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Level 2 Student Manual
Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Physiology & Anatomy)
Active IQ Suite 3 • Unit 4 Cromwell Business Centre • New Road St Ives • Cambridgeshire • PE27 5BG Phone 01480 497650 • Fax 01480 467997
© Active IQ Document AIQ000350
lungs and circulatory systems The Skeletal System Joint Actions The Neuromuscular System Energy systems applicable to exercise Healthy eating and basic nutrition Physical activity considerations for older adults Physical activity considerations for Pre and Post Natal Women 4 5 5 9 14 24 28 30 32 48 51 65 71 77 80 © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 2 .CONTENTS UNIT 1 – Exercise and Fitness Knowledge Level 2 The Components of Fitness Total Fitness Physical Fitness Factors affecting physical fitness The Circulatory system The Respiratory System Monitoring Exercise Intensity The benefits of exercise on the heart.
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lungs and circulatory systems Describe the skeletal system Describe the neuromuscular system Describe the kinesiology applicable to exercise Describe the energy systems applicable to exercise Describe the additional pre-activity screening procedures necessary for activity sessions involving individual older adults or pre-and post-natal clients The Components of Fitness In order to understand client’s objectives and design appropriate training programmes it is important that the fitness instructor develops an understanding of the concepts and components of fitness. not merely the absence of disease. This can be achieved through appropriate questioning at the consultation stage and an understanding of the individual components of fitness.Unit Exercise and Fitness Knowledge Level 2 1 Aim: To provide students with a knowledge of anatomy and physiology and how it relates to exercise and fitness Learning Outcomes: By the end of this unit you will be able to • • • • • • • Describe the components of fitness Describe the heart. The definition is as follows: “A complete state of mental. Health The concept of health was defined in 1946 by the World Health Organisation. physical and social well being.” © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 4 . If a client indicates that they have the objective of ‘getting fit’ the instructor should ascertain precisely what the client means.
This concept can prove problematic due to the extremely diverse nature of physical performance. If an individual performs a certain type of training they will obtain specific training adaptations. growth and repair Social fitness – healthy interaction with others Physical Fitness Fitness can be defined in many different ways. Both athletes possess the capacity to compete at a high level in their own sport. For example. because fitness means different things to different people. Some attempts to define fitness are listed below: Roberts and Roberts (1997). A definition of fitness that takes an approach other than physical performance is as follows: “Fitness is the successful adaptation to the stresses of one’s lifestyle. even though they are an elite athlete in their own field. As a concept it is difficult to provide a definitive definition. states that of the following.Total Fitness The model of ‘total fitness’. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 5 . following the same theme. If the weightlifter attempted to compete in a marathon they would almost certainly perform badly. the best possible is required for complete wellness: • • • • • Physical fitness Mental and emotional fitness . as it is well equipped to adapt structurally and functionally to a wide variety of stimuli. an elite marathon runner would be considered fit by the majority of people.good nutritional intake for fuel. disease and illness from a medical standpoint Nutritional fitness .” McArdle et al (2001). define physical fitness as: “Attributes related to how well one performs physical activity. define fitness as: “A state of well-being that provides optimal performance. Some would also consider an Olympic weightlifter to be fit.” Both definitions suggest that successful performance is a factor in fitness.free from injury. yet they would perform at novice level if they decided to participate in the other discipline. The human body can be considered a master adapter.” This definition of fitness is thought provoking as it suggests that fitness is attained once the body adapts to any stresses placed upon it.harmony with a positive mental state Medical fitness .
but only in relation to the activities that they frequently perform. jump.If the stresses of an individual’s lifestyle include appropriate and progressive aerobic exercise. No single component of fitness will allow an individual to perform all of these tasks successfully. Below is a list of the components of physical fitness. The ability of an individual to walk. Providing neither individual attempts to perform any activity outside of their current physical capabilities they can both be considered fit. When most nonexercising individuals resolve to ‘get fit’ they are more likely to throw themselves into jogging or cycling than getting to the gym and participating in resistance training or some other mode of exercise. If the stresses of an individual’s lifestyle include little or no physical stimuli (the stereotypical “couch potato”) then the body will adapt accordingly. The aerobically trained individual will be fit for aerobic activity and the “couch potato” will be fit for sitting in front of the TV and eating junk food. they will obtain aerobic fitness gains. There are five components of Physical Fitness: • • • • • Cardiovascular fitness Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Flexibility Motor Skills Cardiovascular fitness Cardiovascular fitness includes both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Fitness is a general term for a concept that consists of many distinct and individual components. transport and utilise oxygen during exercise. Each component will determine the ability of an individual to successfully perform specific physical tasks. The general public are likely to associate cardiovascular fitness with ‘being fit’ as it is the component of fitness that allows individuals to walk. lift. swim or balance will be determined by their personal profile in terms of the individual components of fitness. sprint. Each component is defined and some examples of activities requiring each component have been provided. run. throw. To understand the concept of fitness more thoroughly it is important to examine the individual components that contribute to physical fitness. swim and cycle for prolonged periods of time. Aerobic cardiovascular fitness refers to the ability of the heart and lungs to take in. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 6 . jog. These modes of exercise are common and the ability to perform them is desirable to those who struggle to perform physical activity without getting very short of breath. cycle.
thus making the task easier. Examples of activities requiring cardiovascular fitness include marathon running. If the body is trained consistently using exercises that challenge the anaerobic energy pathways. crosscountry skiing. In practice. They range from extremely short but intense contractions of up to 10 seconds in duration (creatine phosphate system). Examples of activities that require anaerobic conditioning vary greatly. Muscular strength Muscular strength can be defined as the maximal amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can generate during one contraction. Firstly. weight training. Examples of activities requiring maximal strength include heavy weightlifting and lifting / moving heavy objects. long-distance cycling and walking briskly for prolonged periods.The individual that is better able to utilise oxygen during activity will be able to exercise at greater absolute exercise intensities without relying on the fatigue inducing anaerobic energy pathways. The development of enhanced muscular strength is useful for two key reasons. to activities that are less intense but may last up to approximately 2 minutes in duration (the lactate system). this means that a person with good cardiovascular fitness will be able to go faster for longer without fatigue. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 7 . adaptations will occur that allow the individual to delay the onset of fatigue or perform exercise at a higher intensity prior to fatigue. with enhanced levels of strength everyday submaximal tasks require a lesser percentage of the individual’s maximal effort. Secondly. The anaerobic energy pathways will be recruited when the rate and intensity of muscular contractions exceed the ability of the body to supply oxygen to the target muscle and thus produce energy aerobically. jumping and team / racquet sports involving multiple short sprints and changes of direction. Anaerobic cardiovascular fitness is associated with the ability to produce energy without oxygen. the individual is able to produce a greater maximal force when required to do so. Some examples of anaerobic activities include sprinting.
Flexibility Flexibility can be defined as the range of movement about a joint or series of joints. like all other components of fitness can be improved through appropriate training and feedback. balance. speed. It could therefore. high repetition resistance training and downhill skiing. pain and injury. One-off maximal contractions (i. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 8 . maintaining a good postural position. Motor skills. express maximal strength) are performed very rarely. Many individuals only dabble with flexibility by including a few generic stretches as part of a warm-up or cool-down. The development of muscular endurance would enhance the ability of an individual to perform commonplace everyday tasks. walking up stairs. reaction time. Examples of activities and sports that require flexibility include gymnastics. dance. The vast majority of everyday situations that require an individual to exert force require submaximal contractions. The body operates as a kinetic chain with all joints contributing to freedom of movement. dysfunction. proprioception. The importance of developing and maintaining an appropriate range of motion at all joints should not be underestimated. agility and co-ordination. A significant percentage of exercising individuals perform no flexibility training at all. If uncorrected this process can lead to altered movement patterns. If range of movement is diminished at one joint there will be a knock-on effect up and down the chain as the body tries to compensate for the lack of normal movement.e. Activities requiring muscular endurance include: carrying shopping. be argued that the majority of ‘regular’ clients would derive more benefit from muscular endurance training than from strength training.Muscular endurance Muscular endurance can be defined as the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to contract repeatedly for extended periods of time without fatigue. Motor skills Motor skills is a general term for a group of abilities that contribute to controlled and efficient human movement. power. It is common practice for flexibility to be largely ignored as an important component of fitness. They include. yoga and everyday normal function. gardening.
table tennis and golf. narrow waist and hips. skiing. Mesomorphs tend to be naturally lean and muscular with broad shoulders and. Ectomorph Mesomorph Endomorph Ectomorphs are naturally thin with little body fat or muscle mass. Factors affecting physical fitness Bodytype An individual’s body type will have a significant impact on their ability to perform various physical tasks successfully. especially those requiring a good power to weight ratio. team sports. the higher the motor skill requirement. Sports and activities that require well developed motor skills include gymnastics. The more complex the movementbased task. Endomorphs also tend to possess a reasonable degree of muscle mass. Ectomorphs find it difficult to gain weight (either muscle or fat) and are well suited to weight-bearing aerobic activities such as long distance running. although this is often overlooked due to the © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 9 . The somatotyping system suggests that there are 3 distinct body types: ectomorphs. Endomorphs are naturally predisposed to fat storage. A simple system for assessing body type is the visual system of somatotyping. They tend to be apple or pearshaped and carry large amounts of body fat. endomorphs and mesomorphs. Mesomorphs are naturally athletic and tend to be suited to a wide variety of sporting activities. juggling. It is important to note that each activity requires different combinations of motor skills.All human movement requires some degree of motor skills.
mouth. lungs and brain. which equates to over 300 people a day. The faster the alcohol is absorbed. lip and throat. Alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream from the stomach and small intestine. Smoking Smoking is one of the most significant causes of preventable disease and early death in the UK. bladder. However. Similarly. ectomorphs are unlikely to succeed in the field of competitive bodybuilding as they have difficulty gaining muscular size. alcohol may be good for your health. However. The risks of excess alcohol intake are varied and can lead to a number of physical. In small quantities. the effects of alcohol can be detrimental to your health. heart. when consumed in larger quantities. 20O2). liver. yet carbonated drinks or drinking quickly may speed the rate up. Activities such as shot putt and hammer throwing may be suited to endomorphs. An endomorph with a goal of becoming a competitive marathon runner may need to re-evaluate their objective as they are not structurally suited to this type of activity. social and mental problems. colorectal and cervical cancers and leukaemia. oesophageal. A number of diseases can result from smoking: 1. your work. Many individuals are not exclusively one of the body types. 1-2 units per day is believed to help protect against stroke and heart attacks in men over 40 years and post-menopausal women (NHS. The presence of food may slow this absorption rate down. An understanding of body typing is important when discussing and cementing client objectives. but rather a combination of two or more. Alcohol is removed and metabolised from the bloodstream by the liver as the blood flows through it. For example. the higher the blood alcohol level and the greater its effect. and social and personal relationships. little muscle mass and a tendency to store body fat could be considered an ectomorph with endomorphic tendencies. In moderate amounts alcohol can reduce tension and inhibitions and enhance enjoyment. kidney. Cancers Lung. Every year it is estimated that around 120.000 people die as a result of smoking.predisposition for fat storage. excessive drinking can affect your physical and mental health. Alcohol Alcohol is a drug that has positive and negative effects on the body and creates dependency in some individuals. stomach. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 10 . pancreatic. an individual with a small frame. It circulates through the liver.
