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B.A.R.C-1291

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LIQUID METAL MHD GENERATOR SYSTEMS


fry
P. Satyamurtby. N. S. Dixit, N. Vcnkatramani and V'. K. Rohaigi
Plasma Physics Division

1985
B.A.R.C- 1291

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

LIQUID METAL MHD GENERATOR SYSTEMS


by
P. Satyamurthy, N.S. Dixit, N. Venkatramanl and V.K. Rohatgl
Plasma Physics Division

BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE


BOMBAY, INDIA
1985
BARC-1291

INIS Subject Category s A16. 00

Descriptors

LIQUID-METAL MHD GENERATORS

REVIEWS

MEDIUM TEMPERATURE

HIGH TEMPERATURE

VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE

TWO-PHASE FLOW

RANKINE CYCLE

BRAYTON CYCLE

RESEARCH PROGRAMS

INDIA

MHD CHANNELS

SODIUM ALLOYS

POTASSIUM ALLOYS

SODIUM

LIQUID METALS

SIMULATION

MERCURY

AIR

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

FEASIBILITY STUDIES

SOLAR ENERGY
Liquid Metal MHO (LMMHO) Generator ByatSUB ere becoming
increasingly important in apace and terrestrial applications due to
their compactness and versatility. ThiB report gives the current
status and economic viability of LMMHD generators coupled to solar
collectors, faat breeder reactors, loui grade heat aources end conven-
tional high grade heat sources. The various thermodynamic cycles in
the temperature range of 100°C - 2Q00°C have been examined. Tha
report also discusses the present understanding of various leas mecha-
nisms Inherent in LMMHD systems and the techniques for overcoming these
losses.

A small msreury-air LMMHO experimental facility being set up


in Plasma Physics Division along with proposals far future development
of this neu technology is also presented in this report*

Key Words t Liquid-Metsl MHO Generators, Two Phase Flous, Solar


Collectors, Fast Breeder Reactor, Lou Grade Heat Sources,
Brayton Cycle, Rankine Cycle.

- i -
ANL t Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA

BGUN : Ben-Gurian University, Negev, iBrael

CC t Closed Cycle

CTR : Controlled Thermonuclear Reactor

FBR : Fast Breeder Reactor

JPL : Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California,


USA

LMFBR : Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

Na-K : Sodiuni Potassium Alloy

OC : Open Cycle
£ S Jill fill
Page No»

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 2 STATUS OF TECHNOLOGY B

CHAPTER 3 SCOPE OF WORK Ul

CHAPTER <• SUMMARV 62

APPENDIX A.I BASIC EQUATIONS REQUIRED FOR


DESIGNING MHD GENERATOR

APPENDIX A.Z SPECIFICATIONS OF THE LIQUID rtETAL


PROPERTIES

REFERENCES

- iii -
1. INTRODUCTION

The work on complete Liquid Metal Magnetohydrodynemic (LMMHO)


syatema started in the early aixtiea,- eventhough studies on generators
and pumps based on liquid metals have been carried out earlier* In
1961, Elliott [ l j of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, USA) proposed a
Rankine cycle system designed for high temperature space application.
The development of the LMMHO 2-phaae generator concept at Argonne
National Laboratory (ANL, USA) during 1969-70 [2") olearly demonstrated
that such systems can operate with efficiencies that ere attractive for
commercial applications. During the last fifteen years, a number of
institutions from several countries have been Involved in the development
of LMMHD technology. MoBt of the research work has been concentrated in
the understanding of the basic flow phenomena in the generator and in the
designing of the various non-standard equipment. The mast notable achie-
vement ua9 made in Israel during December 190<«,. when the presentation
ceremony of ETGAR-3 (ETGAR in Hebrew means Challenge) was made. ETBAH-3
represents an important intermediate step between laboratory experiments
and commercial exploitation of LMMHD on an industrial scale.

1.1 Applications of LMMHD

Initially,- LMMHD had been studied primarily for space applications


where existing commercial energy-conversion was not feasible. The inherent
use of two working fluids - a thertnodynamic fluid (gas or vapour) and an
electrodynamic fluid (liquid metal) gives LMMHD great versallty in over-
coming material constraints and in coupling to different heat-source
temperatures. Quite unlike the plasma MHD systems,- LMMHD can effectively
and efficiently utilize lou hsat-sourcs temperatures, aa lou as 450 K jJ3j
Thus LMMHD con be coupled to solar collectors (solar energy), Fast Breeder
Reactors (FBR), controlled thermonuclear reactors,' (CTfi),- geothermal
energy and any other low temperature heat Bources. Another advantage la
the ready availability of vast data base for liquid metal (Na-K liquid)
and related material technology.

The LMMHD coupled to the FBR's eliminates any potential


hazardous water-liquid metal surface. The potential containment material
problems are al9o minimized by using the Bame liquid metal in both the
heat source and the energy conversion system. Besidea, it can be coupled
to any pressure-temperature range BB the MHO components themselves have
no inherent pressure-temperature limitations*

The LMMHO coupled to solar collectors have many advantages. The


almost constant temperature expansion of the thermodynamic working fluid
potentially means a higher efficiency for the same source nnd alnk tempera-
ture. In view of the uae of name liquid mptal in the aolar collectors
higher oourcc temperatures are also expected j\J , The other most
promising method of s d a r energy conversion is the well known photovoltaic
method. Thia method is extremely expensive (even if the cost of solar
cells will drop by a factor of ten or more) because of high outlay for
Installation, frames, connections etc.

The LMMHO coupled to combustion system eliminates air preheater,


oxygen enrichment and problems connected with injection of seed. Thus in
contrast to open cycle MHO system, there are no material problem connected
ulth seed I 4J , However very little experimental uork haB been carried
out In such system*

1.2 International Status

Historically the mark on liquid-metal system started as early


as 1961 by Elliott [ l ] , the earlier system studies mere CBxried out
for larrje scale power production based on combustion,' light water nuclBar
reactors and these studies did not favour LHMHO systems [_5j . Howevert-
when one refers to the use of MHD systems,- for solar energy conversion,
the situation is entirely different, especially plBnto ttia! generate kilo-
watts by tens or hundreds for local consumption rather than by thousands
for centralized distribution. This concept uaa initially [proposed by
Branover \ 6^] of Den Gurion UnlverBity,- Israel In 1970 and in a slightly
different version by Lee and Honl j_ 7j of NASA,' USA In 1901. Branover
developed a small laboratory size demonstration unit to prove the validity
of the concepts. Recently Solmecs Corporation, Netherlands j^fl I hag
announced that it hao ordered the denirjn and construction of a prototype
10 KWe MUD generator for commercial applications. At present, the mrijar
experimental programs on LMMHD are carriEd out at Argonne Notional Labo-
ratories and Ben GuriDn University (Table 1.1)

During the last two decades of the hiatory of LMMHD, numerous


institutions in mony countries have benn involved. A brief description
of their work follows :

Jet Propulsion Laboratory. USA

The extensive JPL program lasted for more than ten years and
TABLE 1.1

CURRENT MAJOR EXPERIMENTAL LMMHD FACILITIES

Facility Dorking Medium Total Thermal Magnetic Inlet Inlet Power Remarks
Mass Flow Input Field Pressure Tempera- Output
Liquid Gas/ Rate bar ture Electri-
Uapour cal
kg/S KU kliie

