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Unit – 4

1. List out the points to be checked while carrying out inspection of wiring install
(Jan-2016)
Solution: - Internal wiring should be inspected once a year and the following points should
be checked while carrying out inspection of the wiring installation.
1. Service Connections: In case of overhead line, check and ensure that:
(i) The lines are terminated at a sufficient distance from the building.
(ii) The danger notice exists to warn the staff.
(iii) The fuse wire of correct rating is provided on the phase line.
(iv) The lead-in wires are of size sufficient to carry the full- load current.
(v) The lead-in pipe is properly earthed and bonded and pipe ends are provided with
insulating bushes to protect the wires from mechanical damage. In case of underground cable
check up and ensure that (i) the cables are properly sealed and there is no leakage of cable oil
(ii) there are earth connections to the cable armouring.
2. Main Switchboard: In case of main switchboard check and ensure that
(i) The voltage available is correct. (i.e. within permissible limits of declared voltage.)
(ii) The main switch is provided close to the point of commencement of supply.
(iii) The fuse of correct size is provided on the live pole.
(iv) The main switch is easily identified and is easily accessible so that in case of emergency
the entire supply to the building can be switched off at once.
(v) There is a clear working space all round the board (as mentioned in IE rule 51 i.e. 0.914
m).
(vi) The phase and neutral wires are clearly marked for identification.
(vii) Caution notice in Hindi or other local language is placed.
3. Miscellaneous: The points to be checked are :
(i) No branch circuit feeds more than 10 points or 800 watt load.
(ix) The leakage current is not more than 1/5,000 of maximum supply current.
(iii) The insulation resistance between conductor and earth and between conductors is more
than permissible value as per IE rule.
(iv) The single pole switches are provided on the live conductor.
(v) The electrical resistance from the point of connection with the earth electrode to any point
on ECC in the complete installation is not more than one ohm.
(vi) The metallic frames of all power equipment are earthed by two independent earth
conductors.

so must be connected correctly. main fuse is inserted. its one terminal is held in the hand and the other against the feed terminal of the switch. if the switch is correctly connected the neon lamp will glow. . even when the single pole switch is in open position which may easily lead to accidents. this test is performed. one end of test lamp is connected to earth and the other end is tapped by lead to each contact of each switch in turn. distribution board. 5. main switch is put in ‘on’ position. A convenient and quicker method of performing this test is by means of a small neon tube tester. Mention the different types of tests conducted on wiring installations. it indicates that the switch is on neutral wire.(vii) The metallic covering of iron clad switch. While performing polarity test by means of a small neon tube tester. a person who is replacing lamp even after opening the single pole switch is liable to get shock if he comes in contact with the line terminal of the lamp holder. In this method all the lamps are removed. Explain in detail testing of polarity. It is necessary that single pole switches are placed in + ve side or live side so that by making switch off the lamp can be made quite dead.2 (a) and If test lamp. The reason of it is that if the switch in provided on neutral wire. it is equally effective whether it is connected in live or neutral wire but from the safety point of view it is necessary that all single pole switches are provided on phase or outer wire. To ensure that all the switches are placed in phase or live conductors and not in neutral conductor. For example. 2. conduit pipes enclosing VIR or PVC cables are properly earthed. As regard the function of a single pole switch. (Jan-2016) Solution: . Pocket neon testing tubes for the purpose are available. it indicates that switch is on the live wire as shown in Fig. Sub main distribution boards. never on neutral wire. An alternative method is by means of a test lamp. then lamp holder or the fan as well as part of wiring will remain alive. GI pipe. If the test lamp lights on one of the two contacts. does not give light on either contact of the switch.Testing of Polarity of Single Pole Switches.