This makes our body mobilise the resources for immediate physical activity. At the same time the digestive. The heart pumps faster and more powerfully to supply increased amounts of glucose and oxygen to the brain and skeletal muscles. urinary and reproductive systems are inhibited. 17% of all heart disease deaths and at least 80% of deaths from bronchitis and emphysema. The instant that we feel we cannot cope with something we are potentially under stress. aortic system aneurysm. myocardial degeneration.2. pneumonia. as they are seen as less useful at that time. We respond to stress in a manner referred to as fight-or-flight. Heart and Circulation Ischaemic heart disease. atherosclerosis and stroke. stomach and duodenal ulcers Deaths Caused by Smoking Smoking causes thirty per cent of all cancer deaths (including at least 80% of lung cancer deaths). 3. The implications for exercising is that smoking leads to a reduced level of oxygen to the heart which means the heart has to work harder Stress We are all susceptible to stress. In essence this is an alarm response dating back to when our choice was to either fight or run away from any threat. Others Bronchitis. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 11 . emphysema.
Not a time to commence a heavy training programme if the woman is usually sedentary. A programme of progressively modified exercise can be beneficial.Effects of Stress There are many warning signs to show when somebody is suffering from stress. This is largely due to the hormone testosterone. If. a person is subjected to stress over a long period of time they run the risk of suffering from any number of complaints (BUPA. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 12 . have a lower body fat percentage and greater upper body strength. 20O2). Lack of forgiveness Self-abuse Isolation Intolerance Memory loss Confusion Suicidal thoughts Mood swings Anger Anxiety Worry Sweating Ulcers Dizziness Nervous laughter Bursts of tears Colds Headaches Insomnia Boredom As soon as the fight-or-flight response has worn off the body returns to normal. Specialist ante/post natal classes advised. Oestrogen is more predominant in females and is responsible for development of the female characteristics. however. Asthma Hyperventilation Bronchitis Cancer Fatigue Muscular tension Diabetes Obesity Gender Hypertension Angina Stroke Heart attack Rheumatoid Arthritis Colds Flu Depression Colitis Constipation Diarrhoea Ulcers Breakdown Allergies Migraine Anorexia Males on average are larger. Shape of pelvis narrower in males. Pregnancy Joints become more flexible due to the presence of a hormone called relaxin. A post natal check up is essential before clients can return to exercise.
The natural ageing process affects all components of fitness. It is possible to maintain a relatively high level of physical function if an active lifestyle is maintained. hearing. Other Factors to Consider • • • Finance Disability Availability © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 13 . The body’s capabilities peak somewhere between 18-30 years and steadily decline with increasing age. help prevent falling. Strengthen around joints e. balance. reaction time.g.g. wrists. hips. Need longer warm-up & cool down. Consider kinaesthetic awareness e. “Use it or lose it”.Age The ageing process begins immediately after birth and involves a lifelong series of changes. knees. spine. sight. Therefore it is important to keep active.
2000). and carbon dioxide (CO2) are removed.The Circulatory system The circulatory system is divided into three parts: • • • the blood the heart the blood vessels Blood Blood is the transport medium by which nourishment and oxygen (O2) are carried to all structures of the body and waste products. and allows the RBC to carry O2 in the blood and to a lesser extent CO2. Blood volume usually consists of about 40% RBCs. Blood consists of the following four components: • • • • red blood cells white blood cells platelets plasma Red blood cells (erythrocytes): The body contains approximately 240-270 million red blood cells (RBCs) in every drop of blood (Tortora and Grabowski. Red blood cells © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 14 . RBCs contain a protein called haemoglobin (Hb). which binds to oxygen. Blood is composed of a number of cells suspended in a liquid medium called plasma. These cells are produced in the soft red bone marrow at a rate of about 2 million per second. and therefore blood. Hb is the pigment that gives RBCs. its red colour.
2000). The Heart The heart is in essence a muscular pump. do not contain Hb. White blood cells (WBCs) come in many shapes and forms. gases. This is the initial stage of repair to damaged tissues. electrolytes. They destroy bacteria and other harmful living organisms. The right half pumps blood to the lungs.5%) and solutes (8. which pushes the oxygen and nutrients around the body to the tissues. It consists predominantly of water (91. just left of centre. They will also release chemicals which will help to promote blood clotting.White blood cells (leukocytes): White blood cells (WBCs) are transparent and. They are fewer in number than RBCs (700 times less) and are also produced in red bone marrow. enzymes. platelets are actually cell fragments. hormones. while the left side pumps blood to the rest of the body. Platelets (thrombocytes): Unlike RBCs and WBCs. vitamins and waste products. nutrients. It is about the size of a man's clenched fist and lies behind the sternum. Plasma: Plasma is the straw-coloured liquid portion of the blood. Each side of the heart is hollow and is further broken down into two smaller © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 15 . Platelets will assist in preventing blood loss from a damaged blood vessel by forming a platelet plug (Tortora and Grabowski. Location of the heart The heart is made up of thick muscular walls and is divided into separate left and right halves. which are whole cells. thus protecting the body by removing diseased or injured tissue. unlike RBCs. but are generally the cells of the immune system that fight infection.5%) such as proteins.
two upper chambers (or atria) and two lower chambers (or ventricles). © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 16 . Atrium is the Latin for ‘hall’. Ventricular contraction is called systole and ventricular relaxation is called diastole. all performing slightly different tasks.connected chambers. Heart valves: There are a number of different valves around the heart. There are four chambers in total. The atria are smaller than the ventricles and do not really have to contract particularly hard. when entering either side of the heart. The left ventricle has larger muscular walls than the right ventricle. or ‘entranceway’ and is the chamber which blood flows into first. and prevent the flow of blood back into the atria during ventricular contraction. and pump the blood down into the ventricles. The atria receive blood via the veins from different parts of the body. There are a set of atrioventricular (AV) valves that separate the artia and ventricles. The ventricles supply the force to push the blood to its various destinations. whereas the right side only has to pump its contents to the adjacent lungs. most of the blood in the atria will flow into the ventricles passively. This is because the left side pumps its contents to the furthest parts of the body. The semilunar valves prevent the flow of blood back into the right (pulmonary valve) and left ventricles (aortic valve) during ventricular relaxation. Even if the atria fail to contract properly.
In the pulmonary capillaries. and O2. The left ventricle then ejects the blood.Oxygen rich blood to the body Pulmonary Vein Oxygen rich blood from the lungs Vena Cavae Oxygen poor blood from the body Left Atrium Left Ventricle Right Atrium Right Ventricle © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 17 . The blood is saturated with CO2. the CO2 diffuses into the lungs to be expired while O2 enters the blood. via the aorta. It is normally coloured in blue when drawn in pictures of the heart. but may appear bluish when viewed through blood vessel walls. Deoxygenated blood is dark red in colour.Heart structure The right hand side of the heart is responsible for receiving blood from the upper and lower body via the veins (venous return). It is ejected to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) via the pulmonary artery. This oxygenated blood (bright red in colour) enters the left atrium of the heart via the pulmonary vein. The blood enters the right atrium via either the inferior or superior vena cava. Pulmonary Artery Oxygen poor blood to the lungs Aorta . It is important to note that arteries always carry blood away from the heart and veins always carry blood to the heart. and is referred to as deoxygenated blood. to the tissues of the body (systemic circulation).
Since the walls of these blood vessels are so thin. As blood is ejected powerfully from the heart. which carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs to be re-oxygenated. from the blood. and into individual tissue cells to be used. or linked. and thereby delivering nutrients to and from the tissues. Although blood vessels are divided into different categories because of their shape and function. the arterial walls are required to stretch passively to receive the blood under high pressure and then immediately contract as in a recoil action to assist in propelling the blood further on down the line to the body. Blood flows through the capillary beds slowly to allow for this exchange. pass back into the blood to be carried away and excreted. Food and oxygen passes through the walls. The large artery that leaves the left ventricle of the heart is called the aorta. These are the arteries. The smooth muscle tissue that surrounds the artery and arteriole walls is thicker and more powerful than that surrounding the walls of veins. it is important to remember that they are all linked in a continuous loop. they allow the diffusion of nutrients and gases through their walls and into the tissue cells. One type of blood vessel will gradually be split. to form another type of blood vessel. There are broadly three types of vessels that differ in construction and size. Capillaries The arteries branch off into smaller arterioles and these become smaller and thinner until they are described as capillaries. according to their function and position in the body.Blood Vessels Blood vessels are the transport system for the blood. There are no valves in the arteries other than those at the exit points of the ventricles to prevent backflow. There are a greater number of capillaries than of any other blood vessel type. Arteries and arterioles predominantly carry oxygenated blood around the body. This divides and subdivides gradually becoming arterioles. even the smallest area of tissue. Likewise the waste products. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 18 . These capillaries have extremely thin walls (approximately one cell thick) and spread to all parts of the body. capillaries and veins. The exception to this rule is the pulmonary arteries and arterioles. These blood vessels are responsible for transporting the blood to and from the heart. This action is called peristalsis. which can contract (like all muscle) to squeeze blood along the passageways away from the heart. from the heart to the rest of the body and back again. There are two additional sub-types called arterioles and venules. such as CO2 and lactic acid. Arteries Arteries are muscular tubes with thick walls.