1. Argonr.s a. Nak 20 1.2 5 Ambient 5 Simulation


National
Laboratory b. Nak h 20 1.2 5 600 10 Simulation
Illinois,- USA
2. Jet Propulsion Nak N
2 Ambient 30 Simulation
Laboratory
Pasadena, USA
(1973)
3. Ben Gurion
University,-
Negev, Israel
a. Omacon Mercury Freon 3 0.08 3 350 0.010 Complete Leap
113
b. ER4 (19S4) Mercury Steam 66 7 0.Q 5.4 431 0.45 ComplBts Loop
c. ETGAR-3 Proprie- Proprie- 435 97.5 0.73 4.9 423 8 Pilot Plant
tary tary
4. Institute of Mercury n-pentane 3 2.9 3 335 0.005 Complete Loop
Physical
Chemistry,
Uppsala Sweden
Included Byatem studies, induction generator and experiments on the
other component a like mixer,- nozzle,- separator and dif fuaer. In addition,
c high temperature cesium-lithium facility has been developed capable of
velocities upto 150 m/s and temperatures upto 1250 K f 2J •

Arqonne national Laboratory. USA

The LMMHD program U B S initiated in 1962. In late sixties,- a


tuio-phase-generatar cycle bias developed after extensive investigations
on loss mechanisms in the LMMHD cycles* Following these studies,- system
studies to demonstrate its potential were made for different applications,
and a program to develop the LMMHD components U B S pursued 1 A j •

Ben Gurion University of the Neqev.- Israel

The BGUN LMMHD program started in 1973 and initially conoentrated


on LMMHD turbulence end generation studies \ 10f 11J . Since 1976,
applications of LMMHD to solar collectors and other low-temperature heat
sources have been studied II2,- 13 J . Since 1980,- Solmecs Corporation,
U.K. has funded the research program in Israel and also sponsored a
supporting programme at ANL under contract with USDOE*

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. USA

LMMHD generators and pumps I 1J»J have been Btudied prior to


1961* Subsequently,- complete systems have been studied for high tempera-
ture apace applications F 15 J •

fltomlc international. USA

A LMMHD cycle uaing a drift tube U B B developed, and •


substantial program conducted during the late 1960s and early 1970a
focuBBed on the system^ components and LMMHD Induction generators ^16, 17_J

Cie Electro-Mecanlque.' France

In the late W D s an emulelon LMMHD concept was developed that


is very similar to the two-phase generator concept JIBJ . Recently France
has showed 0 renewed interest in LMMHD system especially Tinmostsr loop.

Technlsche Unlveraitat Berlin.; Germany

In the late 1960s and early 1970s,- a large MHD program M9J
included system studies and experiments, basis flow experiments uith and
without magnetic field,- tuo-phase flow experiments^ material studies and
induction generator modelling and experiments*

Soviet Union

Extensive publications continue to appear in the general field


of liquid metal MHO; but details of specific operating facilities under
USSR LMMHD program are not available in published literature*

1.3 Layout pf Report

The layout of the report is as follows. After the introductory


chapter, in Chapter 2,- the status of LMMHD technology is discussed,- where
a detailed review is presented indicating the LMMHD cycles, various non-
standard components and the progress achieved on these components till
today. The scope of the work of BARC Advanced MHD System group is discu-
ssed in Chapter 3* The details of experimental facility required, the
near term development of LMMHO prototype commercial system bath for solar
energy and FBR based systems are presented. Some details regarding channel
design, and liquid metel properties are presented in Appendix.
CHAPTER 2

STATUS OF TECHNOLOGY

In this Chapter, the currant status of the technology of LMMHO


schemes coupled to different sources are presented end the advantages
and other details including the key issues are discussed. It should be
noted that these schemes are based on the current state of art on LMMHO
systems as usll as economic considerations*

The U B B of two working fluids (one thermodynBrnic and the other


eiectrodynamiL.) gives the LMMHO energy conversion systems flexibility in
coupling to different heat sources and overcoming materiel constraints.
Because of this, LMMHD systems pan be coupled to various low grade heat
sources like Fast Breeder Reactor, solar energy collector, light water
reactor, controlled thermonuclear reactor, neothermal energy, industrial
low grade waste heat etc. in addition to high temperature sources like
conventional combustion systems.

2.1 LMMHD Cycles - Baaic Schemes

Currently, depending upon temperature and system efficiency,1


three types of cycles for LMMHO have been proposed,- turn cycles for low
temperature systems end one for high temperature system \ U j .

2.1.1 Lou temperature Rankine cycle

This cycle is beat suited for heat-source temperature of 370 K


to 350 K, The schematic diagram of the complete cycle is shown in
Fig. 2,1* In this system, the thermodynamic working fluid consists of
STEAK
SCZZLE

KHD SEPARATOR
MIXER
GEN.

PRIMARY y / \ MWOSBR
HSAT
EXCHARGSR
LW PDKP
LIQUID METAL

R5J3BNERATCR

WATER FUflF

I--

•/vwwwv-
/TDRBIlffi

2.1 Seb»mtle of LWHB Rankliw Cycle.


10

condenaible fluids (steam,- organic fluids etc*) with a compatible liquid


metal (tin,- Na-K etc.) . The vapour and liquid are combined in the mixer
and the resulting tuo-phaLe mixture enters the MHO generator; the vapour
expands,- drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generater
electrical power. Because,- the liquid has a high heat content,' expansion
occurB at almost constant temperature and a great deal of energy ia still
available in the working fluid that leaves the MHD generator. From the
MHO generator, the two phase mixture entera a nozzle,- where additional
vapour-liquid energy is used to accelerate the liquid and the resulting
high apeed flow is separated in a separator and the liquid pressure needed
to return the liquid through the primary heat exchanger to the mixer is
obtained in the diffuBer. The nozzle-diffuser system may be replaced by
a liquid-metal pump for better performance. The vapour leaving the
separator still has a considerable thermal energy,1 which must be utilized
for obtaining better cycle efficiency. This can be achieved through a
regenerator as shown in the Fig. 2.1.

2.1.2 Loirf temperature Brayton cycle

This cycle is suitable for temperatures in the range 5DD to


fiOO K \Jt} . A schematic diagram of the Brayton cycle LMMHD with a gaB
turbine ia shown in Fig. 2.2. This cycle also uses a thermodynamic fluid
and a compatible electrodynamic liquid. Here the thermodynamic fluid is
an inert geBes like helium end unlike the Renkine cycle (See 2.1.1) the
condensation of the gas does not take place. Otherwise the cycle ia more
or less similar to that of Rankine cycle.
GAS
BOZZXB
GAS
MIXER MRS SEPARATOR
GBM.
III HOZZIB
DIFFDSBR
PRIMARY
HEAT
E2CHAHGSR
LIQUID METAL
IR PUMP
61
COMPRESSOR m-
i I r"* •

/ 6AS \
/OTRBIBB\

AIR-CCCI22) REJECT
HEAT-8XCRAHGER

Sehvaatle of LKMHS 6RAIT0I Cycl«.


12

2.1.3 High temperature open cycle system

This cycle is a proposed for temperatures above 900 K ^ <T] .


