
Orleans (“right of deposit”)
VII. Washington’s Farewell Address:
A. Questions:
1. What advice does Washington share with the American people in his Farewell
- Unity of government
- Intimated to you the danger of parties
- Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world
- Pride of patriotism
2. What specific warnings does Washington state in this address?
- Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world
- Proclamation of Neutrality
- Political factions
3. In which excerpt does Washington encourage American nationalism?
- The First
4. Why did George Washington give this Farewell Address?
- To Address the people
VIII. Washington as President: His many roles
A. Chief Executive- Implement and administers Congressional laws and programs
1. How did Washington implement a Congressional idea (advisors) into a whole new
B. Commander in Chief- supervises the military forces
1. How did Washington use the military to enforce his policies?
C. Chief Legislator- proposes legislation and calls for special sessions of congress
1. How did Washington use his role as chief legislator to propose financial programs?
D. Chief Diplomat- conducts foreign affairs
1. How did Washington conduct foreign affairs?
E. Chief of State- represents the country on ceremonial occasions
1. How did Washington represent his country on a ceremonial affair?
IX. Contrasting Views of the Federal Government
A. Development of Political Parties
1. Inferencing Skill: Based on the title of this lesson, for what reason do you think the first
two political parties formed in the country?


United States History and Government

- Two Candidates
- Different types of parties
B. Comprehension questions
1. How did Jefferson’s and Hamilton’ view of government and the economy differ?
- Hamilton believed in a strong central government led by a prosperous, educated
elite of upper-class citizens.
- Jefferson distrusted a strong central government and the rich
2. According to the chart, whose view of the federal government was a wealthy person
more likely to favor? Support your position with evidence.
C. Guiding Questions
1. When were these letters written?
- September 9Th, 1792
2. Why are both Hamilton and Jefferson writing to George Washington?
- To explain their sides of the situation
3. Which author is angrier?
- Thomas Jefferson
- “I will not let my retirement be ruined by the lies of a man who history – if
history stoops to notice him—will remember a person who worked to destroy
4. Write one adjective about each man’s personality and find a quote to support your
- In this letter, Hamilton seems to be Calm. I’m basing this claim of the following
- “Nevertheless, I can truly say that, besides explanations to confidential
friends, I never directly or indirectly responded to these attacks, until
very recently”
- In this letter, Jefferson seems to be Angry. I’m basing this claim of the following
- “I will not let my retirement be ruined by the lies of a man who history
– if history stoops to notice him—will remember a person who worked
to destroy liberty.”
5. Who do you believe “started” the fight? Based on what they wrote, whom do you trust
more: Hamilton or Jefferson? Explain.
- I believe Jefferson has accused Hamilton and Hamilton was correct.
X. Adams Presidency
A. Election of 1796
1. fuel negative supplement towards the French
2. The sedition act is going to limit free speech and free press
3. Article 6 is the Supremacy Clause
- The constitution is the supreme law of the land
- If a state or an individual challenges the constitution it goes over the judicial
- Virginia and Kentucky resolutions 1788
- Challenging alien and sedition acts
- Tariff
i. South Carolina is not going to support a federal tariff on
- Nullification process 1832
- 11 states will nullify the constitution
- Civil war secessions 1860-1861
XI. Thomas Jefferson
A. 1801-1809
B. Foreign Affairs


United States History and Government

1. Election of 1800: Thomas Jefferson Vs. John Adams

2. Chief Diplomat and Chief Legislator: Jefferson’s Foreign Policies
C. Questions:
1. Which two countries had gone to war in 1803?
2. Why did both the British and the French try to take over a
D. Domestic Affairs
1. Why was access to the port of New Orleans and the “right of deposit” so vital to the
new nation?
- Trade
E. Chief Diplomat and Chief Legislator: Jefferson’s Foreign Policies
1. Why was Jefferson concerned with the transfer of the Louisiana Territory from Spain
back to France in 1800?
- They had to re-negotiate the treaty with France
- Right of deposit
2. How did her respond?
- When Napoleon decided to sell the entire Louisiana Territory, the US bought it
for $15 million
3. Why did the purchase the Louisiana Territory force Jefferson to modify his
constitutional views?
- Jefferson was forced to modify and question his constitutional interpretation
because of the importance of the purchase. With Jefferson’s urging. The federal
government decided to purchase the land through the treaty-making power of
the Senate, and in 1803, the treaty was ratified.
4. How did the President Jefferson justify his deviation from strict interpretation of the
- It was necessary for the expansion of our country
5. What clause could he have used to broaden the power of the federal government to
purchase Louisiana?
- Elastic Clause or the Necessary and Proper clause
6. Did Jefferson use this clause to purchase Louisiana? Why or why not?
- No, he did not but he used the Treaty-making power of the senate to purchase
Louisiana and make it “constitutional”
XII. War of 1812 – Second War for Independence
A. Causes:
1. Impressment of American Soldiers
2. Giving guns to the Native Americans
3. Napoleonic Wars
4. War Hawks
- Henry Clay (KY)
- John Calhoun (SC)
B. Effects:
1. Impressment ends
- European wars come to end and they didn’t need more soldiers
2. British pull their forts off American soil
3. War Hawks
- Get political power or the western states exercise political power
4. Trade in the northeast was affected
5. Federalist party dies out
- Anti-war
6. US begins manufacturing in the northeast
C. Treaty of gent ends the war
D. 1814 the Star-Spangled Banner was written as a poem
E. Andrew Jackson wins the battle of New Orleans


United States History and Government

1. New military hero will be president in 1828

XIII. Monroe and the Era of Good Feelings
A. Domestic Policies
1. How would you describe the Era of Good Feelings?
- A time period under Monroe’s lead where political corporations wanted one
party politics and because of Americas high morale
- When Monroe took office the federalist parties almost died out and when he
run for his second run as president there was no other political parties
- No political party tension by 1820
2. How did the United States begin to modernize with President Monroe?
- Developed a system of canals
3. How did the Missouri Compromise try to solve the problem of slavery in new states?
- Missouri would be Admitted as a slave state and Maine would be free
XIV. Nationalism and the Monroe Doctrine
A. 1823
B. Foreign Policies
1. What is the main message of Monroe’s statement, known as the Monroe Doctrine?
- Nationalism
- Pride for your country
2. Which president established the precedent of avoiding foreign wars?
- Jefferson
3. Do you think that that the US had the right to make the doctrine? Why or Why not?
- Yes, only because they have a right to keep the peace
XV. Erie canal
A. Was an infrastructure magnificence
1. Will connect the American heartland to Europe
2. Farm to NY to Europe
3. Erie Canal 363 Miles
4. Built by the Irish
5. Took a 1/6 of the time to transport goods
XVI. Manifest Destiny
A. Kept the Balance of Free Senators and Slave Senators in the senate
B. New York was the last state to abolish slavery above Maryland
XVII. Monroe Doctrine
A. Written by secretary of state
1. John Quincy Adams
2. Wrote it as part of the president’s address
3. Foreign policy statement for Europe
- The western hemisphere is closed to colonization
- If they try to colonize America will get involved
- “American continents are no longer to be considered places for future colonies
of any European power”
- For 75 years Europe Adheres to the Monroe Doctrine/ Europe was fighting with
- Respected and Adhered too
XVIII. Court Systems
A. The Marshall Court
1. *The power of the federal government expands*
2. Named after the Chief Justice
3. Marbury v. Madison (1803)
- The Marshall court will support strong national government


United States History and Government

Social Studies: Presidents of the United States 2

I. The Age of Jackson

A. Jacksonian Democracy
1. Ran for office in 1824= “corrupt bargain”
- John Quincy Adams
- House of Representatives votes Henry Clay as speaker of the house will
encourage House of Representatives to vote for John Quincy Adams
- John Quincy Adams appoints clay as secretary of state
2. Jackson had the popular vote
- But not the majority in the electoral vote
3. Henry Clay
- Lost political credibility
- He runs 4 times, never gets elected
4. 1828- Jackson runs again and is elected as president
- Suffrage
- Right to vote
i. White Men
ii. Property or Wealth requirement is eliminated
- 60,000 people makes a state
- White men could vote without wealth or property
II. Jacksonian Democracy
A. Map Question
1. President Andrew Jackson served two terms, from 1829 to 1837. He won both the
Election of 1828 and 1832. Examine the two maps above (and on the board). What
conclusion can you draw from the maps regarding male suffrage?
2. Based on the map to the (In the notes), can you explain how the Democratic-
Republicans might have appealed to those in the south and west? What are some
issues that these people might have been concerned with?
B. Jacksonian Democracy
1. Describe Jacksonian Democracy
C. Spoils System
1. Do you agree with the concept of a “Spoils system”?
- In politics and government, a spoils system (also known as a patronage system)
is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives
government civil service jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward
for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party
- No, only because the people may not be fit for the said position-
III. Jacksonian Democracy- Inquiry Practice
A. Document 1
1. Why did New York State hold a convention in 1821? What was one issue brought up?
- Revise the state constitution. Dropping the requirement that voters be property
2. How does Nathan Sanford feel about the committee’s proposal?
- Supported the recommendation
B. Document 2
1. What Profession did James Kent have?
- Chief Justice of New York State’s Highest court
2. What arguments does Kent use against Sanford’s proposal?
- Universal male Suffrage (white), poor should not share the power as wealthy
C. Document 3
1. What does Alexis de Tocqueville have to say about democracy in America?
- There was little amount of people in the government.