Veins are thinner walled tubes compared to arteries. Veins and venules predominantly carry de-oxygenated blood. or wave-like. have a series of one-way valves that work against gravity to prevent backflow of the blood as it passes back towards the heart. action to assist the returning blood flow.Veins Once the capillaries have passed by the tissue. they gradually link together to form progressively larger blood vessels called venules. which carries blood from the tissues back towards the heart. These venules then eventually become larger veins. Unlike arteries. which makes its return back up the body to the heart more difficult. which is therefore. The flow of blood back to the heart is called venous return. All veins therefore. Overview of circulation Capillary / alveoli interaction Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary artery Aorta Pulmonary vein Vena cavae Systemic Circulation Capillary / tissue interaction © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 19 . The exception to this rule is the pulmonary veins and venules. with little muscular contractility. veins carry blood under low pressure. which are carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart. high in CO2. The smooth muscle in the walls contracts automatically in a peristaltic. This will help to prevent reversed blood flow or pooling of blood. be it muscle or alveoli.
via the veins. the empty chamber creates a small vacuum assisting in drawing in blood from the vena cava smooth muscle contraction (peristalsis) . which produces a suction effect on the veins below the heart the right atrium also helps to ‘suck’ the blood back.Venous return Venous return of blood back to the heart.veins are assisted by the squeezing action of the nearby skeletal muscles • • The muscles contract and squeeze the vein walls Non-return valves ensure blood returns to heart Venous return via the muscular pump © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 20 . As the blood within this chamber empties into the ventricle below.there is a pumping action of the smooth muscle tissue. such as the head and shoulder non-return valves in the veins prevent the back flow of blood and are one of the biggest factors assisting venous return the diaphragm is the large dome-shaped muscle of respiration in the chest cavity. The contributing factors that assist venous return are: • • • • gravity .this will assist in the return of blood from anywhere above the heart. this peristaltic action takes place continually skeletal muscle contraction .
when the heart is in a relaxed state. It should be noted that heavy weight training and isometric exercise can significantly increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg) and is expressed using two numbers. or diastole. Effects of exercise on blood pressure Short term effects There is often an increase in SBP during exertion and in contrast there is often a decrease in DBP (this is due to vasodilation). Optimal blood pressure Optimal blood pressure is below 120 mmHg for systolic and 80 mmHg for diastolic pressure. The heart goes through this period of relaxation. It then falls to a lower level.The blood circulation is a closed system in which the pressure varies constantly. Diastolic blood pressure The diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is the pressure exerted on the artery walls. at the height of the contraction of each heartbeat as the heart pumps blood out. written as 120/80mmHg (“one hundred and twenty over eighty”). and is usually noted first. These two numbers represent the systolic and diastolic blood pressures respectively. when the cardiac muscle is contracting and pumping blood. therefore increasing the pressure within the arteries. Systolic blood pressure The systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the pressure exerted on the artery walls. It rises to a peak. Blood Pressure Blood pressure can be described as a measure of the force that the blood applies to the walls of the arteries as it flows through them. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 21 . This is the higher of the two numbers. It is caused by the increased volume of blood flowing through the arteries with each beat. to allow the chambers of the heart to fill with blood prior to contraction. which it reaches just before each heartbeat. Long term effects Aerobic exercise using large muscle groups in rhythmical activity is very appropriate for reducing blood pressure over time.
If food has just been eaten. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 22 . This also plays a part in the regulation of blood pressure. Effects of exercise on stroke volume Short term effects During exercise the stroke volume increases to approximately double that of its resting value. so more blood is delivered for every beat of the heart. both heart rate and stroke volume increase to meet the body’s demand for oxygen. Cardiac Output (CO) This is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one minute (litres). whilst blood vessels feeding muscles are vasoconstricted. As a result. The volume has to rise to meet the demands from the working muscles for a greater oxygen supply. more blood is delivered and at a faster rate. reducing the blood flow. Those of highly trained individuals have been measured at 100 ml. depending on what state the body is in and where the oxygen and nutrients are required. As the heart rate has also increased. therefore the amount of blood being ejected from the heart in any one minute must also increase. Stroke volume (SV) The amount of blood pumped by the heart with each contraction (ml). the stroke volume has to rise to ensure that sufficient blood flow can be delivered to the cells. whether an individual is at rest or in their active state. The average resting value is thought to be around 70 ml of blood per contraction in sedentary individuals. Eating a large meal too close to a training session or match. more. Effects of exercise on cardiac output Short term effects In the short term. causing cramp and sometimes vomiting. During exercise the opposite happens and more blood will be routed to the muscles and less will be available to the organs and digestive tracts. then the blood vessels that feed the digestive system are vasodilated and blood flow is increased. This enables the body to direct the flow of blood to different tissues. will allow insufficient time for the food to be digested in the stomach. Long term effects As the heart rate decreases with training. or less blood will flow through them.Control of Circulatory Blood Flow The blood vessels are able to narrow (vasoconstriction) or widen (vasodilation) because of the smooth muscle found in their walls.
CO could be higher. Cardiac output can be calculated using the following formula: Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 23 .Long term effects When cardiovascular improvements are made and efficiency increased. to compensate for the reduction to the heart rate.
The Respiratory System The main functions of the respiratory system are the intake of oxygen (O2) into the body. and the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the body. Anatomy of the Respiratory System Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus or Bronchi (plural) Lung Air enters the body through the following structures: • • • • • • • nose/mouth pharynx larynx trachea primary bronchi bronchioles alveoli © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 24 .
increasing the chest cavity volume. This creates a positive pressure. until the two pressures are balanced. returning upwards to its dome-shape. At the same time the intercostal muscles relax and bring the rib cage back down decreasing the chest cavity volume. During expiration the diaphragm muscle relaxes. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 25 . and the negative pressure. contraction of the diaphragm muscle will cause the normal ‘dome-shape’ to flatten. This is very much like a ‘vacuum’ effect. between the air in the lungs and that in the atmosphere. This increase in volume creates a negative pressure. which ‘pushes’ some of the air out of the lungs. literally ‘sucks’ air into the lungs.Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli Anatomy of the lungs Terminology • inspiration/inhalation – drawing air into the lungs • expiration/exhalation – expelling air out of the lungs Mechanics of Breathing During inspiration. At the same time the intercostal muscles pull the rib cage upward and outward.
the protein that carries O2. The red blood cells are then pumped within the blood. This should only be required during times of laboured breathing. Once the O2 gets into the alveoli (the air sacs). This constant flow of blood passing the alveoli allows the high concentration gradient to be maintained. CO2 and carbon monoxide in the blood) in the red blood cells (RBCs). it will continue to follow this concentration gradient and will diffuse into the bloodstream.Inhalation Expiration Expansion of the rib cage provides an additional increase in chest cavity size. such as moderate or high intensity aerobic exercise. Diffusion is the movement of a gas. via the pulmonary vein. The Exchange of Gases Oxygen (O2) is pulled down the bronchi and bronchioles into the alveoli. to an area of low concentration. thus the gas flows in this direction. but also because it flows down a concentration gradient. The O2 binds to the haemoglobin (Hb . The concentration of O2 decreases between the mouth and the lungs. CO2 passes back into the lungs to be exhaled. from an area of high concentration. Both the alveolar walls and the capillary walls are so thin that they allow gases to pass through them. O2 passes into the blood and at the same time. At the same time CO2 dissociates from the haemoglobin and diffuses from the blood into the lungs. towards the heart. as described above. The alveoli have minute capillaries running over and around them. by negative pressure. CO2 flows in the opposite direction for the same reason. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 26 .
Vital capacity (VC) The maximum amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one breath. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 27 . or reserved capacity in the lungs following exhalation.Tidal volume (TV) The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one normal breath. Residual volume (RV) The amount of air.
It can provide useful information to both determine the success of the session in the short term. 1993). Research indicates that an exercise intensity equivalent to 60% . or to use a heart rate monitor. The main methods used for determining heart rate are to manually measure the pulse in the wrist or neck. the trainer can decide on what proportion of this represents an effective aerobic training intensity. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 28 . . The latter method is preferred as the high heart rates experienced during exercise mean many people are very inaccurate in taking their own or someone else’s pulse. for a 36 year old. whereas monitors are accurate to within a single beat.90% of HRmax is appropriate for most clients (ACSM.Monitoring Exercise Intensity Monitoring exercise intensity is necessary to both the safety and effectiveness of the exercise session. the estimated HRmax would be 220 bpm . Estimating maximum heart rate Many people are familiar with the equation for estimating maximum heart rate (HRmax) which is: 220 beats per minute (bpm) – age (ACSM.36 which is 184 bpm. and provide a benchmark against which future sessions can be progressed to and compared against. So. some misconceptions have arisen surrounding this technique. Methods • • • • heart rate perceived exertion subjective methods exercise pace Heart rate This is traditionally the most common method of monitoring exercise intensity and whilst very useful. 2000). Heart rate zones Once an individual’s HRmax has been determined.