ThiB Qpen cycle-LMMHO is similar to Brayton cycle described in Sec. 2.1.2;

but differs from it in using an open rather than a closed gas cycle. The

cycle diagram is ehoun in Fig. 2.3. Here the combustion gas (from coal or

other fuels) is used as the thermodynamic fluid with a compatible liquid

metal, moat likely copper or copperalloy,' thereby eliminating the need for

a primary heat exchanger. Coal is burned with air in a pressurized,

vortex type combuator and most of the slag ia drained off at the bottom.

The combustion products go from the combuator to the LMMHD mixer, uihers

they are mixed with the liquid metal; thus the liquid is heated by the

combustion gas in the mixer. The tbio-phase flow occur in the mixer-

generator-nozzle upto the separator and the pure-liquid metal components

is cycled back to mixer. The combustion product leaving the LMMHD loop,

has the remaining energy used in a conventional boiler plant,- a gas turbine

or for process heat applications,

2.2 Performance Analysis of Practical Cycleo

Extensive studies have !:sen carried out at Argonne National

Laboratories and other laboratories including Ben Gurlon University to

evaluate performance characteristic and technoeconomical consideration.

Some of the pertinent results are described in this section.

2.2.1 Solar based LMMHD system

Extensive studies have been done at ANL end BGUN jz<V2 i J


for solar applications of LMMHD, Based on that, tuo cycles viz. Rankine
GAS

POWERED CYCLONE HOT GAS OUT


COMBOSTOR
COAL IH
NOZZLB
SltG OUT fflXER MBS GEN.
HIYK-
ROTATING SER
SEPARATOR
COPPER LOOP

COPPER
PURIFIER

STACK

GAS
COMPRESSOR STEAK PLABT

WASTE
SHAPT WCPX SHAFT WORK OUT HEAT
IV

COOLIHG
TOWER

Vlff. 2 . 9 S e b e M t l e o f UWHD Open C y e l * .


end Brayton cycles have been computed. In Fig. 1mU, the efficiencies of

LMMHO ere compared with that of other systems. The near term cycle

efficiencies can be 1 5 - 2 5 % where as for solar application advanced

Bystem efficiencies can be as high as 6 0 %

For solar applications the LMMHO Rankine cycle is attractive

for applications with low-temperature sola- collectors and alno for

geothermal sources. The choice of working fluids for thia cycle is

limited by compatibility constraints,- the melting temperature of the

liquid metal and saturation curve of the thermodynamic fluids. Na-K is

a good liquid metal because it has excellent properties and remains a

liquid to below ambient temperature. It is compatible with many organlcs

at low temperature. The data presented here is that af N B K with n-hexane

and neohexane. The efficiencies of N B K - neohexona cycle using a liquid-

metal pump or a nozzle-diffuser to recirculBte ths NaK are compared in

Fir], 2.5, The mixer exit temperature is fixed at *i23 K and the condensor

temperature is varied. fllaD in Fig, 2,5, the generator exit void fraction

ia varied to show the impact of U3ing surfactants.

For solar application,- the LMMHD Brayton Cycle is attractive at

temperature range 700-600 K. This temperature is obtained by point-focus

concentrating collectors. The moat suitable fluids for this cycle aie

sodium and helium. The calculation are done for these fluids and further

aaBuming liquid metal would be recirculated by the liquid-metal pump V21J

The effects of the generator exit void fraction (0,85, D.9) t the regene-

rator effectiveness (0.9, 0.95) and pump efficiency (0.8,- 0.S5) on ^ycle

efficiency for a mixer exit temperature of Oil K are shown in Fig. 2.6.
15

CAP.NOT

Nrarterm perf.
Advance" perf.
target
Advance
Development
with process I
10
heat i
500 1500 2500
PEAK CYCLE TEMPERATURE(*F>

F i g . 2.4 Performance of Comparison I IMWHD


and oth«»r i
16

, Reohexane
, Reohsxane
014

GTW. KXIT VOID FRAO.


O 0.8

010 A 0.9
0.95

§ 006 Separator
u.
loss • 0.3
0 « B . eft, - .75 \
NOBSI* %f.x» * .75 y^i o
O-O2 Pump e f f , » .75
e f f . « .70 \
,jr_« , . . f
0 300 340 380
CONDENSER TEMP ( K )"

Tig. 2,5 Dffici«noy of Panfcin<» oyels for


423.1 K miz^r exit temp«r*tur««
17

0-3

bl
g0.2
u.
ui
bl
Gen.Exit
Void Frae.
0.1
0.85
0.85
0.85
0.9
05 06 07 0-8 09
MIXER EXIT VOID FRACTION-

Fig. 2,6 Efficiency of Sodium-hellun


Brayton Cycle at 810.9 K and
50 Atn Mixer Rxit Tenperature
and Prensure.
The efficiency data used for various components is based on experimental

results aa on today. The efficiency can be further increased with indi-

vidual improvement in the various non-stanrJBrd components,,

2.2.2 Reactor ba9ed LMMHD systEms

IMD formal studies of LMFBR (liquid metal Fiist 'breeder Reactor) -

LMMHD,1 commercial light uater-Reactor-LMMUD or Cantrolled-thermonuclear

reactor-LMMHD have been undertaken to date» Hour:vorf at APJL \ <4j , some

limited preliminary studies uere explored for the adaptation of the LMMHD

Rankine and Brayton cycles to LHFSRs and compared with conventional cycle.

The calculated gross thermal efficiencies of conventional Rankine for FBR

systems at boiler temperature 730 K and 5GD K and at pressures 15.3 MPa

and 7.10 MPa were obtained fco be around 0 4 30 nnd 0«3'» respectively j <tj .

For the Rankine-Cycle LMMHD system for LMFBRs, ANL have done

calculations for conditions charaotDriatJ.es of a potential high-temperature

LMFBR steam plant j^ kj (using steam at 15»3 MPa and 730 H) and a lou-

temperatura LMFBR steam plant Cusing 3ame steam [inraneters : 7.10 MPe and

550 K) as existing LUR plants. The calculoted gro83 thermal efficiencies

for the conventional Rankine and the LMMHD Rankine cycles are shoun and

compared in Table 2,1 for turn LMFBR conditions. The low-temperature LMFBR

steam plant hna received attention because it uses existing components and

ia more stable under reactor thermal transients. Both conventional LMFBR

steam plants require sodium-mater heat exchangers.

We see the gross thermal efficiency of approximately Q.'»3,

a 12*/. improvement over high temperature LMFBR steam cycle and Q 57.
TABLE 2.1

R e f . 20

COMPARISON DF CONVENTIONAL AMD LMMHD RANKINE CYCLE GROSS THERMAL EFFICIENCIES

Boiler EXIT Cycle Efficiencies LMMHD


Improvement
Pressure Temperature Conventional LMKHD
(MPa) (K) C/.)

15,3 730 LMFES (HT) 0.38 O.W 12

7.10 5G0 LMF83 ( L T ) D^^i* 0.36 5


improvement over the low temperature ateon cycle. Higher exit void

fractions would yield even higher efficiencies for the LHMHD system.

