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1.1.

About TATA Group
TATA Group
 India's largest conglomerate.
 100 operating companies in 7 business sectors.

Passionate commitment to developing the communities in which we operate

Tata Group History
 The foundation of the TATA group was laid by Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata in 1868,
exactly 100 years before TCS was founded.
 In 1938, JRD Tata was appointed as the chairman who led the TATA Group for next
53 years. During his time, TATA Group expanded regularly into new spheres of
business. The more prominent of these ventures were Tata Chemicals, Tata Motors,
Tata Industries, Voltas, Tata Tea, Tata Consultancy Services and Titan Industries.
 In early ninety (1991), Ratan Tata took over as chairman of the TATA Group. Under
his stewardship, Tata tea acquired Tetley, Tata Motors acquired Jaguar Land Rover
and Tata Steel acquired Corus, which have turned the TATA Group from a largely
India-centric company into global business. Ratan Tata retired from all executive
responsibility in the TATA Group in December 2012 and he is succeeded by Cyrus
Mistry. The present chairman is N Chandrasekharan, and he took over the
chairmanship in February 2017.
 To learn about more about the Tata Group's 150+ years of history, please click
on Tata Group History.
1.2. About TCS
Company Overview
Tata Consultancy Services is an IT services, consulting and business solutions organization that delivers real
results to global business, ensuring a level of certainty no other firm can match.

Figure 1.3: Company Overview
Tata Consultancy Services is an IT services, consulting and business solutions organization that delivers real
results to global business, ensuring a level of certainty no other firm can match. TCS offers a consulting-led,
integrated portfolio of IT, BPO, infrastructure, engineering and assurance services. This is delivered through its
unique Global Network Delivery Model, recognized as the benchmark of excellence in software development. A
part of the Tata Group, India's largest industrial conglomerate, TCS has over 3,35,620 of the world's best trained
consultants in 55 countries. The Company generated consolidated revenues of US $ 15.45 billion for year ended
31 March, 2015 and is listed on the National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange in India.
Experience Certainty
Tata Consultancy Services helps customer experience certainty by reliably delivering business results, providing
leadership to drive transformation and partnering for success.

For further details, click here
The TCS Advantage

Customer-centric Engagement Model
 Your dedicated team will have domain and technology capabilities resulting in specialized services /
solutions
 Our engagement models are uniquely flexible, enabling design that fits the size and scale of your
operations
 You have access to partnership gain-share and risk-share models focused on your success

 Your inputs and our expertise are merged through our Centers of Excellence (COEs) to deliver leading
solutions
Global Network Delivery Model
Our unique delivery model offers multiple levers of time zone, language, skills and local business knowledge to
deliver high quality solutions across the globe, 24x7

TCS Delivery Centers

institutions and venture capitalists on forward-looking solutions  Your business innovation is fueled by our dedicated labs on advanced and emerging technology trends and scientific research Co-Innovation Network (COIN)TM  (COIN)TM is a rich and diverse network that drives innovation in an open community Providing extended capabilities in areas such as:  Image Processing  Biometrics  Enterprise Security  RFID Enabled Asset Tracking  Analytics  Dynamic Pricing  Customer Interaction Optimization  Smart Card Management  SaaS & others  .Full Services Portfolio  You benefit from TCS' combining traditional IT and remote infrastructure services with knowledge- based services  You derive single-source business value  You realize accelerated agility and TCO reduction through our services integration model  You gain more predictable IT spends from utility-based operating models TCS Innovation Labs  Comprehensive 360o interconnected research ecosystem with 19 labs worldwide  Collaborate with a wide network of partners.

