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The quotient of any two nonzero rational numbers is a rational number.

Proof,
Suppose x and y are any two [PBAC] non zero rational numbers. [We must show x/y is rational]
By the definition of rational number, x = a / b
y=c/d
Where, a, b, c, d are integers and b≠0, d≠0. ࣔ

By substitution, x / y = (a / b) / (c / d)
By algebra, x / y = ad / bc
By product of two integers, ad and bc are both integers.
By zero product property, bc ≠ 0 because b ≠ 0.
Hence, by definition of rational, x/y, quotient of any two non-zero rational is rational. [As was to be
shown]

If a is any odd integer, then a2 + a is even.


Proof,
Suppose a is any PBAC odd integer. [We must show a2 + a is even.]
By definition of odd, a = 2k + 1
By substitution, a2 – a = (2k + 1)2 + (2k + 1)
By algebra, a2 – a = 4k2 + 4k + 1 + 2k + 1
= 4k2 + 6k + 2
= 2(2k2 + 3k +1)
Let p = 2k2 + 3k + 1 then, p is integer because k is integer
By substitution, a2 – a = 2p
Hence, by definition of even, a2 – a is even. [as was to be shown].