The LMMHD Rankine cycle thus yields higher efficiencies than conven-

tional steam cycle for the same top steBm temperature and offers conai-

derable Ba.ety benifits for LMFBRs.

As regards the Srsytan-cycle LMMHD system for LHFORs and CTRs,

no realistic atudies u/ith heat-source tempfiraturR below 00D K have been

made tD date* However, at ANL system efficiency were calculated for

temperature,' above 900 K. Even so, the efficiencies are comparable to

those for alternative energy conversion system. Two LMMHD Brayton-cycle

versions are attractive for LMFBRs viz, LMMHD with a gos turbine and

LHMHO uith steam bottoming plant. Doth would U S E sodium and helium ns

the working fluids in the LMMHD components. The LMMHD-gsa turbine system

is simpler i.e. fewer components, and is particularly well suited to the

LMFBR because of the complete elimination of water loop.

Thermal efficiencies of O.M» and 0.39 were colculated

(auxilliary power source were not considered) for the LMMHD-steam and

the LMMHD-gaa turbine configuration respectively,' at 920 K. At BIO K,

the l.MMHO-gas turbine cycle yields a thermal efficiency of 0.34. The

efficiency of 0»3<t for the LMMHO-gaa turbine cycle ia competitive compared

with the conventional Rankine cycle. It may be noted that higher LMMHD

efficiencies Bre attainable with an improved selection of parameters,

especially higher void fraction in the generator etc.


21

2.2.3 Combustion baaed LMMHD systems (OC-LMMHD)

No detailed analysis is carried out on coal fired LMMHD aystemB


and only preliminary work is done at ANL

The thermodynamic fluid for tha OC-LMMHD concept is the


combustion gas produced by burning cosl with pressurized air* Ttie
electrodynamlc fluid must have a melting point sufficiently loui so that it
remains liquid at the operating temperature,' and vapour pressure low
enough that no significant amount of metal la carried into the boiler.
Also the liquid must have low affinity far oxygen and other constituents
in the combustion gas. From the chemical view point, noble metal represents
the best ahoice. However,- silver and gold are the only noble metals of
sufficiently-low melting points and both Bppear impractical from economic
considerations. Absolute chemical inertness is not necessary as long as It
is sufficient that the liquid be easily recoverable from the reaction
products. Based on this,1 copper appears attractive.

Based on this liquid, in Figs. 2.7 and 2.6,- the effe-vt of


mixer void fraction, combustnr pressure,- cotnbustor temperature on cycle
efficiency are shown.

We see thBt calculated OC-LMMHD efficiencies are very


attractive i.e. upto 0.55 at combuator tempereturas of 2220 K or IBBB.

The concept appearB attractive for plHnt sizes greater than 10 MWe.
0-6 Coabnstor Teap. • 2222 K
Nossle Exit pressnre * 1 at*
ALPHA MIXSB
u
z
Ul
« 0-5
UL.
U.
Ul

0-4t
10 20 30
COMBUSTOR PRESSURE (otm)

2.7 Wficiency of GC-EMMHD at 2222 K


ccabastioa teaperatare
Hossle Exit pressure 1 ata
Alpha Mixer * 0 . 7

0-5

u
il
u.
Coabustor pressure (ata)
0-4

I70O I900 2100 2300


COMBUSTOR TEMPERATURE

Fig. 2.8 E f f i c i e n c y of OC-LMKffD as a function


of eosibustor pressure and temperature.
2.3 Economic Analysis of Practical Cycle

Till now,- detailed analysis have been carried out only on solar
power LMMHD system. At ANL,- Piereon and Herman I 22j have made economic
analysis of 25 Mil),- high temperature (1099-1255 K) Brayton-cycle syatem
coupled to a llquld-metal-cooled solar power tower. They have compared
LMMHD system with photovoltaic systems. Three coat comparisons uere made!
a) LMMHD versus photovoltaics for electrical power only and without
cogeneration,- b) LMMHD cogeneration versus a combined system using photo-
voltaica for the electrical power and a solar power tower for the heat,-
c) LMMHD cogeneration versus a combined system uaing photovoltaics for the
electrical power and a fossil fuel (oil) for the heat. They have assumed
the operating and maintenance coats to be same for all systems. Also
there ere no fuel costs for the a.) and (b) cases,- so only capital costa
uere used. The third comparison,' (c),- Included fuel costa and was made on
a life-cycle basis. Capital costs for (a) and (b) uere plotted in Fig. 2.9,
Clearly,- LMMHD has substantial economic benefits for both the existing
and the anticipated mature technology. The cost savings is greatest
without cogeneration,- and decreases with the degree of cogeneration because
in the limit of no Electric power,- the power tower cost ia the same for
both systems. For third comparison,- the capital costa are shown in
Table 2.2.

Branover of Ben Gurian University,- Israel has analysed cost of


50 KU) plant with flat (-late collectors (low temperature) and ccnpared it
with photovoltaic system 1 SJ . He estimated the cost assuming the plant
consists of 10 MHD generators (each with 5 KUa power). Taking industrial
o
j

o
o

? 5 MW LMMHD

0-4 08
USEFUL HEAT TO PROCES APPLICATION

HEAT INPUT TO LMMHD SYSTEM

Plg« 2.9 Comparison of Capital Cost between


LMMHD and photofoltales for Solar
Energy Conversion.
26

TABLE 2.2

CAPITAL COST SUWflRV.- WO FOSSIL FUEL


MILLION)

No Cogeneration Pull Cogeneretion


LMMHD Photo- LHMHO Photo-
voltalc voltaic
Plus Tower

Existing 2Z.1 28.3 19.0 20.9


Technology

Mature 1D.G 18»<* B.l» H.9


Technology
27

market prices for magnet,' heat exchanger^ pumps end liquid metal etc. he
M
arrived the coat Df the MHO system to be * 30,000, The coat of S O I B P

collector system was calculated assuming the MHO system efficiency to be

*».2^i end maximum solar radiation to be 1 Kld/m and arrived at a figure

125,000 for complete system. This cost reduces drastically if colle-

ctor with liquid metal were to be used and a total efficiency of 5 . 6 %

would be achieved. Tho total cost would reduce to


Mn 101,500. Fig. 2.10

gives the electricity cast of solar LMHHD B3 compared to other systems.

2.4 Technical Challenges for Commercial LHMHD

The technology required to build a practical LMMHO power system

depends on the following key issues ; the availability of the non-standard

components,' and the performance of the system in terms of its efficiency,

controlebllity,- ease of start up and shut down etc. The non-stnndnrd

components in the LMMHD 3yatem are the generator, mixer, two-phase nozzle,

separator and diffuscr. The technical 1 nouns of these components are

given in Table 2.3.

2.4.1 MUD generator

The generator in LMMHD system constitutes the key component. The

turbine efficiency of the generator can bn high (0.0) if loss mechanisms

like end losses, viscous and electrical short circuiting, slip Call these

are not'basic in operation) can be controlled. (Internal ohmic loss ia

basic,- It 1 B controlled by adjusting the load). Thus, most of the gene-

rator studies have been concentrated on individual losses,- two phase flows

in a magnetic field,' generator models and experiments.


