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Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 3 1 , March 2006, pp. 83-98

Atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma and its applications in textile

Kartick Samanta, Manjeet Jassa\ & Ashwini K Agrawal"

Department of Textile Technology, Indian I nstitute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 1 1 0 0 1 6, India

Plasma, a partially-ionized gas generated by an electrical discharge or h igh temperature, i s of different types and can be
classified based on pressure, temperature, source of energy and type of gases. Cold plasma is generated by electric d ischarge
at near-ambient temperatures and can be used for surface modification of textile substrates. This paper reports a brief review
of the various plasma and their applications for textile modifications. For textile modifications, atmospheric pressure glow
discharge cold plasma is more suitable because it can be designed for continuous treatment of textile. However. the main
challenge i n atmospheric plasma i s to obtain a stable glow ( fi lament-free) discharge over a large surface area suitable for the
safe treatment of textile. At l IT-Delhi. uniform glow discharge plasma at the atmospheric pressure over large surface area
has been developed by opti mizing reactor design and process parameters. Using this plasma. polyester (PET) and nylon
fabrics were treated for 1 0-60 s under different gasses. The treatment significantly enhanced the water absorbency and
surface energy of both the nylon and PET fabrics. In nylon-6, the properties i mparted by plasma treatment did not change
even after 25 days. However. in PET, the absorbency and surface energy were found to reduce slowly with time of storage.
The samples did not degrade during plasma treatment and showed insignificant change in mechanical properties. The
atmospheric pressure glow di scharge plasma can effectively and safely be used to modify surfaces of texti le substrates at
reduced process and env i ronment cost.
Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma, Glow d ischarge plasma, Nylon-6, Plasma treatment, Polyester
IPC Code: Int. CI. 8 D06M I 0IOO, HOSH

1 Introduction with organic substrates. This interaction may be
Matter within the universe is most commonly found physical, for example in the cleaning of organic
in the form of plasma rather than as a solid, l iquid or contaminants from the surface; or the effect may be
gas. Plasma is partially-ionized gas normally chemical, for example in the bonding of hydroxyl
generated by an electrical discharge at near-ambient groups to the surface. In the treatment of textile
temperatures. I Plasma, often considered as the fourth substrates, the cleaning effect can modify wettability
state of matter, is composed of an ionized gas and dye uptake, and the free radicals can incorporate
containing a mixture of ions, electron, neutral and atoms which also change the surface, for example
excited molecule, and photons. This state of matter making a hydrophilic material into a hydrophobic
was first identified by Sir William Crookes in 1 879, one. 2
and named 'plasma' by Irving Langmuir in 1 928. The mam attraction of plasma in industrial
Man-made plasma has existed for millennia i n the processing is the avoidance of chemical effluents.
form of fire and recently, other types of man-made Other advantages include: low cost, rapid reaction
plasma have been prepared such as discharge under times, high cleaning efficiency, low consumption of
electric field. Unlike hot plasma which is used i n gas due to physical effects, and the enclosed and dry
metal industry, cold plasma can b e used safely for nature of the process. Vacuum plasma having severa]
textile modification. AC plasma (frequency: kHz, advantages is not used i n the industry as it is batch
MHz & GHz) i s generally used as it has several process and has high operation cost. These drawbacks
advantages over DC plas ma. Over the past decade, of vacuum plasma can be overcome by atmospheric
many uses have been found for these plasma, whether pressure plasma, and the system can be designed for
they are coronas, non-equilibrium or thermal, for continuous treatment of textile, therefore, it i s gaining
example in surface cleaning and adhesion promotion. attention in the research community .
Plasma has a high l ikelihood of surface i nteraction During the past decade, considerable efforts have
been made to generate stable atmospheric pressure
"To whom all the correspondence should be addressed. glow discharge plasma (filament-free) based on
E-mail : ashwini_agrawal dielectric barrier discharge particularly over a large

:�:. scrubbing particles plasma. and (iii) reactor with stable glow discharge plasma over a large difficult to form uniform plasma throughout the surface area..84 INDIAN J.g. dielectric baITier to textile substrates.1 Atmospheric Pressure and Low Pressure Plasma pesticides. from air in air-conditioning systems and removal of unwanted volatile organics. plasma torches.6 (OBO) is also called of materials processes. Corona Atmospheric pressure and low pressure plasma. discharge and plasma jet. to prevent arcing Fig. the disadvantages of atmospheric pressure plasma are: (i) Fig.Schematic of a corona discharge and lower the gas temperature.::J- :. consists of two metal electrodes. discharge usually involves two asymmetric (ii) On the basis of degree of ionization and the electrodes.4 The present study i s aimed at difficulty of sustaining a glow discharge. -t :. several schemes have Top electrode been devised. Tn the drift region electronegative gas plasma. develops between two high-potential (i) On the basis of pressure in plasma chamber­ electrodes in a neutral fluid. 3 . FIBRE TEXT. Corona electrode and dielectric barrier discharges produce non­ Bottom electrode equil ibrium plasma with gas temperatures between 50°C and 400°C. which is suitable for textile treatment. one highly curved (such as the tip of a temperature of electrons and ions-Hot and cold needle or a n arrow wire) and other of low curvature plasma. such as A coronas is a process by which a current. e. Nylon and PET fabrics have also been treated using Different types of atmospheric pressure plasma this plasma to observe the effectiveness of this plasma used are: corona discharge. the above. 2. AC and atmospheric pressure surfaces. 2. Fig. It and dielectric barrier discharges. perhaps sustained.:: Dielectric plate ----' IV corona discharges and insulating i nserts in dielectric r-��J-LL��L Bottom electrode barrier discharges. i n which at least one the electron and neutral temperatures exceed 3000°C and the densities of charge species range from 1 0 1 6 cm-3 to 1 0 1 9 cm-3 . reactor volume. The high curvature (iii) On the basis of frequency of the power supply­ ensures a high potential gradient around one electrode DC and AC plasma (RF. (ii) higher designing and fabricating the atmospheric plasma voltages are required for gas breakdown. transferred arcs. l . corona discharges A schematic of this source is shown in Fig. outside this volume. MARCH 2006 surface area. The plasma (iv) Depending upon the electron affin ity of the usually exi sts in a region of the gas extending about process gases used-Electropositive and 0. RES . I shows a Plasma). charged species diffuse toward Any plasma reactor will be a combination of all of the planar electrode and are collected. I The advantages of atmospheric pressure plasma are: (i) continuous treatment can be given. H igher voltages are required for gas breakdown at 760 torr and often arcing occurs between the electrodes. (such as a plate or the ground). usually air. Top this plasma is used primarily in metallurgy. 1 . On the other hand. GHz for the generation of a plasma. In arcs and torches. Due to the high gas temperature. solvents. manufacture of ozone. one atmosphere glow discharge cold Coronas are used for the activation of polymer plasma is based on cold. 1 Atmmpheric Pressure Plasma Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric pressure plasmas is used i n a variety Dielectric barrier discharge l . Traditional sources i nclude 'silent' and 'atmospheric pressure glow' discharges.J::. such as chemical 2.:. such as the use of pointed electrodes in -- '. 2 -Schematic of a silent discharge (DBD) . However. schematic of a point-to-plane corona. 2 Classification of Plasma Corona Discharge Plasma can be classified in various ways.:. and (ii) it is cost effective process.5 mm out from the metal point. Microwave.:��:.

