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• Wind is the term for air in motion.

• Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
• Wind is caused by differences in pressure. When a difference in
pressure exists, the air is accelerated from higher to lower
pressure. Near the Earth’s surfaces, friction causes the wind to be

• LATITUDES – also known as Parallels, are small circles parallel to the

equator. Its measure is from 0° to 90 °.
• EQUATOR – great circle perpendicular to the meridians.
• LONGITUDE – the angle east or west from a reference meridian to another
meridian that passes through that point.
• PRIME MERIDIAN – the meridian passing through Royal Observatory,
Greenwich England.
The Earth rotates 360° in 24 hrs or every hour
(15°). Therefore, every 15° involved of
longitude has a time difference of one hour.
The mean radius of the Earth is 6373 km (3959
miles), usually taken as 6400 km (4000 miles).

POLAR FRONT – In meteorology, the transition region separating warmer

tropical air from colder polar air in the mid-latitudes.

TROPICAL CYCLONE – Generic term for a non-frontal synoptic scale low-

pressure system over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection
(i.e. Thunderstorm Activity) and definite cyclonic surface wind circulation
(Holland 1993).
The Philippine Public Storm Warning Signals

PSWS No. 1 Meteorological Conditions:

A tropical cyclone will affect the
locality. Winds of 30-60 kph may be
expected in at least 36 hours or
intermittent rains may be expected
within 36 hours. (When the tropical
cyclone develops very close to the
locality a shorter lead time of the
occurrence of the winds will be
specified in the warning bulletin.)

Impact of the Winds:

Twigs and branches of small trees may be broken. Some banana plants
may be tilted or downed. Some houses of very light materials (nipa and
cogon) may be partially unroofed. Unless this warning signal is upgraded
during the entire existence of the tropical cyclone, only very light or no
damage at all may be sustained by the exposed communities. Rice crop,
however, may suffer significant damage when it is in its flowering stage.
Precautionary Measures:
When the tropical cyclone is strong or is intensifying and is moving
closer, this signal may be upgraded to the next higher level. The waves
on coastal waters may gradually develop and become bigger and
The people are advised to listen to the latest severe weather bulletin
issued by PAGASA every six hours. In the meantime, business may be
carried out as usual except when flood occur. Disaster preparedness is
activated to alert status.

PSWS No. 2

Impact of the Winds:

A tropical cyclone will affect the
the locality. Winds of greater
than 60 kph and up to 120 kph
may be expected in at least 24
Impact of the Winds:
Some coconut trees may be tilted with few others broken. Few big trees
may be uprooted. Many banana plants may be downed. Rice and corn
may be adversely affected. Large number of nipa and cogon houses may
be partially or totally unroofed. Some old galvanized iron roofings may
be peeled off. In general, the winds may bring light to moderate
damage to the exposed communities.

Precautionary Measures:
The sea and coastal waters are dangerous to small sea crafts. Special
attention should be given to the latest position, the direction and speed
of movement and the intensity of the storm as it may intensify and
move towards the locality. The general public especially people
traveling by sea and air are cautioned to avoid unnecessary risks.
Outdoor activities of children should be postponed. Secure properties
before the signal is upgraded. Disaster preparedness agencies /
organizations are in action to alert their communities.
PSWS No. 3

Meteorological Conditions:
A tropical cyclone will affect the
locality. Winds of 121 kph up to
170 kph may be expected in at
least 18 hours.

Impact of the Winds:

Many coconut trees may be broken or destroyed. Almost all banana
plants may be downed and a large number of trees may be uprooted.
Rice and corn crops may suffer heavy losses. Majority of all nipa and
cogon houses may be unroofed or destroyed and there may be consi-
derable damage to structures of light to medium construction. There
may be widespread disruption of electrical power and communication
services. In general, moderate to heavy damage may be experienced,
particularly in the agricultural and industrial sectors.
Precautionary Measures:
The disturbance is dangerous to the communities threatened/
The sea and coastal waters will be very dangerous to all sea crafts.
Travel is very risky especially by sea and air. People are advised to
seek shelter in strong buildings, evacuate low-lying areas and to stay
away from the coasts and river banks. Watch out for the passage of
the "eye" of the typhoon indicated by a sudden occurrence of fair
weather immediately after very bad weather with very strong winds
coming generally from the north. When the "eye" of the typhoon hit
the community do not venture away from the safe shelter because
after one to two hours the worst weather will resume with the very
strong winds coming from the south. Classes in all levels should be
suspended and children should stay in the safety of strong buildings.
Disaster preparedness and response agencies/organizations are in
action with appropriate response to actual emergency.
PSWS No. 4

Meteorological Conditions:
A very intense typhoon will affect
the locality. Very strong winds of
171 - 220 kph may be expected in
at least 12 hours.

Impact of the Winds:

Coconut plantation may suffer extensive damage. Many large trees
may be uprooted. Rice and corn plantation may suffer severe losses.
Most residential and institutional buildings of mixed construction may
be severely damaged. Electrical power distribution and
communication services may be severely disrupted. In the overall,
damage to affected communities can be very heavy.
Precautionary Measures:
The situation is potentially very destructive to the community. All
travels and outdoor activities should be cancelled. Evacuation to safer
shelters should have been completed since it may be too late under this
With PSWS No. 4, the locality is very likely to be hit directly by the eye
of the typhoon. As the eye of the typhoon approaches, the weather will
continuously worsen with the winds increasing to its strongest coming
generally from the north. Then a sudden improvement of the weather
with light winds will be experienced. This means that the eye of the
typhoon is over the locality. This improved weather may last for one to
two hours depending on the diameter of the eye and the speed of
movement. As the eye moves out of the locality, the worst weather
experienced before the lull will suddenly commence. This time the very
strong winds will come generally from the south. The disaster
coordinating councils concerned and other disaster response
organizations are now fully responding to emergencies and in full
readiness to immediately respond to possible calamity.
PSWS No. 5
Meteorological Conditions:
A very intense typhoon will affect the locality. Very strong winds of
more than 220 kph may be expected in at least 12 hours.