TCS Values  Leading change  Integrity  Respect for the individual  Excellence  Learning and sharing. TCS Executive Profile  Chairman: N. Chandrasekaran  Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Managing Director (MD): Rajesh Gopinathan  Chief Financial Officer (CFO): V. Corporate Facts Click here to know about TCS corporate facts. best-in-class consulting.For further details. the most rigorous assessment methodology. Heritage and values  Established in 1968  Largest IT services firm in Asia  World's first organization to achieve an enterprise-wide Maturity Level 5 on both CMMI(R) and P- CMM(R).  To make it a joy for all stakeholders to work with us. using SCAMPI(SM). TCS Mission  To help customers achieve their business objectives by providing innovative. click here. Ramakrishnan  Head – Global Human Resource: Ajoyendra Mukherjee . IT solutions and services.

and become operationally excellent. Industries TCS has the depth and breadth of experience and expertise that businesses need to achieve business goals and succeed amidst fierce competition. Some of the industries it serves are:  Banking and Financial Services  Energy. click here. mitigate risks. TCS helps clients from various industries solve complex problems.Resources and Utilities  Government Healthcare  High Tech  Insurance .  Chief Technology Officer (CTO): K Ananth Krishnan TCS Process Excellence  ISO27001 – Helps organization strengthen its information security policies and processes  ISO14001 – Helps organization strengthen its environment policies and processes  OHSAS18001 – Helps organization strengthen its health and safety policies and processes  CMM Level 5 – Helps organization to manage and optimize its processes  PCMM – Helps organization to continuously improve the management and development of its human resources  ISO 9000 family – Helps organization strengthen its quality management system Services TCS helps clients optimise business processes for maximum efficiency and galvanise their IT infrastructure to be both resilient and robust. TCS offers the following solutions:  Assurance Services  BI & Performance Management  Business Process Outsourcing  Connected Marketing Solutions  Consulting  Engineering & Industrial Services  Enterprise Solutions  iON Small and Medium Business  IT Infrastructure Services  IT Services  Mobility Solutions and Services  Platform BPO Solutions Software  TCS BaNCS  TCS Technology Products For further details.

BT 500 ranks TCS as the most valuable company of 2012 TCS was ranked as the most valuable company of 2012 in the BT 500 list that was released recently. N Chandra. I. Thailand. with conservatism and for building a solid team for next generation of managers. III. IV. This came about after Forbes Asia. TCS received the Forbes Asia 'Fabulous 50' Award TCS was presented the Forbes Asia 'Fabulous 50' Award in a award ceremony held in Macau. II. S Mahalingam. a leading pan-Asia business magazine. He was presented this award at a function held in Mumbai on 28 September 2012. CEO & MD. VI. click here. The issue dated November 11. earlier this year. TCS has bagged many awards in different sectors. N Chandra. This is the first time that our company has emerged on top of this rankings list released each year by the Business Today magazine. won ‘Pathfinder CEO’ of 2012 by National HRD Network (NHRDN) TCS CEO & MD. Click here to know more. Click here to read CEO Chandra’s interview. V.  Life Sciences  Manufacturing  Media and Information Services  Retail and Consumer Products  Telecom  Travel.Transportation & Hospitality For further details. listed TCS in its prestigious and influential annual 'Asia's Fab 50' list of the most compelling companies in Asia. Case Studies Click here to know about case studies. N. Chandra won the Best CEO of the Year award at the Forbes India Leadership Awards 2012. and TCS Finance team recognised as 'Finance Team of the Year'. N. Chandra wins Best CEO of the Year award at Forbes India Leadership Awards CEO & MD.TCS Ex-CFO. China on 4 December 2012. with TCS CFO S Mahalingam winning the marquee 'CFO of the Year' award. Academic sphere and broader Business and Social arena. The event was attended by over 120 Asia-based CFOs and top-tier financial executives and featured over 15 award categories pitting the biggest names in the finance arena. Awards & Recognition (2012-13): In year 2012. . Listed below some of the achievements but the list is endless. N. won ‘CFO of the Year’ award at CFO Innovation Asia Awards on 28 November 2012 TCS Finance swept the two main categories at the CFO Innovation Asia Awards on 28 November 2012 in Singapore. Chandra won the Asian Business Leader of the Year award on 16 November 2012. Chandra for much of this success. Our CEO won the honour ‘for being able to balance aggression needed to achieve stretched goals. NHRDN recognises individuals and organisations who have made noteworthy contributions in the area of Human Resource Development in the Corporate sector. won CNBC’s ‘Asian Business Leader of the Year’ N. Chandra was presented with the ‘Pathfinder CEO’ award by National HRD Network (NHRDN) during its 16th National Conference held from 29 November to 1 December 2012 at Hyderabad in India. 2012 credits CEO N. Our CEO got this recognition during CNBC’s 11th edition of Asia Business Leaders Awards (ABLA) function held at Bangkok. CEO & MD.