0-87

014

010

o
<E
u
Ul
Ui

002

1 liquid netal MHD with Parabolic Colleotors


2 Organic Ranklne eyola turbine syaten with
parabolio oolloetors
3 PhotoroltalcB

Tig, 2,10 Electrioity cost estimates for solar


systems.
29

TABLE 2y3

TECHNICAL ISSUES OF LMMHD COMPONENTS

1) Generator : Elimination of key losses,'


DC to AC conversion

2) Mixer : Minimum pressure drop,


Homogeneous tun-phase flou

3) Nozzle t High efficiency

<•) Separator : Effective phase separation;


Lout gas side pressure drop,
Lou liquid kinetic energy loan.

5) Diffuser : High efficiency


Pure liquid or two phase H o u .
End losses

This lass is due to the reversal in the current direction in the


end regions of the channel because of decreasing magnetic field. These
efforts are crucial for channel design. They set a lower limit to the
generator length and an upper limit to the generator voltage. Early work
at ANL j 23 I established the uae of insulating vanes to minimise end
currents and generator experiments demonstrated that the desired Increase
in efficiency with vanes uas attained T 24 I . For large scale pouter
(50 Mill or more),- AWL Y 25 I proposed to use multiple generators connected
electrically in series and Tluid dynamically parallel and this partially
uncoupled the end losses end the voltage limitations. At Purdue University
a model uas developed to calculate the end losses for any arbitrary
arrangement of insulating vanes' I 26 J . Recently,' an experimental study
of generator with vanes uas completed at BBUN \ 27 I . Earlier experiments
and analysis at BGUN I 20j considered the distortion of the velocity
profile in the generator due to thB interaction of the end currents and
the magnetic field*

Viscous losses

These losses are small because the electromagnetic forces ere


so much larger than all other farces (Hartmann Ntnber > 1000)* However,
uall shear means that there le a pure-liquid layer adjacent to the wall
uith lout velocity and hence near the insulator uall a (parallel to 8 field)
current reversal takes place. This effect is magnified because the liquid
conductivity is higher than the tuo-phase care flou conductivity. An
ANL 1 29 j analysis shoiueo that the effect of this loss on generator
31

efficiency to be very small for practical generator parameters.

Slip

Slip is the difference in the gas and liquid velocity. The

higher the difference in velocity,- smaller will be the efficiency of the

generator and the cycle. In the initial tests at AIML,- the slip ratio

(gas to liquid velocity ratio) mas large but has decreased aa the electro-

magnetic interaction W B S increased. The recent experiments with ambient

temperature generator Bhous that at higher liquid flow rate,- the slip

ratio approaches unity,' as desired }_3DJ . Data from the ANL high-

tamperature open-circuit generator experiment shows that the slip ratio

also decreases as the temperature is increased | 3lJ .

Floui studies

Flow studies have also been done for better understanding of

LMMHO systems. The BGuTJ experimental p n gram haa focussed on single and

two-phase flow in the generator j^ 32 J and methods of reducing losses |_ 27J

At the University of Florida, analytical modelo have been developed to

explain the ANL data \ 33 I . Japanese have investigated many phenomena,-

such as electrical conductivity of two-phase mixture 1 3** 1 and the slip

ratio under different conditions 1 35J • The development of improved

instrumentation to measure local flow parameters inside the generator haB

continued at ANL and BGUIM |" 36 J .

Theoretical Analysis and Computer Codes

Three types of computer codes have been developed at ANL and

BGUN for designing generator, tD process the data for interpretation and
32

to predict the generator performance.

An ANL two-phase pressure gradient correlation fits very well

with the experimental date | 37 | * A BGUCJ model based on the assumption

of local nan-slip flow also fits very well with ANL data 138 I .

Progress in Generator Development

The impact of the above work on generator efficiency is drama-

tically demonstrated by the ANL data I 30 I . The Efficiency has increased

with experience and for the recent channel (LT-^t) is higher Bt the high

void fraction Df interest for power systems a3 shown in Fig. 2.11. Al9o

shDun in Fig. 2.12 the power density is comparable to that anticipated

for commercial generators. In fact, efficiencies in the exceBS of 0.6

were obtained with a small generator (20 kue) which had no provision

(such as vanes) to minimise end losses. Thus ye 3ee that these results

present very encouraging evidence that large generator can be built to

meet efficiency goal of 0.0.

2,'t.2 Separator

High performance r]a3-liquid separator have been investigated for

many applications,- and there is a considerable body of literature. Flat-

plate separators were studied at JPL J39J and excellent agreement obta-

ined between the test results Bnd theoretical prediction. Novel separators

are being considered for LMMHD. JPL tested an impinging jet separator

and showed significant liquid concentration is possible with very low

velocity loss. Rotating separators are currently being investigated at


GENERATOR ISENTROPIC
EFFICIENCY
o 9 O P
I- w *• 1 1

O
\
*
30

P
\

•*• 5 \

\
ti
i «s> a *-^ /I
\
x>
S3 o O
Ol 1 """»

H « <* 2 D 7 _ 1

[197
O •
O*J 3
• 9
O CO

1 «••
B MO ^^

1
24

30

to
E

20

111
o
ec
ui
o
o.
10

0 0-2 0-4 0-6


AVERAGE VOID FRACTION

Fig. 2.12 AWL measured generator power output


and power density.
35

JPL,' Biphase Energy Systems and ANL. Fundamental studies of liquid layers

deposited on the inside of a freely-rotating drum have shown that a gaa

free liquid layer can be established and maintained and the kinetic enercjy

ratios approaching 0,9 or above are attainable j_t»OJ . JPL Is looking at

rotary separator that IIBVB blades to recover the energy otherwise lost in

Impact on the inside of the drpm.

For the flat-plate separator,' JPL work has shDun 997. liquid flow

(void fraction ci 0.6) at the outlet with kinetic energy loss of less

than 0.4 in 1968 T 41J . Though the loss in kinetic energy is large,

with newer designs developed since,- 1968, it is expected that the perfor-

mance will improve.

2.4*3 Mlxer3. Mozzle and Diffuacrs

There is a subotantial body of two-phase literature,- much of

which is applicable to mixer,• nozzle3 and difFucers for LMMHD systems.

Only feu results are presented here.

Air-water experiments at ANL [bZ] have eotablished mixer

characteristics under various operating conditions. The results indicate

that element and contraction-geometry doniqna are the moot critical

factors,- and were used for the conceptual design of a mixer for an LMMHD

systems. JPL studied gaa-liquid mixer and developed designs for their

component teats

At BGUIV a water-refrigerant 113 facility hac developed to test

performance of the thermodynamic cycle; including liquid-liquid mixer,

direct-contact boiling, and acceleration of the liquid by the vBpour


The efficiency of the acceleration process (mixer and nozzle performance)
was in excess of 0.9 (ratio of actual acceleration divided by the accele-
ration that could be obtained when thEre ere no losses like no Blip etc.)

At 3PLf studies were conducted on two-component,' two phase and


one-component,- two-phase nozzle etc. Tests of a large (50 long) nozzle
using nitrogen-water and freon-water mixture have yielded energy efficiency
of 79*/» and 85*/. respectively. This la within the range required for two-
phasB LMMHD systems. One component ,• tuo-phasc nozzles were investigated
extensively at the Techniache Universitat at Berlin I *»5j .