United States History and Government

- The present-day everyman was not in government

D. Document 4
1. How does Frances Trollope feel about the Election of 1828 and Jackson as a candidate?
What diction (word choice) does she choose to convey her meaning?
- She doesn’t like it, it irritates her
- The electioneering madness... engrosses every conversation, it irritates every
temper, it substitutes party spirit for personal esteem

1. “The Country Election” is a painting by George Caleb Bingham in 1851
2. Men of Different Wealth have different hats
3. Probably voting at town hall
4. No women
5. No black people
- Except black slave serving alcohol
6. Kids playing
7. People voting
8. Men counting ballots in the corner
9. Taking an oath
- Saying that this is the only time they have voted
10. Americans will slowly add people to the voting process over time
11. What event are going on in this painting of an election post-Jackson?
- The poorer white men are signing up to vote
12. Do you think George Caleb Bingham is in favor of “Jacksonian Democracy” (expanding
suffrage) or disapproves? Do you think he is just painting a scene as it was? Support
your reasoning.
- Yes, he is in favor. He was painting what his depiction of the scene was.


United States History and Government

IV. Hamilton’s Financial Program

A. National Bank 1828- AJ 1st term
B. Assumption plan 1832- AJ 2nd term
C. Bonds, Loans
D. Tariffs, Excise taxes (Whiskey)
V. Jackson’s Economic Policies
A. The Nullification Crisis:
1. Where have we heard the term “nullification” before?
North= Industrial
- Virginia and Kentucky tried to nullify the alien and sedition act
South= agrarian
2. Define Nullification
- The power of the state to declare a federal law null and void
3. The tariff of Abomination showed deep sectionalism that was growing in the country.
Explain this statement.
B. National Vs. States’ rights:
Article 6; 1. Why do you think Webster would support the idea that no state could defy or leave
Supremacy Clause the union (secede)?
- Wanted to preserve the union
2. What was Jackson’s view on the nullification crisis?
- He does not believe in nullification
3. What did Calhoun mean when he said, “The Union, next to our liberties, most dear!”
- Individual freedom over country
- Calhoun’s believe is a challenge to the constitution
- He believed in nullification
4. When Jackson wanted to enforce the tariffs, he was acting like what other president?
- Washington and the whiskey rebellion
5. What power did the Force Bill give to the president?
- Authority to take military action is South Carolina
6. What else did Jackson say to the people of South Carolina?
- Nullification and disunion is treason
7. How did Jackson solve the nullification crisis?
- Lowered tariffs
C. The Bank Veto:
1. Why did Jackson not want to renew the chart of the Bank of the United States?
- Biddle’s arrogance, however, contributed to the suspicion that the bank abused
its powers and served the interests of the wealthy. Jackson shared his suspicion.
He believed that the Bank of the United States was unconstitutional.
2. How did Henry Clay’s support of the bank backfire in the election of 1832?
- An overwhelming majority of voters approved Jackson’s attack on “bank
D. Pet Banks:
1. How did Jackson deal with his veto of the National Bank?
- He transferred the finds to various state banks
2. Why do you think the state banks where the money was transferred to were called
“pet banks?”
Land Speculators
- Friends of Andrew Jackson
- Given to all people for agriculture reasons
3. What was the immediate effect of Jackson’s attack on the Second National Bank?
- An expansion of credit and speculation.
- A lot of money available
E. Specie Circular:
1. Why did inflation occur under Jackson?


United States History and Government

- As a result of Jackson’s financial policies and feverish speculation in western

2. How did Jackson try to slow down inflation?
- By issuing a presidential order known as specie circular
3. Did specie circular work?
- It required that all future purchases of federal lands be made in gold and silver
rather than in paper banknotes.
4. The Panic of 1837, plunged the nation’s economy into a depression
5. Pet banks started going bankrupt
VI. Genocide
A. Methodical-
1. Killing a race of people
2. Extermination of a race
3. Mass killing of a certain group
VII. Indian Removal Act (1830), the Trail of Tears, and Andrew Jackson
A. Introduction
1. Why did the federal government want the Indian nations removed from the southeast
United States?
- They were standing in the way of progress and manifest destiny
2. Describe Jackson’s experiences with Native Americans before coming president.
- He commanded the U.S. military that commanded a faction of the Creek nation.
3. Why did the Indians agree to the treaties between 1814 and 1824?
- Strategic reasons
- They wanted to appease in the U.S. government in hopes of retaining
some of their land and protecting themselves from white harassment
4. How did Indians try to coexist with neighboring white settlers?
- Adopt American practices
5. How did the Supreme Court impact the Cherokee nation in the early 1830’s? was the
Court’s decision followed?
- Gave them sovereign status
- They went to the supreme court twice, law bands whites on living on Indian land
- The Cherokee has a right to self-government, and declared Georgia’s extension
of state law over them to be unconstitutional.
6. Describe the Indian Removal act.
- It gave the president power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes
living east of the Mississippi
7. Describe the Trail of Tears.
- The Cherokee were tricked with an illegitimate treaty
- It was a march in which 4,000 Cherokee people died of cold (exposure), hunger,
and disease on their way to the western lands
VIII. A Revolution in Transportation
A. EQ: How did the economic differences between the North and South cause tension?
Transportation Industry
- National Road= internal Improvements - Early cloth and shoe factories
- Toll Roads and Turnpikes - Interchangeable parts
- Steam Power (river boats) - Gun making/ Clocks
- Erie Canal- Lake Erie- Hudson River- - Free Enterprise = capitalism
New York City - Early Corporation (Limited liab.)
- Railroads and Telegraphs - Technological advances
- The rise of large cities (urban)
- Population Increase
- Organized labor= Unions


United States History and Government

B. Article I, Section 8
1. Weights
2. Measures
3. Standard Gauge
- *think of an IPhone wire vs. an Android wire
C. 1869-
1. transcontinental railroad
D. Antebellum USA
1. The period of time prior to the civil war
IX. Chart
North South West

Economic - Citied - Good farming - Manifest destiny

info developed in weather - Expanding
the north as - Opposed bank of frontier
centers of US, protective
trade tariffs and new
- Favored the immigration
bank of the US
- Favored tariffs

Social info - Population - Population was 1/3 - Four social

Increase slaves classes
- Culture - Very few cities - Hunters
determined by - Only children of - Mixed set of
life in cities plantation owners hunter and
- Public received education farmers
education - Ambitious men
began for the - Old settlers
first time

Political info - College was - Culture - Government

reserved for determined by policies
the wealthy plantation owners supporting
- Religion and expansion
education - Opposed bank of
became US
organized - Divided on tariff
- Favored

A. Graph


United States History and Government

X. Immigration
A. Irish and Germans
1. Most immigrants end up in urban areas
B. Questions
1. Describe immigration in the 1800’s
- Mass influx of immigration between 1815 and 1860
- Many fled for political reasons
- Others fled because of poverty and starvation
- Provided a large source of labor for the new factory system
- Many feared the influence of so many foreigners
2. How did the Irish immigrants differ from the German immigrants?
- Irish
- 2 million came
- fleeting from potato famine
- generally, had very few skills
- settles in northeastern towns and worked as unskilled laborers and
3. How did some Americans feel about immigration?
4. How did some church leaders hope to renew Christian faith in the 1800’s
5. Define romanticism
6. Define transcendentalism
7. Name some American writers of the 1800’s. Have you read any of these books? Do you
know what they are about?
1. Congregationalists
2. Quakers
3. Presbyterians
4. Baptists
5. Methodists
D. Industrialization corrupted people and cities
E. Transcendentalists
1. Hudson river school
- Art movement
- Very American
2. Ralph Waldo Emerson
3. Henry David Thoreau
4. Nature
XI. Spiritual Awakening and reform
A. Commune with nature
B. Horace Mann
C. Questions
1. What did Protestant reformers encourage people to do?
- Work hard to improve conditions for themselves and others
2. According to the chart, what was the goal of the education reform movement?
XII. Reform Movements
A. Women’s Suffrage Movement
1. The Seneca Falls Convention marked the beginning of what struggle
- Women’s suffrage
2. How did Harriet Becher Stowe and Sojourner Truth contribute to the abolition
- Wrote novels
- And traveled the nation preaching against slavery and for women’s rights


United States History and Government

3. What was a contribution of Elizabeth Cady Stanton

- Leads the Seneca Falls Convention, the first women’s rights convention in U.S.
XIII. Manifest Destiny
A. Louisiana Purchase 1803-
1. TJ –> Lewis and Clark go all the way to the Pacific Ocean
B. Florida 1819-
1. Adams Oñis treaty purchases Florida for 10 million
C. Texas 1821-
1. Rules
- Have to live on land for ten years
- Have to become a Mexican citizen
- Have to become catholic
- Slavery will be eventually abolished
D. Texas 1836-
1. Independence
2. Texas war for independence
- From Mexico
E. Texas 1845
1. Lone Star Republic
2. James K. Polk is president and Texas is annexed
F. Oregon 1846-
1. Peacefully negotiate
2. 49 degrees north latitude
3. Oregon territory was made into the states
- Washington
- Oregon and
- Idaho
G. Mexican Cession-
1. To seed- turnover
2. Mexican American war
- 1846-1848
H. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgom1848-
1. U.S. paid 15 million in war reparations
2. American south west
- CO
- NM
- AR
- UT
- NE
I. 1848 California Gold rush
1. population increases
XIV. James K Polk.
A. Fulfill Jacksonian doctrine
1. What would Jackson do?
B. Level playing field for American people
C. Devious
D. No kids—wife
E. Most accessible
F. Made available twice a week to American citizens
G. First servant of the people
H. Hardest working
I. Micro-manager