PwC.2. Infosys) Business Skills . Citi).including banks (HSBC. Grammar Clinic_Part 1 . Deloitte) and service providers (Accenture.The Essentials Chapter 1: The Grammar Clinic 1. Grammar Clinic_Part 1 Grammar Clinic Afraid you are not perfect? That's alright.Parts of Speech I’m sure you already know that words are divided into various parts of speech according to the work they do in a sentence. accountancy firms (KPMG.1. It’s never too late to start. Let us start with your first lesson.. The following are the various parts of speech: . the Parts of Speech in English. 1.

Your sentence must always have a Subject and a Verb. but it is the unconscious awareness of the parts of speech.The various parts of speech of a language are its building blocks. Let us now move on to Basic Sentence Patterns in English Look at the table below. What do you observe? You are right. It is important to identify the right subject! This now brings us to the next point of discussion – Subject-Verb Agreement. that helps us to construct effective and correct sentences. We’ve just learnt . Most of us don’t realize this. The Parts of speech form the foundation of a language. Well. Every sentence has a subject and a verb. Words or phrases that come in between the subject and the verb do not influence the verb in any manner. The verb must always relate to the subject it refers to.

But these two need to agree with each other.  I doesn’t drive.Michael sings well. (Third person singular)  Apples are good for health.3. For example:  The apple is green. .  These shoes doesn’t fit me. Answers  Janaki don’t look happy.  Everyone are here.The Rules A singular subject takes a singular verb. Subject Verb Agreement.verb agreement”. Well. . . Can you identify any errors?  Janaki don’t look happy.  Michael sing well. what do you think? I’m sure you have identified the errors.Subject Verb Agreement Look at the following sentences.I don’t drive. A plural subject takes a plural verb.Everyone is here.that the verb must always relate to the subject it refers to. We mentioned a little while ago that any sentence would have a subject and a verb. This is what we mean by “subject .  These shoes doesn’t fit me. 1.  I doesn’t drive. .Janaki doesn’t look happy. . Check the Answers below. This means the subject and the verb need to agree with each other in terms of number. The errors we noticed in the sentences above exist because the subject and verb do not agree with each other. Grammar Clinic_Part 1 .  Michael sing well.  Everyone are here.These shoes don’t fit me. (Third person plural) . Let’s take a look at this in detail.

 One-half of the employees were happy to know about the celebrations. along with.  Either the assistants or the professor has to be responsible for the year-end festival. but they are always singular — and take a singular verb.  Everybody wants to go to the beach. together with their teacher.  The price of the books is very high. For example:  Everyone associated with this project is proud to be here. who played the role of the teacher in the drama.  The third year students. Either is fine with me. and as well as seem to join subjects. With fractional expressions (fractions or decimal equivalents). When either and neither act as correlative conjunctions. This is true even though the subject seems to be two things. Phrases such as together with. For example:  One of the boxes is open. fifty are wrapped. When either and neither appear as the subject alone.  Of all the gifts we have counted so far.  Priya. For example:  Neither the professor nor the assistants are at fault. They are not conjunctions. . Don’t be confused by phrases that come between the subject pronoun and its verb — phrases that may contain plural words.  The travel agent will lend me a train ticket or a flight ticket. the verb will be determined by what is being measured: is it COUNTABLE or not. For example:  Two-fifths of the grain is ruined.  Mary likes ice cream. as well as some pieces of furniture was ruined in the flood. For example:  A majority of the student body is in favor of asking the Dean to stay another year. is the best actor. the subject that is closer to the verb determines the number (singular or plural form) of the verb. Indefinite pronouns such as everyone and everybody feel plural to some writers.The verb takes an‘s’ in the third person singular For example:  The boy sings very well.  Some of the equipment in the store. are going to the science exhibition. they are singular. but they do not work the same as and. For example:  Neither of these tables appears to be suitable.