Oiffuser operation with pure liquids is well established,- and


efficiencies approaching 0.9 are attainable. If the separator process is
not perfect,- then some vapour may exist in the liquid and resulta in a
two-phase flow. Some of the OPL diffuser data ^39J shows the good agree-
ment of the calculated and measured efficiencies. Efficiencies approaching
the minimum acceptable value of 0.8 were obtained at inlet void fraction
of j^, 0.5.

2.4.4 Liquid-metal Cooled Solar Collectors

Extraction of the heat from Baler collectors by circulating the


system's liquid metal haa many advantages viz. :

a) It is not necessary to use a heat exchanger between the


collectors and the conversion system as a result installation cost lowers.

b) Due to the absence of intermediate heat exchanger,- the top


cycle temperature is higher and this results in increase of cycle
efficiency.
37

c) Because of superior physical properties Df liquid metal,-

for a given liquid metal temperature,' the collector temperature mill be

lower and hence losses from the collector (radiation etc.) are minimized

Bnd thus increases the efficiency of the collector.

Experimental studies of mercury-cooled flat plate collector,-

performed at BGU(\I,- demonstrates higher output temperature \ _ M and also

much steeper temperature gradients versus exposure time to the sun. The

latter fact means that a system with liquid-metal cooled collectors can

start operating earlier in the morning and hence produce extra amount of

electrical energy.

2,^.5 System experiments

A 3D kue Nak-nitrogcn cunvertur system Urivun by campresaed

nitrogen gas was tested in JPL I'*GJ . The moat significant enpects of

the test were smooth and stable operation and absence of unexpected elect-

rical or flow losses.

A small demonstration,- lam-temperature LMMHD model has been

built Bnd tested at BGUN using mercury and flefrigerent 113. ThiB is a

very small-scale facility with moot of the partn made of glass. However,-

it is the first complete LMMHD system having all the elements of a real

one and it actually produces net electrical pouer 1 ^7J .

The goals of the component development program to date, the

minimum acceptable performance and the best performance attained till


3B

today are summarized in Table 2a<r# We see that ue are at the threshold
of building LMMHD systems,- specially Bolar coupled systems*
TABLE 2.k

SUMMARY OF THE STATUS OF LMMHD TECHNOLOGY

S.No. Component Goal Minimum Achieved Institution Remarks


acceptable

1 Generator
Efficiency o.a 0.7 0.6 ANL This is with end lasses. Once
(Channel end lasses can be controlled
LT-4) one can obtain easily <^ 0*8.
Exit void
fraction 0.95 0.85 0,8 ANL Higher than 0.8 could have
been achieved but far limita-
tion of higher gas flow rate
in the facility. Also using
surfactants, upta 0.95 may be
attainable.

Mixer
Pressure 5 atm Air-*iater experiments were con-
drop ducted at ANL. The results
indicate element and contract-
ion geometry design are most
crucial and with this design
uie can achieve the goal.

0.9 0.8 0.9 SGUN The two-phase mixture bias mater


and refrigent 113.
TABLE 2.h
(cantd.)

S.fJo. Component Goal Minimum Achieved Institution Remarks


acceptable

Separator

Liquid void 0.5 Q.6 OPL The kinetic loss uas less than
Fraction at D.i*. The separation uas done
exit by flat plate separator

Liquid D.I 0.3 0.1 AWL Freely rotating drum technique


kinetic was used for separation.
Energy loss

Piffuser

Efficiency 0.9 Q.fl D.8 OPL The inlet void fraction was
0.5

(The best achieved results do not correspond to the same facility)


CHAPTER 3

SCOPE OF UORK

The wide scope and versatality of LHMHD syBtemB and the major

progresssa already made in the building and understanding of non-standard

components have already been described. In this chapter, a proposal for

setting up a pilot LMMHD facility is made,- takincj into view the following

considerations.

- Low temperature LMMHD system can be coupled to aalar

collectors,' FBRs and other low temperature systems. Solar LMMHD systems

srE at the threshold of getting commercialized and BIBO LMMHO coupled to

FBRs have several significant advantages.

- Wa Cand Na-K alloy) is the most versatile liquid metal for

low temperature LMMHD cycles and neceaBary technology of this liquid

metal is available in India because of ongoing FBR program.

- Expertise in the basic MHD physics and technology is

available at BARC because of ongoing open cycle MHD program in India.

Abundant availability of solar enerqy and solar collector

technology in the country.

The main objectives of the LMMHD program are t

a) To develop the basic know-how in the field of Liquid Metal

MagnetohydrDdynamics including the designing and building of a simple

simulation facility (Phase 1 : Simulation Facility)


b) To build a low temperature LHMHD systsm prototype unit

converting thermal energy to electrical energy at a nominal design

value of 1-10 kWe (Phase 2 s Prototype Unit)

c) Baned on the experience from Phase 1 and Phase 2f- to

develop design capability for lBrge power systems 5D klde-5 MWe for

industrial applications (Phase 3 : Industrial Unit)

The simulation facility which is currently under development

is described in Sec. 3.1. The prototype unit is given in Sec. 3.2,

The Industrial Unit (PhBse 3 program) will be taken up during the next

plan period (1990-95) and under the present plan (1985-90) only the

design aspects will be taken up.

3.1 Simulation LMMHD facility

This facility consists of mercury (electrodynamic fluid) and

air (thermodynamic fluid) at ambient temperature. The aim of this

facility is to study the interaction between the two fluids, two-phase

flow pattern under various flow conditions and fluctuations in the MHO

voltage due to non-uniform floui. Since mercury has very high density,-

MHO effects are expected to be low. The schematic diagram of tha faci-

lity is shown in Fig. 3*1* It consists of Mixer,- MHD generator, Magnet

hydrocyclonic separator,- flow meter and compressed air supply and a

liquid nitrogen trap for mercury vapours. The inlet pressure of the air

can be controlled by a regulator. The air which enters through the

mixer,- accelerates the mercury and the two phase fluid passes through

the MHO generator giving rise to MHO voltage. The two phase fluid Is
Dlffuaa*
Two Phaaa
Flow
Separator ir
Liquid Nltrogan
Trap

N MHD
Channel
Marcury

r i m Matar

Mlxar
Maroury
Tank
Air Camprestor

Fig* 3.1 Sohonatle of Msroury-Alr LMMHO Syatam


separated using a hydrocyclone separator. The air is let out to atmos-

phere through a liquid nitrogen trap. The mercury falls through the

separator due to gravity and enters the mixer. Besides measuring MHD

voltage,- currents,' air flow rate,1 mercury flow rate, the facility will

include measurement of void fraction,- frequency of void fraction using

Anemometers and high speed photography to analyse flou pattern. The

typical parameters of the facility are summarized in Table 3.1.

In order to visually observe the flow pattern as well as for

high speed camera,- the material chosen uas perspex and transparent epoxy

compound. The detailed design of the generator,- mixer,- diffuser and

separator are completed. They are given in Figs. 3.2, 3.3,- 3,'* and 3,5

respectively. The photographs of the channel,- mixer, diffuser and

separators are shown in Figs. 3.6,' 3.7,- 3.8 and 3,9 respectively.