::. Tn.56 M Hz RF generate high concentrations of reactive species that power to the inner electrode at a voltage between 1 00 can etch and deposit thin films. Dielectric barrier discharges are sometimes confused In a weakly ionized gas at low pressure. metastables compared to the delay between two The ions produced in the plasma can be accelerated consecutive discharges and on the maximum toward a substrate to cause directional etching at ionization level which can be reached without submicron level. the collision rate will rise to a point where surface need not be smooth. Because of the presence of . Under these conditions. The and deposit thin films at the rates up to 1 0 rnImin. the collision rate Dielectric barrier discharges have been examined between electrons and neutral molecules is for several material processes. So far. the electron density usually plasma jet. In addition.. They generate large number of seed electrons are necessary to tum high concentrations of reactive species that can etch on the discharge through a Townsend breakdown. The main mechanism leading to the formation of these temperature of the gas is usually below 1 50°C. . However. (ii) uniform glow is Y and 250 Y. """" """" """" """" """" = == dielectric barriers. square wave current or pulse wave forms between the line downstream. SAMANTA et af.: ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA 85 electrode is coated with a dielectric layer. 1 bar and 1 bar. the electron temperature (Te) can be vapor deposition of polymers and glass films. Each micro-discharge consists of an almost cylindrical plasma channel. the gas discharge is ignited. the plasma appears as a glow manufacturing semiconductor devices. one to two orders of magnitude higher than the neutral However.-. the with coronas. where below 1 50°C. Figure 3 is a schematic of an atmospheri c pressure Te . gas velocity is about 1 2 rnIs with the effluent Two kinds of DBD can be distinguished.==� 1 TEOS -. (iv) low breakdown . oxygen The advantages of low pressure plasma are: (i) they and other gases flows. of metal surfaces and the plasma-assisted chemical Consequently. Under typical operating conditions. In the temperature near 1 50°C. 1. a uniform glow transition to a filamentary discharge. since the plasma is not uniform. DBDs exhibit electron energies processing proceeds at the same rate over large much higher than that of the ions and neutral species. so that the thermally sensitive it is directed onto a substrate a few millimeters substrates are not damaged. (iii) the temperature of the gas is usually gas from the plasma jet exits through a nozzle. typically between 0. 5 . effective energy exchange occurs between the Plasma Jet electrons and the neutral molecules. in materials processing and phly a key role in In the second type. This new source consists of two concentric electrodes through which a mixture of helium. the frequency and RF frequency. The gap is Waler C O Ol in g of the order of several mm and the applied voltage is _ Rr power L �=:������ about 20 kY.s The discharge and is initiated as a Townsend discharge. which are chaotically distributed over the assisted chemical vapor deposition (CYD). so that seed electrons depends on the lifetime of the gas the thermally sensitive substrates are not damaged. so that the ranges from 1 0 1 6 cm-3 to 1 0 1 9cm-3 . as the pressure etching and deposition is limited to cases where the increases. so that the materials equilibrium plasma. the plasma is used to etch polyimide. substrate areas. Bei ng non­ discharge can be generated. In this case. By applying 1 3. cm-3 ."""" =dJ approximately atmospheric pressure. The ionized obtained. including the cleaning insufficient to bring about thermal equilibrium.2 Low Pressure Plasma 1 00 11m in radius and spreads into a larger surface Low pressure plasma has found wide applications discharge at the dielectric surface(s). they are - deposi tion of silica fi lms operated with sinusoidal wave current. this electrode configuration cannot Fig 3 Schematic of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet for the be operated with DC-fields. DBD7 represents self-sustained non­ equilibrium electrical discharges that are operated at . its use in (Tn) and ion temperatures. ' electrode surface. because the latter sources may also electron density ranges between 1 08 cm-3 and 1 0 13 exhibit microarcing. A advantages of plasma are well known. Typically. this source has been common form of the discharge. tungsten and silicon dioxide composed of many short l iving micro-discharges as well as to deposit silicon dioxide films by plasma­ (streamers). typically of about 2...L-----�----�1 ��:�� l IeJ°Z .

the number of electrons can be up important. Hot plasma is nearly ful ly ionized which is ions i s almost exactly equal to the number of actually known as the 'fourth-state of matter' . EN plasma requires internet age possible higher power to sustai n and is difficult to initiate. A typical reaction For example. 1 %) is ionized.2 Hot and Cold Plasma Depending upon the temperature of ions and electron and the degree of ionization. the energy 3 Glow Discharge Plasma transfer into the discharge becomes more efficient. discharges in plasma systems for a number of reasons. this alternation is fil led with a gas (an inert gas or a reactive gas) at a sufficiently rapid to almost completely eliminate pressure ranging from a few mTorr to atmospheric charging effects.g. Most In CCl4 plasma. He and some unreacti ve per cent of the matter i.e. Ninety nine all noble gases. the number of positive state. and the s�.n the univ·erse is i n the plasma gases l ike N 2 . 9 pressure. as the frequency of AC increases. Process gases can be arranged roughly in the fol lowing order of increasing electronegativity: 2.100 kHz and I ionized gas consisting of equal concentrations of GHz. It is an especially at frequencies between . the n umber of free electrons is the gas molecules (e. In the simplest case. Hot plasma These are discharges consisting mainly of species occurs when the temperature of electrons and atomic which do not form negative ions easily.3 DC and AC Plasma electron temperature is also much higher than in EP AC discharges are prefeITed over DC-driven plasma. cold plasma is used to finely etch channels to 1 00 times less than the number of positive ions. although both are still much smaller than the number of neutrals. these charging effects can be cell (or that form the walls of the cell).aoe within the . Cold plasma can be used to treat surfaces (e.g.86 INDIAN J. FIBRE TEXT. such as Ar. i n a DC discharge. At RF frequencies. . A small fraction of number of species which have a positive electron affinity. gases used. A glow discharge iO is a kind of plasma.the chips inside our desktop with overall charge neutrality being maintained by and laptop computers that made the computer and large numbers of negative ions. Electrollegative (EN) Plasma Cold plasma occurs when the atomic and molecular By contrast. First. The cell is reduced. [n these cases. oxidation. and (ii) size of the Plasma is usually classified i nto two different types object to be treated is limited by the size of the depending upon the electron affinity of the process vacuum chamber. and (v) a stable operating window between 2. positive and negative charges and a large number of charged particles from the plasma can accumulate on neutral species. Most of the etching plasma used in the Low pressure plasma also has several semiconductor i ndustry is formed from gases which disadvantages.4 Electropositive and Electronegative Gas Plasma spark ignition and arcing. This make EN plasma unstable and often non-uniform. Also. and have high maintenance cost. RES. EN plasma contains a significant species are at ambient temperature. MARCH 2006 voltages. The 2. electronegative gases. It has already found uses in a variety of manufacturing processes. Examples are and molecular species are extremely high. In this p lasma. By alternating the direction of the current few kV) between two electrodes that are inserted in a flow sufficiently rapidly. flat-screen televisions use cold plasma might be: to radiate light and create images. i . it is formed by the substrate surface causing unwanted charging applying a potential difference (of a few 1 00 V to a effects. the RF regime.. Cold plasma can produce ozone as its secondary offspring. significantly reduced as a result of capture by EN species to form negative ions. whereas the electroRs are at high temperatures. The Sun and the stars in the universe consist entirely of electrons. hot plasma. plasma can be classified in two groups such as hot and cold plasma. like (i) vacuum systems are expensive readily form negative ions. functional ization) or to deposit specific coatings onto organic and i norganic substrates.stars of a galaxy is filled with plasma. on integrated circuits . Electropositive (EP) Plasma Production in Universe is of hot p lasma.