Some individuals have been recorded as metabolising fat at up to 97% of their HRmax. RPE has been related to heart rate with some accuracy. whilst others stopped metabolising fat at 54% of their HRmax. technique. Heart Rate < 90 bpm 100 – 110 bpm 120 – 130 bpm 140 – 160 bpm > 160 bpm Subjective methods These are the least accurate methods of measuring intensity and would include such observations as sweating/redness.11 12 . No such direct relationship between an individual’s heart rate and their metabolism of fat whilst exercising exists. The response of the client should take into account all of the symptoms of exertion such as breathing. It should be noted that with very unfit clients 50% of HRmax may have an aerobic training effect (ACSM. and talking.9 to get the lower and upper limits of the target heart rate zone: 194 x 0. muscular fatigue and the subjective feeling of effort.9 = a target heart rate zone of 124 to 186 beats per minute (bpm) Beginners should exercise at the lower end of their range and increase intensity slowly as the body becomes more conditioned to exercise. The classic Borg scale given below rates effort between 6 and 20.Example: Maximum heart rate = 194 Multiply 194 by 0. and any attempt to provide standard calculations or zones can be very problematic. particularly if the client’s response is well known.6 and 194 x 0. A major myth associated with aerobic training zones and heart rates is that lower training heart rates represent a ‘fat burning zone’.13 14 . The point here is that individual’s respond very differently to exercise. 1997). Whilst these may provide some general indication of fatigue.16 >16 Classification very light light moderate heavy very heavy © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 29 . there is no direct research based evidence on their validity. Ignore those little graphs on the treadmills and steppers! Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) This method was developed by a Scandinavian physiologist called Gunnar Borg and is a scale of how hard an individual feels they are working when they exercise. RPE <9 10 .6 and 0.
do not confuse this with having worked maximally in terms of power output. swimming. walking. The benefits of exercise on the heart. as described in the section on Energy Systems.relatively speaking .Aerobic training can be defined as training that improves the efficiency of the aerobic energy producing pathways. Heart • • • • • • • increased size of the heart muscle ( ventricular hypertrophy) increased strength of contraction increased stroke volume increased cardiac output reduced resting heart rate increased blood vessel size decreased risk of heart disease Blood vessels and blood chemistry • • • • reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure favourable change in blood lipids increased haemoglobin increased blood volume Lungs • increased functional capacity during exercise • increased diffusion of respiratory gases • increased vital capacity © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 30 . Aerobic fitness can be defined as the ability to take in.g. cycling. and which can improve cardiorespiratory endurance.is not the highest workload or power output which can be achieved. which means that it is performed at an intensity which . rowing etc) the body uses a combination of fat and carbohydrate to produce ATP. exercise to music. running. In long duration sub-maximal exercise (e. Although you may feel very tired after a long aerobic session. Aerobic training can be thought of as sub-maximal work. transport and utilise O2 to produce energy. lungs and circulatory systems.
Metabolic function • decreased insulin resistance and improved glucose tolerance - beneficial for treatment and prevention of diabetes • reduced body fat • increased maximal O2 uptake
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The Skeletal System
The skeletal system consists of bone, cartilage and ligaments. Bone Bone is calcified connective tissue that forms most of the adult skeleton. The skeleton consists of approximately 206 bones.
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Functions of the skeleton Functions of skeleton Framework Protection Movement Soft tissue attachment Production Storage Description To provide a bony framework for the body and to give it shape To support and protect certain vital internal organs (e.g. the skull giving protection to the brain) To act as biomechanical levers on which muscles can pull to produce joint motion To provide surfaces for the attachment of soft tissues, e.g. muscles and ligaments Certain bones produce red blood cells, granular white blood cells and platelets from their red bone marrow To store several minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, to be released when required. Triglycerides are also stored in the adipocytes of yellow bone marrow
Bone classification Bones can be classified according to their formation and shape: • long bones
Long bones have a greater length than width and consist of a shaft with normally two extremities. They contain mostly compact bone in their diaphysis and more cancellous bone in their epiphysis (and principally act as levers). Examples: o humerus, femur, fibula, tibia, ulna, radius, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges • short bones
Short bones are normally about as long as they are wide. They are usually highly cancellous, which gives them strength with reduced weight. Examples: o carpals and tarsals
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Flat bones are thin cancellous bone sandwiched between two compact layers. They provide protection and large areas for muscle attachment.
Examples: o scapula, cranial bones, costals (ribs), sternum and ilium • irregular
Irregular bones form very complex shapes and therefore, cannot be classified within the previous groups. Examples: o vertebrae and calcaneus • sesamoid (‘seed-like’)
Sesamoid bones develop within particular tendons at a site of considerable friction or tension. They serve to improve leverage and protect the joint from damage. Examples: o patella (kneecap)
The Structure of a long bone • • • • • • • • • epiphysis – expanded portion at each end of the bone diaphysis – the shaft of the bone hyaline cartilage – covering the bone ends periosteum – a tough fibrous sheath covering the whole bone compact bone – solid strong and resistant to bending cancellous bone – giving the bone elastic strength to resist compression forces medullary cavity – the hollow tube down the centre of the compact bone yellow marrow – this functions for the storage of fat red marrow – this functions in the production of various types of blood cells
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Bone formation Bone is made up of minerals and is hard, many people think that it is not living material, but a bone in a living animal consists of both living tissue and non-living substances. Within the "alive bone" are blood vessels, nerves, collagen, and living cells including: • • osteoblasts (cells that help form bone) osteoclasts (cells that help eat away old bone)
In addition, bone contains cells called osteocytes, which are mature osteoblasts that have ended their bone-forming careers. The non-living, but very important, substances in bone are the minerals and salts. In the foetus, most of the skeleton is made up of cartilage, a tough, flexible connective tissue that has no minerals or salts. As the foetus grows, osteoblasts and osteoclasts slowly replace cartilage cells and ossification begins. Ossification Ossification is the formation of bone by the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the addition of minerals and salts. Calcium compounds must be present for ossification to take place. Osteoblasts do not make these minerals, but must take them from the blood and deposit them in the bone. By the time we are born, many of the bones have been at least partly ossified. In long bones, the growth and elongation (lengthening) continue from birth through adolescence. Elongation is achieved by the activity of two cartilage plates, called epiphyseal plates, located between the shaft (the diaphysis) and the heads (epiphyses) of the bones. These plates expand, forming new cells, and increasing the length of the shaft. In this manner, the length of the shaft increases at both ends, and the heads of the bone move progressively apart. As growth proceeds, the thickness of the epiphyseal plates gradually decreases and this bone lengthening process ends. In humans, different bones stop lengthening at different ages, but ossification is fully complete between the ages of 18 and 30. During this lengthening period, the stresses of physical activity result in the strengthening of bone tissue. In contrast to the lengthening of bone, the thickness and strength of bone must continually be maintained by the body. That is, old bone must be replaced by new bone all the time. This is accomplished as bone is continually deposited by osteoblasts, while at the same time, it is continually being reabsorbed (broken down and digested by the body) by osteoclasts.
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Epiphyseal growth plate Epiphysis Cancellous (spongy) bone Diaphysis Compact bone Medullary Cavity Epiphysis Structure of a long bone © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 36 .
connect and stabilise the various joints. Connective Tissue Connective tissue is present in the body to surround. including: • • • • nutrition exposure to sunlight hormonal secretions physical exercise For example. calcium is poorly absorbed. exposure of skin to the ultraviolet portion of sunlight is favourable to bone development.Factors affecting bone formation Bone development is influenced by a number of factors. because the skin can produce vitamin D when it is exposed to such radiation. Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorption of calcium in the small intestine. the bone matrix is deficient in calcium. Connective tissue comes in three main categories: • • • cartilage ligaments tendons Cartilage • • • • • • • • • • is dense is tough is fibrous withstands compression can be worn or torn is very similar to plastic is very durable does NOT have a blood supply has a limited ability to repair itself is dependant on regular physical activity for health © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 37 . It is not innervated by the nervous system and has non-contractile properties. and the bones are likely to be deformed or very weak. In the absence of this vitamin.
There are three types of cartilage found in the body. smooth. all places that require maintenance of a specific shape • fibrocartilage: o o o o thicker and stronger than the other two limited distribution within the body forms various shapes according to its role acts like a shock absorber in cartilaginous joints Ligaments • ligaments have four main functions within the body: o o o o connect bone to bone enhance joint stability guide joint motion prevent excessive motion in the joint © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 38 . walls of the Eustachian tube and the epiglottis. each fulfilling a separate function: • hyaline (articular) cartilage: o o o o o o the most common type tough. thin and bluey-white in colour found covering the bone ends to form joints found in synovial and cartilaginous joints becomes slippery when lubricated with synovial fluid will reduce friction allowing optimal joint movement • elastic cartilage: o o o o similar to hyaline cartilage in its structure more fibres than hyaline most of the fibres are made up of elastin as opposed to collagen it’s the properties of elastin that give it the ability to spring back into shape immediately o found in the ear.
but prolonged tension will permanently damage the fibres Tendons • tendons are similar to ligaments but play a slightly different role in the body.• ligaments: o o o o o tough. the pelvic and shoulder girdles © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 39 . non-elastic fibrous tissue strung together in a cord or strap-like formation attach bone to bone in all joints to provide stability allow normal movement and prevent unwanted movement withstand tension. ribs and skull the appendicular skeleton – upper and lower limbs. Tendon functions include: o attaching muscle to bone o transmitting the force produced by the muscle Bone Glossary The skeletal system can be broken down into: • • the axial skeleton – spine. white.
Affords attachment for the upper limbs Maintains the scapula a correct distance from the chest wall Upper Arm Outer bone of forearm Inner bone of the forearm. Last 2 pairs are free (floating) Receives the clavicle and upper 10 pairs of ribs Sternum 1 General area The Appendicular Skeleton Bones No Scapula (shoulder blade) 2 Notes Shoulders Clavicle (collar bone) Humerus Arms Radius Ulna 2 Held on the back of the rib cage by muscular attachments and by the clavicle in front. Next 3 pairs have a common cartilaginous attachment to the sternum. First 7 pairs attach on to the sternum.The Axial Skeleton General area Skull Bones Cranial Cervical vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae Sacral vertebrae Coccygeal vertebrae Ribs (costals) No 8 7 12 5 5 4 12 pairs Notes The head The neck region Chest area Lower back Rump (fused) Used to be the tail (fused) Spine Chest All originate from the thoracic vertebrae and pairs extend round to form the chest wall. With the radius forms the elbow joint at the humerus and the wrist at the lower end 2 2 2 © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 40 .
Forms the knee joint with the tibia Lower leg – weight-bearing Lies outside the tibia and forms part of the ankle joint below (non-weightbearing) Lies within the tendons of the muscles passing over the knee joint Foot and ankle Similar to metacarpals Toes – as per fingers Legs Tibia Fibula 2 2 Patella (kneecap) Feet Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges 2 14 10 28 Bones of the appendicular skeleton The Spine The spine is shaped in a single curve during development within the foetus. Lifting in this neutral spine. or arch. This is therefore. two convex and two concave. This position. will help spare the stress on passive structures. in order to help reduce the risks of lower back pain. the remainder are within the palm The fingers (3 each) and the thumbs (2 each) Hands Metacarpals 10 Pelvis Phalanges Ilium Ischium Pubis Femur 28 2 2 2 2 The sacrum interlocks with the pelvis and the lower limbs articulate with it The thigh bone. an ideal postural position to teach clients. in the lower back. and teach the abdominal and hip musculature to hold the body in this optimal position. Development of spinal curves Neutral spine A neutral spine is the term used to describe a slight lordosis. As the spine matures it develops into four curves. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 41 . seems to be the ideal position to decrease stress on passive structures of the body. such as the vertebrae and ligaments.Carpals 16 Form the wrist in two rows of four First metacarpal is the thumb. which will vary from one individual to the next. Longest bone in the body.
