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The overall efficiency of the filters based on particle number is

𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚3 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑢𝑡
ɳ=1− 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚3 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑖𝑛

The collection efficiency gives relationship between the collected material and the supplied

The definition of overall efficiency above is based on particle number. We can also define
overall efficiencies based on other particle properties, such as surface area and volume (or
mass). The overall collection efficiency by mass is usually the easiest to measure
experimentally. The inlet and outlet streams may be sampled by a collection device, such as
filter, that collects virtually all of the particles. Collection efficiency can also be referred to as
fractional efficiency in some texts. The fractional separation efficiency denotes the separation
efficiency of a filter with regard to a fraction, meaning particles of a specific size class.


Dust properties
• Size: particles between 0.1 and 1.0 µm in diameter may be more difficult to capture.

• Seepage characteristics: Small, spherical solid particles tend to escape.

• Inlet dust concentration: The deposit is likely to seal over sooner at high

Fabric properties
• Surface depth: Shallow surfaces form a sealant dust cake sooner than napped

• Weave thickness: Fabrics with high permeabilities, when clean, show lower
efficiencies. Also, monofilament yarns show lower efficiencies than staple yarns
having similar interstitial spacing.

• Electrostatics: Particles, fabrics, and gas can all be influenced electrostatically and
proper combination can significantly improve efficiency in both gas and liquid
filtering systems.
Dust cake properties
• Residual weight: The heavier the residual loading, the sooner the filter is apt to seal

• Residual particle size: The smaller the base particles, the smaller (and fewer) are the
particles likely to escape.

Air properties
• Humidity: with some dusts and fabrics, 60% relative humidity is much more
effective than 20% relative humidity

Operational variables
• Velocity: Increased velocity usually gives lower efficiency, but this can be reversed
depending on the collection mechanisms, for example, impaction will be more
appropriate with high gas velocities.

• Pressure: increase of pressure after part of the dust cake has formed can fracture it
and greatly reduce efficiency until the cake reseals

Collection mechanisms
• Brownian Diffusion: The collection efficiency for deposition by Brownian diffusion
mechanism decreases as particle size increases.

• Interception: efficiency increases as particle size increases.

• Impaction: impaction efficiency should increase with increasing particle size and
fluid velocity.