or 4 (not counting the safety ground) Neutral present: Wye connected systems have a neutral Delta connected systems typically do not have a neutral Voltage levels: Low Voltage: 600 volts or less Medium Voltage: 601 volts to about 34. The pointer will indicate the earth resistance.Testing of Earth Continuity Path. For safety all the metal pieces or coverings such as conduits. all other switches in on position and lamps in their respective holders. main fuse withdrawn. (Jun -2015) Solution: . the phase-to-neutral voltages should be equal if the load is balanced.000 volts and up Line-to-line voltages are typically 1. 3. In case of conduit wiring there is a possibility of the conduit joints to become loose or to be separated resulting in high resistance in the earth path. must be solidly connected to earth otherwise on the damage of insulation. For earth continuity test. Higher than this value shows that conduit or switch has not been properly earthed. the leakage current will start giving severe shock to the person touching it. Write short note on service lines.This describes various types of utility electrical services and supply voltages. which should not exceed the value of one ohm. . Watt Node meter models are available in seven different versions that cover the full range of electrical services types and voltages.500 volts High Voltage: 46. One end of the earth continuity tester is connected to an independent earth and the other end is connected to the wiring say to a switch or conduit. Meters and current transformers are designed for use on either 50 or 60 Hz systems.732 times the phase-to-neutral voltages In symmetrical three-phase electrical system. 3. Classification of Different Services: Alternating current electric power distribution systems can be classified by the following properties: Frequency: 50 Hz or 60 Hz Number of phases: single or three phase Number of wires: 2. metal covers of switches etc. The nominal system supply voltages listed below can vary by ±10% or more. main switch should be opened.

legal in most areas of the USA.000. All of these effects can be detected by the electric company. and specifically to discover energy theft. Strong magnets saturate the magnetic fields in the meter so that the motor portion of a mechanical meter does not operate. When tampering is detected. DC current does not cause the coils to make eddy currents in the disk. the maximum rate may be charged each billing period until the tamper is removed. a standard residential 50 A meter causes a legally collectible charge of about US$5.095/kWh. Magnets can also saturate current transformers or power-supply transformers in electronic meters. the normal tactic. though countermeasures are common. At US$0. or the service is disconnected. The owner of the meter normally secures the meter against tampering. Lower power magnets can add to the drag resistance of the internal disk resistance magnets.Meters can be manipulated to make them under-register. and many modern meters can detect or compensate for them. and with crude mechanical meters. Meter readers are trained to spot signs of tampering. Power companies often install remote-reporting meters specifically to enable remote detection of tampering.4. so this causes reduced rotation and a lower bill. This theft or fraud can be dangerous as well as dishonest. Revenue meters' . Some combinations of capacitive and inductive load can interact with the coils and mass of a rotor and cause reduced or reverse motion. Write the reason for excess recording of energy consumption by energy meter (Jan - 2015) Solution: . Rectified DC loads cause mechanical (but not electronic) meters to under-register. effectively allowing power use without paying for it. is to switch the subscriber to a "tampering" tariff charged at the meter's maximum designed current. A common method of tampering on mechanical disk meters is to attach magnets to the outside of the meter.00 per month. The change to smart power meters is useful to stop energy theft.