first the dielectric barrier discharge is ignited give rise to excited species. Breakdown discharge has been intensively studied.4 . and Yse. the secondary electron discharge (APGD) technique using a dielectric barrier emission coefficient of the cathode. Beside these they (OAUGDP) found that if admixture of argon ( 1 %) is added to The OAUGDp l 1 is produced by applying a neon. For example. d)] . 4 achieved stable glow plasma at an atmospheric constant electrode spacing. Pyrex. electrons that are temperature due to the generation of short nanosecond emitted from the cathode by the omnipresent cosmic current pulse at atmospheric pressure. the APGD change to dielectric barrier discharge kilohertz electric field between two parallel plates. the glow to arc transition is suppressed using 3. distance. well below the DC electric field for ( 1 %). 1 3 In general. not so clearly bounded as at responsible for the characteristic name o f the "glow" DBD in argon. considerabl e efforts have b In[A(p . This voltage depends on the online treatment of fabrics and films. : ATMOSPHERIC PRESSUR E G LOW DISCHARGE PLASMA 87 Due to the potential difference. 1 0ne Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma unquiet but it is sti l l homogeneous. This process i s filaments are diffused.5 kY/cm for air. electrode materials and narrow gap i s necessary to achieve a reasonable 2 modifying of electrode designs. alumina or glass insulating plates. This was done by inserting a fine OAUGDP reactor is uniform without filamentary metal mesh between the metal electrode and dielectric microdischarges. A varying power sources. The excitation collisions supply. The and if helium or argon with a small admixture of exposed samples are placed on the lower electrode. and the filaments are observed.. The discharge i s filamentary. the gas breakdown voltage at atmospheric pressure. )] been made to generate stable atmospheric pressure plasma using a dielectric barrier discharge where A and B are the constants found technique3 . and Trunec et al. values are usually too low to electrically .2 liter/min. Gas temperature is also sustained at room centimeter. supply in any gas. radiation are accelerated away from the cathode. electrode spacing d and the pressure p as follows : = B(p · d) v 3. 1 . It has been shown that DBD can be homogeneous.7. acetone is used. Yokoyama voltage ( Vb) i ncreases rapidly with pressure at et al. the pressure and the stability of atmospheric pressure breakdown voltage for argon is estimated to be plasma has been improved i n various ways such as 2500 Y at 760 torr �nd with a 5 mm gap distance. which can decay to lower i n neon. It molecules. 4 temperature increases with the increase in gas shows the dependence of the breakdown voltage on pressure and the glow discharge is easily transformed electrode spacing and pressure. ls proposed a The OAUGDP is obtained for a wide range of new method for the stabilization of homogeneous experimental conditions. the APGD changes to DBD. However. In 1 993. i . to arc discharges at atmospheric pressure. The OAUGDP To ignite plasma.4 EtTect of Frequency dielectric barriers in the DBD process and stable glow The electric fields 1 6 in the one atmosphere glow discharge plasma can be generated at atmospheric discharge plasma reactor are only a few kilovolts per pressure. the breakdown voltageS for the technology is simple. cost effective and suitable for gas must be exceeded. 14 carried out glow discharge at give rise to collisions with the gas atoms or atmospheric pressure in neon gas (99. sparking. the ionization was found that with raising the voltage of power and dissociation take place. Okazaki et al. but the levels by the emission of l ight. Fig. At a lower flow rate the discharge can be 3 .e. Especially the atmospheric pressure glow experimentally. SAMANTA et al. The working gas is entered DBD at atmospheric pressure with 50 Hz power from one side and flows out through the other side. RF driving frequency and rms voltage is 3.ln[ln( l + I / y . Both electrodes may be covered with quartz.2 Homogeneity and Stability o f Dielectric Barrier Discharge During the past decade.99 % purity). As a result of this excitation. the if the frequency of power supply is higher than 1 kHz thickness of which is between 1 mm and 3 mm. if the proper combination of gap layer. They also found that the APGD can be discharge.4 . Si milar effect was The electric field required to initiate the OAUGDP is also observed with a small admixture of nitrogen 8. stabilized by the neon flow with flow rate of 0.3 Breakdown Voltage selected to maintain ion trapping.1 .