7 Cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar 5 Sacral (fused) 4 Coccygeal (fused) © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 42 .
lordosis (excessive lower back curvature). and is when the body is stood upright with the arms by the side and the palms facing forward. as follows: • • • • • • • anterior posterior lateral medial superior inferior sub in front of the midline behind the midline away from the midline towards the midline upper aspect of a structure lower aspect of a structure underneath Types of Joints Joint definition: the junction of two or more bones © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 43 . From left to right: normal curvature of the spine. as well as decreasing the efficiency with which the body moves. Normal Lordosis Kyphosis Scoliosis Anatomical Terminology The anatomical position is the descriptive starting point for many terms. These abnormalities increase stress on the spine and surrounding soft tissue structures. kyphosis (excessive mid-back curvature) and scoliosis (a lateral deviation of the spine). Structures throughout the body are often described by their position in relation to the centre midline (an imaginary line running from the head to between the feet) of the body.The diagrams below show some common postural abnormalities.
the most common type. the vertebrae synovial .Classification There are 3 types of joint. the degree of movement dictating the classification: • • fibrous . having the following characteristics: o o o o ends of the bone covered with hyaline (articular) cartilage stabilised by ligaments surrounded by a fibrous capsule capsule lined by synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid as lubrication • Structure of a synovial joint • synovial joints can be further broken down into 6 sub-groups: o gliding joints o pivot joints o saddle joints o ball and socket joints o ellipsoid joints o hinge joints 44 © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 .slightly movable bones brought together by ligaments.g.immovable and interlocking bones such as the plates in the skull cartilaginous .freely movable. e.
Joint type Diagram Example picture Example Ball & socket Hip Hinge Knee Pivot Atlas – axis joint (C1-C2) Saddle Carpometacarpal joint (thumb) Gliding (plane) Acromio-clavicular joint Ellipsoid Metacarpo-phalangeal joints (knuckles) © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 45 .
intercarpal. Saddle joint • a saddle joint allows movement back and forth and up and down. metacarpophalangeal). elbow joint). but does not allow for rotation like a ball and socket joint (e.g. Hinge joint • a hinge joint allows flexion and extension of an appendage (e. mid-carpal and midtarsal joints). shoulder and hip joint). Ball and socket joint • a ball and socket joint allows for movement in almost any direction (e. They allow the same type of movement but to a lesser magnitude (e. carpometacarpal joint).g. In the forearms.g. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 46 . In the neck.g. Ellipsoid joint (or condyloid joint) • ellipsoid joints are similar to a ball and socket joint. The neck and forearms have pivot joints. the radius and ulna twist around each other. the atlas (the uppermost cervical vertebra) rotates around the axis (second cervical vertebra).g.Types of synovial joint Gliding joint (or plane joint) • gliding joints allow two bones to slide past each other (e. Pivot joint • pivot joints allow rotation around an axis.
Movement terminology Normal terms (general) Flexion Extension Rotation Abduction Adduction Specific terms (regional) Horizontal flexion Horizontal extension Lateral flexion Circumduction Elevation Depression Protraction Retraction Pronation Supination Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion Inversion Eversion Description Where the angle of the joint decreases or the return from extension The angle increases or the return from flexion A bone rotating on its own long axis – may be medial (internal) or lateral (external) Away from the midline of the body Towards the midline of the body Description Arm towards the midline of the body in the horizontal plane Arm away from the midline of the body in the horizontal plane Bending to the side A circular or cone-shaped movement available at ball and socket joints Upward movement of the shoulder girdle Downward movement of the shoulder girdle Forward movement of the shoulder girdle Backward movement of the shoulder girdle (squeezing the shoulder blades together) Palm of the hand facing downward with elbow flexed Palm of the hand facing upward Foot moves towards the shin Foot moves away from the shin (tip-toe action) Sole of the foot faces the midline Sole of the foot faces away from the midline © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 47 . This requires an understanding of joint movement terminology.Types of Joint Movement In order to develop a thorough understanding of the effects of exercise it is important to understand the effect that muscles have on the various joints of the body.
Long term • • stronger ligaments increased bone density Joint Actions Shoulder movements Flexion Extension Medial rotation Lateral rotation Adduction Abduction Horizontal extension Horizontal flexion © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 48 . This fluid acts as a lubricant to protect the joint from excess wear and tear (much like the oil in a car engine).Effects of Exercise on the Skeletal System When discussing the effects of exercise it is necessary to consider: • • short term – while the individual is exercising long term – after a sustained period of appropriate training Short term • increase in synovial fluid production In response to increased movement synovial joints will increase production of synovial fluid.
Spinal movements Flexion Extension Lateral flexion Rotation Shoulder girdle movements Elevation Elbow movements Depression Protraction Retraction Flexion Extension Pronation Supination © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 49 .
Hip movements Extension Flexion Abduction Adduction Lateral rotation Knee movements Medial rotation Circumduction Flexion Flexion Extension Ankle movements Eversion Inversion Dorsi-flexion Plantar-flexion © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 50 .
The Neuromuscular System The neuromuscular system is actually a combination of two systems: • • the nervous or neurological system the muscular system These systems are grouped together because of their unique symbiotic relationship. as in the maintenance of posture stores and transports substances within the body (glycogen) generates heat for warmth © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 51 . Skeletal muscle • • • • • • attached from bone to bone across joints controlled by the somatic nervous system. circulatory. therefore its considered to be voluntary produces locomotion and other body movements stabilises body positions. The Muscular System There are three types of specialised muscle tissue: • • • smooth muscle cardiac muscle (myocardium) skeletal muscle (striated) Smooth muscle • • • has the greatest diversity throughout the body found in the digestive. urinary and reproductive systems described as involuntary as its controlled by the autonomic nervous system and is not under conscious control Cardiac muscle • • • • found in the heart involuntary contraction of the heart is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SAN) the set rhythm of the heart (on average 72bpm at rest) is called autorhythmicity The function of the cardiac muscle is to pump blood (and oxygen) around the body.
Anterior muscles of the human body Upper Trapezius Pectoralis Major Deltoids Obliques Biceps Brachii Rectus Abdominis Hip Abductors Quadriceps Hip Adductors Tibialis Anterior Anterior muscles of the human body © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 52 .
Posterior muscles of the human body Mid Trapezius Lower Trapezius Triceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Maximus Hamstrings Gastrocnemius Soleus Posterior muscles of the human body © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 53 .
phosphorus) and substrates (e. actin and myosin) minerals (e. or a sustained force over a long duration. Muscles are therefore. Muscles can also contract. there is a large amount of heat generated.g. striated muscle fibres. hormones or even changes in pH (Tortora et al. 2003). There are over 700 skeletal muscles (Tortora et al. is possible because of the muscle's capacity to vary energy expenditure according to demand. pulling the muscle ends closer together. which means that it can stretch and then recoil to its original length. calcium. allowing locomotion and other body movements. The main constituents of skeletal muscle are: • • • water protein (e. glucose and fatty acids) 70% 23% 7% © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 54 . though less in the body of a female. potassium. These muscle ends pull on the bones to which they are attached. indicating a good blood supply.g. They make up more than 40% of the male body weight. The contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle are in response to certain stimuli such as neurotransmitters. but like an elastic band. 2003) are: • • • • elasticity contractility electrical excitability extensibility Muscle is described as being elastic. if the muscle is pulled too far it can tear. During this production of energy. glycogen. This must be distributed throughout the body and the excellent supply of blood within skeletal muscles allows this to occur. 2003) which allow for a multitude of body movements through contraction and relaxation of voluntary.Muscle properties The four main properties of muscle tissue (Tortora et al. The ability to apply a large force in a short time.g. described as being vascular. It can be compared with an elastic band in this respect.
covers the entire muscle Connective tissue is continuous throughout the length of the muscle: layers of connective tissue converge to form tendon tendons are strong. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 55 . or fascia. inelastic and strap-like the tendon attaches to the periosteum. in the sliding filament theory. actin and myosin. This is described in relation to the structure of the myofilaments.Tendon Epimysium Fascia Muscle Perimysium (around bundles of fibres) Endomysium (around fibres) Fasciculi (bundle of muscle fibres) Muscle fibre Myofibril Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle is made up of fibres • • • • • • • • • • • • • • fibres are made up of smaller myofibrils within each myofibril are strands of myofilaments (actin and myosin) orientation of muscle fibres depends on the location and function of the muscle number of muscle fibres vary dramatically depending upon their function fibres grouped together in bundles called fasciculi fasciculi are then grouped together to form the muscle There is connective tissue throughout the various parts of the muscle the endomysium surrounds each muscle fibre the perimysium envelops each of the fasciculi and the epimysium. the sheath that surrounds the bone The ability of muscle to contract is one of its distinctive properties.
actin (a thin protein strand) and myosin (a thick protein) slide over each other. and there are numerous myosin molecules lying next to each other.Sliding Filament Theory The myofilaments. Each myosin molecule has two projecting heads. These heads will attach onto binding sites on the actin filaments which surround each myosin filament. myosin actin myosin cross-bridges attach to the actin filaments actin is pulled together and length is reduced © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 56 . thus shortening or lengthening the entire muscle. The myosin myofilaments are shaped like golf clubs and form cross bridges with actin. This is accomplished with the unique structure of the protein myosin.
as well as examples of activities for which they are best suited (list adapted from Tortora and Grabowski. Two distinct fibre types have been identified and classified by their contractile and metabolic characteristics.Muscle Fibre Types Skeletal muscle fibres are not all identical in structure and function. stabilisation o endurance-based activities • • Fast twitch or Type II: • Structural features o larger diameter fibre size o smaller myoglobin content o fewer mitochondria o fewer capillaries o white (pale) in colour Functional features o decreased oxygen delivery o produce more force o short term contractions o less resistant to fatigue Activities o rapid.e. The following list highlights the structural and functional features of fast and slow twitch muscle fibres. intense movements • • © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 57 . 1996): Slow twitch or Type I: • Structural features o smaller diameter size fibre o large myoglobin content o many mitochondria o many capillaries o red in colour Functional features o increased oxygen delivery o produce less force o long term contractions o resistant to fatigue Activities o maintaining posture i.