3,2 Prototype LMHHD Facility

3,2,1 The main objectives of the facility

This mill be a main experimental facility with a considerable

amount of flexibility for making a variety of investigations. The major

aim of this facility is to understand MHO generator performance in the

range of commercial systems. The main provisions available in the faci-

lity are as Follows :

- Experimental facility to study the flow characteristics in

the generator, mixer and other non-standard components,

- Diagnostics to measure various parameters like voltage,

current,- void fraction,- pressure,- temperature etc.


LM MH D TRAVJSPfvREHT.
CHANNEL EPOXY DIMS- IN
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AtL DIMtNSIONS AH£ IN i sz>.


UNLESS STATED OTHEHWISE
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GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE

L__i_. HASH* PHYSICS SECTION

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48

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Details
j
Fig. 3.6 Photograph of the MHD Channel
-50-

//.(;. .i.7 Photograph of the Mixer


-51-

/•;.!,'. J..S Photograph o( the Diffuser


-52-

/•V.i>. .<.<; l J hotogr;ipli ol" IIK- Sepuratur


53

TABLE 3.1

MAJOR OPERATING PARAMETERS DF THE : MHD GENERATOR


FOR THE SIMULATION FACILITY

Electrodynamic fluid Mercury


Thermodynamic fluid t Air
Operating temperature I Ambient
Magnetic field intenaity « 0,08 T
Length of the generator t 210 mm
Height of the generator s 6 mm
Width of the generator X f»0 nun
Open circuit voltage t 5,0 mV
Short circuit current I 15,0 A

Electrode material t Copper


- The building up of the system in a picinM iKjrmnr. In the

first part of the programme,- studies will be carriad out for the flow

and generator characteristics. In the secrmd part the solar collector

loui tqrade heat source,- leu temperature heat exchanger,- diffuser etc* L I U I

be added.

3.2.2 Description of the facility

The schematic diagram of the facility is L-;!.O;,J;. in Fig, >,.;•)»

During initial stares,- the liquid metal pump accelerates the ljq.iio

(Sodium/WaK) and gives the necessary velocity for channel studies,

meter is used to measure flow velocity. In mixing chamber,- N ? is

.Introduce! rmd necessary two phase flou is obtained in the mixing ckw•'::•••.-..

ThB two phase liquid flaws thrnuqh HMD charing!,- (c:nn5iritJno of r-iri'-,-.• •'.

and other nlnctrical comxir.ti onn) uher« electrici.il power is gunnrcitud.

In tiin ypparntor,- N~ is exhausted in atmosphere and liquid metal is dumpen

into tank. During next stage,- the liquid metal pump is removed and solar

collectors,- heat exchanger and diffuser are introduced in the liquid

metal loop. Suitable organic fluid loop with condensor and pump are

introduced in place of N,, gao. The thennodynamic cycle Df the vapour l'<

stiobin in Fig, jji.i, Trv jprious stages of thRi-nadynamic state the vnn^Mi

unrfergoe:; durir.ij thf: coi'ipl.-'tr? ryele and the rui-pt-ntive iDCafclon!) in the

jnop .:;-2 identified by numbers 1 to 4 in both the t'lnurea,- i.D» F"in« 3.10

r-nc! ! '•.:.., '<,,.'"!„ Tqhle 3,2 Q.ivas Qenerator parameters.

3,2.3 Diagnostics of the facility

The facility will have the positions to vary the following

parameters :
PHASE 1 Liquid Metal Loop
™*P H* Out •*—
I

J Two Pha-
se flow Separa-
3 MHD Channel tor
PRASE 2
S
I *- "

I
I Solar Punp Condenser
I Collecto Alterna-
I te Heat
Source Vapour
loop

Diffueer
Liquid Metal Loop

I f

Pig. 3.10 Scheuatic of 10 kWe Liquid Metal KHD Facility.


56

Critical Point

Saturated Saturated
Liquid Curve Vapour Curve

- P Conat
ui
B 2
fct
a.
a T Const.

• Vapour temp«rature In the Mixer


•- Vapour (liquid form) at the outlet of
the Condenser.

ENTROPY

Fig. 3.11 Schematio of thermodynamio cycle,


57

TABLE 3.2

MAJOR OPERATING- PARAMETERS OF, THE CHANNEL

Length I 30 cm

Height : 2 cm (distance between B malls)

Width : 6 cm (distance between electrodes)

Void fraction t 0 to 0*8

Average velocity of
i 0 to 8 M/B
two phase flow

Expected voltage : 0 to 0.5 V

Expected current : 0 to 12 x ID 4 A

Pressure drop acrnsn


the channel t 5 atm (max.)

Magnetic Induction t 0 to 1 T

Electrical nnnr!iir:t. i vi ty
of the tiiio ptiusc flow : 2.<t x 10 mho/m (max.)
58

- Mass flow rate of the liquid

- Mass flaw rate of the gas (N 2 ) or vapour

- Load resistance

- Magnetic field intensity

• Channel configuration

- Facilities to introduce insulating vanes

- Teat different separators

The facility will hBve provision for the measurement of the

following parameters :

- Pressure along the MHD generator length and at various

places along the loop. Pressure transducers are used

far this,

- Temperature along the channel length and at various

pieces in the loop. Type K thermocouples are used.

- Flou rate of liquid metal and gas. Flow rate of ftla.K

is measured by electromagnetic flou meter and that of

Wr by venturimcter.

- Magnetic field intensity inside the channel. GausB

meters uill be used for this,

- Void fraction along the channel. Y -ray technique is

used.

- Currents and voltages by voltmeter and Ammeter respec-

tively.
59

- The data from all these diagnostics Mill be logged into


a micro-computBr and stored in a floppy disc for detailed
off line analysis.

3.3 Design Studies for Industrial Units

During phase 1 and phase Zf detailed theoretical studies mill


be conducted for designing industrial unit of LMMHD, The design studies
and the development of computer codes for designing generator and other
components,- to process experimental data,- to interpret and predict the
performance of the components form an important area for research program.
The theoretical analyses (and computer codes) can be detailed as follows :

1) Generator design code

The exact channel dimensions,- efficiency and other parameters


like current,- voltage etc. will be determined by this code. One dimen-
sional,- tuo phase flow equations,- consisting of conservation of momentum,
masa of liquid and gas,- equation of state along with Ohm's law are solved.
Correlation coefficients are used to take into consideration inhomogenity
of the two phase distribution across the cross-section of the channel.
The details of equations,- boundary conditions,- etc. are presented in
Appendix A.I. This model is developed by Branover and Yakhot 1 33 J .

2) Data interpretation

These codea are developed to Interpret void fraction from the


rau data obtained in Y-ray technique used for void fraction determina-
tion.
60

3) Detailed loss mechanism enalysla

Effect of Insulation vanea (number and position) on prevention

of end losses are determined by salving electrodynamic equations at the

entrance of the channel for various vanea and for different position. The

flow parameters will be assumed.

Effect of slip on the generator efficiency is determined by

solving motion of gas bubble in liquid in addition to other momentum and

energy balance equations. Necessary bubble models to determine shape of

a average bubble will also be developed. Experimental data will be utili-

zed whenever necessary.

*O Design of heat exchanger for solar collector/loui grade


heat source

Optimum heat exchanger with process fluid for solar collector/

low temperature heat exchanger systems uill be designed.