Even if an earth ground is safe. Power thefts in the U. etc.8 5. Meters may also measure VAR-hours (the reflected load). 5. 3 1. we have full.5 1. in order to find and fix power distribution problems. metering at the substation can alert the operator to tampering. are often connected with indoor marijuana grow operations. extra clock setting. reversed or switched phases etc. magnetic anomalies. 000 3.57 3 415 0.54 + 7. 3 7.75 .25 = 21.load current for these motors = 1.75 1.54 3 415 0. Some tampers bypass the meter. 000 0.57 + 11.mechanisms and connections are sealed. glued buttons.7 . inverted installation. These investigations are an effective method to discover tampering.S.54 + 1. ambient magnetic fields. A phantom loop connection via an earth ground is often much higher resistance than the metallic neutral connector. Substations.8 I I For kW V phase motor A I For kW V phase motor A I For kW V phase motor A × = Total full. and transformers normally have a high-accuracy meter for the area served. neutral and DC currents (elevated by most electrical tampering).8 3.7 1.load currents of motors as 1 2 34 0. modern tamper-resistant meters can detect and bill it at standard rates.85 0. 000 5. Even simple mechanical meters can have mechanical flags that are dropped by magnetic tampering or large DC currents. 415 . Safe tampers of this type normally increase the neutral current at the meter.9 A . inter-ties. Disconnecting a meter's neutral connector is unsafe because shorts can then pass through people or equipment rather than a metallic ground to the generator or earth. Most split-phase residential meters in the United States are unable to detect neutral currents. wholly or in part. Newer computerised meters usually have counter- measures against tampering. Find the materials required for 1. with following loads :Lightning =300 watts. Assuming efficiency of motor 85% and power factor 0.85 0.85 0.8.power supply and another for domestic supply. AMR (Automated Meter Reading) meters often have sensors that can report opening of the meter cover. Assume safety factor=2 (Jan -2015) Solution: . Indoor marijuana growers aware of this are particularly motivated to steal electricity simply to conceal their usage of it. Narcotics detectives’ associate abnormally high power usage with the lighting such operations require. Power companies normally investigate discrepancies between the total billed and the total generated. 3 11.overhead service lines of a house located 10 meters away from pole. Heating= 2500 watts. 415 . However.25 3 415 0. 415 .5 .

6 times of full. Length of 19 mm exible conduit required for connecting motor switches to motor starters for all the four machines and HG conduit to motor terminals for machines no. including wastage = 1. including service. erected else. erected along any street shall at any part thereof be at a height less than- (a) For low and medium voltage lines 5.Conductors configuration spacing and clearances.000 volts. if insulated 4.Hence cable from meter board to main board shall have a current carrying capacity 1.8 metres (b) For high voltage lines 6. 16 mm2 aluminium conductor having current carrying capacity of 38 A shall be used from meter board to main board.000 volts. Length of 31 mm exible conduit from meter board to main switch board and from main switch board to distribution board. 7.000 volts or part thereof by which the voltage of the line exceeds 33.3 metre for every 33. medium and high voltage lines up to and including 11. Span lengths 1) No conductor of an overhead line.load current of the mot Hence 3-core. lines.000 volts 5.5 metres (b) For high voltage lines 5.where than along or across any street shall be at a height less than- (a) for low. 4.0 (c) for high voltage lines above 11.8 metres (3) No conductor of an overhead line including service lines.2 metres plus 0. The current rating of main switch in the starting current of one motor of highest rating plus full 1.0 m 2. including wastage = 1. .000 volts: PROVIDED that the minimum clearance along or across any street shall not be less than 6.4. erected across a street shall at any part thereof be at a height less than- (a) For low and medium voltage lines 5. Explain points to be checked while carrying out inspection of wiring installed (Jan- 2015) Solution: . including service lines.0 m 3. if bare . Length of 25 mm exible conduit from HG conduit to motor terminals fan machine no.1 metres (2) No conductor of an overhead line.1 metres. 1100 V grade PVC insulated.2 metres (4) For extra-high voltage lines the clearance above ground shall not be less than 5.6 metres (b) for low. medium and high voltage lines up to and including 11. 1.

