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ICTVdB Virus Description - 00.073.0.02.001.

Rubella virus

08/07/2005 10:12 PM

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00.073.0.02.001. Rubella virus
Cite this publication as: Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed) (2003). 00.073.0.02.001. Rubella virus. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 3. ICTVdB Management, The Columbia University, Oracle, AZ, USA Cite this site as: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/

Isolation Details
Location: Japan.

Classification
This is a description of a vertebrate virus at the species level. ICTVdB Virus Code: 00.073.0.02.001. Virus accession number: 73002001. Former virus code: 73.0.2.0.001; former accession number: 73020001. NCBI TaxID: [11041].

ICTVdB Classification/H3> ICTV approved acronym: (RUBV). Virus is assigned to the genus 00.073.0.02. Rubivirus; family 00.073. Togaviridae. Morphology
Virions have a complex construction and consist of an envelope and a nucleocapsid. During their life cycle, virions have not been observed outside a cellular environment. They have a cell-associated cycle. The virus core (capsid) is surrounded by a lipid envelope with structural proteins. Virions are spherical and measure 60-70 nm in diameter. The surface projections are distinctive spikes evenly covering the surface. Surface projections are 5-8 nm long. The nucleocapsid is round and exhibits icosahedral symmetry.
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ICTVdB Virus Description - 00.073.0.02.001. Rubella virus

08/07/2005 10:12 PM

Physicochemical and Physical Properties
The molecular mass (Mr) of virions is 52 x 106. Virions have a buoyant density in sucrose of 1.18-1.19 g cm -3, or 1.22 g cm -3. The sedimentation coefficient is 280 S20w . The thermal inactivation point (TIP) is at 58°C. The longevity in vitro (LIV) is 0.35 days (at 37°C in culture medium). Following UV radiation virion infectivity is rapidly inactivated by heating for 10 min above 5°C. The virus can be stored for several days in the presence of protein at 4°C and keep infectious for prolonged intervals belowt -60°C. Virions are sensitive to treatment with organic solvents and detergents, which solubilzes their envelops.

Nucleic Acid
The genome is not segmented and consists of a single molecule of linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA. The complete genome is 9757 nucleotides long. The RNA has been fully and partially sequenced. The fully sequenced genome is 9757 nucleotides long and can be accessed at GenBank with the accession number [M15240]. The 5'-end of the genome has a methylated nucleotide cap. The 3'-terminus has a poly (A) tract. Reference to nucleotide sequence PubMed ID: [86317717] ; [88226020] ; [90281585] .

Proteins
The viral genome encodes structural and non-structural proteins. Virions consist of 3 structural proteins located in the envelope and nucleocapsid. The viral envelope contains 2 integral membrane proteins. Structural Proteins: Envelope protein E1 has a molecular mass of 58000 Da and is the product of the polyprotein of 110 kd, translated from the 24S subgenomic mRNA. Envelope protein has the accession number [P08563] and is expressed in the late transcription phase. E1 is forming the viral spikes that contain neutralization and hemagglutinin epitopes. During post-translational processing envelope protein has been cleaved from the precursor polyprotein coding for the structural proteins E1, E2 and C. Modifications occur that include glycosylation with N-linked glycans. Envelope protein E2 has a molecular mass of about 42000-48000 Da; has been sequenced; is expressed in the late transcription phase. During post-translational processing envelope protein modifications occur that include heavy glycosylation with both N- andO-linked glycans. Nucleocapsid protein C has a molecular mass of 33000 Da; is the product of the polyprotein 110 kd precursor, which has been sequenced. Sequence has the accession number [P08563]. Protein C is expressed in the late transcription phase and interacts with the virus genome to form the nucleocapsid, which possesses a basic quality through its rich content in arginine and lysine. Non-Structural Proteins: Virus-coded non-structural proteins have been identified by sequence analysis (Johnstone P, Whitby J, Bosma T, Best JM and Sanders PG. Sequence variation in 5' termini of rubella virus genomes: Changes affecting structure of the 5' proximal stem-loop. Arch. Virol.).