there are. police. Try out the quiz given below and let’s see if we have been able to take care of that hairline fracture. However it is only through constant practice that you can master them. For example:  The police have issued a warrant for Chopra’s arrest. It usually indicates the logical. The rules of grammar may seem easy when you read through them. For example:  Research and development is an integral part of this organisation.  Here is the list of things you need to buy for your class project. research and development are considered singular as they have a close association. at the end of our trip through Grammar Clinic. you will be given a list of websites that will help you learn more about grammar. stairs. etc. the subject (which determines the number of the verb) comes after the verb. fish and chips.Prepositions A preposition is a word or phrase used with a noun. Go through them as well and help yourself improve on the foundation of your language! 1. Also. For example:  There are several reasons for the breakout of the epidemic. Prepositions are generally of three types:  Prepositions of Time . Certain words like bacon and eggs. pronoun or noun equivalent to show its relation to some other word or phrase in the sentence. here is.) begins a sentence. Certain words like trousers.  Learning and sharing is one of TCS’ values. spatial or temporal relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence. premises. staff etc. are always considered plural and take a plural verb.  The premises are located away from the city.4.When an expletive construction (there is. Grammar Clinic_Part 1 .  Bread and butter is my favourite breakfast.

.. In and On are the most commonly used prepositions of place. Examples:  He started before midnight.  Prepositions of Place  Prepositions of Movement Prepositions of Time: They indicate if something is at a given point in time or over a period of time. We usually use:  At for a Point of time  In for an Enclosed space  On for a Surface Match the picture to the correct text with the correct prepositions. did you learn something about For and Since? Yes… For is used with a period of time and Since is used with a point of time! Prepositions of Place They indicate where indicate how one thing is situated in relation to another. FOR is used with a period of time while SINCE is used with a point of time So. There are two more prepositions that you would find useful – FOR and SINCE.  This will be finished in an hour’s time. At.

Jane’s travel bag is under the table. Her glass of juice is in the table. The sign board on the door says the café is open. . His cup of coffee is in the table. You have plenty of material online. over. He is sitting on the chair with a briefcase in his hand. around Example:  He ran across the road. There is a camera next to it. His cup of coffee is at the table.  John is at the Café. Her glass of juice is at the top of the table. through. There is a straw in her glass. towards. He is sitting on the chair with a briefcase in his hand. under. He is sitting at the chair with a briefcase in his hand. past. an The is referred to as the Definite Article while A and An are called Indefinite Articles. There is a camera besides to it. There is a camera besides it. The sign board between the door says the café is open. there are many types of prepositions and Two.  The ball went through the window. you also have ‘Prepositional Phrases’. across. She is standing on the door. away from. Common prepositions of movement are: Onto. along. which contribute greatly to meaning. Her glass of juice is on the table. His cup of coffee is on the table. The only way to master these little words that make such a huge impact is using them.5. She is standing at the door. Or I’m sure there is a grammar book you can get hold of from somewhere. the same word can be used for various things. In addition to prepositions. There is a straw in her glass. Now it would be unfair if we told you everything about prepositions and what prepositional phrases are.  John is at the Café. Grammar Clinic_Part 1 . Your final assessment will test your knowledge on other prepositions as well! Articles Articles are a set of function words. Jane’s travel bag is at the table. Jane’s travel bag is on the table. There is a straw inside of her glass. Look at the pictures below. The sign board in the door says the café is open. Which prepositions would you use to describe these pictures? 1. She is standing beside the door. She is standing beside the door. I’m sure you have guessed two things by now : One.Articles Tired already? Confused? Well yes it can be. There is a camera next to it. Jane’s travel bag is under the table. into. Keep practicing.  John is at the Café. a. There are three articles in English namely -The. Check the answer below: John is at the Café. Her glass of juice is on the table. So here’s some home work for you. He is sitting in the chair with a briefcase inside his hand. Prepositions of Movement They indicate how one thing is moving in relation to another. His cup of coffee is on the table. There is a straw at her glass. Read up further on prepositions and prepositional phrases. The sign board on the door says the café is open. off.