05-0. this process eliminates liquid­ boundary surfaces. yarns and fabric plasma. If the more mobile electrons are still able gasses or monomers. FIBRE TEXT. the process is an is produced. Since the reactive sites (radicals) time to reach either boundary during a half period of produced on the surface can be reacted with reactive oscillation . the plasma is restricted to uniform one atmosphere glow discharge plasma i s a small region of space and is not available for therefore created when the applied frequency o f the uniformly treating large substrate areas. However. but not so high that the 4 Advantages of Plasma Treatment of Textiles electrons are also trapped. then the desirable uniform plasma solid interaction.104 B reakdown Plasma density > Source voltage cm--' '-" tJ ( Vb)' kY a eo Low pressure d i scharge 0. all the plasma 4 -Breakdown potential i n various gases as a funclion of the pressure and gap distance (p x d) exhibit electron densities in the same range as a low pressure discharge.2 1 01 _ 1 01 2 10. they do not have the surface. A proper configuration of plasma reactor can provide versatile and uniform treatment of the textile where III is the mass. If the of organic fibres because the modification is carried applied frequency is i n a narrow band in which the out by breaking the bonds of the polymer chains on ions oscillate between the two plates. achieve their surface treatment effects as a result of The plasma jet has a lower breakdown voltage the interaction of one or more active species from the compared to that of low pressure discharge plasma. plasma treatments can be species of interest. a variety of surface effects can to leave the plasma volume and impinge on the be generated.' 1 Plasma jet 0. the discharge forms the filamentary chemical modifications of fibers. flame retardant. for uniform glow discharge plasma.lS' the rillS voltage applied to the i ntegrated into the production line to reduce pollution plates: and d. Thus. For example. t03 Arc and plasma lorch 1 0-50 1 0 16_ 1 0 19 Corona 1 0-50 1 09_ 1 0 13 2 Dielectric barrier discharge 5-25 1 0 1 _ 1 0 1 . soil resistant. Except for the Fig. RES. the surfaces. Atmospheric. The most desirable dielectric barrier discharge.88 INDIAN J . electric field is high enough to trap the ions between the two parallel plates. Also.5 Comparison of Plasma Sources 4. the distance between electrode plates. driving frequency should lie between the l imits. therefore. These active . transferred arc and plasma torch. in the corona and the break down the background gas.. as dye and permanent press treatments can all be shown below : accomplished without creating toxic effluents and at times several effects can be generated in one single step.1 Mechanism of Surface Modification Table I shows breakdown voltages5 and densities Both vacuum and atmospheric pressure plasma of charged species for the different plasma sources. 3.1 10 whereas the other atmospheric pressure plasma has p d ( e m Torr) breakdown voltages above 5 kY. plasma with the surface of interest. electrons can reach the boundaries and recombi ne. the collision frequency of substrates. the which allows the fabric to retain strength after plasma will either not initiate or form a few coarse treatment.8 1 08 _ 1 0 1 3 f. Vc. and energy consumption . Plasma treatment is essentially a surface treatment If the frequency is so low that both the ions and the and does not affect the bulk properties of the fibre.2-0.Breakdown voltages and densities of charge species in the plasma discharges . Plasma treatment can be used for all ki nds filamentary discharges between the plates. V". MARCH 2006 Table 1. If the applied frequency is still higher so environment friendly and cost effective alternative to that both electrons (e) and ions (i) are trapped in the traditional chemical processing for carrying out discharge.

(i) Ultraviolet photons which are capable of breaking chemical bonds. The replacement of surface polymer groups with The modification o f surfaces depends upon the type chemical groups from the plasma is called activation. due to the surface-directed activity of the plasma which evaporates as small volatile fragments. 1.3 Surface Modification usillg Poiymerizable MOllomers visible parts of the spectrum which can produce a I n this case.2 Surface Modificatiol/ using Reactive Gases al/d MolecuLes is summarized i n Table 2 . 1 Surface Modification Usil/g Inert Gas Plasma layer on the surface is oxidized and partially removed Ablationletching-The ability of plasma processing to break down weak covalent bonds in a polymer (desizing). reduced possible surface treatment effects that can be achieved only with difficulty. and free radicals or other charge subsequently. which is clearly known as ablation . antistatic finishes. The monomer is directly polymerized on active species from plasma. the hydrophobic 4. SAM ANTA et al. textile substrates can be divided into three distinct cleaning of surfaces such as desizing. scouring and mechanisms due to the presence of different species bleaching. as mentioned above. results in decreased shrinkage behaviour of wool top. including monomers produced in the 4. reactive monomer such as vinyl monomer after the (iii) A third major class o f active species i s neutral plasma treatment. and highly reactive molecular fragments. etc. atoms or molecule in excited properties or physical characteristics . enhancement of dyeability or printability. Grafting can be surface charge. in the presence of active species such as reactive gases and other small organic compounds. a thin polymer l ayer may be formed on positive surface charge by the photoelectric. I The effect of i nert gas plasma on various textile substrates 4. 1. plasma treatment significantly gases can be used to crosslink polymers and produce a increases the hydrophilicity of the surface and surface stronger and harder substrate microsurface. where the monomer gas is ionization events. Desizing of cotton and antifelting of wool are some The chemical and physical surface modification examples. molecular layers of the substrate exposed to the Again . the plasma breaks down weak energetic than the species associated with bonds in the polymer and converts them to highly conventional chemical processing. the tenacity of the fibers is hardly influenced. ions that may be produced by carried out in situ. flame-retardant The process of plasma surface modification on finishes. with felting of wool. hydrophilic and hydrophobic finishes.resulting from to polymerization conditions in the presence of a plasma chemical reactions . include : hydroxyl. Most of these active species are rarely Some of the effects or characteristics that have present or much less dense i n ordinary chemical been shown by cold plasma treatment on textile reactors. This is that either recombine on the surface or build up a known as grafting through plasma. This affects the outermost demonstrated by means of atomic force microscopy. 1. ' 8 . they i nclude electron the surface activated by plasma treatment. modifications are sustained for a long time. carboxyl. The specific surface area is significantly through bombardment with high-energy particles is increased during plasma treatment. Surface Cross lin king Cross lin ki ng is the setting . Reactive and inert gases i n . Specific surface area of cotton also i ncreases with up of multiple chemical links between the molecular oxygen plasma treatment. improvement of conventional chemical processing. : ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA 89 species are more chemically reactive and more During activation . such as wool and cotton. wetting. Plasma treatment is surface oriented.2 Plasma Modification o f Textile plasma. monomer and process parameters. these thin such as monoatomic fluorine. Such species may functional groups such as carbonyl. where the activated surface is exposed molecular fragments such as OH. the substrate surface through polymerization of a (ii) Charge particles are a second major class of monomer. oxygen or other coatings can be deposited/ grafted with various atomic fragments. . if at all. Depending on the selection of the particles which can include very reactive atoms gas. . In hydrophobic materials chains of polymers. In natural fibers ' 7 . atomic states . and photons in the 4. and their high energy levels make substrates include crease-resistant finishes. plasma. Plasma processing with i nert such as polypropylene. of gases used for plasma. enhancement of UV -protection. attachment or charge exchange introduced within the plasma zone or carried out in the plasma.