Endurance-type activities. Muscles may have more than one origin.e. i. producing anaerobic metabolism. the one furthest away from the centre midline. these muscles have a higher proportion of fast twitch fibres. Training can increase the size and capacity of both types of muscle fibres to perform more efficiently (Seeley et al. Usually muscles have a single insertion.g. In contrast. The proportion of slow and fast twitch fibres is determined by the usual role of the muscle. the muscles of the shoulders and arms are often called upon to generate considerable force and are not continually active in posture. The origin is described as the proximal attachment. weightlifters appear to have approximately equal amounts of fast and slow twitch fibres (Marieb. Aerobic exercise increases the vascularity of muscle and has the opposite effect. the one nearest to the centre midline of the body (usually the anchor). Interestingly. such as running or swimming. either on a fixed bone (the origin of a muscle) or on the bone it usually moves during contraction (the muscle insertion). Leg muscles often have large numbers of both fast and slow twitch muscles. Everyone’s muscles contain mixtures of fibre types but some have relatively more of one variety.Muscle fibre type considerations Most skeletal muscles are a mix of fibre types.e. muscles of marathon runners have a higher percentage of slow twitch fibres (about 80%). Type II A might be termed intermediate fibres since they take on some of the characteristics of Type I fibres. e. 1995). Most muscles act within groups to produce a smooth movement. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 58 . 2003). However. The insertion is described as the distal attachment i. These differences are genetically controlled and will significantly contribute to athletic abilities. though the exceptions are the muscles controlling the fingers and toes. which have multiple insertions. The muscles of the neck and back have a big role to play in the maintenance of posture and so have a high proportion of slow twitch fibres. Each muscle has a recognisable end. since they must both continually support the body and play a role in locomotion. Types of Muscle Contraction Isolated muscle action is rare. cause a gradual transformation of some fast glycolytic (Type IIB) fibres into fast oxidative (Type IIA) fibres (Tortora and Grabowski. biceps (2). 2003). For example. triceps (3). while those of sprinters contain a higher percentage of fast twitch fibres (about 60%). increases muscular strength and mass and results in an increase in the size of fast twitch over slow twitch fibres. Neither fast twitch nor slow twitch muscle fibres can be easily converted to muscle fibres of the other type (Seeley et al. consequently. quadriceps (4). Intense exercise. 1996) giving enhanced endurance abilities. fast twitch fibres can be further divided into fast twitch oxidative (Type II A) and fast twitch glycolytic (Type II B) fibres.
The roles of muscles • • • • agonist .e. other muscles may join in to provide assistance to the agonist. these muscles are known as synergists. Used to control movement or decelerate a limb. which relaxes to allow the movement to occur. and the antagonist is the Triceps. when one muscle within a pair is contracting the other relaxes to allow the movement to occur.a muscle that stabilises a body part whilst the agonist is contracting All muscle groups work in pairs. sometimes. the attachments draw closer together.The greater the number of fibres activated by the nerves then the greater the strength of the muscle contraction. This process is known as “Reciprocal Innovation”. Many movements produced by the body in everyday life are not strictly one type or another but are in fact a combination of different contraction types. Isometric (static) The muscle contracts to overcome a resistance but without any change in length. Referring back to the Bicep curl exercise. i. i.e. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 59 .e.a muscle that assists the agonist in producing movement fixator . Isometric contractions are used to stabilise limbs.a muscle that carries out a voluntary movement antagonist . which contracts to bring about the joint movement.the opposing muscle that relaxes in order to allow the movement to occur synergist . the agonist is the Biceps. the attachments move further apart. There are three types of muscular contraction: Concentric (positive) The muscle contracts and shortens to overcome a resistance. if the workload is heavy the Brachialis will assist the Biceps (agonist) to perform elbow flexion. An example of reciprocal innovation is when performing a Bicep Curl exercise. Both concentric and eccentric contractions are termed isotonic and are dynamic in nature. Used to produce movement or accelerate a limb. Eccentric (negative) The muscle contracts and lengthens to control a resistance. During movements. the attachments remain the same distance apart. i.
© Active IQ Document AIQ000350 60 . with the Bicep Curl exercise. Stabilisers in our back and abdominal regions are contracting to maintain an upright posture and this regular contraction results in their maintaining a strong muscle tone. the deltoids statically contract to prevent unwanted joint movement throughout the exercise. Many of the muscles in our bodies are contracting throughout the day.Muscles can also perform isometric (static) contractions to fix parts of the body in order to maintain correct alignment or positioning. these muscles are known as fixators. Muscle tone Muscle tone refers to a state in which a muscle in the body produces a constant tension over a long period of time. Again. Essentially in ‘toned’ muscles many of the motor units are contracting out of phase continually to maintain an overall level of tension.
Flexion of spine. Shoulder extension of shoulder Adduction. extension and medial Shoulder rotation of shoulder Elevation. adduction. medial rotation of shoulder Extension and lateral flexion of spine. retraction and depression Shoulder Girdle of shoulder girdle Shoulder Girdle Shoulder Vertebrae Vertebrae Trunk Trunk Hip Trunk Knee.Muscle Actions Muscle Deltoids Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Latissimus dorsi Trapezius Rhomboids Pectoralis major Erector spinae Rectus abdominis Internal obliques External obliques Gluteus maximus Transversus abdominis Gastrocnemius Soleus Position Shoulder Front of upper arm Back of upper arm Sides of the back Upper back Beneath trapezius Chest Either side of spine Along the centre of the abdomen Sides of the abdomen Sides of the abdomen Bottom Abdomen Calf Calf. lateral flexion of spine Rotation and lateral flexion of spine Rotation and lateral flexion of spine Extension of the hip Support of internal organs forced expiration Plantarflexion of ankle. beneath gastrocnemius Joint/s Crossed Shoulder Actions Abduction. Ankle Ankle Retraction of shoulder girdle Horizontal flexion. flexion of knee Plantarflexion of ankle © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 61 . flexion and extension of shoulder Flexion of elbow Elbow. Shoulder supination of forearm flexion of shoulder Extension of elbow Elbow.
Muscle Actions (Continued) Muscle Rectus femoris Vastus intermedius Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Biceps femoris Semimembranosus Semi tendinosus Adductor brevis Adductor magnus Adductor longus Iliacus Hip Flexors Position Joint/s Crossed Actions Flexion of hip extension of knee Quadriceps Hamstring s Front of thigh Knee. Hip Extension of hip flexion of knee Adductors Inner thigh Through the pelvis onto front thigh Hip Adduction of hip Hip Flexion of the hip Psoas major Hip © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 62 . Hip Extension of knee Back of thigh Knee.
giving important feedback on the position of those limbs at any time. Sensory neorons arrive on the posterior side of the spinal cord from a variety of sensory receptors spread throughout the body. Such movements are regulated by neural control mechanisms linked together by pathways within the central nervous system. Spinal nerves are divided into motor and sensory neurons. The cerebellum is the smaller of the two and acts as a memory bank for all learnt skills. Sensory receptors in the muscles. Central nervous system This consists of the following: • • brain spinal cord The correct application of force in a relatively complex movement depends on a series of co-ordinated neuromuscular patterns. the cerebrum and to the rear the cerebellum. It integrates incoming information and produces responses via reflex mechanisms (reflex arc). The spinal cord is composed of cervical. though it communicates and works harmoniously with the cerebrum. tendons and joints. relay information concerning muscle dynamics and limb movements to the CNS. named according to the portion of the vertebral column through which it passes. It is the communication link between the brain and the PNS inferior to the head. thoracic. Peripheral nervous system The PNS consists of all the branches of nerves that lie outside the spinal cord.The Neurological or Nervous System The nervous system consists of two primary divisions: • • The central nervous system (CNS) The peripheral nervous system (PNS). The peripheral nerves primarily responsible for muscular action are the spinal nerves. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 63 . It is the cerebellum that is mainly responsible for controlling the group action of muscles. lumbar and sacral segments. The brain is made up of two main hemispheres.
and produce more force. all the muscle fibres within that motor unit will be innervated. depending on its location and function. Motor Units and Muscle Fibre Recruitment A motor unit consists of a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibres it innervates (or supplies). 1997). The fact that either all the muscle fibres within a motor unit are activated. When an impulse is sent down a neuron. One motor neuron may innervate between 10 and 1000 muscle fibres. is referred to as the ‘all or none law’ (Fleck et al. A motor unit is typically made up of one type of muscle fibre (Type I. A whole muscle is constructed from many motor units meaning that in a muscle there will be a mixture of all of these fibre types. The more motor units that are recruited for a task. and not the entire muscle. or none of them are. With training they are gradually able to recruit more motor units. These neurons transmit impulses from the CNS to organs. then an impulse will be sent down the neuron causing activation of the muscle fibres. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 64 . muscles and glands. It is the relative amounts of each fibre type in a muscle that defines the properties of that muscle. A beginner will only be able to recruit a certain number of motor units. These impulses will cause muscles to contract and glands to secrete. in order to protect the muscle from developing too much force and damaging the muscle or the connective tissue. the greater the force will be developed. This is an adaptation to training over time.The motor neurons exit on the anterior side of the spinal cord. Type IIa or Type IIb) spread throughout the muscle. The ‘all or none law’ applies to individual motor units. If the stimulation of a neuron is at or above a set threshold.
1996). and it is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). fat and protein with which to rebuild our very limited stores of ATP when they have been used up. When this high energy bond is broken down. This energy comes from one place. ATP is composed of one adenosine molecule bound with three phosphate molecules. The more regular aerobic exercise we undertake the more efficient and faster we will become at breaking down our food nutrients. generate heat and to grow or repair tissue. a substance known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 1996). although extremely complex and still not fully understood. Our bodies. require energy to power locomotion or movement. energy is released (McArdle et al. There is a very limited store of ATP within the muscles and this will only last for approximately 1-2 seconds (McArdle et al. produce force against objects. 1996). Adenosine Triphosphate Adenosine Diphosphate + Phosphate P A P P A Energy P P P Energy release as ATP is converted to ADP © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 65 . For our purposes ATP is the only fuel our machine (the human body) recognises and uses. In humans we convert chemical energy (food) to mechanical (movement) or heat energy. The food we eat and certain drinks we drink will provide us with energy such as carbohydrate. It could be compared with an unleaded car not being able to use diesel fuel. O2 in Digestion Energy Muscular contraction CO2 + H2O out The ‘First Law of Thermodynamics’ states that energy is neither created nor destroyed but it is simply converted from one type of energy to another (McArdle et al.Energy systems applicable to exercise The human body. like any machine. a machine. is in essence. ATP releases its energy when one of its high energy bonds is broken.