Anne. games. the Arabian Sea. The Anne.  Before government departments. oceans. last. old epic poems and reference books: the Statesman. and gulfs: the Nile. the West Indies. New Zealand Exceptions : the Sudan.The Definite Article is used :  Before nouns which denote unique things or persons: the sun. (Before Proper Nouns for specific reference) : The India of today is not the India under the British rule. the Bible.  Before adjectives to represent a class: The rich. the poor. languages and festivals: Breakfast will be ready at 8 O’clock. Everest 2 : before the names of countries and places : India. the universe. banks. first. next.  Christmas falls on 25th December Note 1: When the reference is to a particular kind of substance THE is used: 1 : The gold mined in India is of a good quality. the Netherlands. holy books. The Definite Article is not used :  Before Proper Nouns: Raju. The Encyclopedia. the Punjab. the Mahabharata. the Indian Ocean.  Before the names of mountain ranges and island groups: The Himalayas. Kalidasa is known as the Shakespeare of India.  The airplane is the fastest means of travel. China. the Gibraltar. Mauritius. the Alps. Rahim. peak or hill : Sri Lanka. the stars. seas. . establishments: The Department of Revenue. the South Sea Islands. Note 2: When the metal is specified THE is used: 1 :The dinner they had hosted was well attended. the Persian Gulf. Note: THE is not used: 1 : before the name of a single island. the oppressed. the equator. the Suez Canal. the earth.  Before the names of newspapers. the downtrodden. (Not the gold)  Bread is available here. if they are used in a general sense: Gold is a precious metal. (Not The Raju. second: The second one from the left is my cousin. straits. (Not the bread)  Before the names of meals. mountain.  Before the names of rivers. 2 :The bread we produce is sweet. The Rahim)  Before names of substances. the Canara Bank. canals.  Before the adjectives in the Superlative Degree: Raju is the tallest boy in the class..  Before words like ultimate.  Before a Noun to Denote a Class: The tiger is a ferocious animal.

Let’s take a quick look at the other two articles – The Indefinite articles A and An. The indefinite Article A is used: Before a word beginning with a consonantal sound: A word beginning with a consonant has a consonantal sound. Note: An has to be used before abbrevations pronounced with a vowel sound at the beginning:  An MLA (/em/LA)  An MP (em/P)  An MA (em/A) . “Exceptions again?” Yes. You are probably wondering why there are so many of them. 3000/.  The car is going at fifty miles an hour. So now you know where the ‘THE’ is to be and not to be used. Exceptions are common in English and that is what lends the language its beauty. There are some exceptions.Okay.  I will be back in an hour.  A European  A one rupee note  A unit  A university  A yard The indefinite Article An is used:  Before words beginning with a vowel sound or a word with silent h:  An elephant  An army  An hour  An honor  A/An may be used in the sense of one:  There is a bird in the cage.  A/An is used in the sense of every:  He gets Rs.a month.

1.6. Grammar Clinic_Part 2 .

Tenses – Present.1.  I come from Kerala. Past and Future Time and Tense There are 12 tenses in English. Grammar Clinic_Part 2 .  The earth revolves round the sun. a major step to attaining English fluency is accomplished! Present Tense When do we use Simple Present Tense? To talk about general facts / universal truths Examples:  She lives in Mumbai. If you know how to use it and where to use it. To talk about habits / routine activities .7.

 His exam finishes at 12:00 PM. Roger. the main character is found injured. helps him up. movies. Okay! Xray time! Identify and correct the errors in the following sentences. his friend. and in sports commentaries Example:  The story opens in Delhi during the second world war. Amir.  She goes for her dance classes on Fridays.  Where works your wife?  She no like idli and sambar. He tries to stand but is unable to.  I love reading fiction.  The bus to Banglore starts at 8:00 PM. To talk about future schedules and arrangements Examples:  The movie starts at 2:00 PM.Examples:  I go to college at 8:30 AM every day.  He play cricket with his friends every day. . To narrate stories.

To talk about a temporary action that is not necessarily in progress at the time of speaking. .  They goes to the movie every Saturday. . Example:  Ankit: What are you reading these days?  Neha: I am reading 'The Fountainhead'. Example:  He is always playing Cricket with his friends. To describe developing situations.Where does your wife work?  She no like idli and sambar.  They goes to the movie every Saturday. I’m watching a movie.Do you live in Bangalore?  Why you no go to the office? . Example:  I’m sorry I can’t come.She does not like idli and sambar.They go to the movie every Saturday.He plays cricket with his friends every day.  You lives in Bangalore? .  You lives in Bangalore?  Why you no go to office? Check the Answers below  He play cricket with his friends every day. Example: . . To emphasize very frequent actions (‘always’ is used frequently).  Where works your wife? .Why didn’t you go to office? Present Continuous Tense When do we use Present Continuous Tense? To talk about an action that is in progress at the time of speaking.