etc.5 m i n on An increase i n both the surface energy and surface oxygen content causes an HDPE fi lm. treatment t i me. 0 Marino wool. Specific surface area i s significantly increased during plasma treatrrent from 2 0. materials involves the combination of i norganic and may be improved with plasma treatment. air/He. while its water vapour fluorodecyl acrylate (AC8) h as been used for flame transmission is not influenced.35 m / g i n cotton and wool. presence of organic compounds are able to bring Several monomers such as hydroxyl ethyl about permanent chemical change on the surface of methacrylate (HEMA). . in the total surface area and change in chemical characteristics of the surface of the fibre. Weight loss and crystall in i ty decreased with time of treatment. It was found that the plasma treatment composites increases significantly on plasma would provide an effective balTier to aqueous treatment. Plasma treatment of high performance fibres. abrasion resistance. 1 D B D Plasma: not speci fied. cotton with organic compounds. coating materials. acrylic acid modifications are given in Table 3. Gases: He. Vacuum plasma: gases: N 2 . and the groups or structural elements and tailoring. etc. Some of the studies on such N-isopropyl acrylamide (Ni PAAm). strength did not change significantly.. corrosion protection. which increase in surface roughness imparts darker makes them superior to commonly used organic appearance to the dyed fabrics. i ncrease in adhesive strength. l s Vacuum plasma. The interfacial shear strength of such repellent. such as wool and PET. Air/02/He. washing. polypropylene. The properties.2-tetrahydroper­ highly hydrophobic. water­ fibres. where the cotton PBO. Ar. PET. He. Modification of textile substrates using plasma i nclude chemical resistance. aimed at many. kevlar. The organic structural units in the precursor compounds treatment appears to modify the surface of the used for plasma polymerization. did not affect tensile strength sign i ficantly. I Atmospheric pressure.5 min on Adhesion enhancement by up to a factor of two to ten. The treatment of (AA). I n precursors allows a wide range of possible other fibres. The application of a repel lent coating I to disposable adhesion of reinforcing fibers to a matrix polymer. the improvement i n wettability i n combinations and variations of i norganic and organic dyebath i mproves dyeing characteristics. up to 2.2.90 INDIAN J. . 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA). carbon. on cotton. the substrate . such as 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate ( HEA). leads to a smooth surface with treatment for imparting effects such as improved increased hydrophobization. while perfluroacrylates have been used for Plasma treatment is also used for i mproving water repellency effects. have been hexamethyldisi loxane (HMDSO) and hexafluoro­ grafted ill situ in plasma or subsequently to plasma ethane plasma. for composites was fabrics were treated with fluorinating gas found to increase the total surface free energy of the (hexafluoroethane) for making it high-comfort. anti reflective. gas: 0 2 : degummed s i l k yarn. Removed some PV A size and facilitated PV A removal by subsequent on PV A sized cotton fabric. 19 2 Atmospheric pressure: gases: Hc/ Ar: acetone/Ar. A more powerful method of designing new hybrid Dyeing properties of fibers. contact angle decreased from 90° 22 to 55() i n pp. Dyeing rate increased with 30 s treatment. 1 . depending on LDPE/PET fi lm. hybrid plasma polymer coating obtained from such contributing to accelerated dye diffusion i n wool. 1 m '/ g to 0. The material becomes hrdrophilicity or dyeability. retardancy. polymerization and grafting are summarized i n antistatic. wool and The hydrophobic character is changed to become i ncreasingly hydrophilic. acrylamide (AAm). Nanocomposite endocuticle or the cell membrane complex. inert gases: up to 2. RES. Interaction between fibre surface molecule contamination as long as a threshold of surface and the matrix might improve because of the increase fluori nation was reached. M ARCH 2006 Table 2-Surface modification with i nert gas plasma Plasma treatment E ffects Atmospheric pressure. barrier properties and Table 4. FIBRE TEXT. such as surgical garments has been reported. I .

on wool and PET fabric and film. Surface contact 29angle decreased rapidly from 83. on PE for l Os.2 mbar. helium/argon or acetone/ Wettabili ty i ncreased with increased treatment time. on nomex Plasma i s used to apply a diffusion barrier layer to the surface to i mprove 22 fibres the resistance to 85% H2S04 (20 h at room temperature). DSD plasma: gas: hexafluoroethylene/H z .6 fi lm. gases. :!3 2 2 Vacuum: 70 W. gas: N 2 & vinyltriethoxysilane. gases: Arltluorocarbon A small percentage admixture of hydrogen to Ar/�. PET surfaces.' Vacuum.6. Plasma-post-treatment in etching gases can be. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge and dielectric The atmospheric pressure glow discharge results in more uniform and z6 barrier discharge plasma. 1 mJ m- carbon fi bers. NH. on cotton/PET fabrics.7MPa (or z4 29%). used to 27 decrease the surface tension. acrylic acids and breaking strength 36 . Atmospheric pressure. Kevlar and Total surface free energy of PSO increased from 43. From the XPS analysis. on PPAN (plasma polymerized acrylonitrile) surface grafted PP fabrics exhibit PP fabric. monomer: Antireflection layer causes increase in colour intensity of the polymerized 4 organosilicone: on PET fabric. on PP melt blown. the bonds mixtures: on HOPE and PP plates. 1 1 dioxide and other gases.Surface modification with reactive gases and molecules i n plasma Plasma treatment Effects Atmospheric pressure glow plasma. properties. S i mi lar results for other fibers. 6 Vacuum plasma. effective than dielectric barrier d i scharge.Surface modification with polymerizable monomers Plasma treatment Effects Vacuum plasma: gas: Ar monomer: acrylonitrile. soi ling resistance and colour strength of polyester fabric. plasma treatment more effective than the acetone/ argon plasma. polymerization by acrylamide. : ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA 91 Table 3. Vacuum.0 Table 4. on cellulosics. 7 Atmospheric pressure. C-O-C and C-O-H were found in the surfaces of the treated samples. ' 1 Vacuum of 0. Ar. on Nylon-6. deposition rate. decreased due to etching in the order: cotton> acetate> acrylates. monomer: acrylic acid. on PTFE. SAMANTA et al.7 MPa to 44. J7 Contd- . fabric was better by argon post-plasma polymerisation of acry l ic acid " compared to in situ polymerization Atmospheric pressure.F8 resulted in i ncreased mixtures. (by 4 1 %) with treatments for 5 min and the interfacial shear strength of a model PSO/epoxy composite i ncreased from 34. . Direct grafting of perfluoroalkyltrichlorosi l anes. Atmosphere glow plasma: gases: He. carbon Increase in wettabi l i ty. Atmospheric pressure. gas: oxygen. C-H.5° to 35°. Level of shrink resistance could be significantly enhanced on application of Z5 polymers to wool fabric after a 2 min treatment. pretreatment with Ar/02 followed graft Grafting yield varied depending upon the parameters and monomers used. Provided an effective barrier to aqueous contamination. Vacuum: gas: 6 1 . C-N. gases: He/Oz. Vacuum plasma: gases: oxygen and hexatluoroethane. monomer: tluoroacrylate i n presence Fire-retardant coating. C-C. gas: air. Atmospheric pressure. gas: air: on Nylon. gases: dicholoromethane: on cotton Moi sture content and dyeability were enhanced without affecting other and PET fabrics. against oxygen gas in comparison to an organic precursor due to organic and i norganic networks formation. " of vinyl crosslink ing agents. gas: air. gas: Ar: monomer: Treatment for I m i n gave water repel lent properties. Atmospheric pressure: gases: N 2• H 2. The hel ium/argon 28 argon. '2 perflouroacrylate. Atmospheric pressure. Hybrid organic-inorganic precursor resulted i n better barrier properties on PET substrate .3 mJm. on activated PE occurs much more read i ly compared to monochloro-substituted silanes. on PSO. and Increase in surface energy was observed. gas: Ar. Vacuum: gas: oxygen: on wool substrate. 50% decrease i n peak value of rate of heat release. acetates. on technical textiles. air. on nylon The surface energy i ncreased to > 70 dynes/cm by 5 s of plasma exposure: 1 and PU melt blown and electrospun fibers. did not degrade signi ficantly up to 1 20 s treatment. and acrylic acrylic substrates. i mprove water absorption and dyeing properties. 2 on cotton fabric. on PET Increase in wettabi lity.

