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Level 2 Student Manual
Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing (Physiology & Anatomy)
Active IQ Suite 3 • Unit 4 Cromwell Business Centre • New Road St Ives • Cambridgeshire • PE27 5BG Phone 01480 497650 • Fax 01480 467997
© Active IQ Document AIQ000350
CONTENTS UNIT 1 – Exercise and Fitness Knowledge Level 2 The Components of Fitness Total Fitness Physical Fitness Factors affecting physical fitness The Circulatory system The Respiratory System Monitoring Exercise Intensity The benefits of exercise on the heart. lungs and circulatory systems The Skeletal System Joint Actions The Neuromuscular System Energy systems applicable to exercise Healthy eating and basic nutrition Physical activity considerations for older adults Physical activity considerations for Pre and Post Natal Women 4 5 5 9 14 24 28 30 32 48 51 65 71 77 80 © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 2 .
© Active IQ Document AIQ000350 3 .
This can be achieved through appropriate questioning at the consultation stage and an understanding of the individual components of fitness. The definition is as follows: “A complete state of mental. physical and social well being. lungs and circulatory systems Describe the skeletal system Describe the neuromuscular system Describe the kinesiology applicable to exercise Describe the energy systems applicable to exercise Describe the additional pre-activity screening procedures necessary for activity sessions involving individual older adults or pre-and post-natal clients The Components of Fitness In order to understand client’s objectives and design appropriate training programmes it is important that the fitness instructor develops an understanding of the concepts and components of fitness. Health The concept of health was defined in 1946 by the World Health Organisation. not merely the absence of disease.Unit Exercise and Fitness Knowledge Level 2 1 Aim: To provide students with a knowledge of anatomy and physiology and how it relates to exercise and fitness Learning Outcomes: By the end of this unit you will be able to • • • • • • • Describe the components of fitness Describe the heart.” © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 4 . If a client indicates that they have the objective of ‘getting fit’ the instructor should ascertain precisely what the client means.
” This definition of fitness is thought provoking as it suggests that fitness is attained once the body adapts to any stresses placed upon it. define physical fitness as: “Attributes related to how well one performs physical activity.good nutritional intake for fuel.” McArdle et al (2001). For example. define fitness as: “A state of well-being that provides optimal performance.Total Fitness The model of ‘total fitness’. as it is well equipped to adapt structurally and functionally to a wide variety of stimuli. disease and illness from a medical standpoint Nutritional fitness . The human body can be considered a master adapter. states that of the following. Some would also consider an Olympic weightlifter to be fit. following the same theme. even though they are an elite athlete in their own field.” Both definitions suggest that successful performance is a factor in fitness. Some attempts to define fitness are listed below: Roberts and Roberts (1997). the best possible is required for complete wellness: • • • • • Physical fitness Mental and emotional fitness . because fitness means different things to different people.free from injury. This concept can prove problematic due to the extremely diverse nature of physical performance. A definition of fitness that takes an approach other than physical performance is as follows: “Fitness is the successful adaptation to the stresses of one’s lifestyle. If the weightlifter attempted to compete in a marathon they would almost certainly perform badly. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 5 .harmony with a positive mental state Medical fitness . an elite marathon runner would be considered fit by the majority of people. Both athletes possess the capacity to compete at a high level in their own sport. If an individual performs a certain type of training they will obtain specific training adaptations. yet they would perform at novice level if they decided to participate in the other discipline. As a concept it is difficult to provide a definitive definition. growth and repair Social fitness – healthy interaction with others Physical Fitness Fitness can be defined in many different ways.
swim and cycle for prolonged periods of time. The general public are likely to associate cardiovascular fitness with ‘being fit’ as it is the component of fitness that allows individuals to walk. lift. they will obtain aerobic fitness gains. Each component will determine the ability of an individual to successfully perform specific physical tasks. Fitness is a general term for a concept that consists of many distinct and individual components. cycle. Providing neither individual attempts to perform any activity outside of their current physical capabilities they can both be considered fit.If the stresses of an individual’s lifestyle include appropriate and progressive aerobic exercise. Aerobic cardiovascular fitness refers to the ability of the heart and lungs to take in. To understand the concept of fitness more thoroughly it is important to examine the individual components that contribute to physical fitness. jump. If the stresses of an individual’s lifestyle include little or no physical stimuli (the stereotypical “couch potato”) then the body will adapt accordingly. transport and utilise oxygen during exercise. throw. Below is a list of the components of physical fitness. swim or balance will be determined by their personal profile in terms of the individual components of fitness. These modes of exercise are common and the ability to perform them is desirable to those who struggle to perform physical activity without getting very short of breath. but only in relation to the activities that they frequently perform. jog. Each component is defined and some examples of activities requiring each component have been provided. The aerobically trained individual will be fit for aerobic activity and the “couch potato” will be fit for sitting in front of the TV and eating junk food. There are five components of Physical Fitness: • • • • • Cardiovascular fitness Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Flexibility Motor Skills Cardiovascular fitness Cardiovascular fitness includes both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. run. The ability of an individual to walk. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 6 . sprint. When most nonexercising individuals resolve to ‘get fit’ they are more likely to throw themselves into jogging or cycling than getting to the gym and participating in resistance training or some other mode of exercise. No single component of fitness will allow an individual to perform all of these tasks successfully.
Examples of activities that require anaerobic conditioning vary greatly. Some examples of anaerobic activities include sprinting. adaptations will occur that allow the individual to delay the onset of fatigue or perform exercise at a higher intensity prior to fatigue. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 7 . If the body is trained consistently using exercises that challenge the anaerobic energy pathways. The anaerobic energy pathways will be recruited when the rate and intensity of muscular contractions exceed the ability of the body to supply oxygen to the target muscle and thus produce energy aerobically. Firstly. They range from extremely short but intense contractions of up to 10 seconds in duration (creatine phosphate system). Anaerobic cardiovascular fitness is associated with the ability to produce energy without oxygen. to activities that are less intense but may last up to approximately 2 minutes in duration (the lactate system). this means that a person with good cardiovascular fitness will be able to go faster for longer without fatigue. weight training. jumping and team / racquet sports involving multiple short sprints and changes of direction. Muscular strength Muscular strength can be defined as the maximal amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can generate during one contraction. crosscountry skiing. long-distance cycling and walking briskly for prolonged periods. the individual is able to produce a greater maximal force when required to do so. thus making the task easier. Examples of activities requiring cardiovascular fitness include marathon running. Secondly. In practice. Examples of activities requiring maximal strength include heavy weightlifting and lifting / moving heavy objects. The development of enhanced muscular strength is useful for two key reasons. with enhanced levels of strength everyday submaximal tasks require a lesser percentage of the individual’s maximal effort.The individual that is better able to utilise oxygen during activity will be able to exercise at greater absolute exercise intensities without relying on the fatigue inducing anaerobic energy pathways.
Muscular endurance Muscular endurance can be defined as the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to contract repeatedly for extended periods of time without fatigue. Examples of activities and sports that require flexibility include gymnastics. speed. They include. dance. The development of muscular endurance would enhance the ability of an individual to perform commonplace everyday tasks. The body operates as a kinetic chain with all joints contributing to freedom of movement. Many individuals only dabble with flexibility by including a few generic stretches as part of a warm-up or cool-down. Flexibility Flexibility can be defined as the range of movement about a joint or series of joints. reaction time. Activities requiring muscular endurance include: carrying shopping. Motor skills Motor skills is a general term for a group of abilities that contribute to controlled and efficient human movement. power. dysfunction. balance. gardening. be argued that the majority of ‘regular’ clients would derive more benefit from muscular endurance training than from strength training. The vast majority of everyday situations that require an individual to exert force require submaximal contractions. pain and injury. maintaining a good postural position. express maximal strength) are performed very rarely. It could therefore. One-off maximal contractions (i. walking up stairs. A significant percentage of exercising individuals perform no flexibility training at all. yoga and everyday normal function. agility and co-ordination.e. proprioception. Motor skills. It is common practice for flexibility to be largely ignored as an important component of fitness. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 8 . like all other components of fitness can be improved through appropriate training and feedback. If uncorrected this process can lead to altered movement patterns. high repetition resistance training and downhill skiing. The importance of developing and maintaining an appropriate range of motion at all joints should not be underestimated. If range of movement is diminished at one joint there will be a knock-on effect up and down the chain as the body tries to compensate for the lack of normal movement.
narrow waist and hips. although this is often overlooked due to the © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 9 . Ectomorph Mesomorph Endomorph Ectomorphs are naturally thin with little body fat or muscle mass. the higher the motor skill requirement. especially those requiring a good power to weight ratio. Factors affecting physical fitness Bodytype An individual’s body type will have a significant impact on their ability to perform various physical tasks successfully. The more complex the movementbased task. Mesomorphs are naturally athletic and tend to be suited to a wide variety of sporting activities. The somatotyping system suggests that there are 3 distinct body types: ectomorphs. team sports. Endomorphs also tend to possess a reasonable degree of muscle mass. endomorphs and mesomorphs. Endomorphs are naturally predisposed to fat storage. skiing.All human movement requires some degree of motor skills. Ectomorphs find it difficult to gain weight (either muscle or fat) and are well suited to weight-bearing aerobic activities such as long distance running. table tennis and golf. A simple system for assessing body type is the visual system of somatotyping. Sports and activities that require well developed motor skills include gymnastics. juggling. Mesomorphs tend to be naturally lean and muscular with broad shoulders and. They tend to be apple or pearshaped and carry large amounts of body fat. It is important to note that each activity requires different combinations of motor skills.
pancreatic. An understanding of body typing is important when discussing and cementing client objectives. lip and throat. yet carbonated drinks or drinking quickly may speed the rate up. A number of diseases can result from smoking: 1. but rather a combination of two or more. An endomorph with a goal of becoming a competitive marathon runner may need to re-evaluate their objective as they are not structurally suited to this type of activity. Smoking Smoking is one of the most significant causes of preventable disease and early death in the UK. and social and personal relationships. which equates to over 300 people a day. little muscle mass and a tendency to store body fat could be considered an ectomorph with endomorphic tendencies. social and mental problems. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 10 . The risks of excess alcohol intake are varied and can lead to a number of physical.000 people die as a result of smoking. The faster the alcohol is absorbed. Alcohol Alcohol is a drug that has positive and negative effects on the body and creates dependency in some individuals. kidney. 1-2 units per day is believed to help protect against stroke and heart attacks in men over 40 years and post-menopausal women (NHS. excessive drinking can affect your physical and mental health. Many individuals are not exclusively one of the body types. The presence of food may slow this absorption rate down. It circulates through the liver. 20O2). In moderate amounts alcohol can reduce tension and inhibitions and enhance enjoyment. bladder. liver. In small quantities. the effects of alcohol can be detrimental to your health. an individual with a small frame. alcohol may be good for your health. colorectal and cervical cancers and leukaemia. the higher the blood alcohol level and the greater its effect. your work. Cancers Lung. Activities such as shot putt and hammer throwing may be suited to endomorphs. oesophageal. Alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream from the stomach and small intestine. lungs and brain. For example.predisposition for fat storage. Every year it is estimated that around 120. heart. Alcohol is removed and metabolised from the bloodstream by the liver as the blood flows through it. ectomorphs are unlikely to succeed in the field of competitive bodybuilding as they have difficulty gaining muscular size. However. mouth. Similarly. However. stomach. when consumed in larger quantities.