United States History and Government

J. First president to get deeply into financials

K. Americas manifest destiny
L. Goals
1. Settle controversy over Oregon with Britain
2. Bring California into us
3. Set up independent treasury to fix credit mess
4. Lower tariffs
5. 54 40 OR FIGHT
M. went to war with Mexico to settle Texas border
1. 1846-1848
XV. John O’Sullivan, “The Great Nation of Futurity” 1839
A. Questions
1. What does John O’Sullivan think America stands for?
- Progress
- Individual freedom
- Universal enfranchisement
2. What, according to John O’Sullivan, is Americas mission?
- To establish on earth the moral and dignity and salvation of man
C. Painting

2.The united states should reach from ocean to ocean
- “from sea to shining sea”
XVI. Compromise Regarding Slavery
A. Review: Missouri Compromise (1820)
1. Why did Missouri’s application for statehood create such a controversy?
- It asked for admittance to the union as a slave state. This threatened to destroy
the balance between slave and free states
2. How was the slavery controversy temporarily solved by the Missouri Compromise?
- It would keep a semi-permanent balance between all
B. Document 1
1. What can we conclude about the Missouri Compromise from this document? Was it
- No, it drove a deeper wedge between the north and south wings of both
national parties
- Dangerous Nation


United States History and Government

XVII. The Expansion of Slavery & the Compromise of 1850

A. California Statehood Threatens the Balance of Power
1. What issues were there regarding slavery by 1848?
- Balance of free and slave states
B. Henry clay offers a compromise (The Compromise of 1850)
1. California would be admitted as a free state
2. The people of the territories of New Mexico and Utah would decide slavery based on
popular sovereignty
3. Slave trade but not slavery would be banned in Washington DC
4. Congress would pass a stricter fugitive slave law
5. Compromise of 1850

7. How did Henry Clay try to build a compromise between the North and South over
Slavery? What did each side get out of the compromise?
- (his ideas which are 1-5 up top)
XVIII. The Fugitive Slave Law
A. Questions
1. What were the conditions of the fugitive slave law of 1850?
- Fugitive slaves often liked as free citizens in northern cities
- Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves
- Any person caught aiding a runaway slave by providing shelter, food or any form
of assistance is liable to 6 months’ imprisonment and a $1000 fine
2. Who is the “Caution” poster warning?
- Colored people
3. Why are they being warned? Who is after them?
- Everyone from the north
4. What might happen if these people are caught?
- They will be sent back and they will be rewarded
XIX. Board notes
A. Harriet Beecher Stowe
1. Uncle tom’s cabin- 1852
XX. Trouble in Kansas
A. 3,4,5,8,9
B. Questions
1. How did Stephen A. Douglas get the compromise of 1850 to be passed in congress?
- He presented each part separately


United States History and Government

2. Why was the area of Nebraska divided into Nebraska and Kansas?
- Keeping the balance principle
3. How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act effectively make the Missouri Compromise null and
- By allowing slavery to spread to areas that had been free for more than 30 years
- 36 30’ line
4. How did john brown react to the violence caused by the Border Ruffians?
- He carried out execution of five proslavery settlers near Pottawatomie Creek
5. How did “Bleeding Kansas” earn its name?
- The competition to settle the territory would have a deadly consequence, hence
call for bloodshed.
XXI. Sectionalism Deepens
A. Harriet Beecher Stowe & Uncle Tom’s Cabin
1. How did the new fugitive slave law impact runaway slaves?
- Everyone must help catch runaway slaves. Those who refused to help slave-
catchers, or those who aided fugitives, could be fined up to $1000 and jailed for
six months.
2. How did the Fugitive Slave Law encourage Bribery?
- They bribed the Caucasians to send the black slaves back
3. How did Harriet Beecher Stowe come to write the book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin?
- It was inspired by thousands in the north to support abolition
4. What Greater impact did the book have on American Society?
- It showed the north especially slavery from the perspective of a slave
B. The Dred Scott case or Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
1. Why did Dred Scott sue for his freedom? What was his argument?
- His owner moved to a “free” state so technically he should be free, but then his
owner moved back to a slave state of Missouri
2. What two important questions did the Dred Scott case Raise?
- Whether slaves take to free states remained slaved or should be freed
- Whether slaves are legally entitled to use the court system to sue at all
3. What to know about the Dred Scott case
- African Americans are not citizens
- Slaves are property
- The government can’t take your property
- The Missouri compromise is declared unconstitutional by the supreme court
C. Supreme Court in the Dred Scott Case
1. What were the four important decisions made by the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott
v. Sanford?
- Slaves were property, not citizens
- He did not have the right to use the court system to sue
- Freeing the slave would be a violation of the 5th amendment because it would
deprive the owner, Sanford, of his due proceed rights regarding his property
- Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in any territory, thus making the
Missouri Compromise null and void and unconstitutional
D. John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry
1. Why was John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry significant?
- He wanted to free salves through bleeding Kansas
2. Explain John Brown’s quote before his death.
- That slavery will not end fully, but at least he made a difference with minimal
3. Martyr/ Terrorist/ Meteor


United States History and Government

XXII. The Lincoln- Douglas Debates

A. Debate
1. Why were the Lincoln-Douglas debated significant?
- Both were famous for different reasons
B. The men and their debates
1. Why was Douglas stuck “between a rock and a hard place” regarding Lincoln’s question
on slavery?
- It would lead to the creation of popular sovereignty, or a cop out so he wouldn’t
have to choose
2. Describe the Freeport Doctrine
- The statement that said the people could choose freedom
3. How did the Lincoln-Douglas debates impact Stephen A. Douglas in the long run?
- It caused the south to not vote for him in the long run
C. The house divided Speech
1. Explain Lincoln’s 3rd sentence
- “I do not expect the Union to be dissolved- I do not expect the house to fall- but
I do expect will cease to be divided”
- one will win over the other
2. What does the word “arrest” mean in the 4th sentence?
- “Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it and place it
where the public mind shall rest the belief that it is in the course of ultimate
3. What is Lincoln saying in sentence 4 and sentence 5?
- “Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it and place it
where the public mind shall rest the belief that it is in the course of ultimate
extinction. Or, it advocates will push it forward till it shall become alike lawful in
all the states, old as well as new, North as well as south.”
4. Notes
- House is the United States of America
XXIII. The Election of 1860 and Southern Secession
A. The Democrats split
1. Why did the Democrat party split in 1860?
- A debate over slavery
B. Lincoln Wins
1. What impact did Lincoln’s win have on the south?
- Secession
C. Secession
1. Which state was the first to secede from the Union? What did the states do to show
they would not remain with the union?
- South Carolina, Dec 20, 1860
- Seizing all federal property in their states including forts and arsenals
D. Founding the confederacy
1. What was the name of the new south? Who was their leader?
- Confederate States of America
- Jefferson Davis
- Confederacy means a loose union of states
XXIV. Document Practice
A. Document 1
1. Describe the results of the Election of 1860 based on these two sources
- Lincoln has an overwhelming majority win in the chart and contained most of
the north and western territories


United States History and Government

B. Document 2
1. According to the South Carolina State Legislature, why did South Carolina vote to
secede from the union?
- They did not agree with the opinions and purposes towards slavery from the
2. Did Lincoln say that slavery was in the course of ultimate extinction? Or did he say
something else?
- He did
C. How to respond to documents
1. Title and author and date
2. What type of source


United States History and Government

Social Studies: Civil War

I. Southern Secession & Start of the Civil War

A. Comprehension Questions
1. Why do you think South Carolina seceded when it did?
- Southern life was threatened
2. What do you think Southern Plantation owners at the South Carolina convention in
December 1860 had to say on the issue of secession?
- They wouldn’t be happy that they would be losing their labor force
II. War begins at Fort Sumter
A. Comprehension questions
1. Why did South Carolina feel it could demand that northern troops be withdrawn from
Fort Sumter?
- Because they were not a part of the union
2. Why did Lincoln inform South Carolina that he was sending supplies to Fort Sumter?
- In an attempt to keep from angering the south, Lincoln sent word to the
governor of South Carolina that provisions were being sent to the fort.
3. If you had been Lincoln, would you have acted differently? What you would have done
and why:
- No because he had taken the safe approach
4. How else could South Carolina have responded to the sending of reinforcements to
Fort Sumter?
- They could have fought back and ambushed the carts taking the previsions or
even attacked Fort Sumter

III. By the President of the United States: A proclamation
A. Questions
1. What is Lincoln saying in the first paragraph
- South Carolina be warned
2. What is he saying he is going to do in the second paragraph?
- Gathering an army
- 75,000 troops
B. Fort Sumter is the beginning of the civil war
1. 700,000 people are going to die in this war