92 INDIAN 1 . wettabi lity. less material was used. 30 VaclIum. a l arge amount of Plasma Chamber information is available in the literature on the plasma Plasma reactor compnsmg two aluminium treatment of textile. materi als has not been reported in the literature. attempts have been made to successfully build variable output of up to 25 kY and frequency of up to glow discharge plasma at the atmospheric pressure i n 30 kHz. The idea is to treatment. monomer: acrylic acid. dyeabi lity and soil resistance. filament-free one atmospheric plasma chamber was fed continuously with the help pressure glow discharge plasma over a l arge surface of a feed and a take-up roller. monomer: acrylic acid. and only a few research treatment could be varied by adjusting the speed of groups around the world have been able to the fabric in the range of 1 3 . Potential appl ications are wide ranging.2-diphenyl. Relatively. Vacuum. damping.oR picrylhydrazyl. I n this paper. III situ plasma polymerization of acrylic acid resulted in improved on PET and polyamide fabric for 1 -90 m i n . 1 . flame retardancy. As has been summarized above.5) increases by 4-8 units when treated with the 4 containing phosphorus. The time of the area i s stil l challenging. Etching + plasma polymer coating provided enhanced electrochemical properties. gas: Ar. Rate of heat release decreased by 30%. gas: oxygen. Ar and O2 . 0 Vacuum. gas: Ar.1 Plasma Reactor Unit hollow fibres membranes in blood oxygenators. gas: O2 . gases: air. blood compatibility of blood about by the plasma treatment has not been reported contacting materials has been enhanced using vacuum i n the literature. O2. N2 and organic solvents. Silicone-like films were PET fabrics has been reported under different gases deposited by feeding RF glow discharge plasma with and for different treatment time.2. The comparative effect under different use cold atmospheric pressure plasma to deposit the gases on hydrophilicity and surface energy of these biomolecules together with a thi n polymer coating. Plasma i nduced grafting yield with different gases and their mixture is monomers: glycidyl methacrylate. most of it is on the electrodes with commercial glass plates as dielectric vacuum plasma or DBD discharge.3. Many different properties sllch as tetramethyldisi loxane acrylate.. MARCH 2006 Table 4. Films having composition of Six Cy Hk Oz were utilized to 5 Materials and Methods coat active carbon particles i n blood filters and PP 5. Vacuum. a systematic plasma in presence of silicon containing organic i nvestigation on the behaviour shown by nylon-6 and monomers vapours. fi l m deposition or h indering of additive diffusion out of the host matrix can be achieved using this i n a sing le stage treatment. Graft-polymerization of monomer i n direct contact with the substrate surface tetrahydroperfluorodecyl acrylate. monomer: 1 .3. on cotton fabric for 60-300 s. FIBRE TEXT. monomers: acrylate The LOI value of PAN ( 1 8. gases: Ar.0 cm/min. RES. The fabric i n the Development of stable. a systematic study on the stability of changes brought In another studl4. flame retardant phosphate and phosphonate monomers. Also. The design allowed the distance literature is available on the diffused glow discharge between the two electrodes to be varied from a few plasma operating at atmospheric pressure. A European consortium is exploring an substrates.2. �J Biological molecules display remarkable functions variety o f gases from helium to air.5-8 1 . within I m i n of plasma treatment. . on PP. on PAN fabric for required much smaller amounts of fluorinated reactant to achieve water and 41 1 0 min. I . millimetres to a few centimetres. 39 Vacuum. monomer: acrylic acid. I n this plasma was generated using a power supply with paper. However. Ar and O2 . on N-6 fil m for 20 min. 4 Vacuum. Plasma-treated fabrics have been observed original approach for coating the surface of almost to undergo surface modification under plasma any material with active biomolecules. The demonstrate the stable and true glow plasma. oil repel lency. gases: air. on PAN fabric for 1 5 min. on PE for Considerable i ncrease i n surface free energy and wettabi lity was observed 2 1 -4 min.l ­ compared.Surface modification with polymerizable monomers-Colltd Plasma treatment Effects Vacuum. si licon-containing organic monomers vapours . 2. A plasma reactor that the developers of new materials are eager to has been developed for continuous treatment of textile harness. monomer: I .