This makes our body mobilise the resources for immediate physical activity. Others Bronchitis. atherosclerosis and stroke. myocardial degeneration. aortic system aneurysm. The heart pumps faster and more powerfully to supply increased amounts of glucose and oxygen to the brain and skeletal muscles. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 11 . The implications for exercising is that smoking leads to a reduced level of oxygen to the heart which means the heart has to work harder Stress We are all susceptible to stress. urinary and reproductive systems are inhibited. Heart and Circulation Ischaemic heart disease. 17% of all heart disease deaths and at least 80% of deaths from bronchitis and emphysema. The instant that we feel we cannot cope with something we are potentially under stress.2. At the same time the digestive. stomach and duodenal ulcers Deaths Caused by Smoking Smoking causes thirty per cent of all cancer deaths (including at least 80% of lung cancer deaths). 3. In essence this is an alarm response dating back to when our choice was to either fight or run away from any threat. pneumonia. We respond to stress in a manner referred to as fight-or-flight. as they are seen as less useful at that time. emphysema.
however. 20O2). © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 12 .Effects of Stress There are many warning signs to show when somebody is suffering from stress. have a lower body fat percentage and greater upper body strength. a person is subjected to stress over a long period of time they run the risk of suffering from any number of complaints (BUPA. Lack of forgiveness Self-abuse Isolation Intolerance Memory loss Confusion Suicidal thoughts Mood swings Anger Anxiety Worry Sweating Ulcers Dizziness Nervous laughter Bursts of tears Colds Headaches Insomnia Boredom As soon as the fight-or-flight response has worn off the body returns to normal. If. Pregnancy Joints become more flexible due to the presence of a hormone called relaxin. This is largely due to the hormone testosterone. Asthma Hyperventilation Bronchitis Cancer Fatigue Muscular tension Diabetes Obesity Gender Hypertension Angina Stroke Heart attack Rheumatoid Arthritis Colds Flu Depression Colitis Constipation Diarrhoea Ulcers Breakdown Allergies Migraine Anorexia Males on average are larger. A post natal check up is essential before clients can return to exercise. A programme of progressively modified exercise can be beneficial. Oestrogen is more predominant in females and is responsible for development of the female characteristics. Not a time to commence a heavy training programme if the woman is usually sedentary. Specialist ante/post natal classes advised. Shape of pelvis narrower in males.
Need longer warm-up & cool down.g. hips. Strengthen around joints e. It is possible to maintain a relatively high level of physical function if an active lifestyle is maintained. The body’s capabilities peak somewhere between 18-30 years and steadily decline with increasing age. The natural ageing process affects all components of fitness. reaction time. sight. Therefore it is important to keep active. hearing. Consider kinaesthetic awareness e. spine. wrists.Age The ageing process begins immediately after birth and involves a lifelong series of changes. help prevent falling. Other Factors to Consider • • • Finance Disability Availability © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 13 . knees.g. balance. “Use it or lose it”.
Blood consists of the following four components: • • • • red blood cells white blood cells platelets plasma Red blood cells (erythrocytes): The body contains approximately 240-270 million red blood cells (RBCs) in every drop of blood (Tortora and Grabowski. These cells are produced in the soft red bone marrow at a rate of about 2 million per second. Red blood cells © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 14 . 2000). Hb is the pigment that gives RBCs. and allows the RBC to carry O2 in the blood and to a lesser extent CO2. which binds to oxygen. and therefore blood. and carbon dioxide (CO2) are removed.The Circulatory system The circulatory system is divided into three parts: • • • the blood the heart the blood vessels Blood Blood is the transport medium by which nourishment and oxygen (O2) are carried to all structures of the body and waste products. Blood is composed of a number of cells suspended in a liquid medium called plasma. its red colour. Blood volume usually consists of about 40% RBCs. RBCs contain a protein called haemoglobin (Hb).
but are generally the cells of the immune system that fight infection.5%) such as proteins. It consists predominantly of water (91. This is the initial stage of repair to damaged tissues. They will also release chemicals which will help to promote blood clotting. Plasma: Plasma is the straw-coloured liquid portion of the blood. unlike RBCs. The Heart The heart is in essence a muscular pump. Each side of the heart is hollow and is further broken down into two smaller © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 15 . while the left side pumps blood to the rest of the body. They are fewer in number than RBCs (700 times less) and are also produced in red bone marrow. nutrients. Location of the heart The heart is made up of thick muscular walls and is divided into separate left and right halves.White blood cells (leukocytes): White blood cells (WBCs) are transparent and. platelets are actually cell fragments. The right half pumps blood to the lungs. electrolytes. which are whole cells. 2000). They destroy bacteria and other harmful living organisms. which pushes the oxygen and nutrients around the body to the tissues. enzymes. Platelets will assist in preventing blood loss from a damaged blood vessel by forming a platelet plug (Tortora and Grabowski. White blood cells (WBCs) come in many shapes and forms. It is about the size of a man's clenched fist and lies behind the sternum. thus protecting the body by removing diseased or injured tissue. Platelets (thrombocytes): Unlike RBCs and WBCs. vitamins and waste products. do not contain Hb. gases. hormones.5%) and solutes (8. just left of centre.
Even if the atria fail to contract properly. Ventricular contraction is called systole and ventricular relaxation is called diastole. The left ventricle has larger muscular walls than the right ventricle. and prevent the flow of blood back into the atria during ventricular contraction. The semilunar valves prevent the flow of blood back into the right (pulmonary valve) and left ventricles (aortic valve) during ventricular relaxation. most of the blood in the atria will flow into the ventricles passively. whereas the right side only has to pump its contents to the adjacent lungs. Heart valves: There are a number of different valves around the heart. The atria are smaller than the ventricles and do not really have to contract particularly hard. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 16 . There are a set of atrioventricular (AV) valves that separate the artia and ventricles. Atrium is the Latin for ‘hall’. This is because the left side pumps its contents to the furthest parts of the body. The ventricles supply the force to push the blood to its various destinations. The atria receive blood via the veins from different parts of the body. There are four chambers in total.connected chambers. and pump the blood down into the ventricles. when entering either side of the heart. or ‘entranceway’ and is the chamber which blood flows into first. two upper chambers (or atria) and two lower chambers (or ventricles). all performing slightly different tasks.
In the pulmonary capillaries. to the tissues of the body (systemic circulation). but may appear bluish when viewed through blood vessel walls. Deoxygenated blood is dark red in colour. The blood is saturated with CO2. the CO2 diffuses into the lungs to be expired while O2 enters the blood. It is normally coloured in blue when drawn in pictures of the heart. This oxygenated blood (bright red in colour) enters the left atrium of the heart via the pulmonary vein. It is ejected to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) via the pulmonary artery. The blood enters the right atrium via either the inferior or superior vena cava. and is referred to as deoxygenated blood. Pulmonary Artery Oxygen poor blood to the lungs Aorta . It is important to note that arteries always carry blood away from the heart and veins always carry blood to the heart.Heart structure The right hand side of the heart is responsible for receiving blood from the upper and lower body via the veins (venous return). and O2. The left ventricle then ejects the blood. via the aorta.Oxygen rich blood to the body Pulmonary Vein Oxygen rich blood from the lungs Vena Cavae Oxygen poor blood from the body Left Atrium Left Ventricle Right Atrium Right Ventricle © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 17 .
The exception to this rule is the pulmonary arteries and arterioles. pass back into the blood to be carried away and excreted. Likewise the waste products. These capillaries have extremely thin walls (approximately one cell thick) and spread to all parts of the body. or linked. the arterial walls are required to stretch passively to receive the blood under high pressure and then immediately contract as in a recoil action to assist in propelling the blood further on down the line to the body. which carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs to be re-oxygenated. There are no valves in the arteries other than those at the exit points of the ventricles to prevent backflow. This action is called peristalsis. This divides and subdivides gradually becoming arterioles. and into individual tissue cells to be used. The large artery that leaves the left ventricle of the heart is called the aorta. Blood flows through the capillary beds slowly to allow for this exchange. There are a greater number of capillaries than of any other blood vessel type. Food and oxygen passes through the walls. which can contract (like all muscle) to squeeze blood along the passageways away from the heart. they allow the diffusion of nutrients and gases through their walls and into the tissue cells.Blood Vessels Blood vessels are the transport system for the blood. There are two additional sub-types called arterioles and venules. These are the arteries. capillaries and veins. There are broadly three types of vessels that differ in construction and size. As blood is ejected powerfully from the heart. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 18 . Although blood vessels are divided into different categories because of their shape and function. even the smallest area of tissue. and thereby delivering nutrients to and from the tissues. These blood vessels are responsible for transporting the blood to and from the heart. to form another type of blood vessel. One type of blood vessel will gradually be split. Arteries Arteries are muscular tubes with thick walls. it is important to remember that they are all linked in a continuous loop. from the heart to the rest of the body and back again. Since the walls of these blood vessels are so thin. according to their function and position in the body. The smooth muscle tissue that surrounds the artery and arteriole walls is thicker and more powerful than that surrounding the walls of veins. from the blood. such as CO2 and lactic acid. Arteries and arterioles predominantly carry oxygenated blood around the body. Capillaries The arteries branch off into smaller arterioles and these become smaller and thinner until they are described as capillaries.