United States History and Government

IV. Strategies and Battles/ Events of the Civil War

Northern Advantages Southern Advantages
- Greater population (22 million - Psychological advantage – many
compared to 9 million in the south- of Northerners didn’t want to fight and
whom 3.5 million were slaves) die to preserve the Union or fight to
- Industrialization – better equipped to end slavery; Confederacy was fighting
make weapons and other necessities for survival
- Coal and iron miens controlled by the - Strong Military tradition and
Union Leadership
- Gold and Silver mines of the west - Home-Field advantage
controlled by the union - Did not actually have to invade and
- Steady flow of immigrants who conquer the North; just had to fend
wanted to work in factories them off until the Union gave up
- Greater Infrastructure—railroads - Union troops and supplies had to
especially travel further
- Navy
- Established Government

Northern Strategy Southern Strategy

- Known as the Anaconda Plan - Preserve their smaller army and at the
- Blockade southern ports, starving the same time erode the Union’s will to
south of their export income from fight
cotton - Wanted to Obtain formal recognition
- Control the Mississippi river and New as a country by France and Britain
Orleans (remember that Britain was
dependent on the South for Cotton)


United States History and Government

V. Worlds Apart
A. North vs. South before the Civil War
B. Regional Rage
1. What was the Civil war fought for?
2. How were the North and South Similar in 1810?
3. How were the North and South different in 1860?
4. How did the North and the South feel about each other?
5. How did the regional differences play out in congress?
C. Document 1
1. Describe the infrastructure of the North compared to the South in 1850.
D. Document 2
1. Draw two comparisons of the North vs. the South from the chart to your left
E. Document 3
1. Describe the value of manufacturing in the North compared to the South in 1860.
What does this tell you about the ability of the North and South to fight a war?
VI. Brain Pop: Causes of the Civil War
A. 11 southern states secede
1. confederate states of America
B. 24 states that stayed were called the union
C. civil war began at fort Sumter
D. confederate states believed in “states’ rights”
E. 10th amendment gave the right for states to make their own laws
F. nullification crisis
1. right to nullify a tariff that was hurting their economy
G. Slavery
1. Most of the states north of Delaware made slavery ILLIEGAL
2. Free states were worried about Louisiana purchase lands
H. 1820 Missouri compromise
1. divided Louisiana
I. Kansas Nebraska act
1. Any new state can be a slave state if they wanted too
J. Dred Scott
1. Belonged to his owner even if moved to a free state
2. Black are not citizens
K. Not all union states were free states (border states)
1. West Virginia
2. Maryland
3. Delaware
4. Kentucky
5. Missouri
L. Martial Law was used
1. Military
VII. Civil War Documentary
A. Secessionitis
1. Rebels firing upon fort Sumter

VIII. Timeline and Battles of the Civil War


United States History and Government

November 1860 Election of Lincoln

December 1860 South Carolina secedes
A total of 11 states will create the Confederate States of America
February 1861 The Confederate States of America is created with its own constitution and Jefferson
Davis as president
March 1861 Lincoln inaugurated (sworn into office)
April 1861-Sept 1862 Lincoln suspends Habeas Corpus* (limited civil liberties; by suspending) in the
border states, starting with Maryland
People could be arrested and thrown in prison for speaking out against the
April 12, 1861 Battle of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina
First battle of the Civil War
South fired the first shot of the war
South wins this battle
July 21, 1861 First Battle of Bull Run; also known as the Battle of Manassas in Virginia
Spectators watched and had picnics
North Retreats
People started to realize this wouldn’t be a long war
April 1862 Battle of Shiloh
34,000 died in 2 days
Horrified both the North and South
Anaconda plan, cuts off or constricts the Mississippi river (prevent supplies
from New Orleans, North)
September 1862 Battle of Antiatom
3 days of the Civil War (20,000+ killed or wounded)
3,650 died (more than on 9/11 or D-Day invasion)
Decisive battle – Southern loss meant no -------- nation would come to their aid
Lincoln used this battle to justify issuing the Emancipation Proclamation**
Union Victory
Captures the Capital
January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation
“Frees” the slaves in Confederate - held territories
Does not actually free a single slave
South Does not listen to Abraham Lincoln
NO European Support
It DOES make foreign nations (ex: Britain) realize that choosing a side (North
vs. south) would also mean announcing whether that country was pro-slavery or
Makes the war a Moral war
Gives Northerners a reason to fight the war
Helps unite people more in the North in favor of the North winning the war
July 1863 Battle of Vicksburg
Union now controls the Mississippi River
July 1863 Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania
Largest battle in history in the Western Hemisphere
3-day event
125 miles
capture enemy’s capital
November 1863 Lincoln gives the Gettysburg Address


United States History and Government

Described the war as a struggle to fulfill the Declaration of Independence and

to preserve a nation built on the promise that “all men are created equal”
Sept- Dec 1864 Sherman’s March to the Sea
Atlanta to Savannah Georgia
“Total war” or “War of Attrition”
Union Soldiers burned and destroyed everything in their path
November 1864 Lincoln re-elected
April 9, 1865 South surrenders
Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union General Ulysses S.
Grant at Appomattox-
Court House in Virginia
April 14, 1865 Lincoln Assassinated
In Ford’s Theater watched the playing Our American Cousin
By John Wilkes Booth
December 1865 13th Amendment Ratified
Banned slavery in the United States

IX. Changed During the Civil war

A. North introduced an income tax to help fund the war
B. Government encouraged citizens to buy war bonds to fund the war
C. Legal Tender Act of 1862- allowed the treasury to issue paper money called “Greenbacks”; the
thought was that more currency would enable more people to buy war bonds
D. Homestead Act of 1862- made Western land available at a low cost to those who would settle and
farm it
E. 1863- union enacted Conscription (Drafting of men between 20 and 45) – led to many riots since
you could pay $300 not to be drafted
F. Lincoln suspended “Habeas Corpus” (which protects a citizen from being held in jail without being
charged with a specific crime) and instituted Martial law at the border states
X. Emancipation Proclamation
A. Questions
1. Identify the areas in which the Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves
- In the states of rebellion
- Abraham Lincoln is not their president so they don’t have to listen
2. How did the Emancipation Proclamation solve the problem of decreasing enlistment in
the Union army and navy?
- Enemy is going to give the black people guns
3. How do you think Southern plantation owners reacted to the emancipation
B. The thirteenth amendment is December 1865, slaves will be free
1. Moral War
2. Freedom fighters are the union soldiers
- Missionaries for liberty
- Armed liberators
XI. Gettysburg Address
A. When was the cemetery at Gettysburg dedicated?
1. 87 years
B. in the second paragraph of Lincoln’s address, he said that the Civil War tested whether or not a
nation dedicated to the idea that all men are created equal could endure. What do you think he
meant by this?
1. That all these men were dedicated to fight for America if they wanted to win


United States History and Government

C. What did Lincoln mean when he said those who had died at Gettysburg could not be allowed to
have died in vain?
1. Everyone who died in the war died for a cause
D. Explain how the united states is a government “of the people, by the people, for the people”
1. Made by people for people and everyone is included
E. What is the name for such a government?
1. Democracy
F. Why do you think Lincoln was adamant about bringing the South back into the union?
1. Expansion, and so no north colonies would secede as well
G. How do you think the United States would be different today if Lincoln had not taken a strong
stand to abolish slavery and bring the South back into the Union? Why?
1. We may not be called the United States, and we may be two different countries
XII. Lincoln and Executive/ constitutional power
Constitutional Issue
States’ rights vs. Federal Supremacy
Once part of the union, did states have the right the leave?
Souths Perspective Norths Perspective
• Favored states’ rights • Favored federal supremacy
• States entered willingly into the • No minority group (in this case, the
union and could leave willingly southern states) could act to destroy
• States were “not creatures of the the union and its government
union but creators of it” • Sovereignty was an idea for the
• Sovereignty of the states was not nation as a whole, not individual
abandoned upon entering the union states to rule themselves
Lincoln’s Goals and Actions:
Preserve the Union
Actions taken:
• increased the size of the army and navy
• naval blockade of the south
• arrested southern sympathizers (supporters) to prevent secession in the Border States
• Suspended the right of Habeas Corpus in the border states; people were arrested and
thrown into prison without being charged with crime
• Declared Martial Law (right of government to rule with the military)
• Censored newspapers

XIII. Brain Pop – Civil War:
A. Questions
1. T or F: Confederate President Jefferson Davis did not want to go to war
- True
2. Who won the battle of Fort Sumter?
- South
3. Why was West Virginia formed?
- They wanted to break away from Virginia
4. In general. How long did people think the war would last?
- 90 days
5. Why did the North lose many battles in the beginning?
- The South had better Generals: Robert E. Lee
6. Who was the commanding officer of the North?
- Ulysses S. Grant