SAMANTA el al. The maximum gap between th� two large size electrodes could be kept at around 1 0 mm to start the 5. higher gas flow rate and voltage compared to that . He. 7Smm x 40 mm. 1. discharge gap 6. glow plasma under different gases was as given Percentage of etching loss was calculated by the below: following formula: Air . The and nitrogen.000 1 g model give higher concentration of radicals in the plasma. 1 3 cm ) and finally over a large 6. electrodes were designed particular concentration) was placed on the fabric and to allow easy circulation of atmospheric gases. 1 Mechanical Strength the applied electric field. The Etching loss was calculated using analytical higher voltage is preferred because it is also known to weighing balance with an accuracy of 0 . 6. thickness of dielectric material . A drop of formic acid solution (of a area of 67.4 Stabilization of Plasma Over a Large Surface Area 5. At high were measured by Instron (Model 4202). Fabric was first dried at lOS °C for M uch lower voltage was required to generate uniform 30 min ( WI )' and then plasma treated for 60 s under glow plasma in H e gas compared to air/N 2 or argon helium. for generating the glow plasma. 1.1.: ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA 93 Stabilization of Plasma 6 Results and Discussion Plasma was stabilized by optimizing electrode design.1 Effect of Process Parameters on Quality of One Atmospheric P ressu re Glow Discharge Plasma and gas flow. 1.3. plasma could not be generated even of 8 1 . the discharge gap was kept at 1 -3 mm. The treatment time was varied from l O s to 60 s. In this tester.1 S kHz gave uniform plasma.2 Effect of Frequency Plasma could not be generated between the two electrode plates at a very low frequency ( I kHz) of 5.3 Effect of Voltage 5.S g/m were used. Intermediate frequencies in Mechanical strength and elongation of the fabrics the range of 7. this was done over a small 2 surface area ( 1 . Thereafter. On increasing Nylon-6 fabric of 62. the gas used. However. the sample was again dried at gas. the fabric voltage. air and oxygen environment.2 Textile Substrate and Plasma Treatment 2 plasma discharge under He atmosphere.4 SlIrface Energy Proper dissipation of heat generated due to plasma Surface energy of the fabrics was measured by is one of the most i mportant factor in generating using formic acid solutions of different uniform glow discharge plasma over the large surface 16 concentrations.2 Absorbency Voltage has very significant effect on plasma Water absorbency of the polyester and nylon generation particularly at the atmospheric pressure fabrics was measured by gravimetric in-plane wicking because normal atmosphere requires high breakdown tester developed at l IT-Delhi. The if the drop was absorbed by the fabric within S s.S cm2 . 6. Uniform glow surface energy of the fabric was considered equivalent discharge plasma could be produced at significantly to the surface energy of the liquid. Nylon and polyester fabrics on applying very high voltages.34 g/m and polyester fabric 2 the gap further.3 Etching Loss higher voltage gives better uniformity of plasma.5. The relative voltage required to generate uniform 1 0SoC for 30 min ( W2). the maximum gap for generating plasma fabric of width S cm was treated in a continuous was less than 1 0 mm. Therefore. Crosshead frequencies. 5 Explorer-Dhaws.3.1 7 kV under Ar.3 Test Methods - 5.3. I t was observed that the 5. and only a discharge were washed with 2 gpl Lissapol D soap solution at sound could be heard.1 DisulIlce between two Electrodes 2 surface area of 67. For other gases.S cm . Breakdown voltage depends on the nature of sample of S cm x S cm was used. such as argon boil for 30 min and dried in air for overnight. the gap of less than 3 manner in the stable glow discharge plasma at mm between the two dielectric p lates was necessary frequency -9. I nitially.1 0 kHz and voltage . only filamentary plasma could be speed was 1 00 mm/min and the sample size was produced as shown in Fig. the active electrode area and the distance between the two electrodes.3.O2 > N 2 >Ar > H e 6.

MARCH 2006 Fig.56 kg in He plasma. The loss in weight was used for measuring surface energy could not be used usually < 0.1 Mechanical Strength Mechanical strength of polyester and nylon fabrics was measured after plasma treatment in different gases for 60 s.Stabil i zed atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma over a large surface area required for plasma generated over a small surface area.a tment time. polyester fabrics after plasma treatment i n helium for the surface energy improved significantly to a value 60 s.3 Surface Energy fabric.2 Characteristics of l>lasma-treated Nylon and PET Fabrics 6. the samples where it was . 6. The PW average breaking load of nylon fabric reduced from -60 kg to 58. 5 . similar to that of nylon in case of helium plasma.1 wt%. Similar trend was observed in the case of polyester 6. The loss i n fabrics upon plasma treatment is shown in Figs 8 and strength of treated polyester fabrics was found to be 9.2 Etching Loss changed to 59 dynes/cm for the washed fabric - Etching loss was determined for both nylon and (without plasma treatment).2. S ince the methodology after the plasma treatment. Upon plasma treatment.94 INDIAN J. In this case.2 wt% for most samples. effect of treatment gases on the ultimate value of . The breaki ng load of the treated samples was compared with untreated samples. RES. 7). 6 . The maximum strength loss of 1 5% was observed in Ar plasma (Fig. Fig. Surface energy of the as-procured (not washed. The fabric weight did not decrease significantly greater than 7 1 dynes/cm. NW) polyester fabric was about 40 dynes/cm.2.2. except for a few for determining values greater than 7 1 dynes/cm. Figure 6 shows glow discharge plasma under He 2 gas over a surface area of 67..5 cm . the percentage loss in strength was The change i n surface energy of the polyester about 1 3 % with 60 s of treatment i n Ar. The decrease i n Air Ar Fabric treatment He Oxygen breaking load was higher i n other gases. Reduction in mechanical strength was Fig. This 6. FIBRE TEXT.Atmospheric pressure filamentary plasma obtained at high frequency (-25 kHz). 7 -Change in breaking load of nylon-6 fabrics with plasma treatment in different gases (60 s) i nsignificant in the first 30 s of the tre.

Figure 1 1 shows the effect of surface energy values for the treatment time 1 0 .. the surface found to be sufficient for bringing out the maximum energy of nylon fabric increased slowly from 50 measurable change i n the ' surface energy (7 1 dynes/cm to 63 dynes/cm when treatment time was dynes/cm) of the PET fabric. Since air was the most treatment time in He plasma convenient and inexpensive gas among all other used. the effect of treatment time on the surface energy of oxygen plasma. and helium resulted in maximum measurable value of Compared to the prewashed samples (i.: ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA 95 70 _ 60 E i 50 o � 40 c: � 30 >­ Cl c: � 20 CI> � � 10 o Plasma gas Plasma gas Fig...e. All gases gave the maximum measurable values of surface energy for Fig.5 dynes/cm were Figure 1 2 shows the water absorbency of the found to affect (shrink) the nylon fabric. A treatment time of 1 0 s was He plasma. the value ' achieved was lower at the PET fabric was determined in air plasma. PW)..5-7 1 dynes/cm using generation of hydrophilic groups. the treated samples showed a . 10 30 >- � Cl o . Argon.. the surface energy was transformation of the hydrophobic surfaces due to the measurable in the range of 43.60 s treatment time on the surface energy of the fabric in are shown in Fig.Effect on surface energy of nylon-6 fabric with a treatment time of 60 s. However.Change i n surface energy of nylon-6 fabrics with plasma treatment under different gases for 60 s of treatment time 70 �_ 60 60 E E 50 .4 A bsorbency surface energies lower than 43 . 1 1 . CI> NW PW 10 15 30 60 20 c: CI> Q) 0 10 Treatment time (s) �:l 0 II) NW Fig. The changes in the Figure 10 shows the changes in surface energy of surface energy of the PET and nylon fabrics on nylon-6 fabric on plasma treatment using different plasma treatment may be attributed to the gases. Unlike the case of PET fabric. SAMANTA et at. in treatment. This is because the higher concentrations of formic acid needed for measuring 6. For nylon fabric. without surface energy in 60 s of treatment time. 9 . air plasma-treated PET fabrics under different gases. increased from l O s to 60 s. 20 >. � u 30 � 40 G) � � c: � E.S .Change in surface energy of PET fabrics on plasma treatment under different gases for 10 s Fig.2. 10 . 9 -Change in surface energy of PET fabrics with plasma treatment time i n air PW 10 15 30 60 Treatment time (s) surface energy could not be estimated. The around 53 dynes/cm. formic acid method.!:! 50 40 ! � .