which makes its return back up the body to the heart more difficult.Veins Once the capillaries have passed by the tissue. Veins and venules predominantly carry de-oxygenated blood. The flow of blood back to the heart is called venous return. veins carry blood under low pressure. The smooth muscle in the walls contracts automatically in a peristaltic. be it muscle or alveoli. Unlike arteries. they gradually link together to form progressively larger blood vessels called venules. which carries blood from the tissues back towards the heart. Veins are thinner walled tubes compared to arteries. high in CO2. with little muscular contractility. The exception to this rule is the pulmonary veins and venules. All veins therefore. or wave-like. These venules then eventually become larger veins. action to assist the returning blood flow. Overview of circulation Capillary / alveoli interaction Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary artery Aorta Pulmonary vein Vena cavae Systemic Circulation Capillary / tissue interaction © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 19 . which are carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart. which is therefore. This will help to prevent reversed blood flow or pooling of blood. have a series of one-way valves that work against gravity to prevent backflow of the blood as it passes back towards the heart.
this will assist in the return of blood from anywhere above the heart. this peristaltic action takes place continually skeletal muscle contraction . via the veins.there is a pumping action of the smooth muscle tissue. The contributing factors that assist venous return are: • • • • gravity . such as the head and shoulder non-return valves in the veins prevent the back flow of blood and are one of the biggest factors assisting venous return the diaphragm is the large dome-shaped muscle of respiration in the chest cavity.Venous return Venous return of blood back to the heart.veins are assisted by the squeezing action of the nearby skeletal muscles • • The muscles contract and squeeze the vein walls Non-return valves ensure blood returns to heart Venous return via the muscular pump © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 20 . As the blood within this chamber empties into the ventricle below. which produces a suction effect on the veins below the heart the right atrium also helps to ‘suck’ the blood back. the empty chamber creates a small vacuum assisting in drawing in blood from the vena cava smooth muscle contraction (peristalsis) .
These two numbers represent the systolic and diastolic blood pressures respectively. when the heart is in a relaxed state. The heart goes through this period of relaxation. written as 120/80mmHg (“one hundred and twenty over eighty”). It then falls to a lower level. at the height of the contraction of each heartbeat as the heart pumps blood out. Effects of exercise on blood pressure Short term effects There is often an increase in SBP during exertion and in contrast there is often a decrease in DBP (this is due to vasodilation). This is the higher of the two numbers. Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg) and is expressed using two numbers.The blood circulation is a closed system in which the pressure varies constantly. when the cardiac muscle is contracting and pumping blood. therefore increasing the pressure within the arteries. Diastolic blood pressure The diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is the pressure exerted on the artery walls. Long term effects Aerobic exercise using large muscle groups in rhythmical activity is very appropriate for reducing blood pressure over time. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 21 . which it reaches just before each heartbeat. to allow the chambers of the heart to fill with blood prior to contraction. or diastole. and is usually noted first. Blood Pressure Blood pressure can be described as a measure of the force that the blood applies to the walls of the arteries as it flows through them. Optimal blood pressure Optimal blood pressure is below 120 mmHg for systolic and 80 mmHg for diastolic pressure. It should be noted that heavy weight training and isometric exercise can significantly increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure The systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the pressure exerted on the artery walls. It is caused by the increased volume of blood flowing through the arteries with each beat. It rises to a peak.
will allow insufficient time for the food to be digested in the stomach. the stroke volume has to rise to ensure that sufficient blood flow can be delivered to the cells. As a result. whilst blood vessels feeding muscles are vasoconstricted. both heart rate and stroke volume increase to meet the body’s demand for oxygen. therefore the amount of blood being ejected from the heart in any one minute must also increase. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 22 . more blood is delivered and at a faster rate. The volume has to rise to meet the demands from the working muscles for a greater oxygen supply. causing cramp and sometimes vomiting. This enables the body to direct the flow of blood to different tissues. This also plays a part in the regulation of blood pressure. or less blood will flow through them. The average resting value is thought to be around 70 ml of blood per contraction in sedentary individuals. Effects of exercise on cardiac output Short term effects In the short term. If food has just been eaten.Control of Circulatory Blood Flow The blood vessels are able to narrow (vasoconstriction) or widen (vasodilation) because of the smooth muscle found in their walls. Those of highly trained individuals have been measured at 100 ml. then the blood vessels that feed the digestive system are vasodilated and blood flow is increased. Stroke volume (SV) The amount of blood pumped by the heart with each contraction (ml). Cardiac Output (CO) This is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one minute (litres). depending on what state the body is in and where the oxygen and nutrients are required. more. During exercise the opposite happens and more blood will be routed to the muscles and less will be available to the organs and digestive tracts. Effects of exercise on stroke volume Short term effects During exercise the stroke volume increases to approximately double that of its resting value. whether an individual is at rest or in their active state. reducing the blood flow. Eating a large meal too close to a training session or match. so more blood is delivered for every beat of the heart. As the heart rate has also increased. Long term effects As the heart rate decreases with training.
Cardiac output can be calculated using the following formula: Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 23 .Long term effects When cardiovascular improvements are made and efficiency increased. CO could be higher. to compensate for the reduction to the heart rate.
and the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the body.The Respiratory System The main functions of the respiratory system are the intake of oxygen (O2) into the body. Anatomy of the Respiratory System Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus or Bronchi (plural) Lung Air enters the body through the following structures: • • • • • • • nose/mouth pharynx larynx trachea primary bronchi bronchioles alveoli © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 24 .
returning upwards to its dome-shape. which ‘pushes’ some of the air out of the lungs.Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli Anatomy of the lungs Terminology • inspiration/inhalation – drawing air into the lungs • expiration/exhalation – expelling air out of the lungs Mechanics of Breathing During inspiration. During expiration the diaphragm muscle relaxes. At the same time the intercostal muscles pull the rib cage upward and outward. This creates a positive pressure. until the two pressures are balanced. At the same time the intercostal muscles relax and bring the rib cage back down decreasing the chest cavity volume. between the air in the lungs and that in the atmosphere. This is very much like a ‘vacuum’ effect. increasing the chest cavity volume. This increase in volume creates a negative pressure. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 25 . and the negative pressure. literally ‘sucks’ air into the lungs. contraction of the diaphragm muscle will cause the normal ‘dome-shape’ to flatten.
Inhalation Expiration Expansion of the rib cage provides an additional increase in chest cavity size. The concentration of O2 decreases between the mouth and the lungs. O2 passes into the blood and at the same time. from an area of high concentration. The alveoli have minute capillaries running over and around them. thus the gas flows in this direction. At the same time CO2 dissociates from the haemoglobin and diffuses from the blood into the lungs. The O2 binds to the haemoglobin (Hb . © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 26 . it will continue to follow this concentration gradient and will diffuse into the bloodstream. Once the O2 gets into the alveoli (the air sacs).the protein that carries O2. This should only be required during times of laboured breathing. such as moderate or high intensity aerobic exercise. Both the alveolar walls and the capillary walls are so thin that they allow gases to pass through them. CO2 flows in the opposite direction for the same reason. CO2 and carbon monoxide in the blood) in the red blood cells (RBCs). Diffusion is the movement of a gas. by negative pressure. but also because it flows down a concentration gradient. via the pulmonary vein. towards the heart. as described above. CO2 passes back into the lungs to be exhaled. The Exchange of Gases Oxygen (O2) is pulled down the bronchi and bronchioles into the alveoli. The red blood cells are then pumped within the blood. This constant flow of blood passing the alveoli allows the high concentration gradient to be maintained. to an area of low concentration.
or reserved capacity in the lungs following exhalation. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 27 .Tidal volume (TV) The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one normal breath. Residual volume (RV) The amount of air. Vital capacity (VC) The maximum amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one breath.
The latter method is preferred as the high heart rates experienced during exercise mean many people are very inaccurate in taking their own or someone else’s pulse. and provide a benchmark against which future sessions can be progressed to and compared against. or to use a heart rate monitor. Methods • • • • heart rate perceived exertion subjective methods exercise pace Heart rate This is traditionally the most common method of monitoring exercise intensity and whilst very useful. the estimated HRmax would be 220 bpm . some misconceptions have arisen surrounding this technique. 2000). So. The main methods used for determining heart rate are to manually measure the pulse in the wrist or neck. for a 36 year old. Research indicates that an exercise intensity equivalent to 60% . whereas monitors are accurate to within a single beat. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 28 . Heart rate zones Once an individual’s HRmax has been determined. . 1993).36 which is 184 bpm.90% of HRmax is appropriate for most clients (ACSM. Estimating maximum heart rate Many people are familiar with the equation for estimating maximum heart rate (HRmax) which is: 220 beats per minute (bpm) – age (ACSM.Monitoring Exercise Intensity Monitoring exercise intensity is necessary to both the safety and effectiveness of the exercise session. the trainer can decide on what proportion of this represents an effective aerobic training intensity. It can provide useful information to both determine the success of the session in the short term.
muscular fatigue and the subjective feeling of effort.9 = a target heart rate zone of 124 to 186 beats per minute (bpm) Beginners should exercise at the lower end of their range and increase intensity slowly as the body becomes more conditioned to exercise. The classic Borg scale given below rates effort between 6 and 20. and talking.13 14 .Example: Maximum heart rate = 194 Multiply 194 by 0. Ignore those little graphs on the treadmills and steppers! Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) This method was developed by a Scandinavian physiologist called Gunnar Borg and is a scale of how hard an individual feels they are working when they exercise. No such direct relationship between an individual’s heart rate and their metabolism of fat whilst exercising exists. particularly if the client’s response is well known. RPE <9 10 .11 12 . Heart Rate < 90 bpm 100 – 110 bpm 120 – 130 bpm 140 – 160 bpm > 160 bpm Subjective methods These are the least accurate methods of measuring intensity and would include such observations as sweating/redness. Whilst these may provide some general indication of fatigue. The point here is that individual’s respond very differently to exercise. Some individuals have been recorded as metabolising fat at up to 97% of their HRmax.16 >16 Classification very light light moderate heavy very heavy © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 29 .6 and 194 x 0. whilst others stopped metabolising fat at 54% of their HRmax. there is no direct research based evidence on their validity. technique. RPE has been related to heart rate with some accuracy. The response of the client should take into account all of the symptoms of exertion such as breathing.6 and 0.9 to get the lower and upper limits of the target heart rate zone: 194 x 0. 1997). It should be noted that with very unfit clients 50% of HRmax may have an aerobic training effect (ACSM. and any attempt to provide standard calculations or zones can be very problematic. A major myth associated with aerobic training zones and heart rates is that lower training heart rates represent a ‘fat burning zone’.