United States History and Government

7. Issued in 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in what part of the
- Confederate States
8. What battle was the turning point of the war? (1863)
- Gettysburg
9. What happened with union Sherman’s March to the Sea?
- Total War
10. Where did the South surrender on April 9th, 1865?
- Appomattox Court House
11. What happened a few days later?
- Lincoln was shot, John Wilkes Booth
12. How many people died in the Civil War?
- Between 600,000 and 700,000/ 3 million
13. T or F: the civil war was the bloodiest war in American history
- True
XIV. Appomattox Court House
A. November 8th, 1864: Lincoln is re-elected
B. March 4th, 1865: Lincoln inaugurated
C. April 9th, 1865: Lincoln assassinated
D. April 15th, 1865: Lincoln dies
E. Unconditional Surrender
XV. End of The Civil War
A. Surrender at Appomattox
B. March 4th, 1865
C. Comprehension questions
1. Grants ideas to have union troops persist in attacking without stopping to rest or
recognize was new to civil war strategy. Do you think it was a good idea? Why or why
- Good idea
2. Why do you think it was important for the Southern Troops to keep their horses after
the war?
- It was farming time
3. What reasons might General Grant have had for being so generous in the agreement
he made with general Lee upon surrender?
- He had nothing to give
XVI. Lincoln’s Assassination
A. Inaugural address 1865
B. Lenient
1. Not punitive
C. Radical republicans took charge of Reconstruction.
1. They believed in punishing the south
D. Comprehension questions
1. What do the lines from Lincoln’s inaugural address tell you about his attitude towards
reconstructing the union?
- That he knew he needed to reconstruct the south but he didn’t want to
2. How would you have dealt with the confederate states after the civil war?
- Would have done the same thing and brought them back into the original
country where they belong
3. What requirements would you have made for their reentry into the union?
- For them to follow the rules of the states in the union


United States History and Government

XVII. Reconstruction Overview (1865-1877)

A. Overview
1. What issues did the country face after the Civil War?
- The south was in ruins
- African Americans lacked full citizenship and the means of living
- The federal government struggles with how to return the eleven southern states
to the union
- Rebuild south economy
- Promote rights of former slaves
B. How will southern states rejoin the union?
1. How do you think the confederate states should be readmitted – with punishment or
forgiveness? Explain.
- Punishment for leaving the union in the first place
C. How will the Southern Economy be rebuilt?
1. Why was rebuilding the South’s economy a daunting process after the Civil War?
- The civil war devastates the Souths Economy
- The souths share of the nation’s total wealth declined from 30% to 12%
- Nearly half the regions livestock d farm machinery was gone
- ¼ of southern white men between ages 20 and 40 were dead
- more than 3 million newly freed African Americans were without homes of Jobs.
- The southern land was the confederates most valuable asset after the war
D. More Overview
1. Why did many southern landowners oppose the “forty acres and a mule” idea?
- Southern landowners rejected the idea that the government could simple give
away their land
- Violated the 5th amendment
2. What solution can you come up with for providing the freed slaves with a home and a
job? What potential problems might arise from your solution?
- Divide the land from the owners who have passed between all of the slaves until
everyone including whites and blacks have land
- Southerners would disagree
- 5th amendment
- 4 million people
- the Norths responsibility
E. What rights will African Americas have?
1. What did the 13th amendment do? Why did newly freed African Americans still
- Abolished slavery
- No privileges
- Black codes
XVIII. Reconstruction Plans
A. Successes and Failures
B. Introduction
1. Which political party dominated the south during Reconstruction? How did they get
- Radical Republicans.
- 1870- 15th amendment
- 1870- republican Party -> Af-Am voters
- 98 years = solid south -> democrats
- 1968- Election of Richard Nixon (R)


United States History and Government

C. Scalawags and Carpetbaggers

1. Who were the scalawags?
- Were white men who had been locked out of pre-civil war politics by their
wealthier neighbors
2. Who were the carpetbaggers
- There were also northerners who relocated to the south in search of better
economic or political situations, or who hoped to improve the lives of freedman
D. Successes and Failures Result
1. Why was public education considered both a success and a failure in the south?
- Success
- Tax-supported public-school system
- Segregation
i. Separation of races
- Two school systems
- Strained economy
- Failure
- Illiterate
- Quality of medical care, housing and economic production lagged far
behind the North
E. Freed People Build New Communities
1. Where did freedmen find jobs during reconstruction
- Skilled men might find work as carpenters, blacksmiths, cooks, or house
servents; women worked in laundry, childcare, or domestic work. Most blacks
had to settle for a life slightly above slavery; substandard housing, poor food,
and hard labor. The majority of African Americans remained in rural areas and
worked on lumber yards, railroads, buildings, or farming
F. Remaking the Southern Economy
1. What problem did the uneven distribution of landownership cause in the south?
- 45% of people in the south didn’t own land
- After the war, the millions of landless southern whites were competing with
millions of landless blacks for labor work on the land of owners
G. Systems for sharing the land
1. How did the republicans and the democrats join forces?
- They compromised by agreeing to African American suffrage
- The right for them to vote
2. Who were the Southern “redeemers”?
- People who found common issues that would unite white southerners around
the goal of regaining power in congress
H. Construction Officially ends
1. Describe the Compromise of 1877
- When southerners protested the results of this election, Congress was set to
mediate the crisis. Congress created a commission of five senators, five
representatives, and five supreme court justices


United States History and Government

I. Was reconstruction a Failure of Success?

Positives Negatives
• Introduction of a tax-supported • Bitterness between the north
public-school system and the south remained
• Use of federal money to • No long-lasting protection for
modernize railroads and ports freed people
• Expansion of the economy from • Enforcement laws didn’t
one crop (cotton) to a range of always prosecute all Klan
agricultural and industrial members
products • Racial segregation and
• A few African Americans owned discrimination continued
their own farms by 1877 • Sharecropping left many in
• The freedmen’s Bureau reunited perpetual debt
families and improved literacy
XIX. The South Post- Civil War
A. Sharecropping
1. Definition of Sharecropper:
- A tenant farmer especially in the southern United States who is provided with
credit for seed, tools living quarters, and food, who works the land, and who
received an agreed share of the value of the crop minus charges
2. Goal of Sharecropper
- As a sharecropper, your goals are to get out of sharecropping! You aim to rent
to your own land so that you have more control over your profits. One day you
even dream of owning your own land.
B. Freedman’s Bureau-
1. Greatest success in public education
2. And health care
C. Scalawags
1. Who were the scalawags?
- Native white southern politicians who joined the republican party after the war
and supported the acceptance of and compliance with congressional
reconstruction were labeled scalawags
- To most white southerners, scalawags were an immoral group of disloyal
opportunists who had deserted their countrymen and ingratiated themselves
with the hated Radical republicans for their own material gain
2. What were the aims of the scalawags during the reconstruction?
- Wanted to end reconstruction the fastest and the easiest way
D. Ku Klux Klan
1. How are the Ku Klux Klan describing by this petition?
- Desperate lawless men, mainly composed of soldiers of the late rebel armies,
armed, disciplined and disguised, bound by oath and secret obligations
2. According to this petition, what are the Ku Klux Klan responsible for?
- Force, terror and violence, subverted all civil society among colored people; thus
utterly rendering insecure the safety of persons and property, overthrowing all
those rights which are the primary basis and objects of the government
3. Describe how the KKK are involved with the voting process for blacks?
- They attempt to overthrow all he rights for blacks
4. How does this document describe the crimes of the KKK?
- They ride from town to town, hurting the black folk.
- Spreading terror
- “we believe you are not familiar with the description of the Ku Klux Klan’s riding
nightly over the country, going from county to county, and in the county towns,


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spreading terror wherever they go for robbing, whipping, ravishing, and killing
our people without provocation, compelling colored people to break the ice and
bathe in the chilly waters of the Kentucky river”
5. Why do the people issuing this petition feel hopeless with their government?
- The legislature has adjourned
- They refuse to act upon
XX. Compromise of 1877
A. 1868- D. Grant is president
B. 1867- Military reconstruction = martial law
C. 1877- 14th amendment= African American citizenship, all of BOR
D. - 15th amendment= African American Males the right to vote
E. gives Rep= presidency
F. gives Dem= end of reconstruction
G. 1877- reconstruction ends
1. successes= 13, 14, 15
- Freedmen’s Bureau= Education
H. Redeemer Govt’s-
1. In southern states
2. Push for segregation
3. Economic limitations
- For Af Am
- Limit the way they live as free people
I. Carpet baggers are opportunists
J. The KKK was organized to intimidate African Americans and any white folk that work with them
XXI. The New South
A. Political Effects
1. Literacy Tests
- Many freedmen, lacking a formal education, could not pass reading and writing
tests. As a result, they were barred from voting
2. Grandfather Clauses
- If your grandfather could not vote in the Election of 1860, you could not vote.
Well, that meant most, if not all, African American males could not vote.
3. Poll taxes
- African Americans could not afford to pay special voter registration fees called
poll taxes, and were therefore barred from voting
4. Jim Crow Laws
- Southern legislatures passed laws segregating passed laws, segregating blacks
from white in restaurants, hotels, schools, and theaters. These state laws were
upheld by the Supreme Court case, Plessy v. Ferguson, which stated “separate
but equal” was legal.
B. Economic Effects
1. Farm Owners
- After the war only a few could keep their land, so the rest was divided into small
sections which was owned by mostly white buyers
2. Tenant farmers
- Plantation owners rented land in sections to tenants
- In order to live and work on the land, tenant farmers provided their own seeds,
mules and provision
3. Sharecroppers
- The poorest southerners (whites as well as blacks) lacked the money either to
pay rent or buy mules for plowing. In return for farming a small piece of land,
they paid a certain share of the crop to the landlord. They were known as


