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Strong and uniform convergence in the teleportation simulation of

bosonic Gaussian channels

Mark M. Wilde

Hearne Institute for Theoretical Phyiscs


Department of Physics and Astronomy
Center for Computation and Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

Available as arXiv:1712.00145, presented at SQuInT 2018, Sante Fe, New Mexico

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Continuous-variable bosonic teleportation protocol

Recall the continuous-variable bosonic teleportation protocol:

A’

B
AM PM

The entangledrresource state is a two-mode squeezed vacuum


P∞  n
NS
√1 n=0 NS +1
|niA ⊗ |niB , and measurements are homodyne detection.
NS +1

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Continuous-variable bosonic teleportation protocol

Using imperfect resources, the channel implemented by the teleportation protocol is


an additive-noise Gaussian channel:
ˆ
exp(−|α|2 /σ̄)
T σ̄ (ρ) = d 2 α D(α)ρD(−α),
πσ̄
where σ̄ > 0 is the variance parameter, related to squeezing strength and
measurement efficiency.

In the literature, it is often loosely stated that the teleportation simulation converges
to the ideal channel in the limit of ideal squeezing and detection, but what is the
precise sense in which this happens?

This is not just a mathematical question, but has important physical consequences.
It also has applications in quantum Shannon theory. We can explore this question
via the “CV teleportation game.”

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CV teleportation game

Two players: the Distinguisher and the Teleporter. There is also a Referee to decide
who wins. All involved are honest.

Referee flips a fair coin and tells the Teleporter the outcome. If “heads,” the
Teleporter will apply the identity channel; if “tails,” the Teleporter will apply the CV
teleportation protocol.

At this point, either the Distinguisher reveals his strategy to the Teleporter, or vice
versa. The Referee knows both strategies.

The Distinguisher picks a pure state |ψiRA0 and sends A0 to the Teleporter. The
Teleporter takes action as described above. Both R and A are sent to the Referee.

The Referee applies the best measurement to decide what channel the Teleporter
applied. If there is a match between the coin flip outcome and the measurement
result, then the Distinguisher wins this round. If not, the Teleporter wins this round.

After many rounds, Referee collects the results. If the Distinguisher wins more than
3/4 of the rounds, then he is declared the winner. Otherwise, the Teleporter is
declared the winner.

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Depiction of the CV teleportation game — “Heads”

Case: “Heads”

R
Distinguisher

Referee

Teleporter

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Depiction of the CV teleportation game — “Tails”

Case: “Tails”

R
Distinguisher

Referee
A0

Teleporter B0
AM PM

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Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Un)

Suppose that the Teleporter reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

Hint: Winning probability in this case is related to

inf sup ψRA0 − (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(ψRA0 ) 1



σ̄>0 ψ
RA0

In turn related to topology of uniform convergence

Suppose that the Distinguisher reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

Hint: Winning probability in this case is related to

sup inf ψRA0 − (idR ⊗T σ̄ )(ψRA0 ) 1



ψRA0 σ̄>0

In turn related to topology of strong convergence

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Changing the game

Let us now change the game. Let G denote a single-mode thermal, amplifier, or
additive-noise channel (not the ideal channel).

If “heads,” the Teleporter applies G. If “tails,” the Teleporter applies the


teleportation simulation of G, which is given by G ◦ T σ̄ .

Who wins now?

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Teleporter vs. Distinguisher (Part Deux)

Suppose that the Teleporter reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

Hint: Winning probability in this case is related to

inf sup (idR ⊗G)(ψRA0 ) − (idR ⊗[G ◦ T σ̄ ])(ψRA0 ) 1



σ̄>0 ψ
RA0

In turn related to topology of uniform convergence

Suppose that the Distinguisher reveals. Then who wins (with high probability)?

Hint: Winning probability in this case is related to

sup inf (idR ⊗G)(ψRA0 ) − (idR ⊗[G ◦ T σ̄ ])(ψRA0 ) 1



ψRA0 σ̄>0

In turn related to topology of strong convergence

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