The benefits of exercise on the heart. running.is not the highest workload or power output which can be achieved. In long duration sub-maximal exercise (e. Aerobic training can be thought of as sub-maximal work. as described in the section on Energy Systems. swimming. cycling. and which can improve cardiorespiratory endurance. do not confuse this with having worked maximally in terms of power output.g. exercise to music. Although you may feel very tired after a long aerobic session. rowing etc) the body uses a combination of fat and carbohydrate to produce ATP. Heart • • • • • • • increased size of the heart muscle ( ventricular hypertrophy) increased strength of contraction increased stroke volume increased cardiac output reduced resting heart rate increased blood vessel size decreased risk of heart disease Blood vessels and blood chemistry • • • • reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure favourable change in blood lipids increased haemoglobin increased blood volume Lungs • increased functional capacity during exercise • increased diffusion of respiratory gases • increased vital capacity © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 30 . lungs and circulatory systems. walking.relatively speaking .Aerobic training can be defined as training that improves the efficiency of the aerobic energy producing pathways. which means that it is performed at an intensity which . Aerobic fitness can be defined as the ability to take in. transport and utilise O2 to produce energy.
Metabolic function • decreased insulin resistance and improved glucose tolerance - beneficial for treatment and prevention of diabetes • reduced body fat • increased maximal O2 uptake
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The Skeletal System
The skeletal system consists of bone, cartilage and ligaments. Bone Bone is calcified connective tissue that forms most of the adult skeleton. The skeleton consists of approximately 206 bones.
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Functions of the skeleton Functions of skeleton Framework Protection Movement Soft tissue attachment Production Storage Description To provide a bony framework for the body and to give it shape To support and protect certain vital internal organs (e.g. the skull giving protection to the brain) To act as biomechanical levers on which muscles can pull to produce joint motion To provide surfaces for the attachment of soft tissues, e.g. muscles and ligaments Certain bones produce red blood cells, granular white blood cells and platelets from their red bone marrow To store several minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, to be released when required. Triglycerides are also stored in the adipocytes of yellow bone marrow
Bone classification Bones can be classified according to their formation and shape: • long bones
Long bones have a greater length than width and consist of a shaft with normally two extremities. They contain mostly compact bone in their diaphysis and more cancellous bone in their epiphysis (and principally act as levers). Examples: o humerus, femur, fibula, tibia, ulna, radius, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges • short bones
Short bones are normally about as long as they are wide. They are usually highly cancellous, which gives them strength with reduced weight. Examples: o carpals and tarsals
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Flat bones are thin cancellous bone sandwiched between two compact layers. They provide protection and large areas for muscle attachment.
Examples: o scapula, cranial bones, costals (ribs), sternum and ilium • irregular
Irregular bones form very complex shapes and therefore, cannot be classified within the previous groups. Examples: o vertebrae and calcaneus • sesamoid (‘seed-like’)
Sesamoid bones develop within particular tendons at a site of considerable friction or tension. They serve to improve leverage and protect the joint from damage. Examples: o patella (kneecap)
The Structure of a long bone • • • • • • • • • epiphysis – expanded portion at each end of the bone diaphysis – the shaft of the bone hyaline cartilage – covering the bone ends periosteum – a tough fibrous sheath covering the whole bone compact bone – solid strong and resistant to bending cancellous bone – giving the bone elastic strength to resist compression forces medullary cavity – the hollow tube down the centre of the compact bone yellow marrow – this functions for the storage of fat red marrow – this functions in the production of various types of blood cells
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Bone formation Bone is made up of minerals and is hard, many people think that it is not living material, but a bone in a living animal consists of both living tissue and non-living substances. Within the "alive bone" are blood vessels, nerves, collagen, and living cells including: • • osteoblasts (cells that help form bone) osteoclasts (cells that help eat away old bone)
In addition, bone contains cells called osteocytes, which are mature osteoblasts that have ended their bone-forming careers. The non-living, but very important, substances in bone are the minerals and salts. In the foetus, most of the skeleton is made up of cartilage, a tough, flexible connective tissue that has no minerals or salts. As the foetus grows, osteoblasts and osteoclasts slowly replace cartilage cells and ossification begins. Ossification Ossification is the formation of bone by the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the addition of minerals and salts. Calcium compounds must be present for ossification to take place. Osteoblasts do not make these minerals, but must take them from the blood and deposit them in the bone. By the time we are born, many of the bones have been at least partly ossified. In long bones, the growth and elongation (lengthening) continue from birth through adolescence. Elongation is achieved by the activity of two cartilage plates, called epiphyseal plates, located between the shaft (the diaphysis) and the heads (epiphyses) of the bones. These plates expand, forming new cells, and increasing the length of the shaft. In this manner, the length of the shaft increases at both ends, and the heads of the bone move progressively apart. As growth proceeds, the thickness of the epiphyseal plates gradually decreases and this bone lengthening process ends. In humans, different bones stop lengthening at different ages, but ossification is fully complete between the ages of 18 and 30. During this lengthening period, the stresses of physical activity result in the strengthening of bone tissue. In contrast to the lengthening of bone, the thickness and strength of bone must continually be maintained by the body. That is, old bone must be replaced by new bone all the time. This is accomplished as bone is continually deposited by osteoblasts, while at the same time, it is continually being reabsorbed (broken down and digested by the body) by osteoclasts.
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Epiphyseal growth plate Epiphysis Cancellous (spongy) bone Diaphysis Compact bone Medullary Cavity Epiphysis Structure of a long bone © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 36 .
the bone matrix is deficient in calcium. It is not innervated by the nervous system and has non-contractile properties. exposure of skin to the ultraviolet portion of sunlight is favourable to bone development. In the absence of this vitamin. Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorption of calcium in the small intestine. calcium is poorly absorbed. including: • • • • nutrition exposure to sunlight hormonal secretions physical exercise For example. and the bones are likely to be deformed or very weak. Connective tissue comes in three main categories: • • • cartilage ligaments tendons Cartilage • • • • • • • • • • is dense is tough is fibrous withstands compression can be worn or torn is very similar to plastic is very durable does NOT have a blood supply has a limited ability to repair itself is dependant on regular physical activity for health © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 37 . Connective Tissue Connective tissue is present in the body to surround. because the skin can produce vitamin D when it is exposed to such radiation.Factors affecting bone formation Bone development is influenced by a number of factors. connect and stabilise the various joints.
all places that require maintenance of a specific shape • fibrocartilage: o o o o thicker and stronger than the other two limited distribution within the body forms various shapes according to its role acts like a shock absorber in cartilaginous joints Ligaments • ligaments have four main functions within the body: o o o o connect bone to bone enhance joint stability guide joint motion prevent excessive motion in the joint © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 38 . walls of the Eustachian tube and the epiglottis. thin and bluey-white in colour found covering the bone ends to form joints found in synovial and cartilaginous joints becomes slippery when lubricated with synovial fluid will reduce friction allowing optimal joint movement • elastic cartilage: o o o o similar to hyaline cartilage in its structure more fibres than hyaline most of the fibres are made up of elastin as opposed to collagen it’s the properties of elastin that give it the ability to spring back into shape immediately o found in the ear. smooth.There are three types of cartilage found in the body. each fulfilling a separate function: • hyaline (articular) cartilage: o o o o o o the most common type tough.
non-elastic fibrous tissue strung together in a cord or strap-like formation attach bone to bone in all joints to provide stability allow normal movement and prevent unwanted movement withstand tension. the pelvic and shoulder girdles © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 39 .• ligaments: o o o o o tough. white. ribs and skull the appendicular skeleton – upper and lower limbs. but prolonged tension will permanently damage the fibres Tendons • tendons are similar to ligaments but play a slightly different role in the body. Tendon functions include: o attaching muscle to bone o transmitting the force produced by the muscle Bone Glossary The skeletal system can be broken down into: • • the axial skeleton – spine.
First 7 pairs attach on to the sternum. With the radius forms the elbow joint at the humerus and the wrist at the lower end 2 2 2 © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 40 .The Axial Skeleton General area Skull Bones Cranial Cervical vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae Sacral vertebrae Coccygeal vertebrae Ribs (costals) No 8 7 12 5 5 4 12 pairs Notes The head The neck region Chest area Lower back Rump (fused) Used to be the tail (fused) Spine Chest All originate from the thoracic vertebrae and pairs extend round to form the chest wall. Last 2 pairs are free (floating) Receives the clavicle and upper 10 pairs of ribs Sternum 1 General area The Appendicular Skeleton Bones No Scapula (shoulder blade) 2 Notes Shoulders Clavicle (collar bone) Humerus Arms Radius Ulna 2 Held on the back of the rib cage by muscular attachments and by the clavicle in front. Affords attachment for the upper limbs Maintains the scapula a correct distance from the chest wall Upper Arm Outer bone of forearm Inner bone of the forearm. Next 3 pairs have a common cartilaginous attachment to the sternum.
Lifting in this neutral spine. and teach the abdominal and hip musculature to hold the body in this optimal position. or arch. in order to help reduce the risks of lower back pain. Forms the knee joint with the tibia Lower leg – weight-bearing Lies outside the tibia and forms part of the ankle joint below (non-weightbearing) Lies within the tendons of the muscles passing over the knee joint Foot and ankle Similar to metacarpals Toes – as per fingers Legs Tibia Fibula 2 2 Patella (kneecap) Feet Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges 2 14 10 28 Bones of the appendicular skeleton The Spine The spine is shaped in a single curve during development within the foetus. This position. such as the vertebrae and ligaments. seems to be the ideal position to decrease stress on passive structures of the body. the remainder are within the palm The fingers (3 each) and the thumbs (2 each) Hands Metacarpals 10 Pelvis Phalanges Ilium Ischium Pubis Femur 28 2 2 2 2 The sacrum interlocks with the pelvis and the lower limbs articulate with it The thigh bone. As the spine matures it develops into four curves. This is therefore.Carpals 16 Form the wrist in two rows of four First metacarpal is the thumb. Development of spinal curves Neutral spine A neutral spine is the term used to describe a slight lordosis. in the lower back. Longest bone in the body. two convex and two concave. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 41 . which will vary from one individual to the next. an ideal postural position to teach clients. will help spare the stress on passive structures.