United States History and Government

C. ‘Solid South’
1. southern whites generally blamed the Republican party for the hardships they suffered
from war and Reconstruction. After Reconstruction, the “Solid South” made sure that
the Democratic Party in their region would be strong enough to win every states and
election. In a short time, the south became virtually a one-party region
XXII. Redeemers
A. End of reconstruction
1. End of military rec. and martial law
2. Black codes
- Economic limitations
- Tenant farming or sharecropping
- Most African Americans did not own their own land
- Political limitations
- Poll tax
- Amendment 24
B. Grandfather Clause
1. Southern blacks couldn’t vote and their grandfather couldn’t vote
2. White men: if your grandfather could vote and you couldn’t pass the literacy test, but
you could pay the poll tax, you could vote
C. Literacy test
1. Test given to African Americans
- Algebra
- Word problems
- Administered in a ten-minute period orally
2. Make sure black folk don’t vote
D. ‘Old South’
1. slavery abolished
E. ‘New South’
1. limit the rights of freed Af- Am people
F. Jim Crow Laws
1. Segregation laws
XXIII. Booker T. Washington ~ W.E.B Du Bois
A. Booker
1. Founder and President of Tuskegee institute
2. Former slave
3. Believed African Americans should be educated
4. Refine speech improves dress and be more like the white
B. W.E.B.
1. Founding member of NAACP
- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
2. Harvard educated
- First of second African graduate
3. Need to use political fight
XXIV. Plessy vs. Ferguson
A. Turns over the rock for blacks


United States History and Government

Social Studies: Industrialization

I. Board Notes
A. The transcontinental railroad gets completed with Government Subsides
1. Land grant
B. Railroad is going to drive the US economy
1. Going to move people westward from 6 weeks to 6 days
C. Sears
1. Created a mail-order catalog
2. Goods, services
II. Turner’s Thesis: On the American Frontier
A. Questions:
1. According to Turner, what was the most important factor in the development of
American history?
- Manifest Destiny
2. Without a “frontier”, what did Turner begin to question?
- “how American culture an history would develop and whether Americans would
keep ‘that toughness and strength combined with intensity and drive…the
dominant individualism’ bred by expansion now that the frontier was closed”
3. What do you believe is the “next frontier” to be explored after the West?
- Industrialization
- Alaska
- Space
4. The reservation system
- Closing of the native American way of life
- Racism
B. Cultural clash between races
1. White Americans
2. Chinese
3. Native Americans
III. Closing the Frontier & Westward Expansion
A. What were the causes of westward movement?
1. Manifest destiny
2. Discovery of gold and other minerals
3. Homestead act & fertile land
4. Transcontinental Railroad
B. Gold Rush & Mining
1. How did the Gold Rush impact the west?
- Discovery of gold in California, Colorado and Nevada
- After the California gold rush of 1849, gold was found in 1859 at pike’s peak,
- Comstock lode in Nevada produced over $300 million in gold and silver
- Inspired a “rags to riches” mentality
- Mining became a big business, but for companies saw largest profits
- Thousands flocked west for riches and job opportunities
2. Mining towns and cities
- Mining towns like Denver, Boulder, and Colorado Springs developed
- Mining opportunities drew many people west:
- Boom towns sprung up overnight during the gold rush
- Became ghost towns when the gold ran dry
- Disordered and lawlessness accompanied such rapid growth
- Vigilantes or self-appointed law enforces provided order


United States History and Government

C. Transcontinental Railroad Construction

1. Gold rush and manifest destiny caused a need for a transcontinental rail route
- Two companied competed for government contracts under the Pacific Railway
act 1862
2. Union Pacific Railroad
- Began in Omaha, NE
- Worked their way west
- Irish dominated the work
3. Central pacific railroad
- Began in Sacramento, ca
- Worked way eat
- Chinese and immigrant minorities
4. Union Pacific (from Omaha, Nebraska) constructed mostly by the
5. Central Pacific (from California) constructed mostly by the
6. The two tracks met at Promontory point, Utah in 1869; the completion intensified
settlement of the west
D. Homestead Act (1862)
1. Home Stead Act of 1862
- Offered farm plots of 160 acres to anyone who would farm and tame the
territory within 5 years; this included building a road and digging a water pump
2. Reality of western settlement was harsh
- Blizzards, droughts, locusts, loneliness, few trees
3. What struggles did homesteaders face?
4. What inventors helped tame the Wild West?
E. Farming in the Great Plains
1. Life as a homesteader:
- Insects that destroyed crops; locust
- Lac of capital; money
- Dependence on the railroads; charged high prices
- Falling cop prices
- Rising farm debt
F. New Technology
1. Steel plow
2. Water pump
3. Barbed wire
G. Cowboys and Ranching
1. Why did cattle ranching expand in the 1850’s / 1860’s?
- Land
2. What role did the railroad play in expanding cattle ranching?
- Open - range system; allows the animal and let them roam; hire cowboys to
wrangle them up; led to conflict with farmers until the invention of barbed wire
H. Cattle
1. Industry boomed over civil war
2. Refrigerated railroad cars
3. Meat packing district
4. Cow towns
I. Chinese Exclusion Act
1. Only federal law that excluded a single race of people
J. Conflict with the Plains Indians
1. Sioux Indians pushed into the Dakota territories during the Civil war; the government
promised not to build a railroad there
2. gold was eventually found there in 1824
3. Sand creek Massacre (1864) (Colorado)


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- Colonel John Chivington opened fire on women and children

4. Battle of little big horn (1876)
- Sioux led by chiefs sitting bull and crazy horse
- General George Custer; “Custer’s Last Stand”
5. Idaho (1877)- government tried to move the Nez Perce Indians onto smaller
6. Chief Joseph led his people on an 1,800-mile journey to Canada to avoid conflict;
eventually had to surrender; his people were put on a desolate reservation in OK
7. Geronimo - and apache chief who hunted the Mexican soldiers who killed his family
for 10 years
8. Helen Hunt Jackson - wrote a century of dishonor (1881); spoke out against Indian
9. Dawes Act (1887)
- Goal: assimilation; to make them fit in (forced)
- Hoped that the extinction of the buffalo would help
- No Indian group recognized as a nation
- Allotment system – each family received 60 acres
- Encouraged to send their children to school
10. Battle of wounded knee (1890)
- South Dakota; 100 massacred
IV. Settlement of the West
A. Native American Experiences
Main Themes
- There were various ethnic and racial cultures that characterized the West
and the white settlers tried to enforce their dominant role over them after
the Civil War
- The West was transformed from a sparsely populated region of Indians and
other early European and Asian settlers into a vital part of the nation’s
capitalistic economy, through the help of the transcontinental railroad
- the “frontier” was closed as Indian resistance was eliminated; miners and
cowboys developed settlements, railroads opened the area for intensive
- Mining, ranching, and commercial farming emerged as the three major
industries of the West

B. American Settlement of the West

1787 Northwest Ordinance - Indians were to be treated with the “utmost
good faith”
- Specified that “their lands and property shall
never be taken away from them without their
1819 Purchase of Florida - Seminoles attacked American settlements and
then ran into Spanish territory in Florida
- 1818—Jackson led a raid on Florida and
crushed the Seminoles
- Spain sold Florida to the United States and the
Seminoles were moved onto a reservation in
Central Florida
1828 Cherokee Nation v. Georgia - The Cherokee, a “civilized”7
1830 Indian Removal Act - Removing Indians from their land


United States History and Government

1860- Plains Indians Wars - Indians fighting over their territory

1877 President Hayes
1881 Helen Hunt Jackson
1887 The Dawes Act
1924 Snyder Indian Citizenship Act
V. Notes for Railroads, Industrialization, and Robber Barons
A. Completion of the transcontinental railroad --> increased the market for products --> Increased
industrialization --> stimulated the economy b/c of the demand for steel, coal, timber, etc. -->
increased number of railroads increased efficiency --> cost of shipping declined
B. Second Industrial Revolution
1. After the civil war, industry rapidly expanded as millions left their farms to find work in
mines and factories
2. Second industrial revolution marked by an increase in technology
C. Abundance of Natural resources aided industrialization
1. US has copper, timber, coal, and iron
2. American companies could obtain these necessary products cheaply and did not have
to import from other countries; many of these resources were in the American West;
settlement of the west accelerated industrialization
D. US also had a large workforce
1. 1860-1910
- population of US nearly triples
2. provided the necessary workforce for industry and also created a greater demand for
3. population growth from larger families and immigration
4. push and pull factors for why immigrants came to the US
5. Push Factor: escape oppressive government or religious persecution
6. Pull Factor: job opportunities, land opportunities, higher standard of living, and
E. Free Enterprise – laissez faire
1. Helped the nation industrialize
2. Laissez faire is the idea that the government should not interfere in the economy
VI. Robber Baron or captain of industry
VII. Gilded Age Politics
A. Municipal Government
B. Questions
1. How did Tammany hall and William “boss” tweed impact New York City?
- Tammany Hall was a New York City political organization that endured for nearly
two centuries. Although its popularity stemmed from a willingness to help the
city’s poor and immigrant populations, Tammany Hall became known for
charges of corruption, especially that of William M. “Boss” Tweed. Its power,
especially strong before and during the Gilded Age, lasted from 1789 to the
1950’s. Tammany Hall especially took advantage of the immigrant population
swarming the city; by offering these newly arrived individuals a place to stay or a
job, they could count on their support at the polls later.
2. How can Patronage of Graft impact society and government?
- Where people received government jobs because of who they knew or how
much they paid, not by their experience or merit
3. How did the federal government respond to calls for change with monopolies?
- Interstate commerce act
4. How did the federal government respond to calls for change with patronage?


