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I. Purpose of Urinating
 To flush out waste products
 To keep body fluid levels down
 Failure to do so results to edema –commonly seen in the form of puffy ankles
Why do we urinate?
 Too much water intake
 Nervous peeing
 Overactive bladder
 Habitual peeing

II. Urinary System

The urinary system, also known as the renal system, produces, stores and eliminates urine, the fluid waste
excreted by the kidneys. The kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from blood. Urine travels
from the kidneys through two thin tubes called ureters and fills the bladder. When the bladder is full, a person
urinates through the urethra to eliminate the waste.
Physical Characteristics of Urine
1. Color
The color of normal urine is usually light yellow to amber. Generally the greater the solute volume the deeper the color.
The yellow color of urine is due to the presence of a yellow pigment, urochrome. Deviations from normal color can be
caused by certain drugs and various vegetables such as carrots, beets, and rhubarb.
2. Odor
Slightly aromatic, characteristic of freshly voided urine. Urine becomes more ammonia-like upon standing due to bacterial
3. Turbidity
Normal urine is transparent or clear; becomes cloudy upon standing. Cloudy urine may be evidence of phosphates, urates,
mucus, bacteria, epithelial cells, or leukocytes.
4. pH
Ranges from 4.5 - 8.0. Average is 6.0, slightly acidic. High protein diets increase acidity. Vegetarian diets increase
alkalinity. Bacterial infections also increase alkalinity.

III. Common Diseases of the Urinary System

1. Urinary Retention- It is the inability to empty the bladder completely.
a. Acute urinary retention- lasts only for a short time
b. Chronic urinary retention- long- lasting medical condition
 Obstruction of the urethra

Capiral, Shaira Nadine A.; Humilde, Al Mita Rose N.; Vilog, Cathy R.
 Nerve problems
 Medication
 Weakened bladder muscles
Acute Urinary Retention
 Inability to urinate
 Painful, urgent need to urinate
 Pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen
 Bloating of lower abdomen
Chronic Urinary Retention
 Urinary frequency
 Trouble beginning a urine stream
 Weak or an interrupted urine stream
 Urgent need to urinate with little success when trying to urinate
 Feeling the need to urinate after finishing urination
 Mild and constant discomfort in lower abdomen and urinary tract
 Bladder drainage
 Urethral dilation
 Urethral stents
 Prostate medication
 Surgery

2. Urinary Tract Infection/ Cystitis/ Urinary Bladder Inflammation- An infection in any part of your urinary system –
kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
Typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the
 A strong, persistent urge to urinate
 A burning sensation when urinating
 Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
 Urine that appears cloudy
 Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored –a sign of blood in the urine
 Strong-smelling urine
 Pelvic pain
 Rectal pain
Treatment and Drugs: Antibiotics

Capiral, Shaira Nadine A.; Humilde, Al Mita Rose N.; Vilog, Cathy R.