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M.Srinivas. • The term refers to a process whereby people of lower castes collectively try to adopt uppers caste practices and beliefs as a preliminary step to acquire higher status. SANKRISITSATION • It was introduced into Indian Sociology by Prof. • Thus it indicates a process of cultural mobility that is taking place in the traditional social system of India.N. .

ideology and way of life in the direction of hight and frequently. rituals. twice born caste” . DEFINITION • “The process by which a low caste or tribe or other group changes its customs.

ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS • Sanskritisation denotes the process in which the lower castes try to imitate the life styles of upper caste in their attempt to raise their social status. • Major process of cultural change – it has been universal. • The castes which enjoyed higher economic and political power but rated relatively low in virtual. it is found in tribal community. . • It denotes the process of upward mobility – position change. • It is not only found in Hindu community.

. • It does not automatically result in the achievement of a higher status for the group. • It has been often constructed as a kind of protest against the traditional caste system. • Serves to reduce or remove the gap between the ritual and secular ranking.• Process of Sanskiritisation serves as a reference group. • It does not take place in the same manner in all the places. • It does not denote a basic change in the structure of the Hindu society.

• Westernisation – Changes that have taken place in the Indian society and culture due to the Western contact through the British rule. • The British brought with new technology. institutions. . • British rule produced radical and lasting changes in the Indian society and culture. WESTERNISATION • it has been very significant in understanding the socio-cultural changes of modern India. and values. beliefs. knowledge. • These have become the main source of social mobility for individual as well as groups.

M. values” . ideology.Srinivas .N. DEFINITION • “Westernisation refers to the changes brought about in Indian society an culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule and the term subsumes changes occuring at different levels – technology. institution.

elections. • It prevades political and cultural fields also. . • It implies certain value preferences. • Introduction of institution. • Form and pace – vary from region to region and certain population to another. MAIN FEATURES • It is a simple concept – Indian society and culture. Christian missionaries and fundamental changes in older institution. news papers.

the society itself underwent changes in values. but it only symbolises a process of change. from primarily agricultural to primarily industrial economy. beliefs and norms. . • It also described as a process that changed the society. • As a result of the change in the economy. • The term refer to change in economic and its related effect on social values and practices. MODERNISATION • It does not denote any philosophy or movement. • It is a process which indicates the adoption of the modern ways of life and values.

politics.Rutow and Ward . Modernisation involves ongoing change in a societ’s economy. traditions and religion”. DEFINITION • “Modernisation refers to a complex set of changes that take place almost in every part of society as it attempts to be industrialised. . education.Smelser • “Modernisation is the application of modern science to human affairs” .

• Movement from the use of human and animal to machinery. . • Agricultural shifts from subsistence farming to commercial farming on a larger scale.PROCESS OF MODERNISATION • It involves a change from simple and traditional towards the use of scientific knowledge and technology. • The society changes from the farm and the village centered one to that of the industry and city centered.

and media participation. spread of literacy. • Increment of mobility in the society. • Increase in material standards of living. .MEASURES OF MODERNISATION • Industrialisation – technology • Spread of scientific and technical education. • High expectancy of life at birth. • Greater measure of public participation. understood in terms of urbanisation.

• Urbanisation and Industrialisation • Universal legal system . CAUSES OF MODERNISATION • Education • Mass communicaiton • Nationalism and Democracy (Ideology based) • Charismatic Leadership • Strong and stable Governmental authority.

Industry opened – Muhurtam. family system. • Creates frustration. . disappointment and social unrest. • May create conflicts with traditional way of life. • Values continue to be traditional . • Structural changes mostly remain uneven – Industry : religious system. PROBLEMS OF MODERNISATION • Demands that society must change in all ways at once.