7 Cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar 5 Sacral (fused) 4 Coccygeal (fused) © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 42 .
From left to right: normal curvature of the spine. lordosis (excessive lower back curvature). as well as decreasing the efficiency with which the body moves.The diagrams below show some common postural abnormalities. Normal Lordosis Kyphosis Scoliosis Anatomical Terminology The anatomical position is the descriptive starting point for many terms. kyphosis (excessive mid-back curvature) and scoliosis (a lateral deviation of the spine). These abnormalities increase stress on the spine and surrounding soft tissue structures. Structures throughout the body are often described by their position in relation to the centre midline (an imaginary line running from the head to between the feet) of the body. and is when the body is stood upright with the arms by the side and the palms facing forward. as follows: • • • • • • • anterior posterior lateral medial superior inferior sub in front of the midline behind the midline away from the midline towards the midline upper aspect of a structure lower aspect of a structure underneath Types of Joints Joint definition: the junction of two or more bones © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 43 .
the most common type. the degree of movement dictating the classification: • • fibrous .freely movable.slightly movable bones brought together by ligaments.immovable and interlocking bones such as the plates in the skull cartilaginous . having the following characteristics: o o o o ends of the bone covered with hyaline (articular) cartilage stabilised by ligaments surrounded by a fibrous capsule capsule lined by synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid as lubrication • Structure of a synovial joint • synovial joints can be further broken down into 6 sub-groups: o gliding joints o pivot joints o saddle joints o ball and socket joints o ellipsoid joints o hinge joints 44 © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 .Classification There are 3 types of joint.g. e. the vertebrae synovial .
Joint type Diagram Example picture Example Ball & socket Hip Hinge Knee Pivot Atlas – axis joint (C1-C2) Saddle Carpometacarpal joint (thumb) Gliding (plane) Acromio-clavicular joint Ellipsoid Metacarpo-phalangeal joints (knuckles) © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 45 .
the radius and ulna twist around each other. Pivot joint • pivot joints allow rotation around an axis.g. In the forearms. carpometacarpal joint). The neck and forearms have pivot joints. Saddle joint • a saddle joint allows movement back and forth and up and down. intercarpal.g.g. shoulder and hip joint). the atlas (the uppermost cervical vertebra) rotates around the axis (second cervical vertebra). mid-carpal and midtarsal joints). Ball and socket joint • a ball and socket joint allows for movement in almost any direction (e. elbow joint). Ellipsoid joint (or condyloid joint) • ellipsoid joints are similar to a ball and socket joint. In the neck. Hinge joint • a hinge joint allows flexion and extension of an appendage (e.Types of synovial joint Gliding joint (or plane joint) • gliding joints allow two bones to slide past each other (e.g. but does not allow for rotation like a ball and socket joint (e. metacarpophalangeal). © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 46 .g. They allow the same type of movement but to a lesser magnitude (e.
Types of Joint Movement In order to develop a thorough understanding of the effects of exercise it is important to understand the effect that muscles have on the various joints of the body. Movement terminology Normal terms (general) Flexion Extension Rotation Abduction Adduction Specific terms (regional) Horizontal flexion Horizontal extension Lateral flexion Circumduction Elevation Depression Protraction Retraction Pronation Supination Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion Inversion Eversion Description Where the angle of the joint decreases or the return from extension The angle increases or the return from flexion A bone rotating on its own long axis – may be medial (internal) or lateral (external) Away from the midline of the body Towards the midline of the body Description Arm towards the midline of the body in the horizontal plane Arm away from the midline of the body in the horizontal plane Bending to the side A circular or cone-shaped movement available at ball and socket joints Upward movement of the shoulder girdle Downward movement of the shoulder girdle Forward movement of the shoulder girdle Backward movement of the shoulder girdle (squeezing the shoulder blades together) Palm of the hand facing downward with elbow flexed Palm of the hand facing upward Foot moves towards the shin Foot moves away from the shin (tip-toe action) Sole of the foot faces the midline Sole of the foot faces away from the midline © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 47 . This requires an understanding of joint movement terminology.
This fluid acts as a lubricant to protect the joint from excess wear and tear (much like the oil in a car engine). Long term • • stronger ligaments increased bone density Joint Actions Shoulder movements Flexion Extension Medial rotation Lateral rotation Adduction Abduction Horizontal extension Horizontal flexion © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 48 .Effects of Exercise on the Skeletal System When discussing the effects of exercise it is necessary to consider: • • short term – while the individual is exercising long term – after a sustained period of appropriate training Short term • increase in synovial fluid production In response to increased movement synovial joints will increase production of synovial fluid.
Spinal movements Flexion Extension Lateral flexion Rotation Shoulder girdle movements Elevation Elbow movements Depression Protraction Retraction Flexion Extension Pronation Supination © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 49 .
Hip movements Extension Flexion Abduction Adduction Lateral rotation Knee movements Medial rotation Circumduction Flexion Flexion Extension Ankle movements Eversion Inversion Dorsi-flexion Plantar-flexion © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 50 .
The Muscular System There are three types of specialised muscle tissue: • • • smooth muscle cardiac muscle (myocardium) skeletal muscle (striated) Smooth muscle • • • has the greatest diversity throughout the body found in the digestive. urinary and reproductive systems described as involuntary as its controlled by the autonomic nervous system and is not under conscious control Cardiac muscle • • • • found in the heart involuntary contraction of the heart is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SAN) the set rhythm of the heart (on average 72bpm at rest) is called autorhythmicity The function of the cardiac muscle is to pump blood (and oxygen) around the body.The Neuromuscular System The neuromuscular system is actually a combination of two systems: • • the nervous or neurological system the muscular system These systems are grouped together because of their unique symbiotic relationship. circulatory. Skeletal muscle • • • • • • attached from bone to bone across joints controlled by the somatic nervous system. therefore its considered to be voluntary produces locomotion and other body movements stabilises body positions. as in the maintenance of posture stores and transports substances within the body (glycogen) generates heat for warmth © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 51 .
Anterior muscles of the human body Upper Trapezius Pectoralis Major Deltoids Obliques Biceps Brachii Rectus Abdominis Hip Abductors Quadriceps Hip Adductors Tibialis Anterior Anterior muscles of the human body © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 52 .
Posterior muscles of the human body Mid Trapezius Lower Trapezius Triceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Maximus Hamstrings Gastrocnemius Soleus Posterior muscles of the human body © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 53 .
hormones or even changes in pH (Tortora et al. The contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle are in response to certain stimuli such as neurotransmitters.Muscle properties The four main properties of muscle tissue (Tortora et al. Muscles can also contract. calcium. allowing locomotion and other body movements.g. actin and myosin) minerals (e. These muscle ends pull on the bones to which they are attached. if the muscle is pulled too far it can tear. but like an elastic band.g. The main constituents of skeletal muscle are: • • • water protein (e. or a sustained force over a long duration. described as being vascular. They make up more than 40% of the male body weight. There are over 700 skeletal muscles (Tortora et al.g. 2003). The ability to apply a large force in a short time. which means that it can stretch and then recoil to its original length. Muscles are therefore. It can be compared with an elastic band in this respect. potassium. glucose and fatty acids) 70% 23% 7% © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 54 . striated muscle fibres. This must be distributed throughout the body and the excellent supply of blood within skeletal muscles allows this to occur. though less in the body of a female. phosphorus) and substrates (e. indicating a good blood supply. 2003) are: • • • • elasticity contractility electrical excitability extensibility Muscle is described as being elastic. glycogen. 2003) which allow for a multitude of body movements through contraction and relaxation of voluntary. is possible because of the muscle's capacity to vary energy expenditure according to demand. During this production of energy. pulling the muscle ends closer together. there is a large amount of heat generated.
in the sliding filament theory. the sheath that surrounds the bone The ability of muscle to contract is one of its distinctive properties. or fascia. inelastic and strap-like the tendon attaches to the periosteum. covers the entire muscle Connective tissue is continuous throughout the length of the muscle: layers of connective tissue converge to form tendon tendons are strong. This is described in relation to the structure of the myofilaments.Tendon Epimysium Fascia Muscle Perimysium (around bundles of fibres) Endomysium (around fibres) Fasciculi (bundle of muscle fibres) Muscle fibre Myofibril Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle is made up of fibres • • • • • • • • • • • • • • fibres are made up of smaller myofibrils within each myofibril are strands of myofilaments (actin and myosin) orientation of muscle fibres depends on the location and function of the muscle number of muscle fibres vary dramatically depending upon their function fibres grouped together in bundles called fasciculi fasciculi are then grouped together to form the muscle There is connective tissue throughout the various parts of the muscle the endomysium surrounds each muscle fibre the perimysium envelops each of the fasciculi and the epimysium. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 55 . actin and myosin.
actin (a thin protein strand) and myosin (a thick protein) slide over each other. thus shortening or lengthening the entire muscle. myosin actin myosin cross-bridges attach to the actin filaments actin is pulled together and length is reduced © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 56 . The myosin myofilaments are shaped like golf clubs and form cross bridges with actin. This is accomplished with the unique structure of the protein myosin. Each myosin molecule has two projecting heads. and there are numerous myosin molecules lying next to each other. These heads will attach onto binding sites on the actin filaments which surround each myosin filament.Sliding Filament Theory The myofilaments.
stabilisation o endurance-based activities • • Fast twitch or Type II: • Structural features o larger diameter fibre size o smaller myoglobin content o fewer mitochondria o fewer capillaries o white (pale) in colour Functional features o decreased oxygen delivery o produce more force o short term contractions o less resistant to fatigue Activities o rapid. The following list highlights the structural and functional features of fast and slow twitch muscle fibres.e. as well as examples of activities for which they are best suited (list adapted from Tortora and Grabowski.Muscle Fibre Types Skeletal muscle fibres are not all identical in structure and function. Two distinct fibre types have been identified and classified by their contractile and metabolic characteristics. intense movements • • © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 57 . 1996): Slow twitch or Type I: • Structural features o smaller diameter size fibre o large myoglobin content o many mitochondria o many capillaries o red in colour Functional features o increased oxygen delivery o produce less force o long term contractions o resistant to fatigue Activities o maintaining posture i.