4.  She is having a headache.I believe in God. .He has three sisters. . . They are living here for last 3 years. 2.  It’s going to rain. 5. 3. I am believing in God.She has a headache. 1.  I am understanding you. These are formed using the simple present tense. She is having a headache.  They are living here for last 3 years. . Stative verbs can be classified into the following categories :  Verbs of the senses – see. love.I understand you.They have been living here for the last 3 years.  I am believing in God. hear  Verbs expressing feelings and emotions – like. Check the Answers below:  He is having three sisters. Exceptions – Stative verbs Stative verbs are non action verbs and therefore not usually used in the continuous tense. . Present PerfectTense . He is having three sisters. hate  Verbs of mental activity – remember  Verbs of possession – own Okay! Xray time! Identify and correct the errors in the following sentences. I am understanding you.

 Can I borrow your pen? I have lost mine.  ‘Is Meera here?’ ‘No she has gone to visit her friends’.  ‘Have you seen my book?’ ‘I can’t find it?’ (do you know where it is now). There’s been an accident.  We have been to China. Examples:  We have lived here since 1990 (still live here). Examples:  Oh I’m sorry! I have spilt coffee on the floor. (She is not here now). Examples:  Ouch! I’ve hurt my knee!  The road is closed.  He told me where it is but I’ve forgotten it . (news item) . When we talk about completed actions without a time reference. When we describe actions in the past with results in the present .When do we use Present Perfect Tense? The present perfect always has a connection with “now”. (I can’t remember it now). The event/action in the past has an influence/result now. Examples:  I have completed my work. Examples:  'Where’s your pen?’ ‘I don’t know. I’ve misplaced it’. To provide new information or to talk about a recent happening. When we talk about actions/states that began in the past and are still continuing at the time of speaking.  I have practised for two hours. ( I don’t have it now).  The police have arrested two people in connection with the recent riots.

( It started raining two hours ago and it just stopped) . She has been sick for three days.00 pm. (we still are)  I am tired because I have been driving. She has been sick since Monday. (he’s still studying it)  We have been watching television. eg: I have been waiting since 4. (I am tired now)  It is wet outside because it has been raining .The rule with for or since In a sentence we use for to denote period of time. In a sentence we use since to denote point of time. eg: I have been waiting for four hours. Examples:  I have been studying Hindi for two years. Present Perfect Continuous Tense When do we use Present Perfect Continuous tense? To talk about an activity that has recently stopped or just stopped or is still going on.

Examples:  I finished my homework an hour ago. Very soon. Goldilocks was hungry. When the action took place at a definite time. Regular verbs are those whose past tense and past participles are formed by adding an -ed to the end of the verb. Example:  When I was in college. Example:  Once upon a time. For a habitual action in the past. I played football. depends on whether the verb is a regular verb or an irregular verb.Past Tense When do we use Past Tense? The Past tense is used for actions complete in the past at a definite time. No one answered. eg: plan-planned. For narratives – narrating stories. derive – derived Irregular verbs do not have set patterns to form past tense and past participle eg: eat-eaten . At the dinner table.  I ate sandwich for breakfast. there were three bowls of porridge. roll-rolled . even though the time is not mentioned. She knocked at the door. sell-sold . She tasted the porridge from the first bowl. She went for a walk in the forest. feel-felt . So Goldilocks walked right in. she came upon a house. there was a little girl named Goldilocks. Example:  She was 30 minutes late for her meeting. Regular verb and Irregular verb How a sentence is formed in the past tense. past events.

“intending to” etc. Example:  She was planning to go to the circus. but she changed her mind. For interrupted past actions. . she was having her breakfast. Example:  She was doing her home work while her sister was reading a book.Past Continuous Tense When do we use Past Continuous Tense? For actions that were going on at a particular time in the past. For actions that were going on when another action was going on at the same time.  At eight. Examples:  It was raining when I went for a walk this morning. Example:  While I was writing the email. the computer suddenly shut down . To express intention. as with the verbs “going to”.