The rate of water absorbency was found to be best in air plasma treated samples fol lowed by those treated 6.PW E! 0. . With higher treatment ti me..NW I .. Sample treated with the same surface energy values obtained for for l O s i n helium plasma could wet the fabric to various PET fabrics treated with different gases..2 0.a !ito II � i ] 0.-" .Effect on water absorbency of nylon-6 fabrics on Fig. there is no significant effect of the type of took more than 90 s to fully wet the fabric..-&-_N_&-. 1 3). This is in agreement treated samples had high absorbency.. 1 3 .. Figure 1 5 shows change i n Time of treatment also had a significant effect on the rate o f water absorbency with number o f days of the rate of water absorbency as shown in Fig. figure..5 '- � � 0.7 1 0 ---.2 .. 4 j '0 0. As it evident from the figure.4 .7 1 § __ 8 days __ 1 day -. S " 0..-----�.. __ __ - -4-. - o . On saturation within 1 0 s .c 0.. .-r o 5 10 15 20 25 Time (s) Time [s] Fig...! 0..---.3 - '- .3 ..Water absorbancy of plasma-treated PET fabrics under different gasses for l O s Fig.15 . FIB RE TEXT...-"....2. It However.6 1:s � 0.2 . 0.. ..-. number of wash cycles.6 . MARCH 2006 -- 0. 1 4 .. .-.. 96 INDIAN J. o 0.05 . 1 5 -_30 --60 Washed Air Ar I -. � '" 0.5 � ..Treated 0.� -.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 T i m e [s] 0 6 10 16 20 25 30 35 Time (s) Fig. He -l<-' Oxygen .4 .�--------. RES. � • 2 4 6 8 10 �e-&--.1 o . o . . I S . - 0.::.Oxygen1 0.... the the other hand.__.... 1 4.5 Stability with He and Ar (Fig..Change in water absorbency of nylon-6 fabric with He ""*' IV "'*" Air --. 60 treatment with plasma under different gases for JO s s) nylon-6 fabrics with storage time significant increase i n the rate of water absorbency...1 · � 0..3 II l: i 0 . The storage i n nylon fabric..8 treatment time in He plasma 1 NW 'PW -<.35 · 0.3 . whereas gas used during the treatment. " . 12 . I :Jt-r'..j! > C) o 3.. -g � -e en � 0. as expected was studied in terms of variation in surface energy or based on its surface energy value. showed the least rate of water absorbency with storage time and increase in the rate of water absorbency. Surface energy values for The stability of the surface modifications achieved all the three samples were found to be above the in nylon and PET fabrics through plasma treatment maxi mum measurable values.E .25 ..4 0. OJ 0. Oxygen. 0..6 � 0.7 __ � PW ! 0.6 __ E! 0... :::::: <iF ••.Change i n water absorbency of plasma·treated (He. type of gas used during plasma absorbency i mproved significantly as shown in the treatment had definitive effect on the nylon-6 fabrics..-��-: � • I • I : • . 02 .. � .• 0.s:: 0.� � III .1 � 0. untreated nylon sample had a very low absorbency. .

J Phys [D). 2(2) Phys.. 1 7 . helium was found to give the best glow discharge properties among all . 23( 1 990) 1 1 25 . 34 (200 I ) 2754.. Surface energy of the 2 plasma-treated nylon fabric did not appear to change (2002) 64. 2 3 4 5 6 7 No.43 / � uniform glow discharge..!! T.6 I�pw 1 . 1 8). Fig. the effect brought about by plasma treatment in nylon-6 fabrics were found to be more the absorbency does not change even after 8 days of stable with respect to storage time and washing cycles storage.6 parameters on the quality of plasma was evaluated 'i and the parameters were optimized to generate 1S 0O. in absorbency after every wash.. of Washes o 2 4 6 8 10 • _ _ f ------'-. Rego S._ · 3 ..1 9 2 4 10 12 14 � continuous manner and a systematic investigation was 6 8 . Vangeneugden D & Rose (Fig. On the other hand.Decay of water absorbency of plasma-treated (60 s He) the plasma-treated PET fabric reduced to that of the nylon-6 fabrics with number of washes prewashed untreated sample. 6 Eliasson B & Kogelschatz U. The plasma reactor was used to treat PET and nylon-6 fabrics in a -0. 60 s) with number of wash cycles Fig.5 • § 0. H icks R F. App/ brought about in PET fabric was relatively poor. T i m e [s) Fig. 2 1 ( 1 988) 838. 7 Conclusions 0.Change in surface energy of plasma-treated PET fabrics (air. Park J.7 - 0.7 1 ___ Trealed I: 1 day l 2 days . Kogoma M & Okazaki S. App/ significantly higher compared to the untreated Allan G.Decay in water absorbency of plasma-treated (He. Goossens 0.. Though glow discharge could be generated i n different gases (such as air. Appl Phys.. SAM ANT A et al.7 _. References the absorbency in plasma-treated nylon fabric was I Shentoll M J. Phys. Lovell H & Stevens G C. carried out under various gases. Selwyn G S & absorbency just after 2 days of storage (Fig. . IEEE Tran Plasma Sci. The effect of various .. 60 s) PET fabric with storage time However... Fotheringham A & Weedall p. prewashed sample (Fig. the stability of the changes 4 Yokoyama T. Kogoma M & Okazaki S. the surface energy of K. Phys. Ar . the surface energy also reduced ( 1 99 1 ) 1 063... J Phys [DJ.. there was a small drop than PET fabrics. There was a significant drop in the rate of water 5 Schutze A.. 38 (2005) 568. 1 6 ./ 0.-· pw � Atmospheric pressure barrier discharge plasma reactor was fabricated in-house. However.--. J Phys [DJ. The surface energy c( and water absorbency were found to improve Time (s) significantly under all gases without any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the fabrics. 1 8 . on washing. 26(6) ( 1 998) 1 685.(''' � i ::0 /. After seven washes. 3 Yokoyama T. IEEE Trail Plasma Sci. Jeong J Y.: ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA 97 0. .to<t 1 . significantly after each wash except for the first 7 Paulussen S./� and oxygen). Even after 7 washes. J Phys [DJ. 1 7). A UTEX Res J. App/ even after 25 days. 1 9 Similarly. 1 6) . Babayan SE.

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