This system is utilised when there is an absence of sufficient O2 (anaerobic). such as during near maximal exertion. The three energy systems are the: • • • creatine phosphate (or phosphocreatine/CP/anaerobic alactate) system lactate (or anaerobic glycolysis) system aerobic (or oxidative) system It is very important to realise that at any one time. will release enough energy to yield an ATP molecule. has a high energy bond which when broken down by the enzyme creatine kinase.Once the limited store of ATP has been used up. when a muscle needs to generate a lot of force quickly. it can almost immediately be regenerated by another chemical substance called creatine phosphate. our energy systems will regenerate the ADP back into ATP. whereas another system will provide a lot of ATP. This compound. for use by the cells. Creatine Phosphate System This system does not require O2. This chemical reaction is very rapid. all three systems are working together to provide the body with energy: • • • a golf swing or shot putt would use predominately the CP system squash or tennis would use predominately the lactate system marathon running would use predominately the aerobic system The important difference between the systems. fat or carbohydrate but in fact utilises chemical energy. Creatine C Adenosine Triphosphate P A P P energy for contraction C P P A P P Creatine Phosphate+ Adenosine Diphosphate +Phosphate ATP derived from the creatine phosphate system © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 66 . but only for a short duration. but will only last for a very short period of time because of limited CP stores. is that one will provide a little ATP but will be able to go on for a long time. like ATP. Once the limited ATP supply in a muscle has been depleted.
Targeted interval training will improve the body’s ability to withstand the build up of lactic acid (lactate tolerance) and/or the ability to remove it quicker. and requires short periods (1-3 minutes) of strenuous activity followed by periods of recovery. which will eventually cause the cessation of activity. may not allow the lactic acid to be dispersed before the commencement of the next interval. Muscle glycogen From blood Glucose ATP + Lactic acid © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 67 . there will be a build up. Insufficient recovery. Ideally this recovery should be active (e. the production of lactic acid exceeds the muscles’ and cardiovascular system’s ability to disperse it. of lactic acid. ‘heavy’ limbs and pain.g. this is associated with certain sensations such as laboured breathing (or breathlessness). usually causing a necessity to stop. or static rest. to aid the return of blood back to the liver. If the lactic acid production and removal are equal then there is no problem. and only becomes a problem when lactic acid starts to accumulate. walking between running intervals). Anaerobic training quickly uses up the glycogen stored in the muscles. or accumulation. This is known as the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA).Lactate System This system will provide a lot of the required energy in one of two instances: • • when near maximal exercise lasts longer than C-P can provide if the intensity during aerobic activity becomes greater than the aerobic system can provide for The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is occurring constantly within the body. thus delaying or preventing this accumulation. but if.
The aerobic energy system is dominant when there is sufficient O2 in the cell to meet the energy production requirements. but outside the mitochondria in the cell cytoplasm. it will release it a lot faster. CO2. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 68 . The larger the mitochondria. or exercising aerobically. or the more mitochondria within a cell. the greater the potential for ATP production of that cell. Whether the body is at rest. since although it will release less energy per molecule. Fat is commonly said to ‘burn in a carbohydrate flame’. just in varying proportions. This is especially true if the body is at rest. in the presence of O2. The C-P and lactate energy production both still occur in the cells. Aerobic energy production occurs in organelles (small cell structures) called mitochondria.Aerobic (oxygen) system Aerobic simply means ‘with oxygen’. One molecule of fat (1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids) will yield 460 moles of ATP. without fatigue. or 263 kcal. This would mean that an athlete could run. Fat (fatty acids) and carbohydrate (glucose) are the two macronutrients that supply the body with ATP during aerobic metabolism. but in different places within the actual cell. carbohydrate is a preferred energy source. swim or cycle at a higher intensity for a sustained period of time. both carbohydrate and fat are required. making it a far greater energy supply. and refers to the energy system that produces ATP from the complete breakdown of carbohydrate and fat. meaning that fat cannot be broken down without carbohydrate present. water and heat from the breakdown of fat and carbohydrate. All three energy systems produce energy at the cellular level. The complete breakdown of one glucose molecule will regenerate 36 moles of ATP. However. Fatty acids Oxygen Glucose CO2 H2O ATP Aerobic energy system The aerobic system produces only ATP.
When the body is at rest.Oxygen Uptake The use of O2 by the cells of the body is known as O2 uptake or consumption. or MET. The more O2 taken in and used by the muscles. moderate or strenuous intensity. Activities can therefore. and can be directly measured or estimated using various aerobic tests. transport (cardiovascular) and utilise (muscular) would provide an indication of their fitness. at the correct intensity: • • • increased number of red blood cells increased efficiency of the lungs increased capillarisation at the muscles © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 69 . depending on the amount of O2 uptake required or the METs. the higher the intensity they could work at. be categorised as light. the fitter they would be. The maximal amount of O2 a person could take in (respiratory). There are a number of adaptations that occur as a result of cardiovascular training. the volume of this O2 uptake (VO2) is approximately 3. This value of O2 uptake is also known as 1 metabolic equivalent.5 millilitres of O2 per kilogram of bodyweight per minute (ml/kg/min). This maximal O2 uptake (or VO2 max) is generally accepted as the best way to measure someone’s fitness levels.
Summary of Energy Systems Energy Pathways CP System Oxygen dependency Speed of energy production Substrate needed (energy source) Amount of energy produced By-products of energy production Duration of energy production Intensity of activity Lactate System Oxygen System anaerobic anaerobic aerobic very rapid rapid slow stored chemical energy (phosphocreatine) glycogen glycogen and fat very limited ATP limited ATP unlimited ATP no fatiguing waste products (only CO2 and H2O) long duration no waste products lactic acid short duration (0-10 secs) high intensity (95100% max effort) quick recovery (30 sec – 5 min) 1-3 min of intense activity high intensity (6095% max effort) 20 min – 2 hrs (breakdown lactic acid) Type IIa low intensity (up to 60% max effort) time to eat and drink (to replenish fuel stores) Recovery required Predominant fibre types Type IIb Type I © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 70 .
Dietary Carbohydrates Category Food examples • fruit • fruit juice • dried fruit • table sugar • honey • jams • confectionery • bread • pasta • rice • cereals. There are five nutrient groups: • • • • • carbohydrate (CHO) protein fat vitamins minerals Carbohydrate This nutrient is divided into three categories. grains and beans • potatoes • sweet potatoes • vegetables • • • • fruit vegetables whole grains and cereals beans Sugars – simple structures. Nutrient Groups Nutrients are substances found in our food. which the body is able to use for building material and fuel. the most common of which is glucose Starches – complex structures made mostly from long chains of saccharides joined together Fibre – the indigestible parts of starch which help to keep the digestive system healthy © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 71 . since a diet built on sound advice will have a beneficial effect on both health and performance.Healthy eating and basic nutrition An understanding of the basic principles of nutrition is important for anyone who may be involved with training members of the public.
There are 20 of these amino acids.an excellent source of • poultry protein containing plenty of amino acids in • fish favourable amounts • dairy produce • eggs Plant sources – a poorer source of protein containing fewer amino acids and in smaller amounts • • • • grains cereals nuts beans Category The amino acids gained from the diet. Examples can be found in the table below: Dietary Protein Food examples • meat Animal sources . © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 72 . This indigestible material stays within the digestive system where it helps to provide bulk. which the body uses to make the many proteins that it requires. the body is able to store small amounts of carbohydrate within both the liver and the muscles. along with the working muscles during more intensive exercise. which in turn enables the smooth passage of food and waste products along the digestive tract. which can provide these important building blocks. Protein is particularly important to aid recovery after heavy and intensive training. are finally used to build many different proteins. For this reason. Protein Proteins are made from building blocks called amino acids.Functions of Carbohydrate The primary role of carbohydrate is to provide the body with energy. which is found in unrefined starchy foods and cannot be broken down by the body to provide fuel. Dietary fibre is a tough substance. The brain is especially dependent on glucose as a source of fuel. to allowing growth and repair of human tissue. These proteins in turn fulfil many functions. ranging from helping to transport important substances in the blood. alongside those which the body is able to make for itself. There are two categories of foods.
and K provide insulation under the skin provide protection for the internal organs provide energy and a means of energy storage make up the greater percentage of the brain and the spinal cord Types of fat Dietary fats occur in three basic categories.D.E. which are important to the body in order to maintain health and performance. important for cells and proper brain • function • meat olive oil peanut oil avocados oily fish sunflower seeds sunflower oil flax seed © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 73 . important for • poultry skin the body’s cells and the nervous system • coconut oil • palm oil • Monounsaturated fat – found in animal and plant • sources. Examples are given in the table below: Dietary Fats Category Food examples • meat • eggs Saturated fat – mostly found in animal sources but • dairy produce also present in select plant sources.Fat Functions of fat Fats fulfill many vital functions within the body and form an important aspect of a balanced diet for the reasons listed. helps to protect from heart disease • • • Polyunsaturated fat – found in fish and plant • sources. each of. Fats: • • • • • • form an important component of cell membranes or walls help the body to use the fat soluble vitamins – A.
The golden rule is variety and colour. repair and daily functioning of the body. however. this basic model has been adapted by the British government agencies and many others throughout the developed world. The National Food Guide Bread Bread Butter Milk Yoghurt The balance of good health plate The national food guide is an attempt to provide information to the public. it still serves to encourage people to think more carefully about the food they choose within their diet.Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are made by plants. Now widely accepted. It serves as a visual guide to ease the confusion that often arises when trying to plan a menu. whilst minerals occur naturally within the soil and are drawn into plants via their root systems. the National Food Guide does have its critics (McCullough et al. in order to promote a healthy diet. Collectively both vitamins and minerals are vital for normal growth. Originally devised by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 74 . since the brighter and deeper the colour. Thus a diet rich in fruit and vegetables will also be rich in vitamins and minerals. 2000). Variety of choice is important since this will increase the range of both vitamins and minerals found within the diet. the greater the overall nutrient content.