5) Overall plant efficiency

A complete computer code For LMMHO cycle will be developed both

to optimise all the components as well as to analyse the effect of indi-

vidual component on the overall system efficiency. Based on this data

all components are designed for the prototype 10 kWe LMMHO syatem. This

code Is also used for designing large scale LMMHD systems for FBRs.

This chapter gives the scope of work of Plasma Phy3ica Division

on LMMHD program. The aim is to set up a complete prototype 10 kdle


61

LMMHO,- low tempnrature solar based system (near turm) antj design large

scale LMMI-IO for FBR (lonn. term). In order to achieve this,- Bn infra-

structure is proposed ennaisting of experimental facility to study MHD

generator,- fxperience in handling IMa-K liquid metal and mixer development.

Also prnr,[>nU;d in this Chapter,- mercury air LMMHD system presently being

built Tor studying two-phase flow. The theoretical understanding necessary

to desiuM, interpret experimental data,' estimation and performance of

prototype plant have also been presented*


62

CHAPTER 4

SUMMARY

This report presents the current state of art of LMHHD system,

and proposal for setting i/p of a LMMHD facility by Advanced MHO Group .

In literature three major cycles have been proposed depending upon the

source temperature. For low temperature systems like solar collectors,

FBTR, LWR, geothermal energy etc. Rankine LMMHD (between 370 K to 950 K)

and Brayton LMMHD cycle (between 500 K to SOD K) are proposed. For high

temperature systems (above 900 K),' specially combustion systems,- open

cycle LMMHD cycle is proposed.

Detailed performance studies have been conducted for solar

based lnu temperature systems both for Rankine and Brayton LMMHD cycles.

I\la or Na-K appears to be one of the most versatile liquid metal for both

type of cycleB. Efficiencies Df these cycles are better than photovoltaic

cells and other competing cycles. Studies conducted at ANL indicate that

favourable efficiencies are obtained for LMHHD coupled to LMFQRs. No

detailed performance hava been conducted for open-cycle LMMHD systems but

studies indicate copper or copper alloy is the most suitable liquid metal

and efficiencies of these systems compete well with other systems.

No detailed economic analysis have been done for FBR coupled

LMMHD or open-cycle LMMHD cycles. However,- economics favour very uell

for solar coupled LMMHD systems both for large power generation

( rvj 25 Hide) or low pouier generation (50 KUo).


63

The various technical issues involved and work already conducted

to solve the issues have also been presented. There appear to be no

unsurmountable problems. Based on the economic studies related to appli-

cation Df LMMHD, proposal for an R and D program to develop the infra-

structure as uell as to build a 1-10 klile LMMHD prototype coupled to solar

energy is made.
APPENDIX A.I

BASIC EQUATIONS REQUIRED FOR DESIGNING MHD GENERATOR

There are no established procedures for the design of the

LMMHO generator. Most of the designers use their own schemes \ 3Oj

and explrical data from experiments.

The design of MHD generator is based on the fluid dynamics of

two phase fluids. The following simplified assumptions are made.

1) The flow is fully developed

2) Pressure is constant over the channel cross-section

3) The flow temperature is constant and the expansion

of the gas la described by the equation of state of

an ideal gas

U) Magnetic field B = const, and la along z

(see fig. A.I for coordinates and channel

configuration)

5) Electric field E = constant over the cross-section.

The equations to be solved are i

1) Equation of the motion of the tuio-phase fluid


F i g . A.1 Schematic of IMNHD Channel
66

2) Conservation of mass of liquid

(3)

3) Conaervatian of mass of gas

«t) Ohm'a laui

5> Equation of state of gas

P - *

6) flveraqe density of the two phase l i q u i d

CO

uhere u, P, a arc the velocity, pressure and void fraction of the two
is
phase liquid, x la coordinate along flow, x stress due to the
walls. Subscripts 1 and g corresponds to liquid and gas. § is the
density, a t t are electrical conductivity of the fluid end load
67

factor,, Subscript ti corresponds to entrance values. A(x) is the cross-


section of the channel at x^ p.,- p_ and f3, are correlation coefficients
to take into consideration inhomogeneity of the distribution of the gas
phase aver the channel cross-section and are defined by

=. B 1
i

Brsnover determined the value of p, to be l,l<t from ANL data and p and
f}^ sre related to p. as follous j

The equations are transformed into more suitable farm far computation
purpose and are expressed as Follows :
68

-1

uhere X is the friction factor.

In Bddltion to the above equations output current has to be


integrated.

uhere H is the height of the electrode uhich could be a function of x.

The load factor (^ (uhich is defined belou) Bhould match with


current ue obtain by integrating equation (10)
69

The matching has to be done by trial and error. Once PQf- {^ and p

are specified,- one can calculate P(x) from equation (10) and void fract-

ion from equation (9). The flow velocity from equation (2) and the output

current from equation (11). The load voltage is given by V.,= IR and

electric power is given by P e = I V. . The electrical conductivity of

the fluid is determined as follows VUB J

Thus the solution is completely specified.

More detailn of MUD rinhi equations required for solving the

LMMfID generator including computer code is given in ref.


70

APPENDIX flg

SPECIFICATIONS DF THE LIQUID METAL PROPERTIES

Some important properties of mercury sodium and Na-K at


different temperatures are presented in Tables A2»lr A2.2 and A2.3.
Also given in Fig* A2.1, the phase diagram of Na,K syBtem.
71

TABLE A2.1

PROPERTIES OF MERCURY

Temperature Density Specific Thermal Electrical


Heat Conducti- Resistivity
vity ohni"«4Ti

CC°> (kg/m ) 3
(J/kg K) (W/mK) (x ID"8)

20 135W.0 139.53 - -

50 - - 98.«.

60 - - 9,671 -

100 13352,0 137,26 103.2

120 •* - 10.927 -

160 - - 11.6B1 -

200 13115,0 135.86 - Il«u2

220 - - 12,686 -

300 12881.0 135,*»O - 127.5


72

TABLE A2.2

PROPERTIES OF SODIUM LIQUID

Temperature Density Specific Thermal Electrical


Heat Conduct!- Resistivity
vity ohm-m
kg/m 3
J/kg K lii/mM X 10"8

100 927,0 1499.3 86.9 9.72

zoo 904.0 1571.6 B2.0 13.51

300 eao.o 1652.3 77.1 17.61

400 856.0 1743.0 72.2 22.13

500 832.0 1842.2 67.3 27.17

600 808.0 1951.3 62.4 32.61

700 784.0 2069.1 56.D 39.17


73

TABLE A2.3

PROPERTIES OF Mn-K (78 hit % POTASSIUM) SYSTEM

Temperature Density Specific Thermal Electrical


Heat Conduct!- Resistivity
vity ohm-m
°C Kg/m3 J/Kg K U/mK x ID" 8

100 840.0 941,19 99.65 41.6

200 817,0 908.11 103,41 44.4

300 793,0 68B.44 108.44 51.4

400 769,0 877.97 109.70 58.8

500 745.0 874,20 109.70 67.3

600 722.0 875,87 108.44 77.3

700 697.0 882.57 106.76 89.3


75

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Published by Head, Library & Information Services, DARC, Bombay 400 085, India.