Revenue meters' mechanisms and connections are sealed. Write the reason for excess recording of energy consumption by energy metre (June- 2014) Solution: . Power companies often install remote-reporting meters specifically to enable remote detection of tampering. At US$0.000. Rectified DC loads cause mechanical (but not electronic) meters to under-register. This theft or fraud can be dangerous as well as dishonest. inverted installation. Some tampers bypass the meter. though countermeasures are common. ambient magnetic fields. so this causes reduced rotation and a lower bill. magnetic anomalies. Newer computerised meters usually have counter- measures against tampering. AMR (Automated Meter Reading) meters often have sensors that can report opening of the meter cover. Even simple mechanical meters can have mechanical flags that are dropped by magnetic tampering or large DC currents.Meters can be manipulated to make them under-register. Lower power magnets can add to the drag resistance of the internal disk resistance magnets.8. or the service is disconnected. A common method of tampering on mechanical disk meters is to attach magnets to the outside of the meter. the maximum rate may be charged each billing period until the tamper is removed. All of these effects can be detected by the electric company. Safe tampers of this type normally increase the neutral current at the meter. reversed or switched phases etc. effectively allowing power use without paying for it. The change to smart power meters is useful to stop energy theft. legal in most areas of the USA.095/kWh. a standard residential 50 A meter causes a legally collectible charge of about US$5. Some combinations of capacitive and inductive load can interact with the coils and mass of a rotor and cause reduced or reverse motion. Meter readers are trained to spot signs of tampering.00 per month. Magnets can also saturate current transformers or power-supply transformers in electronic meters. When tampering is detected. Most split-phase residential meters in the United . is to switch the subscriber to a "tampering" tariff charged at the meter's maximum designed current. DC current does not cause the coils to make eddy currents in the disk. etc. wholly or in part. and with crude mechanical meters. and many modern meters can detect or compensate for them. The owner of the meter normally secures the meter against tampering. and specifically to discover energy theft. Strong magnets saturate the magnetic fields in the meter so that the motor portion of a mechanical meter does not operate. extra clock setting. neutral and DC currents (elevated by most electrical tampering). the normal tactic. glued buttons. Meters may also measure VAR-hours (the reflected load).

85 0.5. Assuming efficiency of motor 85% and power factor 0.power supply and another for domestic supply. Even if an earth ground is safe.8 3. 3 11. metering at the substation can alert the operator to tampering. Length of 19 mm exible conduit required for connecting motor switches to motor starters for all the four machines and HG conduit to motor terminals for machines. Find the material required for 1pase overhead service line of a house located 10 meters away from pole. with full loads : Lighting = 300 Watts.85 0.54 + 7.load current Hence 3-core.8 5. we have full.85 0. 16 mm2 aluminium conductor having current carrying capacity of 38 A shall be used from meter board to main board. However. Disconnecting a meter's neutral connector is unsafe because shorts can then pass through people or equipment rather than a metallic ground to the generator or earth.7. Indoor marijuana growers aware of this are particularly motivated to steal electricity simply to conceal their usage of it. Narcotics detectives’ associate abnormally high power usage with the lighting such operations require.9 A Hence cable from meter board to main board shall have a current carrying capacity 1. Substations. 000 5.25 3 415 0. Length of 31 mm exible conduit from meter board to main switch board and from main switch board to distribution board.57 + 11. 415. The current rating of main switch in the starting current of one motor of highest rating plus full load current 1.5 1. These investigations are an effective method to discover tampering.6 times of full. 9.S.load currents of motors as 1. 4. and transformers normally have a high-accuracy meter for the area served.0 m 3. are often connected with indoor marijuana grow operations. 1100 V grade PVC insulated. A phantom loop connection via an earth ground is often much higher resistance than the metallic neutral connector. 000 3. . (June-2014) Solution: . 3 7.25 = 21.States are unable to detect neutral currents.0 m 2. Length of 25 mm exible conduit from HG conduit to motor terminals fan machine no. in order to find and fix power distribution problems. 415 .57 3 415 0. Power companies normally investigate discrepancies between the total billed and the total generated. 000 0. 3 1.54 + 1. Power thefts in the U.7 1.54 3 415 0. modern tamper-resistant meters can detect and bill it at standard rates. Heating= 2500 Watts Assume safety factor=2. including wastage = 1.8. including wastage = 1. inter-ties.75. 415.8 I I For kW V phase motor A I For kW V phase motor A I For kW V phase motor A=Total full-load current for these motors = 1.