Meera wasn’t there.  When I reached the station the train had left. Meera left by 11:00 am and Parna arrived at 11:15 am.Past Perfect Tense When do we use Past Perfect Tense? Past perfect is the past viewed from another past viewpoint. Parna went to the zoo too but they didn’t see each other. When Parna reached the zoo.  He failed in the exam because he had not prepared. More Examples. Past Perfect Continuous Tense When do we use Past Perfect Continuous Tense? To talk about actions or situations that had been happening for a period before something else .  He was late to office because his car had broken down. Example:  Meera went to the zoo last week. She had left.

happened. Eg. The game was stopped. Future Tense The simple future tense has two different forms of usage:  ‘will’ . (before the bus came) Eg. I had been waiting for 30 minutes.2: The team had been playing for about an hour when it started to rain.1: Finally the bus came.

eg: I am going to complete my assignment tonight. When do we use Simple Future Tense? The verb ‘will’ is most frequently used for information and predictions. Future facts and prediction. Examples:  Winter will start by November. Making promises Example:  I will file your tax returns by Wednesday. Threats Example:  You better fill in the time sheets on time. Future Continuous Tense When do we use Future Continuous Tense? For polite enquiries to find out about other people’s plans. else you’ll get into trouble. but without any intention to . (present continuous used to indicate the future) These two forms are often used interchangeably. Assumptions/speculations Example:  That will be the milkman at the door.  ‘be going to’.  It will rain tomorrow. The present continuous tense can also be used to indicate planned actions in the future.

influence their decision Example:  Will you be coming to dinner tonight? To indicate that something will be in progress at a particular moment in the future Example:  They will be shopping at the mall at 4pm tomorrow. Example:  The cricket team will be playing at the stadium tomorrow. To refer to future events which are fixed or decided. Future perfect When do we use Future Perfect? The future perfect tense is used to indicate that an action will have been completed by a particular point in the future. Future perfect continuous . To predict the present moment – to say what we think might be happening now Example:  Jane will be having her lunch right now.

it’s imperative for us to use sentence connectors to make sophisticated sentences. Different types of sentence connectors are used to indicate the relationship between sentences. it is also very exciting. But at the same time. They also indicate a change in the mood of the idea or the sentence. .8. Sentence connectors ensure logical connectivity between sentences and paragraphs.Sentence Linkers and Indianisms Sentence Connectors When we begin to learn to language. 1. Grammar Clinic_Part 3 . Example: Tokyo is a very exciting city. The following table illustrates the usage of them in varying context. Example: Despite the fact that Tokyo is very expensive. we start with very basic sentences.When do we use Future perfect continuous? The future perfect continuous tense is used to indicate how long an action will have been in progress by a certain time in the future. overuse of discourse markers would make a text sound too heavy or artificial. Tokyo is very expensive. Sentence Connectors can be referred as 'glue' that make different parts of the text stick together. Sentence connectors are generally used at the start of a phrase or clause. As we learn more words and start making complex sentences.

 Me and my friend. Indian English or Indianisms Indianisms refer to the grammatical mistakes in English that are very common in India. The highlighted phrases in the above conversation indicate Indianism.  She is here only. we don’t have a prior appointment. Ken has turned out successful. . He has to revert back. In fact she had met with 3 accidents last year.  Please have little patience. In Contrary he fears making a speech in front of the audience. John : Let’s do one thing. Making a Contrast Tom is a good drummer. Making what you say stronger As long as Beck is reckless in driving. why don't we get into a call with Gary Perry : I have already left him a message. Saying why something is the case Veena doesn’t eat Prawns. Oh! I just received a note from Gary that the meeting has been preponed. Consequently I got late to the show. John : Oh I see! Are we going to discuss about the same agenda that was planned? Perry : Gary told me that he would send us the updated agenda soon. Adding Something We can’t meet her today as she is out of office. Moreover. phrases or expressions which are a part of colloquially spoken English in India. It is very important for us to understand these errors to avoid ambiguity in communication. They are words. Saying what the result of something is My car ran out of petrol on the way. In spite of all his failures. Let’s look at the following conversation between two colleagues at the work place to understand it better: John : Good Morning Perry! When is our client meeting scheduled? Perry : Good Morning John. Expressing a Condition As long as the wind mills are up and running. because she is allergic to sea food.Let us look at some examples for each of the Categories of Relationship. Here are a few more examples of Indian English. we will get enough power.