Impact of the Winds:

Total damage to banana plantation
· Most tall trees are broken, uprooted or defoliated;
· Coconut trees are stooped, broken or uprooted.
· Few plants and trees survived
· Almost total damage to structures of light materials, especially in
highly exposed coastal areas.
· Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings.
Severe and extensive window and door damage
· Most residential and institutional buildings of mixed construction
may be severely damaged.
· Electrical power distribution and communication services severely
· All signs/billboards blown down.

ANEMOMETER – or windmeter is a
device used for measuring wind
speed, and is a common weather
station instrument.


WEATHERCOCK – an instrument for
showing the direction of the wind.
They are typically used as an
architectural ornament to the
highest point of a building.
Near the earth’s surface, friction causes the wind to be slower.

At heights of approximately 1200 ft (366m) above ground, the wind speed is

virtually unaffected by surface friction, and its movement is solely
dependent on prevailing seasonal and local wind effects.
For structural engineering purposes, velocity of
wind can be considered as having 2
components: a mean velocity that increases
with height, and a turbulent velocity that
remains the same over height.

Variation of wind velocity with time

V = Average wind

TIME (t)

GUST SPEED – brief increases in wind velocity

beacause of friction near the ground surface
- Unlike the mean flow, which can be considered as static, wind
loads associated with gustiness or turbulence changes rapidly and
even abruptly creating effects much larger than of the same loads
were applied gradually.
- Wind loads, therefore, need to be studied as if they were dynamic
in nature.
STATIC – constant magnitude and density.
DYNAMICS – changes through time.
- The time it takes a building to cycle through a complete oscillation
is known as a period.
- If the wind gust reaches its maximum value and vanishes in a time
much shorter than the period of the building, its effects are
- On the other hand, the gusts can be considered as static loads if the
wind load increases and vanishes in a time much longer than the period
for the building. For example, a wind gust that develops to its strongest
intensity and decreases to zero in 2 seconds is a dynamic load for a tall
building with a period of, say, 5 to 10 seconds, but the same 2-second
gust is a static load for a low-rise building with a period of less than 2
Design Criteria need to be satisfied for wind loads:

STABILITY - against overturning, uplift and/or sliding of the structure

STRENGTH - the structural components of the building is required to be

sufficient to withstand imposed loadings

SERVICEABILITY - interstorey and overall deflections are expected to

remain within acceptable limits

- a vortex (plural: vortices) is a spinning, often turbulent flow of
- any spiral motion with closed streamlines as vortex flow.
- the motion of the fluid swirling rapidly around a centre is
called a VERTEX.

SHED - to diffuse or rotate.



RETURN PERIOD – also known as mean recurrence interval (MRI) is a

statistical measure of how often an event of a certain size is likely to
happen. The return period has an inverse relationship with the probability
that the event will be exceeded in any one year. For example, a 10 yr wind
of 67 mph has a 1/10 or 10% chance of being exceeded in any one year and
a 50 yr wind of 67 mph has a 1/50 (2%) chance of being exceeded in any
one year.
The general expression for probability P that a design wind speed will be
exceeded at least once during the exposed period of n years is given by: P =
1 – (1 – Pa)n

where: Pa – annual probability of being exceeded (reciprocal of

the mean recurrence interval)
n – exposure period in years

Example 1:

What is the probability that a design wind speed of 67 mph corresponding

to a 50 year return period be exceeded at least once in 100 years? In 50

P = 1 – (1 – Pa)n 100 yrs: P = 1 – (1 – 0.02)100 = 87%

Pa = 1/5 = 0.02 50 yrs: P = 1 – (1 – 0.02)50 = 64%
- The value usually reported in the United States, until the publication of
the American Society of Civil Engineers’ ASCE 7-95 standard, was the
average of the velocities recorded during the time it takes a horizontal
column of air 1m long to pass a fixed point.
- The fastest mile is the highest velocity in one day.
- The annual extreme mile is the largest of daily maximum.
- Furthermore, since the annual extreme mile varies from year to year,
wind pressures used in design are based on a wind velocity having a
specific mean recurrence interval. Mean recurrence intervals of 20 and
50 years are generally used in building design, the former interval for
determining the comfort of occupants in tall buildings subject to wind
storms, and the latter for designing lateral resisting moments.


- BASIC WIND SPEED, V. Three – second gust speed at, m above the ground
in Exposure C (See Section as determined in accordance with
Section 207.5.4 and associated with an annual probability for 0.02 being
equated or exceeded. (50 years mean recurrence interval)
- The design of cladding for lateral loads is of major concern to
architects and engineers.
- Although the failure of exterior cladding resulting in broken glass
maybe of less consequence than the collapse of a structure. The expense
of replacement and hazards passed to pedestrians require careful

Diaphragms receive edge
loading from the windward wind
and distribute the loads to
shear walls

Wind pressure
applied to
windward wall

Shear walls receive the loads from

the diaphragms and transfer the
loads to the foundation.
National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume I
by Association of Structural Engineers of the
Philippines (ASEP)

1st Edition, 1972

2nd Edition, 1981
3rd Edition, 1987
4th Edition, 1991
5th Edition, 2001
6th Edition, 2010