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COUNTER

To determine the Flash temperature, we’ll have to determine the Dew Point and the Bubble Point

Temperatures. To calculate the Bubble Point Temperature, we assume that all of our feed is saturated ONLINE COUNTER

liquid. We assume a temperature and at that temperature, the K value for the component is determined.

Then by multiplying this K value with the liquid weight fraction, we get the vapor fractions. The sum

of these fractions should be unity in order to have the correct Bubble Point Temperature. So we see

that it’s a hit-and-trial method. Similarly, we assume a temperature and at that temperature we

determine the K value for the component. Then we assume that all of our feed is saturated vapor. So

dividing these fractions with the K values, we get liquid fractions; whose sum should be unity. If the

sum of liquid fractions is unity then our assumed Dew Point is correct. Taking the arithmetic average

of this Bubble Point and Dew Point Temperatures, we get the Flash Temperature. K values for

Iodomethane and Acetic Acid has been determined directly from the Himmelblau Software. The BLOG ARCHIVE

equation that this software uses is V.P = A- {B/(T + C)} Here A,B and C are empirical constants while

▼ 2011 (13)

T is the assumed temperature. By dividing this Vapor Pressure (V.P) by the total pressure, we get the K

▼ March (13)

value. K values for Water and Methyl Acetate have been determined by using the empirical relation

INSTRUMENTATION

given in Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook. The relation is:

CONTROL OVER

DISTILLATION COLUMN

V.P = exp [C1+C2/T + (C3*lnT) + (C4*TC5)] * 9.869233E-06 atm CONTROL OVER HEAT

EXCHANGER

Here C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5 all are empirical constants and there value is given in Chemical DISTILLATION COLUMN

Engineer’s Handbook by Perry. The Vapor Pressure thus obtained is divided by the total pressure to CHOICE BETWEEN PLATE

AND PACKED COLUMN

get the K value at the assumed temperature. The process of calculating Bubble Point and the Dew

FACTORS AFFECTING

Point Temperature is given below: SELECTION OF TRAYS

FACTORS AFFECTING

Compound Xi K at 101 o C K*Xi DISTILLATION COLUMN

OPERATION

Acetic Acid 0.632 0.416 0.263

DESIGNING STEPS OF

Methyl Acetate 0.215 2.673 0.574 DISTILLATION COLUMN

Iodomethane 0.018 3.682 0.065 POWER REQUIRED BY

PUMP

Water 0.136 0.736 0.100

FLASH TANK

1.000 1.002

FLASH TANK DESIGN

HAZOP STUDY

This employs that our Bubble Point Temperature is 101 oC.

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Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN 2/19/18, 3)59 PM

EANVIRONMENTAL

IMPACT ASSESMENT

Compound Yi K at 119 o C Yi/K

Acetic Acid 0.632 0.739 0.855

Methyl Acetate 0.215 4.163 0.052 FLAG COUNTER

Iodomethane 0.018 5.469 0.003

Water 0.136 1.348 0.101

1.000 1.011

This determines our Dew Point Temperature which comes out to be 119 oC. Now:

= 110 oC

Determining the Vapor and Liquid Flows:-

Determination of Vapors going out and the liquid draining the drum is a result of some lethal

calculations. These calculations are explained over here. First we make a material balance for a single

component. It yields:

FOLLOWERS

Putting this value in Eq.I, we get: Followers (4)

Follow

ð yi = Fxfi / (V + L/K)

Now after determining yi’s, we can calculate xi’s by using the K values from the expression:

i=c i=c

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Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN 2/19/18, 3)59 PM

So simplifying all the procedure, we come to know that if we are to calculate V, L, yi’s

1. Assume V.

2. Calculate L = F – V

3. Calculate L / V

i=c

If equality is obtained between the assumed V and the calculated V, then the assumed value is

satisfactory.

Now using this procedure the values of V, L, yi’s and xi’s have been calculated for the Flash Drum.

Since our calculations are based upon an hour of operation, so we have the following

amount of vapor and liquid flow rates;

Vapor liquid separation factor, which is equal to (FL/Fv) / (pv/pL) ½; comes out to be 0.017. Using the

graph, we notice that the Vapor Velocity Factor is equal to 0.35 m/sec.

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Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN 2/19/18, 3)59 PM

Maximum design vapor velocity is obtained by multiplying the vapor velocity factor with {(pL – pv)/

Uv = 6.653 m/sec

If we divide the vapor mass flow rate by the density, we get the volumetric flow rate. So

VL = 0.488 m3/sec

Dividing volumetric flow rate by the vapor velocity, we get the minimum cross sectional area of the

drum. Hence

Amin = VL/Uv

Amin = 0.073 m2

From this minimum cross sectional area, we can calculate the minimum diameter for the vessel. The

minimum diameter is:

Dmin = 0.306 m

Actual internal diameter is obtained by adding 6in to this minimum diameter. Therefore

D = 0.458 m

For a vertical Flash Drum the surge time is in the range of 4 to 7 min and that for a horizontal vessel, it

ranges between 7 to 12 min. Flash Drum used in Cativa Process has a surge time of 5 min. So

multiplying this time with the liquid volumetric flow rate, we get the liquid volume held in the flash

drum.

Since the vessel is cylindrical, therefore its volume is equal to 3.145*(radius) 2*height. Using this

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Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN 2/19/18, 3)59 PM

relation, we can determine the liquid height in the vessel. The liquid height comes out to be:

Liquid Height = 0.779 m

Now both H. Silla and Coulson have suggested the following formula for determining the vapor height

in the vessel. This formula is:

Now by adding the liquid and vapor heights, we can determine the total internal height of the vessel.

Thus

Total Height = 1.866 m

The L/D ratio for the Flash Drum comes out to be 4.072 which is a satisfactory value. This ratio

actually determines the type of vessel. It tells us that whether we should go for a horizontal vessel or a

vertical one. If the value of L/D ratio is between 3 and 5, then a vertical flash drum is used. If its value

exceeds 5, then a horizontal vessel should be employed.

Material of construction:-

Though material of construction is the part of mechanical design of the equipment but we

can predict about it. Since we are dealing with acidic, corrosive fluid; therefore we’ll have to look for

a material that is corrosion resistant. We come across two important choices that are corrosion resistant

as well as economical. The flash drum can either be manufactured from Stainless Steel or we may

make use of Aluminium. We can use either of the materials. Both have good mechanical strength,

quite resistant to corrosion and are also cheap. Most of the heat transfer equipment in industry is made

up from Aluminium Alloys. We are not that concerned with the heat transfer over here, so stainless

steel is recommended as the priority material of construction.

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