 You are going.  "Do you know who am I?"  "My brother is bigger than me":  "He said me to do this":  "I am having a headache":  Please do the Needful... Have you been gymming?  So. Check the Answers below Answers  You’re looking healthier these days.  This job is more easier than that.  I did not took it.  She’s really taking a lot of tension from work. what’s today’s program.  She had an operation three years back.  You always see women wearing slippers in the market. Have you been gymming?  So.  "Do you know who am I?"  "My brother is bigger than me":  "He said me to do this":  "I am having a headache":  Please do the Needful.  She herself did the work.  You always see women wearing slippers in the market.. what’s today’s program.  Please stay online for a moment while..  He did it itself. Identify the phrases/words in below sentences which are commonly used in Indian English  You’re looking healthier these days.  I will return it back  Please revert back. Conclusion What we’ve discussed is little compared to the vast ocean this topic is. Ensure that whenever you .  I have a terrific headache.  She’s really taking a lot of tension from work.  I am loving it. Is it?  The food is bad it seems.  I did not knew it.

you convey the intended idea. it is important that we speak the language in a way which is understood by the native speaker as well as people like us (who use it as a second language). Look at the following example: How about this one? . How would you feel if you are listening to someone talking and you can't make head or tail of it? However. you can understand from which part of India that person is without even asking. sounds from our mother-tongue may influence the sounds in English and sound funny.1. Use sentence connectors to connect your ideas appropriately.communicate. How do you say it Pronunciation.How do you say it? Don't we get impressed by people who speak English really well? That's why we also need to speak as well as they do. To be a good speaker. Get into a little research on these topics yourself and your learning will be immense! Happy Learning! Chapter 2: How do you say it? 2. Sometimes. A mispronounced word could also result in a misinterpretation.

Sentence stress is important because it affects meaning. eduCAtion.g: Inn: inn. In one word. Practise what you hear. conjunctions. This means that some words can have the same spelling but different pronunciation. we do not say each syllable with the same emphasis or strength. Word Stress: In English. For example : Lead kindly light. Let us look at the characteristics of pronunciation in English: English is not a phonetic language. Tips: Do not confuse pronunciation of words with their spelling! For example. SCIence. Syllables can have one or more sounds. Doctor: doc-tor. A syllable is a cluster of consonant and vowel phonemes. AusTRAlia Sentence Stress: It is the accent on certain words within a sentence. E. In English. We say one syllable very loudly (big. In addition to listening for specific sounds. This can be just as important as the pronunciation of sounds. Verbs. articles. The link given helps us understand what these sounds are: Link here Now that we have gone through the basic sounds.People gather the meaning of what you are saying from the pronunciation of the words employed. let us look at what makes a syllable to form a word. Look at the example below: . pronouns etc. COURteous. strong. although spelled differently. Lead is used to make pencils. Eg: GENtle. Even though there are 26 letters in the language. all the words in a sentence need not be stressed or accentuated. there are 44 sounds (also called Phonemes). Sometimes the meaning of a sentence changes based on the stress placed on different words. Adjectives and Adverbs. "science" and "signs". Assimilation: A-ssim-il-a-tion Proper pronunciation alone does not lead to effective communication. intonation and patterns of emphasis/stress. are pronounced the same. not what you see. Words that are not stressed are words such as the prepositions. important) and all the other syllables very quietly. we accentuate ONE syllable. Words that are stressed are generally the Nouns. listen to pauses.

Example : wonderful How would you say the following words if you were excited. With the help of intonation one can also make out the attitude or mood of the speaker – whether the speaker is bored. Eg : Where are you going? (refers to the place) Where are you going? (refers to the person) Where are you going? (refers to the act) Intonation: Patterns of pitch variation constitute intonation. etc. interested in the subject of conversation. it serves a grammatical function and an attitudinal function. In English. The listener can make out whether the sentence is a statement or question. bored. annoyed:  fantastic  really  super  amazing  incredible  marvelous . a command or a request. sarcastic. annoyed.