Energy Balance Energy intake • the type and amount of food eaten • drinks containing energy including alcohol Energy output • resting metabolic rate (RMR) the amount of energy used whilst at rest • the amount of energy used through activity and exercise The concept of energy balance © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 75 . when in reality they differ along with their functions • encourages consumption of fruit and • not enough emphasis placed on the types of carbohydrates best chosen vegetables • criticised for being shaped by food agencies • encourages portion control and politics • aims to encourage a whole food diet Advantages and disadvantages of the food pyramid Weight Management The term weight management refers to the actions taken by an individual to achieve or maintain an acceptably healthy level of body fat.The Food Guide Advantages • aims to encourage people to think about their diet • leads to a reduction in pre-made processed food Limitations • aimed at populations not individuals • groups all fats together. At the very heart of this process lies the concept of energy balance.
will increase. Energy input Body in energy balance Energy output The body in a state of energy balance. body fat and therefore body weight. The opposite is true when seeking to lose weight.Energy input and energy output can be adjusted in order to meet individual goals. Energy Energy input Body fat increases output Energy imbalance promoting an increase in body fat When energy intake exceeds energy output. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 76 .
Advancing age is generally associated with the development of several major chronic diseases (see table below). drinking or late nights for example nutritional (a good nutritional intake can decrease the effects of free radicals. the older adult. Only over the last few years has the number of older adults who regularly exercise dramatically increased. Ageing is associated with a gradual deterioration in both physiological and psychological functioning. However. a lack of mobility and loss of independence. many of the physical.Physical activity considerations for older adults Since the fitness revolution began in the 1970s. this revolution was primarily aimed at the young and fit and for the most part excluded one segment of society. reduced quality of food. psychological and social hazards linked to ageing can be slowed down. exposure to chemicals in the form of beauty products etc However. avoided or even reversed by remaining physically active. more and more people are enjoying the benefits of regular exercise. The ageing process depends on many factors such as: • • • • genetics behavioural – smoking. Chronic Diseases Associated with the Ageing Cardiovascular • • coronary heart disease hypertension • • • Musculoskeletal osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis osteoporosis • • Respiratory asthma chronic pulmonary (COPD) Sensory • • visual disorders auditory disorders obstructive disorder Metabolic • diabetes • obesity Adapted from ACE (1998) • • Neurological Parkinson’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 77 . which may or may not lead to a loss of independence. for example that speed the ageing process) environmental factors – modern day living. pollution.
age related diseases. a loss of elasticity to connective tissue and muscle. In response. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 78 . especially immediately post-menopause due to oestrogen production cessation (increasing the risk of fracture) a reduction in joint range of movement (ROM). the physical and mental limitations to exercise participation and the many societal barriers (i. By the seventh decade of life men and women can expect a 30% decline in available muscle strength and a 40% reduction in muscle cross sectional area a large percentage of he elderly find difficulty in simply standing from a seated position. • • Cardiorespiratory: • • cardiorespiratory function declines in response to ageing Arteries and arterioles begin to lose their elasticity. ageing leads to a decrease in the number of functioning fast twitch muscle fibres and an increase in functioning slow twitch muscle fibres. knowledge of the effects of ageing. men and women tend to progressively add weight until the fifth and sixth decade. making everyday movements difficult.e. lung function also changes with advancing age. This is due to loss of muscle strength and power. become thickened and calcify in a process called arteriosclerosis. fear of going out) older adults’ face to physical activity participation. Age Related Changes in Anatomy and Physiology Skeletal: • • • from 35 to 40 years of age there is a gradual loss of bone women experience a greater loss of bone.It is because of these reasons that extra screening may be necessary before providing an exercise programme for an older adult. a thickening of ligaments. the older blood vessel is less capable of vasodilation. • Body composition: • after the age of 35. Several key issues need to be considered when working with an older client. These include. Hence. thus leading to degenerative changes to joint structures Neuromuscular: • peak strength occurs in the 30s and stays relatively constant until the 50s. blood pressure goes up. and wear and tear to cartilage found on bone ends.
running and stair climbing) is dependent on a good postural control Care should be taken when selecting exercises for older adults taking into consideration the above age related changes. Fitness Instructors who are unsure how to modify activities for older adults should refer the clients to an instructor who has received the specific Level 3 training in how to adapt physical activity for the needs of older adults. walking.Posture and balance (postural control): • • a decline in posture control is synonymous with ageing. this is evidenced by the high incidence of falls in the elderly.e. the ability to perform many functional tasks (i. Exercises should be modified for older participants to ensure they do not lead to the risk of injury or falls. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 79 . reaching.
However.Physical activity considerations for Pre and Post Natal Women In the past. the blood volume lags behind this increase in vascular volume. which results in vasodilation and a corresponding increase in the volume of the entire vascular system. This will mean that the pregnant mother will tire sooner. Symptoms would include: • • • • • • waves of sudden fatigue a racing pulse nausea pallor sweating dizziness. especially when getting up quickly or when standing During pregnancy the body is working harder than ever before and therefore. any form of exercise during pregnancy was considered to be taboo and as such. especially during vigorous exercise. Cardiovascular changes during pregnancy In the early stages of pregnancy. Pregnant participants should be advised of this and to reduce the intensity of their usual workout in response. pregnant women were positively encouraged to adopt a sedentary lifestyle. blood vessels become more elastic. extra-screening becomes necessary. due to a number of physiological changes during pregnancy. since the amount of blood in the system at this stage is unchanged. exercise during pregnancy is now more recognized as beneficial and is no longer considered a condition demanding confinement and avoidance. This will result in a fall in blood pressure with a corresponding decrease in venous return and the amount of blood moving into and being ejected from the heart. The shortfall in blood volume described is referred to as vascular underfill. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 80 . demanding more oxygen. However. However.
In addressing this concern. In addition a pregnant woman's set point for sweating also comes down. Interestingly. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 81 . This particularly relates to the pubis symphysis and the sacroiliac joint.Thermoregulatory adaptations Foetal hyperthermia. allowing these tissues to spread during delivery. but ribs are able to expand further at this stage and breathlessness may result because of over-breathing Key hormonal adaptations Relaxin Softens ligaments. and can be directly attributed to elevated levels of progesterone. it can be seen that with adequate hydration and in an appropriate environment. the mother’s resting body temperature is reduced and her ability to get rid of heat through her skin is improved. leading to abnormal foetal development. Regular exercise improves the capacity for heat dissipation in response to thermal stress and can be attributed largely to: • • an increase in blood volume which allows skin blood flow to be maintained at a high level during exercise subcutaneous vasodilation and sweating occur at a lower core temperature Consequently. is a common concern if the mother's core temperature is elevated substantially during and immediately following exercise. cartilage and the cervix. the issue of a baby's temperature rising too high may only be a concern for those taking part in very vigorous activity. which means that when their core temperature does increase they are more able to dissipate the heat. This reduces the risk of a mother's temperature rising high enough to bother the baby. which initiate over-breathing by increasing the sensitivity of the respiratory centre in the brain to carbon dioxide. The diaphragm may be restricted by the growing uterus. This is often associated with a feeling of breathlessness at rest or during mild exertion. This makes the pregnant woman's pattern of energy utilisation similar to that of a mild diabetic. Respiratory adaptations Most aspects of lung function are improved during pregnancy. Insulin Insulin resistance increases during pregnancy. it is the increased blood flow to the skin (as a result of vasodilation and increased blood volume) that makes a pregnant woman's skin pink and gives her the 'glow' of pregnancy.
For example. Exercise should not be conducted within two hours of eating and a small snack should be taken immediately after exercise. the abdominal muscles can become strained as they stretch and the lower back may become sore as the muscles in that area tighten. Fasting for more than four hours should be avoided and rapid weight gain in the early stages should be viewed as normal. as the mother becomes increasingly lordotic (an exaggerated lumbar curve). Musculoskeletal adaptations The position of the growing uterus coupled with weight gain causes the expectant mother's centre of gravity to shift (up and out) increasing the mechanical stress on particular areas.Consideration should also be given to food intake around exercise. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 82 . hips and back which further decrease mobility and increase musculoskeletal stress. especially on the sacroiliac joint and the pubis symphysis. These changes are further facilitated by the stretching and loosening of ligaments that stabilise the pelvis.
e. these muscles become overly stressed and start to sag. vagina and anus. They form a figure of eight around the urethra. This can cause several potential problems not least of which is stress incontinence i. which is very vulnerable through pregnancy strong abdominals will give the muscles of the uterus some extra help during delivery • The parallel sheaths of the rectus abdominis muscle that run vertically up the middle of the belly can separate (the linea alba splits). bladder. This is referred to as diastasis recti (see diagram above) and is more likely if the abdominal muscles are weak. since these muscles control the bladder. This is of concern for two main reasons: • strong abdominals are needed to support the weight of the baby and to protect the back. bowels and other pelvic organs. the leaking of urine. This condition sounds more serious than it is but it can be troublesome.The abdominal muscles As the belly grows through pregnancy. The pelvic floor muscles The pelvic floor muscles act as a hammock to cradle and support the uterus. leading to an increased likelihood of backache during and after pregnancy. As the uterus grows. will inevitably weaken. the abdominals are increasingly stretched and hence. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 83 .
the client should be referred to the GP or to an advanced fitness instructor who has received level 3 training in how to adapt activity for pre and post natal women. amongst other things. the mother will receive regular check ups from the GP or midwife who will.Contraindications to Exercise Careful screening of every expectant mother wishing to exercise during pregnancy should be carried out. In any case. There are four main contraindications that need evaluation prior to beginning or resuming exercise during pregnancy: • • • • significant physical injury an acute bout of illness or chronic underlying disease the onset of persistent or recurrent localised pain abnormal or heavy vaginal bleeding Guidelines for return to exercise Type of delivery Guidelines Normal deliveryFollowing 6 week post-natal check up with doctor • No caesarean section • No delivery or postbirth complications Caesarean delivery 12 weeks following delivery providing that post-natal check with doctor has been satisfactory © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 84 . If there is any doubt regarding the appropriateness of exercise. Considerable care must be taken during all trimesters of a pregnancy. monitor their blood pressure and answer any health concerns they may have.
© Active IQ Document AIQ000350 85 .
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