Type II A might be termed intermediate fibres since they take on some of the characteristics of Type I fibres. 1996) giving enhanced endurance abilities.e. The origin is described as the proximal attachment. the one nearest to the centre midline of the body (usually the anchor). Leg muscles often have large numbers of both fast and slow twitch muscles.Muscle fibre type considerations Most skeletal muscles are a mix of fibre types. i. which have multiple insertions. since they must both continually support the body and play a role in locomotion. 2003). For example. triceps (3). these muscles have a higher proportion of fast twitch fibres. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 58 . Types of Muscle Contraction Isolated muscle action is rare. the muscles of the shoulders and arms are often called upon to generate considerable force and are not continually active in posture. Intense exercise. fast twitch fibres can be further divided into fast twitch oxidative (Type II A) and fast twitch glycolytic (Type II B) fibres. 2003). Training can increase the size and capacity of both types of muscle fibres to perform more efficiently (Seeley et al. quadriceps (4).g. muscles of marathon runners have a higher percentage of slow twitch fibres (about 80%). However. Everyone’s muscles contain mixtures of fibre types but some have relatively more of one variety. while those of sprinters contain a higher percentage of fast twitch fibres (about 60%). though the exceptions are the muscles controlling the fingers and toes. either on a fixed bone (the origin of a muscle) or on the bone it usually moves during contraction (the muscle insertion). Usually muscles have a single insertion. Endurance-type activities. producing anaerobic metabolism. 1995). increases muscular strength and mass and results in an increase in the size of fast twitch over slow twitch fibres. Aerobic exercise increases the vascularity of muscle and has the opposite effect. These differences are genetically controlled and will significantly contribute to athletic abilities. Most muscles act within groups to produce a smooth movement. the one furthest away from the centre midline. Muscles may have more than one origin. Each muscle has a recognisable end. biceps (2). cause a gradual transformation of some fast glycolytic (Type IIB) fibres into fast oxidative (Type IIA) fibres (Tortora and Grabowski. consequently.e. e. The insertion is described as the distal attachment i. The muscles of the neck and back have a big role to play in the maintenance of posture and so have a high proportion of slow twitch fibres. In contrast. such as running or swimming. Neither fast twitch nor slow twitch muscle fibres can be easily converted to muscle fibres of the other type (Seeley et al. The proportion of slow and fast twitch fibres is determined by the usual role of the muscle. weightlifters appear to have approximately equal amounts of fast and slow twitch fibres (Marieb. Interestingly.
the attachments draw closer together.e. There are three types of muscular contraction: Concentric (positive) The muscle contracts and shortens to overcome a resistance.a muscle that stabilises a body part whilst the agonist is contracting All muscle groups work in pairs. During movements. i. Referring back to the Bicep curl exercise. Used to produce movement or accelerate a limb. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 59 . when one muscle within a pair is contracting the other relaxes to allow the movement to occur.a muscle that assists the agonist in producing movement fixator .The greater the number of fibres activated by the nerves then the greater the strength of the muscle contraction.a muscle that carries out a voluntary movement antagonist . and the antagonist is the Triceps. which relaxes to allow the movement to occur. sometimes. Isometric contractions are used to stabilise limbs. which contracts to bring about the joint movement. these muscles are known as synergists. i. Isometric (static) The muscle contracts to overcome a resistance but without any change in length. the attachments move further apart. Both concentric and eccentric contractions are termed isotonic and are dynamic in nature. Used to control movement or decelerate a limb.the opposing muscle that relaxes in order to allow the movement to occur synergist . This process is known as “Reciprocal Innovation”.e. the agonist is the Biceps. Many movements produced by the body in everyday life are not strictly one type or another but are in fact a combination of different contraction types. i. Eccentric (negative) The muscle contracts and lengthens to control a resistance. other muscles may join in to provide assistance to the agonist. the attachments remain the same distance apart. if the workload is heavy the Brachialis will assist the Biceps (agonist) to perform elbow flexion. An example of reciprocal innovation is when performing a Bicep Curl exercise.e. The roles of muscles • • • • agonist .
Muscle tone Muscle tone refers to a state in which a muscle in the body produces a constant tension over a long period of time. with the Bicep Curl exercise. the deltoids statically contract to prevent unwanted joint movement throughout the exercise. Essentially in ‘toned’ muscles many of the motor units are contracting out of phase continually to maintain an overall level of tension. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 60 . these muscles are known as fixators.Muscles can also perform isometric (static) contractions to fix parts of the body in order to maintain correct alignment or positioning. Again. Stabilisers in our back and abdominal regions are contracting to maintain an upright posture and this regular contraction results in their maintaining a strong muscle tone. Many of the muscles in our bodies are contracting throughout the day.
medial rotation of shoulder Extension and lateral flexion of spine. Shoulder supination of forearm flexion of shoulder Extension of elbow Elbow. adduction.Muscle Actions Muscle Deltoids Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Latissimus dorsi Trapezius Rhomboids Pectoralis major Erector spinae Rectus abdominis Internal obliques External obliques Gluteus maximus Transversus abdominis Gastrocnemius Soleus Position Shoulder Front of upper arm Back of upper arm Sides of the back Upper back Beneath trapezius Chest Either side of spine Along the centre of the abdomen Sides of the abdomen Sides of the abdomen Bottom Abdomen Calf Calf. Ankle Ankle Retraction of shoulder girdle Horizontal flexion. extension and medial Shoulder rotation of shoulder Elevation. flexion of knee Plantarflexion of ankle © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 61 . lateral flexion of spine Rotation and lateral flexion of spine Rotation and lateral flexion of spine Extension of the hip Support of internal organs forced expiration Plantarflexion of ankle. beneath gastrocnemius Joint/s Crossed Shoulder Actions Abduction. flexion and extension of shoulder Flexion of elbow Elbow. Shoulder extension of shoulder Adduction. retraction and depression Shoulder Girdle of shoulder girdle Shoulder Girdle Shoulder Vertebrae Vertebrae Trunk Trunk Hip Trunk Knee. Flexion of spine.
Hip Extension of hip flexion of knee Adductors Inner thigh Through the pelvis onto front thigh Hip Adduction of hip Hip Flexion of the hip Psoas major Hip © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 62 . Hip Extension of knee Back of thigh Knee.Muscle Actions (Continued) Muscle Rectus femoris Vastus intermedius Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Biceps femoris Semimembranosus Semi tendinosus Adductor brevis Adductor magnus Adductor longus Iliacus Hip Flexors Position Joint/s Crossed Actions Flexion of hip extension of knee Quadriceps Hamstring s Front of thigh Knee.
giving important feedback on the position of those limbs at any time. The brain is made up of two main hemispheres. thoracic. Such movements are regulated by neural control mechanisms linked together by pathways within the central nervous system. relay information concerning muscle dynamics and limb movements to the CNS. lumbar and sacral segments. The cerebellum is the smaller of the two and acts as a memory bank for all learnt skills. Peripheral nervous system The PNS consists of all the branches of nerves that lie outside the spinal cord. Sensory neorons arrive on the posterior side of the spinal cord from a variety of sensory receptors spread throughout the body. The spinal cord is composed of cervical. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 63 . Spinal nerves are divided into motor and sensory neurons.The Neurological or Nervous System The nervous system consists of two primary divisions: • • The central nervous system (CNS) The peripheral nervous system (PNS). named according to the portion of the vertebral column through which it passes. though it communicates and works harmoniously with the cerebrum. It is the cerebellum that is mainly responsible for controlling the group action of muscles. tendons and joints. It is the communication link between the brain and the PNS inferior to the head. Central nervous system This consists of the following: • • brain spinal cord The correct application of force in a relatively complex movement depends on a series of co-ordinated neuromuscular patterns. Sensory receptors in the muscles. the cerebrum and to the rear the cerebellum. The peripheral nerves primarily responsible for muscular action are the spinal nerves. It integrates incoming information and produces responses via reflex mechanisms (reflex arc).
Motor Units and Muscle Fibre Recruitment A motor unit consists of a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibres it innervates (or supplies). With training they are gradually able to recruit more motor units. The more motor units that are recruited for a task. muscles and glands.The motor neurons exit on the anterior side of the spinal cord. and produce more force. and not the entire muscle. This is an adaptation to training over time. A motor unit is typically made up of one type of muscle fibre (Type I. One motor neuron may innervate between 10 and 1000 muscle fibres. in order to protect the muscle from developing too much force and damaging the muscle or the connective tissue. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 64 . The ‘all or none law’ applies to individual motor units. is referred to as the ‘all or none law’ (Fleck et al. or none of them are. then an impulse will be sent down the neuron causing activation of the muscle fibres. When an impulse is sent down a neuron. the greater the force will be developed. If the stimulation of a neuron is at or above a set threshold. It is the relative amounts of each fibre type in a muscle that defines the properties of that muscle. A whole muscle is constructed from many motor units meaning that in a muscle there will be a mixture of all of these fibre types. Type IIa or Type IIb) spread throughout the muscle. depending on its location and function. A beginner will only be able to recruit a certain number of motor units. These impulses will cause muscles to contract and glands to secrete. The fact that either all the muscle fibres within a motor unit are activated. These neurons transmit impulses from the CNS to organs. 1997). all the muscle fibres within that motor unit will be innervated.
ATP is composed of one adenosine molecule bound with three phosphate molecules. Our bodies. although extremely complex and still not fully understood. require energy to power locomotion or movement. This energy comes from one place. 1996). generate heat and to grow or repair tissue. When this high energy bond is broken down. O2 in Digestion Energy Muscular contraction CO2 + H2O out The ‘First Law of Thermodynamics’ states that energy is neither created nor destroyed but it is simply converted from one type of energy to another (McArdle et al. ATP releases its energy when one of its high energy bonds is broken. like any machine. The more regular aerobic exercise we undertake the more efficient and faster we will become at breaking down our food nutrients. Adenosine Triphosphate Adenosine Diphosphate + Phosphate P A P P A Energy P P P Energy release as ATP is converted to ADP © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 65 .Energy systems applicable to exercise The human body. In humans we convert chemical energy (food) to mechanical (movement) or heat energy. 1996). fat and protein with which to rebuild our very limited stores of ATP when they have been used up. 1996). It could be compared with an unleaded car not being able to use diesel fuel. There is a very limited store of ATP within the muscles and this will only last for approximately 1-2 seconds (McArdle et al. a substance known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). is in essence. For our purposes ATP is the only fuel our machine (the human body) recognises and uses. and it is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The food we eat and certain drinks we drink will provide us with energy such as carbohydrate. produce force against objects. energy is released (McArdle et al. a machine.