United States History and Government

- In 1883, the Pendleton act hoped to combat the system pf patronage by

increasing the number of government jobs filled by those who passed a civil
service exam. This change created a civil service system in the United States.
5. Summarize the following Supreme Court Cases:
MUNN v. ILLINOIS - the supreme court ruled that states could regulate
(1877) freight rated for railroads and grain elevators to
ensure fair prices for small farmer within their states
WABASH v. ILLINOIS - The decision was both a gain and a loss for farmers.
(1886) On the one hand, the supreme court ruled that
states could not regulate railroads that wanted to
charge higher rated for a short haul versus a long
haul; this effectively harmed the small farmers and it
might have been better had the states been allowed
to continue to regulate this
E.C. KNIGHT CO. v. - This case questioned whether congress has the
UNITED STATES power to regulate manufacturing monopolies.
(1895) Although the court found that the should be
regulated by the states, it was again a step in the
right direction in increasing government regulation
IN RE DEBS (1895) - The supreme court rules that the federal
government could halt a strike if that strike
interfered with the country’s ability to engage in
commerce and the postal system. This was a major
blow to union activity and exemplified the general
distrust of unions at the time. Although this was a
blow for the worker and a win for the employer, this
would soon change as the country entered the
period of Progressivism
VIII. The Rise of Unions
A. Questions
1. Why were labor unions formed?
- Because more and more people grew dissatisfied with their poor living and
working conditions and started to demand change. They were also upset with
the growing gap between the rich and the poor.
2. Based on what you have read thus far, do you think labor unions during the Gilded Age
will be successful in their goals? Why of Why Not?
- Yes, for only a period of time because unfortunately unions always don’t work
out due to the lack of respect for them
3. Which individuals formed the Knights of Labor?
- A union for both skilled and unskilled labor
- Admitted all workers regardless of race, creed, color, gender, or national origin
- Membership increased under Powderly—female and immigrants
4. What event made the American Public view the Knights of Labor with distastes?
- Boycotts and strikes
5. What goal did the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor both have?
- 8-hour workday
- No child labors
- Equal pay for men and women
6. Which individual led the AFL
- Samuel Gompers
7. What is the greatest difference between the two?


United States History and Government

- One preferred boycotts and strikes and the other did not
8. 13. A
9. 14. C
10. 15. A
IX. Struggle of Labor Unions
A. Questions
1. Summarize the difficulties faced by unions during the Gilded Age
- Unions face serious difficulties in organizing because of the mobility and
diversity of the American Labor Force.
- Workers who did not stay hitched but moved from job to job were difficult to
- The constant influx of large numbers of immigrants.
- Difference in language, religion, and customs among the immigrants made it
hard to unite them into an effective union.
- Different labor leaders had different goals.
X. Collective Bargaining
A. Negotiation between an employer and a labor union
1. Negotiating a contract for every worker
XI. Effects of Laissez-Faire & Rise of Unions
A. Questions

1. What do the men in the suits represent?
- Robber Barron’s
- Taking advantage of the people
2. Who does the man on the left, poor and starving, represent?
- The people who work for the businessman
3. What does the carved turkey represent in American society?
- What the businessman leaves for the working class
4. What problem of the late 19th century in American Society is the cartoon attempting to
- How the businessman is getting richer on society being poorer
5. What problems emerged from the Gilded Age and Industrialization
- Poor society vs. rich businessman’s


United States History and Government

Social Studies: Populism and Progressive Era

I. Introduction to Populism
A. The Farmers’ Plight
1. How did the increase in supply of agricultural products and lack of available money
impact farmers?
- When our country raises tariffs, other countries do as well, when farmers create
a surplus they have to pay a higher tariff.
- Drought
- Economic distress
2. Explain how the gold standard and protective tariffs hurt farmers.
- Gold standard
- To the advantage of banks
- Bimetallism
i. Gold
ii. Silver
- 1900- Gold standard Act
- Protective tariff
- On imported goods, protected American factories and manufacturing
but actually hurt American farmers
i. When our country raises tariffs, it leads other countries to
raise tariffs on out products sold in that country. Since our
farmers were producing so much extra surplus, they tried to
sell it abroad in Europe, but had to pay a higher tariff doing so.
3. What early regulations with railroads and monopolies occurred in the late 1800’s?
- Interstate commerce act
- Sherman anti-trust act
II. Populism
A. The peoples party
1. How did farmers benefit during the gilded age?
- New technologies improved agricultural production.
2. What troubled did farmers face in the late 1800’s, early 1900’s?
- The American farming surplus would not be sold in Europe.
3. How did farmers adapt to their struggles?
- Farmers would adapt labor union strategies to their own conditions
- They began to organize and experiment with strength in numbers.
4. How did the farmers unite? What were some of their complaints?
- They focused on uniting against a perceived enemy: eastern and urban money
(bankers, industrialists, railroad magnates)
B. Farmers groups
1. Farmers alliance
2. The grange
- BOTH organizations had created cooperative
- Pepperidge farms vs. Old McDonald: agribusiness vs corporate farming
C. The populist platform- what did they want?
1. What solutions did the farmers propose regarding railroads?
- Interstate commerce commission
- Created in1877 to regulate the railroads, had proven completely
inadequate to this task
2. What economic solutions did the populists propose?
- Graduated income tax
3. Why did farmers want “free silver”?
- An expanded money supply backed by silver would facilitate economic growth


United States History and Government

III. Populism – the people’s party

A. Definition of populism-
1. Support for the concerns of ordinary people
- Farmers working towards improvement of the lives of common folk
- Collective effort of farmers to get the federal government to regulate railroads,
change the monetary policy, help with agriculture and have a more direct
involvement of the people in politics (Bensen definition)
B. Causes for populism (1890’s)
1. Higher production of crops led to low prices; this is known as deflation
2. Farmers relied too much on only one crop; fortunes rose or fell depending on how this
crop did
3. Farmers became too dependent on machinery and fell into debt paying for this new
4. High tariffs in the United States caused other countries to impose high tariffs of their
own; farmers have a hard time selling their surplus to foreign countries
5. Mortgage interest loans were high
6. Cost of shipping with railroads was high, especially compared to the corporation rates
which were negotiated lower.
7. Money was in short supply after the Civil War when the government decided to stop
issuing out Greenbacks and silver coins
C. Goals of the populist, peoples party
1. Social-
- Restrict immigration
- Form an 8 hour workday
- End to child labor
2. Political-
- Direct election of U.S. senators (1913- 17th amendment)
- Wanted the initiative- which allowed citizens to propose new legislation
- Wanted the Referendum- which allowed citizens to vote directly on proposed
- Wanted the recall- which allowed for a special election to remove an elected
official before their term was over
- Involve ordinary people in the political process
3. Economic-
- Nationalize railroads, telephones, and the telegraph (government controlled)
- Graduated income tax- a tax rate based on how much income you bring in
- Government loans for crops
- Unlimited coinage of silver
4. The populist movement will be a pre-cursor to the progressive movement. Many of
their ideas will be successfully enacted by law later
IV. Progressive Era
A. Progress
The progressive era was a B. Urban America
time in the early 1900’s
when many Americans to
C. The Progressive Era
improve their society as a 1. What problems did the Progressives want to address?
result of problems with the
industrial Revolution and the
- Government corruption and inefficiency
Gilded Age. They tried to - Government not being as democratic as it could be
make government honest, - Problems with urbanization
efficient, and more
democratic. The movement - Tenements, pollution, disease, education
for women’s suffrage gained - Problems with industrialization
more support, as did efforts
to limit child labor and
- Child labor, dangerous conditions, work hours, etc.
reduce alcohol abuse. - Alcohol abuse
Tammany Hall: Boss Tweed
- Lace of women’s suffrage


United States History and Government

2. Who were the progressives?

- In general, they had issues with laissez faire economics (the free market)
- They believed that industrialization and urbanization created many social
problems such aa a pollution, crime and disease
- Progressives belonged to both political parties
- Most progressives were urban dwellers, educated, and middle-class
- Many progressives were journalists, social workers, educators, politicians, and
members of the clergy
- In general, they wanted more government involvement and for the government
to take a ACTIVE ROLE in addressing society’s problems
- However, they doubted that the government as it was at the time could actually
solve these problems
- They believed that the Government itself also needed major changes
3. Muckrakers- Upton Sinclair: The Jungle
D. Progressive movement-
1. Was led by reformers who wanted to bring order in society, due to the chaos of
V. The Jungle
A. The Jungle: what stood out
1. The uncleanliness they kept near food, I mean we don’t see the factories where our
food comes from and who knows what it looks like before the inspector arrives
B. Document 1
1. I believe the book would be non-fiction as he is explaining a true story of life before we
had all these government regulations
C. Document 2
1. The muckraker racking up the smelling meat scandal before enforcers come in
D. Document 3
1. To assure their customers that their food is clean
2. Pure Food and Drug Act
VI. Child Labor Sources
A. Summary Questions:
1. During the industrial Age in the United States, what issues regarding children needed
to be addressed by progressive reformers?
- Hours
- Ages
- Lack of education
- Sanitation
- Danger of the machines
2. If you had been a Progressive Reformer, what laws would you try to pass in reaction to
child labor?
- Laws to keep kids in school
- Laws to limit working hours
- Laws to limit working ages
- Laws to limit how low a company can pay them
B. Key People:
1. John Spargo-
- He wrote a novel about the harming conditions children face in the work place
- Spargo is best remembered as an early biographer of Karl Marx and as one of
the leading public intellectuals affiliated with the Socialist Party of America
during the progressive era of the early 20th Century.
2. John Dewey-
- Created educational programs for working children