Lipids
Lipids are present and are located in the envelope.

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ICTVdB Virus Description - 00.073.0.02.001. Rubella virus

08/07/2005 10:12 PM

Biological Properties
Natural Host Range
Virus infects during its life cycle a single type of vertebrate host. Viral hosts belong to the Domain Eucarya. Domain Eucarya Kingdom Animalia. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata. Phylum Vertebrata Subphylum Vertebrata; Class Mammalia. Class Mammalia Order Primates; Family Hominidae. General Symptoms in Animals Infection can affect the endocrine or exocrine system, and dermis, mucosa or epithelium. General symptoms include fever and rashes. Signs and symptoms include maculopapular; erythema marginatum. Lesions are found in skin or dermis.

Severity and Occurrence of Disease
Host 1: Although disease expression is dependent on dose, infection is usually subacute. The infection can be clinically expressed, but 50% of rubella infections are clinically inapparent. Signs and symptoms may vary, but are usually mild and disappear soon after infection. Prevalence of viral infection is seasonally dependent, and incidences of virus infection are usually observed in spring. Contagiousness is moderate and infected host remains contagious for 12 days. The incubation period lasts usually 16-20 days.

Transmission and Vector Relationships
The virus is not transmitted by a vector. The virus is transmitted by contact between hosts and by kissing. Non-Vector Transmission: The virus is by inhaling; likelihood of viral transmission by respiratory route is significant. Diagnostic Hosts For virus isolation the most commonly used cell lines or tissue cultures are from throat washings. Maintenance and Propagation Hosts Cell lines or tissue cultures used for propagating virus are AGMK TC, Rab K TC and other TC.

Pathology
The virus can be detected best in the respiratory tract.
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ICTVdB Virus Description - 00.073.0.02.001. Rubella virus

08/07/2005 10:12 PM

Histopathology: Virions are found in the cytoplasm.

Geographical Distribution
The virus is probably distributed worldwide. The viral host lives under aerobic conditions.

Taxonomic Structure of the Species
List of Strains in the Species 379; A1; A2; A3; A4; A5; A6; BRD2; C3130; CT; HS; IM; M33; Matsuba; Matsuura Progenitor; NC; SM; TCRB 19; To 336; Takahashi; WK; YT.

References
Frey TK, Marr LD, Hemphill ML and Dominguez G (1986). Molecular cloning and sequencing of the region of the rubella virus genome coding for glycoprotein E1. Virology 154 (1), 228-232 (PMID: 3755848). Frey TK and Marr LD (1988). Sequence of the region coding for virion proteins C and E2 and the carboxy terminus of the nonstructural proteins of rubella virus: comparison with alphaviruses. Gene 62 (1), 85-99 (PMID: 2836271). Dominguez G, Wang CY and Frey TK (1990). Sequence of the genome RNA of rubella virus: evidence for genetic rearrangement during togavirus evolution. Virology 177 (1), 225-238 (PMID: 2353453). The description has been generated automatically from DELTA files. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, developed for the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) by Dr Cornelia Büchen-Osmond, is written in DELTA. The virus descriptions in ICTVdB are coded by ICTV members and experts, or by the ICTVdB Management using data provided by the experts, the literature or the latest ICTV Report. The character list is the underlying code. All virus descriptions are based on the character list and natural language translations from the encoded descriptions are automatically generated and formatted for display on the Web. Developer of the DELTA software: M. J. Dallwitz, T. Paine and E. Zurcher ICTVdB and DELTA related References Last updated: 15 August 2003 by Cornelia Büchen-Osmond Web Page generated from ICTVdB by the DELTA systems. Copyright © 2002 International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. All rights reserved.

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ICTVdB Virus Description - 00.073.0.02.001. Rubella virus

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