This chemical reaction is very rapid. will release enough energy to yield an ATP molecule. when a muscle needs to generate a lot of force quickly. but will only last for a very short period of time because of limited CP stores. all three systems are working together to provide the body with energy: • • • a golf swing or shot putt would use predominately the CP system squash or tennis would use predominately the lactate system marathon running would use predominately the aerobic system The important difference between the systems. is that one will provide a little ATP but will be able to go on for a long time. whereas another system will provide a lot of ATP. The three energy systems are the: • • • creatine phosphate (or phosphocreatine/CP/anaerobic alactate) system lactate (or anaerobic glycolysis) system aerobic (or oxidative) system It is very important to realise that at any one time. This compound. like ATP. Creatine Phosphate System This system does not require O2. such as during near maximal exertion. for use by the cells. our energy systems will regenerate the ADP back into ATP. Creatine C Adenosine Triphosphate P A P P energy for contraction C P P A P P Creatine Phosphate+ Adenosine Diphosphate +Phosphate ATP derived from the creatine phosphate system © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 66 .Once the limited store of ATP has been used up. Once the limited ATP supply in a muscle has been depleted. it can almost immediately be regenerated by another chemical substance called creatine phosphate. has a high energy bond which when broken down by the enzyme creatine kinase. but only for a short duration. This system is utilised when there is an absence of sufficient O2 (anaerobic). fat or carbohydrate but in fact utilises chemical energy.
g. the production of lactic acid exceeds the muscles’ and cardiovascular system’s ability to disperse it. which will eventually cause the cessation of activity. and requires short periods (1-3 minutes) of strenuous activity followed by periods of recovery. or static rest. Insufficient recovery. If the lactic acid production and removal are equal then there is no problem. Ideally this recovery should be active (e. Muscle glycogen From blood Glucose ATP + Lactic acid © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 67 . to aid the return of blood back to the liver. Targeted interval training will improve the body’s ability to withstand the build up of lactic acid (lactate tolerance) and/or the ability to remove it quicker. walking between running intervals). this is associated with certain sensations such as laboured breathing (or breathlessness). ‘heavy’ limbs and pain. of lactic acid. but if. This is known as the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). thus delaying or preventing this accumulation. or accumulation. usually causing a necessity to stop. and only becomes a problem when lactic acid starts to accumulate. Anaerobic training quickly uses up the glycogen stored in the muscles. there will be a build up.Lactate System This system will provide a lot of the required energy in one of two instances: • • when near maximal exercise lasts longer than C-P can provide if the intensity during aerobic activity becomes greater than the aerobic system can provide for The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is occurring constantly within the body. may not allow the lactic acid to be dispersed before the commencement of the next interval.
This is especially true if the body is at rest. However. Aerobic energy production occurs in organelles (small cell structures) called mitochondria. both carbohydrate and fat are required.Aerobic (oxygen) system Aerobic simply means ‘with oxygen’. or the more mitochondria within a cell. Whether the body is at rest. or exercising aerobically. water and heat from the breakdown of fat and carbohydrate. meaning that fat cannot be broken down without carbohydrate present. The complete breakdown of one glucose molecule will regenerate 36 moles of ATP. Fat (fatty acids) and carbohydrate (glucose) are the two macronutrients that supply the body with ATP during aerobic metabolism. the greater the potential for ATP production of that cell. carbohydrate is a preferred energy source. This would mean that an athlete could run. and refers to the energy system that produces ATP from the complete breakdown of carbohydrate and fat. The C-P and lactate energy production both still occur in the cells. The larger the mitochondria. All three energy systems produce energy at the cellular level. or 263 kcal. making it a far greater energy supply. since although it will release less energy per molecule. but outside the mitochondria in the cell cytoplasm. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 68 . CO2. One molecule of fat (1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids) will yield 460 moles of ATP. just in varying proportions. swim or cycle at a higher intensity for a sustained period of time. but in different places within the actual cell. Fat is commonly said to ‘burn in a carbohydrate flame’. Fatty acids Oxygen Glucose CO2 H2O ATP Aerobic energy system The aerobic system produces only ATP. without fatigue. The aerobic energy system is dominant when there is sufficient O2 in the cell to meet the energy production requirements. in the presence of O2. it will release it a lot faster.
The maximal amount of O2 a person could take in (respiratory).5 millilitres of O2 per kilogram of bodyweight per minute (ml/kg/min). This value of O2 uptake is also known as 1 metabolic equivalent. There are a number of adaptations that occur as a result of cardiovascular training. the fitter they would be. When the body is at rest. be categorised as light.Oxygen Uptake The use of O2 by the cells of the body is known as O2 uptake or consumption. and can be directly measured or estimated using various aerobic tests. the higher the intensity they could work at. moderate or strenuous intensity. at the correct intensity: • • • increased number of red blood cells increased efficiency of the lungs increased capillarisation at the muscles © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 69 . the volume of this O2 uptake (VO2) is approximately 3. depending on the amount of O2 uptake required or the METs. The more O2 taken in and used by the muscles. This maximal O2 uptake (or VO2 max) is generally accepted as the best way to measure someone’s fitness levels. transport (cardiovascular) and utilise (muscular) would provide an indication of their fitness. Activities can therefore. or MET.
Summary of Energy Systems Energy Pathways CP System Oxygen dependency Speed of energy production Substrate needed (energy source) Amount of energy produced By-products of energy production Duration of energy production Intensity of activity Lactate System Oxygen System anaerobic anaerobic aerobic very rapid rapid slow stored chemical energy (phosphocreatine) glycogen glycogen and fat very limited ATP limited ATP unlimited ATP no fatiguing waste products (only CO2 and H2O) long duration no waste products lactic acid short duration (0-10 secs) high intensity (95100% max effort) quick recovery (30 sec – 5 min) 1-3 min of intense activity high intensity (6095% max effort) 20 min – 2 hrs (breakdown lactic acid) Type IIa low intensity (up to 60% max effort) time to eat and drink (to replenish fuel stores) Recovery required Predominant fibre types Type IIb Type I © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 70 .
Healthy eating and basic nutrition An understanding of the basic principles of nutrition is important for anyone who may be involved with training members of the public. Nutrient Groups Nutrients are substances found in our food. There are five nutrient groups: • • • • • carbohydrate (CHO) protein fat vitamins minerals Carbohydrate This nutrient is divided into three categories. grains and beans • potatoes • sweet potatoes • vegetables • • • • fruit vegetables whole grains and cereals beans Sugars – simple structures. Dietary Carbohydrates Category Food examples • fruit • fruit juice • dried fruit • table sugar • honey • jams • confectionery • bread • pasta • rice • cereals. the most common of which is glucose Starches – complex structures made mostly from long chains of saccharides joined together Fibre – the indigestible parts of starch which help to keep the digestive system healthy © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 71 . which the body is able to use for building material and fuel. since a diet built on sound advice will have a beneficial effect on both health and performance.
Dietary fibre is a tough substance. Protein Proteins are made from building blocks called amino acids.Functions of Carbohydrate The primary role of carbohydrate is to provide the body with energy. along with the working muscles during more intensive exercise. Protein is particularly important to aid recovery after heavy and intensive training. This indigestible material stays within the digestive system where it helps to provide bulk.an excellent source of • poultry protein containing plenty of amino acids in • fish favourable amounts • dairy produce • eggs Plant sources – a poorer source of protein containing fewer amino acids and in smaller amounts • • • • grains cereals nuts beans Category The amino acids gained from the diet. These proteins in turn fulfil many functions. Examples can be found in the table below: Dietary Protein Food examples • meat Animal sources . © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 72 . ranging from helping to transport important substances in the blood. which can provide these important building blocks. are finally used to build many different proteins. which in turn enables the smooth passage of food and waste products along the digestive tract. For this reason. alongside those which the body is able to make for itself. which is found in unrefined starchy foods and cannot be broken down by the body to provide fuel. which the body uses to make the many proteins that it requires. the body is able to store small amounts of carbohydrate within both the liver and the muscles. There are two categories of foods. to allowing growth and repair of human tissue. The brain is especially dependent on glucose as a source of fuel. There are 20 of these amino acids.
important for cells and proper brain • function • meat olive oil peanut oil avocados oily fish sunflower seeds sunflower oil flax seed © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 73 .Fat Functions of fat Fats fulfill many vital functions within the body and form an important aspect of a balanced diet for the reasons listed. Examples are given in the table below: Dietary Fats Category Food examples • meat • eggs Saturated fat – mostly found in animal sources but • dairy produce also present in select plant sources.D. helps to protect from heart disease • • • Polyunsaturated fat – found in fish and plant • sources. Fats: • • • • • • form an important component of cell membranes or walls help the body to use the fat soluble vitamins – A. important for • poultry skin the body’s cells and the nervous system • coconut oil • palm oil • Monounsaturated fat – found in animal and plant • sources. which are important to the body in order to maintain health and performance. and K provide insulation under the skin provide protection for the internal organs provide energy and a means of energy storage make up the greater percentage of the brain and the spinal cord Types of fat Dietary fats occur in three basic categories. each of.E.
since the brighter and deeper the colour. repair and daily functioning of the body. 2000). Variety of choice is important since this will increase the range of both vitamins and minerals found within the diet.Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are made by plants. this basic model has been adapted by the British government agencies and many others throughout the developed world. whilst minerals occur naturally within the soil and are drawn into plants via their root systems. in order to promote a healthy diet. it still serves to encourage people to think more carefully about the food they choose within their diet. It serves as a visual guide to ease the confusion that often arises when trying to plan a menu. Now widely accepted. Originally devised by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The golden rule is variety and colour. the National Food Guide does have its critics (McCullough et al. The National Food Guide Bread Bread Butter Milk Yoghurt The balance of good health plate The national food guide is an attempt to provide information to the public. Collectively both vitamins and minerals are vital for normal growth. the greater the overall nutrient content. however. Thus a diet rich in fruit and vegetables will also be rich in vitamins and minerals. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 74 .