United States History and Government

- John Dewey was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and

educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social
3. Jane Addams-
- Created a house for kids to live in
- Jane Addams, known as the "mother" of social work, was a pioneer American
settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist,
author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace.
VII. Helping the Poor Sources
A. Summary Questions
1. What struggles did urbanization cause for the poor and immigrant population?
- Poverty, Americanization, Crime, pollution, starvation, housing issues and
2. How did the public find out about these conditions?
- Through the reading of novels and journal entries posted in local magazines
- Also, through the almost disturbing photos taken by photographer Jacob Riis in
the dead of night with the invention of flash photography
3. What solutions were proposed and utilized to try and help these people?
- Settlement houses such as Jane Addams Hull house
- Community centers providing assistance to residents particularly
immigrants in a slum neighborhood
B. Key People:
1. Jacob Riis-
- Wrote the novel how the other half lives and also was a photographer
- Jacob August Riis was a Danish-American social reformer, "muckraking"
journalist and social documentary photographer.
VIII. Reforming Government and Big Business Sources
A. Summary Questions
1. What problems existed during this period regarding big business and government?
- The power of government officials is being used for corruption
2. Were the Progressives successful in addressing these problems?
- Thomas Nast
3. What did they need?
- Wanted the initiative- which allowed citizens to propose new legislation
- Wanted the Referendum- which allowed citizens to vote directly on proposed
- Wanted the recall- which allowed for a special election to remove an elected
official before their term was over
- Direct election of senators will give people more political power
- amendment 17
B. Key People:
1. Ida Tarbell-
- Tried to prove how the owners of the big monopolies are doing somewhat to
- Ida Minerva Tarbell was an American teacher, author and journalist. She was
one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era of the late 19th and early
20th centuries and is thought to have pioneered investigative journalism.
2. Lincoln Steffens-
- Wrote the book, “the shame of cities”
- Lincoln Joseph Steffens was a New York reporter who launched a series of
articles in McClure's, called Tweed Days in St. Louis, that would later be
published together in a book titled The Shame of the Cities.


United States History and Government

IX. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

A. One of the deadliest workplace disasters in American History
B. Killed 146 people
1. More than 50 people had no alternative but to jump from the ninth-floor window
C. some of the hazards at the factory listed
1. locked door to the stairwell
2. rusty fire escape that collapsed
3. wicker baskets full of scraps
4. oily floors spread the fire quickly
5. no sprinkler systems, only pails of water
6. flammable barrel of oil
7. lack of a required third staircase
X. Timeline of workers’ rights
A. 1800-1900’s
1. Immigration
- Millions of immigrant’s flock to the U.S. desperately poor, many work long hours
in grimy factories for meager pay. States have few laws protecting workers.
B. 1909
1. Labor strikes
- Workers strike at the Triangle Waist Company; soon, 20,000 other New York City
garment workers join in. After 13 weeks and the arrests of 700 women, the
factories agree to a 52-hour workweek and four paid vacation days a week.
C. 1911-1915
1. Safety laws
- After the Triangle fire, New York enacts 36 new safety laws over the next four
years. Other states follow suit.
D. 1935
1. Unions
- Congress passes the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner act), which prohibits
employers from discriminating against unions workers and assures workers the
right to negotiate terms of employment
E. 1936
1. Child labor laws
- Under the Walsh Healy Act, the U.S. government agrees not to purchase goods
made by children under 16
F. 1938
1. Minimum wage
- The Fair Labor Standards Act bans child labor, and sets minimum wages for
various kinds of work, a national minimum wage of $0.25/ hour; and overtime
beyond 40 hours a week.
A. International Ladies Garment Workers Union
1. On most brands today
XII. Movie: New York a documentary film
A. Solutions:
1. Social Welfare Legislation
2. Child/ Women Labor laws
3. Disability laws
4. Al Smith was the weapon of reform in New York
5. Building Codes
6. Regulate machinery
7. 54 hours MAX a week
8. No children under 14 working in factories


United States History and Government

B. State Laws:
1. 54/60 bills get passed- New York State Government
2. To own a factory in New York is now a calamity
3. Using the power of the state to change people’s lives
4. Improve … Conditions
- Working
- Housing
- Education
C. The New Deal began March 25, 1911
D. Building Codes
1. Sprinkler system
2. Enclosed staircases
3. Indoor washrooms- bathrooms
4. X-amount of lighting per square footage
5. Exits have to be marked
- Also, applies to apartments
E. Changes how factories are built and work in New York, which moves onto every other state
F. Frances Perkins
1. Goes on to be secretary of labor under FDR
2. “The new deal started on March 25, 1911”
3. Focused on protecting American workers
XIII. Progressive Era Reforms
A. Goal #1: Reform the Government
1. Problem
- Government was corrupt and inefficient
- People were chosen for positions based on the patronage system (like
the spoils system)
- Government was not as democratic as it could be
- Elected officials weren’t responsive to the voters
- Party bosses like William tweed- controlled selection and nomination of
- Difficult to remove corrupt officials before their term in office was up
- U.S. Senators were elected by state officials and not the people directly
2. Solutions
- Muckraker:
- Lincold Steffens in The story of two cities
i. C--------- plan- divide city government into departments
ii. Hire city m-------- develop a city c-------
- P--------- Act- allowed the president to declare what jobs would be filled
through the new civil service commission and exams
- Many solutions were first proposed by the P----- movement
- Initiative citizens could propose legislations directly themselves, not
through representatives
- Referendum- citizens could vote on proposed laws themselves, not
through representatives
- Recall- the citizens could vote to remove an official from office before
his term was up
- Proposed direct election of U.S. senators
- Reformer: R------ M. Lafollette- senator from W---[ who called for direct
- _---- Amendment – (1913)


United States History and Government

B. Goal #2: Fix Industrialization- and Urbanization issues

1. Problem
- Child Labor
2. Activist(s)/ Muckraker
- Louis Hein’s -
- Photojournalist of child labor in factories
- John Spargo -
- Wrote The Bitter Cry of Children
- Upton Sinclair -
- Added details about child labor in The Jungle
- John Dewey-
- American education
- Got kids out of work and into school
3. Methods & Solutions
- C---------- Bureau (1912):
- Investigates child labor
- K-----O-------- Act
- (1916) prohibited companies fr
4. Problem
- Health and safety of the Consumer
5. Activist(s)/ Muckraker
6. Methods & Solutions
7. Problem
- Health and safety of the Worker
8. Activist(s)/ Muckraker
9. Methods & Solutions
10. Problem
- Immigration issues (poor housing, illiteracy, assimilation, crime)
11. Activist(s)/ Muckraker
- Jane Addams- Hull House and Settlement
12. Methods & Solutions
- Zoning laws
- Tenement laws
C. Goal #3: Prohibition:
1. Government is Legislating Behavior
2. Problem
- Alcohol Abuse led to…
- Wasted wages, physical abuse, illness, and low productivity
3. Temperance/ Prohibition groups
- Women’s Christian Temperance Union (1874)
- Anti-Saloon League
4. Methods and Solutions
- 18th Amendment (1919):
- Prohibition Laws
- Repealed with the 21st amendment
D. Goal #4: Women’s Suffrage
1. Problem
- Women did not have the right to vote
2. Women’s Suffrage Groups/ Important figures
- 1848- Seneca Falls Convention
- Issued the Declaration of sentiments
- Prominent figures in the movement over time:


United States History and Government

3. Methods and Solutions
- 19th Amendment
- A response to world war I
E. Goal #5: Reform Big Business
1. Problem
- Monopolies/ trusts- eliminated competition and took advantage of small
business, the small farmer, and the consumer
2. Important Figures/ Muckrakers/ Solutions
- Muckrakers:
- Frank Norris
i. The octopus (about railroad monopolies)
- Ida Tarbell
i. History of standard oil (about Rockefeller
- Sherman Anti-Trust Act & Clayton Anti-Trust act
- (1914) strengthened monopoly laws, labor union had the right to strike
and collectively bargain
- Under Teddy Roosevelt
- His domestic program called the square deal (protect the Consumer ,
regulation Corporate industry, Conserve the Environment)
- -Regulation of trusts; “trustbusting president,” but wanted to
differentiate between “good” and” bad” trusts
- Created the cabinet position of the Dept. of Commerce and Labor
- Northern Securities Trust Case
- Mediates a coal strike (1902)
- Hepburn Act (1906): railroad regulation
- Under Woodrow Wilson
- The Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)
i. Five-person panel to review company records an business
F. Progressive Amendments
1. !6th amendment-
2. 17th amendment
3. 18th amendment
4. 19th amendment