At the very heart of this process lies the concept of energy balance. Energy Balance Energy intake • the type and amount of food eaten • drinks containing energy including alcohol Energy output • resting metabolic rate (RMR) the amount of energy used whilst at rest • the amount of energy used through activity and exercise The concept of energy balance © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 75 . when in reality they differ along with their functions • encourages consumption of fruit and • not enough emphasis placed on the types of carbohydrates best chosen vegetables • criticised for being shaped by food agencies • encourages portion control and politics • aims to encourage a whole food diet Advantages and disadvantages of the food pyramid Weight Management The term weight management refers to the actions taken by an individual to achieve or maintain an acceptably healthy level of body fat.The Food Guide Advantages • aims to encourage people to think about their diet • leads to a reduction in pre-made processed food Limitations • aimed at populations not individuals • groups all fats together.
body fat and therefore body weight. The opposite is true when seeking to lose weight. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 76 . will increase. Energy input Body in energy balance Energy output The body in a state of energy balance. Energy Energy input Body fat increases output Energy imbalance promoting an increase in body fat When energy intake exceeds energy output.Energy input and energy output can be adjusted in order to meet individual goals.
The ageing process depends on many factors such as: • • • • genetics behavioural – smoking. the older adult. which may or may not lead to a loss of independence.Physical activity considerations for older adults Since the fitness revolution began in the 1970s. a lack of mobility and loss of independence. Chronic Diseases Associated with the Ageing Cardiovascular • • coronary heart disease hypertension • • • Musculoskeletal osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis osteoporosis • • Respiratory asthma chronic pulmonary (COPD) Sensory • • visual disorders auditory disorders obstructive disorder Metabolic • diabetes • obesity Adapted from ACE (1998) • • Neurological Parkinson’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 77 . many of the physical. Advancing age is generally associated with the development of several major chronic diseases (see table below). reduced quality of food. psychological and social hazards linked to ageing can be slowed down. Ageing is associated with a gradual deterioration in both physiological and psychological functioning. exposure to chemicals in the form of beauty products etc However. However. drinking or late nights for example nutritional (a good nutritional intake can decrease the effects of free radicals. this revolution was primarily aimed at the young and fit and for the most part excluded one segment of society. for example that speed the ageing process) environmental factors – modern day living. Only over the last few years has the number of older adults who regularly exercise dramatically increased. pollution. avoided or even reversed by remaining physically active. more and more people are enjoying the benefits of regular exercise.
fear of going out) older adults’ face to physical activity participation. age related diseases. This is due to loss of muscle strength and power. thus leading to degenerative changes to joint structures Neuromuscular: • peak strength occurs in the 30s and stays relatively constant until the 50s. • Body composition: • after the age of 35. blood pressure goes up. a thickening of ligaments. • • Cardiorespiratory: • • cardiorespiratory function declines in response to ageing Arteries and arterioles begin to lose their elasticity. a loss of elasticity to connective tissue and muscle. men and women tend to progressively add weight until the fifth and sixth decade. the older blood vessel is less capable of vasodilation. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 78 .e. By the seventh decade of life men and women can expect a 30% decline in available muscle strength and a 40% reduction in muscle cross sectional area a large percentage of he elderly find difficulty in simply standing from a seated position. knowledge of the effects of ageing. the physical and mental limitations to exercise participation and the many societal barriers (i. especially immediately post-menopause due to oestrogen production cessation (increasing the risk of fracture) a reduction in joint range of movement (ROM). These include. Age Related Changes in Anatomy and Physiology Skeletal: • • • from 35 to 40 years of age there is a gradual loss of bone women experience a greater loss of bone. lung function also changes with advancing age. ageing leads to a decrease in the number of functioning fast twitch muscle fibres and an increase in functioning slow twitch muscle fibres. Hence. In response. and wear and tear to cartilage found on bone ends. become thickened and calcify in a process called arteriosclerosis.It is because of these reasons that extra screening may be necessary before providing an exercise programme for an older adult. Several key issues need to be considered when working with an older client. making everyday movements difficult.
© Active IQ Document AIQ000350 79 . the ability to perform many functional tasks (i.e. this is evidenced by the high incidence of falls in the elderly. reaching. Exercises should be modified for older participants to ensure they do not lead to the risk of injury or falls. walking. running and stair climbing) is dependent on a good postural control Care should be taken when selecting exercises for older adults taking into consideration the above age related changes. Fitness Instructors who are unsure how to modify activities for older adults should refer the clients to an instructor who has received the specific Level 3 training in how to adapt physical activity for the needs of older adults.Posture and balance (postural control): • • a decline in posture control is synonymous with ageing.
Symptoms would include: • • • • • • waves of sudden fatigue a racing pulse nausea pallor sweating dizziness. which results in vasodilation and a corresponding increase in the volume of the entire vascular system. especially during vigorous exercise. extra-screening becomes necessary. the blood volume lags behind this increase in vascular volume.Physical activity considerations for Pre and Post Natal Women In the past. since the amount of blood in the system at this stage is unchanged. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 80 . blood vessels become more elastic. However. The shortfall in blood volume described is referred to as vascular underfill. exercise during pregnancy is now more recognized as beneficial and is no longer considered a condition demanding confinement and avoidance. Cardiovascular changes during pregnancy In the early stages of pregnancy. demanding more oxygen. any form of exercise during pregnancy was considered to be taboo and as such. This will mean that the pregnant mother will tire sooner. Pregnant participants should be advised of this and to reduce the intensity of their usual workout in response. due to a number of physiological changes during pregnancy. pregnant women were positively encouraged to adopt a sedentary lifestyle. However. However. This will result in a fall in blood pressure with a corresponding decrease in venous return and the amount of blood moving into and being ejected from the heart. especially when getting up quickly or when standing During pregnancy the body is working harder than ever before and therefore.
This particularly relates to the pubis symphysis and the sacroiliac joint. is a common concern if the mother's core temperature is elevated substantially during and immediately following exercise. which means that when their core temperature does increase they are more able to dissipate the heat. In addressing this concern. which initiate over-breathing by increasing the sensitivity of the respiratory centre in the brain to carbon dioxide. cartilage and the cervix. it is the increased blood flow to the skin (as a result of vasodilation and increased blood volume) that makes a pregnant woman's skin pink and gives her the 'glow' of pregnancy. the issue of a baby's temperature rising too high may only be a concern for those taking part in very vigorous activity. In addition a pregnant woman's set point for sweating also comes down. Insulin Insulin resistance increases during pregnancy. but ribs are able to expand further at this stage and breathlessness may result because of over-breathing Key hormonal adaptations Relaxin Softens ligaments. and can be directly attributed to elevated levels of progesterone. Regular exercise improves the capacity for heat dissipation in response to thermal stress and can be attributed largely to: • • an increase in blood volume which allows skin blood flow to be maintained at a high level during exercise subcutaneous vasodilation and sweating occur at a lower core temperature Consequently. it can be seen that with adequate hydration and in an appropriate environment. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 81 . The diaphragm may be restricted by the growing uterus. allowing these tissues to spread during delivery. leading to abnormal foetal development. the mother’s resting body temperature is reduced and her ability to get rid of heat through her skin is improved. Interestingly.Thermoregulatory adaptations Foetal hyperthermia. Respiratory adaptations Most aspects of lung function are improved during pregnancy. This reduces the risk of a mother's temperature rising high enough to bother the baby. This makes the pregnant woman's pattern of energy utilisation similar to that of a mild diabetic. This is often associated with a feeling of breathlessness at rest or during mild exertion.
© Active IQ Document AIQ000350 82 . especially on the sacroiliac joint and the pubis symphysis. Exercise should not be conducted within two hours of eating and a small snack should be taken immediately after exercise. Musculoskeletal adaptations The position of the growing uterus coupled with weight gain causes the expectant mother's centre of gravity to shift (up and out) increasing the mechanical stress on particular areas. These changes are further facilitated by the stretching and loosening of ligaments that stabilise the pelvis. as the mother becomes increasingly lordotic (an exaggerated lumbar curve). Fasting for more than four hours should be avoided and rapid weight gain in the early stages should be viewed as normal. For example.Consideration should also be given to food intake around exercise. the abdominal muscles can become strained as they stretch and the lower back may become sore as the muscles in that area tighten. hips and back which further decrease mobility and increase musculoskeletal stress.
e. They form a figure of eight around the urethra. vagina and anus. The pelvic floor muscles The pelvic floor muscles act as a hammock to cradle and support the uterus. which is very vulnerable through pregnancy strong abdominals will give the muscles of the uterus some extra help during delivery • The parallel sheaths of the rectus abdominis muscle that run vertically up the middle of the belly can separate (the linea alba splits). since these muscles control the bladder. leading to an increased likelihood of backache during and after pregnancy. bladder.The abdominal muscles As the belly grows through pregnancy. As the uterus grows. the abdominals are increasingly stretched and hence. © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 83 . This is of concern for two main reasons: • strong abdominals are needed to support the weight of the baby and to protect the back. bowels and other pelvic organs. This is referred to as diastasis recti (see diagram above) and is more likely if the abdominal muscles are weak. This condition sounds more serious than it is but it can be troublesome. will inevitably weaken. these muscles become overly stressed and start to sag. This can cause several potential problems not least of which is stress incontinence i. the leaking of urine.
In any case.Contraindications to Exercise Careful screening of every expectant mother wishing to exercise during pregnancy should be carried out. amongst other things. There are four main contraindications that need evaluation prior to beginning or resuming exercise during pregnancy: • • • • significant physical injury an acute bout of illness or chronic underlying disease the onset of persistent or recurrent localised pain abnormal or heavy vaginal bleeding Guidelines for return to exercise Type of delivery Guidelines Normal deliveryFollowing 6 week post-natal check up with doctor • No caesarean section • No delivery or postbirth complications Caesarean delivery 12 weeks following delivery providing that post-natal check with doctor has been satisfactory © Active IQ Document AIQ000350 84 . the mother will receive regular check ups from the GP or midwife who will. monitor their blood pressure and answer any health concerns they may have. Considerable care must be taken during all trimesters of a pregnancy. the client should be referred to the GP or to an advanced fitness instructor who has received level 3 training in how to adapt activity for pre and post natal women. If there is any doubt regarding the appropriateness of exercise.
© Active IQ Document AIQ000350 85 .
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