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Volume 24 No.

4 April 2016
Managing Editor Corporate Office:
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(BE, MBA) 406, Taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi - 110029.

Physics Musing Problem Set 33 8

CONTENTS AIPMT Practice Paper


Core Concept
12
21
AIIMS Special : Assertion & Reason 28
JEE Advanced Practice Paper 31
Thought Provoking Problems 40
Olympiad Problems 44
Brain Map 46
Exam Prep 2016 48
AIPMT Model Test Paper 2016 54
CBSE Board Solved Paper 2016 63
BITSAT Practice Paper 72
Physics Musing Solution Set 32 79
Live Physics 83
You Ask We Answer 81
Crossword 85
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PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 7


  

P hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment
the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who
send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through “Physics Musing” and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

SINGLE OPTION CORRECT TYPE


   
1. A spherical insulator of radius R is charged
uniformly with a charge Q throughout its volume
(ρ1 − ρ2 ) I ε0
Q (a) zero (b)
and contains a point charge located at its centre. 2
16
Which of the following graphs best represents (c) ε0I(ρ1 – ρ2) (d) ε0I(ρ1 + ρ2 )
qualitatively, the variation of electric field intensity 4. In which material do the conduction electrons have
E with distance r from the centre? the largest mean time between collisions?
  (a) Copper
(b) Aluminium
(a) (b) (c) Nichrome
(d) Tungsten
 
  5. A capacitor of capacitance 5 μF is connected to a
 source of constant emf of 200 V for a long time,

then the switch was shifted to contact 1 from
(c) (d) contact 2. The amount of heat generated in the
500 Ω resistance is H. Find 3200 H (in joule).
   

   
2. A particle of specific charge σ (q / m) moving with  
a certain velocity v enters a uniform magnetic field 
of strength B directed along the negative Z-axis 
extending from x = r1 to x = r2. The minimum value
(a) 800 J (b) 400 J
of v required in order that the particle can just enter
(c) 200 J (d) 100 J
the region x > r2 is
(a) σr2B (b) σr1B ONE OR MORE OPTION CORRECT TYPE

(c) σ(r2 – r1) B (d) σ r22 − r12 B 6. Figure shows three spherical shells in separate
situations, with each shell having the same uniform
3. Two long straight cylindrical conductors with positive net charge. Points 1, 4 and 7 are at the same
resistivities ρ1 and ρ2 respectively are joined radial distances from the centre of their respective
together as shown in figure. The radius of each of shells; so are points 2, 5 and 8 ; and so are points
the conductor is a. If a uniform total current I flows 3, 6 and 9. With the electric potential taken equals
through the conductors, the magnitude of the total to zero at an infinite distance, choose correct
free charge at the interface of the two conductors is statement(s).
By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for JEE Main & Advanced, Senior Professor Physics, RAO IIT ACADEMY, Mumbai.

8 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


COMPREHENSION TYPE
   For questions 8, 9 and 10
 

A small caterpillar crawls in the direction of electron


 
drift along bare copper wire that carries a current of
2.56 A. It travels with the drift speed of the electron in
the wire of uniform cross section area 1mm2. Number of
free electrons for copper = 8 × 1022 cc–1 and resistivity
of copper = 1.6 × 10–8 Ω m.
(a) Point 3 has highest potential.
(b) Point 1, 4 and 7 are at same potential. 8. How much time would the caterpillar take to crawl
1.0 cm if it crawls at the drift speed of the electrons
(c) Point 9 has lowest potential.
in the wire?
(d) Point 5 and 8 are at same potential. (a) 50 s (b) 5 s
7. A simple harmonic oscillator consists of a mass (c) 5000 s (d) None of these
sliding on a frictionless surface, attached to an ideal 9. What is the order of the average time of collision
spring. Choose the correct statement(s). for free electrons of copper?
(a) Quadrupling the mass will double the period. (a) 10–14 s (b) 10–16 s
–11
(c) 10 s (d) 10–8 s
(b) Doubling the amplitude will change the
frequency. 10. If the caterpillar starts from the point of zero
(c) Doubling the amplitude will double the total potential at t = 0, it reaches a point of _____
energy of the system. potential after 10 s.
(d) Doubling the amplitude will quadruple the (a) 80 μV (b) –80 μV
total energy of the system. (c) 160 μV (d) –160 μV


NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly Returns Safely to


Earth after One-Year Mission
N ASA astronaut and Expedition 46 Commander Scott Kelly
and his Russian counterpart Mikhail Kornienko returned
to Earth Tuesday after a historic 340-day mission aboard the
International Space Station. They landed in Kazakhstan at
11:26 p.m. EST (10:26 a.m. March 2 Kazakhstan time).
“Scott Kelly’s one-year mission aboard the International Space
Station has helped to advance deep space exploration and
America’s Journey to Mars,” said NASA Administrator Charles
Bolden. “Scott has become the first American astronaut to
spend a year in space, and in so doing, helped us take one
giant leap toward putting boots on Mars.” During the record-
setting One-Year mission, the station crew conducted almost 400 investigations
the Fluid Shifts investigation with future space station crews.
to advance NASA’s mission and benefit all of humanity. Kelly and Kornienko
The crew took advantage of the unique vantage point of the space station,
specifically participated in a number of studies to inform NASA’s Journey to
with an orbital path that covers more than 90 percent of Earth’s population, to
Mars, including research into how the human body adjusts to weightlessness,
monitor and capture images of our planet.
isolation, radiation and the stress of long-duration spaceflight. Kelly’s identical
Kelly and Kornienko saw the arrival of six resupply spacecraft during their
twin brother, former NASA astronaut Mark Kelly, participated in parallel twin
mission. Kelly ventured outside the confines of the space station for three
studies on Earth to help scientists compare the effects of space on the body and
spacewalks during his mission.
mind down to the cellular level.
The International Space Station is a convergence of science, technology and
One particular research project examined fluid shifts that occur when bodily
human innovation that enables us to demonstrate new technologies and
fluids move into the upper body during weightlessness. These shifts may be
make research breakthroughs not possible on Earth. It has been continuously
associated with visual changes and a possible increase in intracranial pressure,
occupied since November 2000 and, since then, has been visited by more than
which are significant challenges that must be understood before humans
200 people and a variety of international and commercial spacecraft.
expand exploration beyond Earth’s orbit. The study uses the Russian Chibis
For more information about the one-year mission,
device to draw fluids back into the legs while the subject’s eyes are measured
visit: http://www.nasa.gov/oneyear
to track any changes. NASA and Roscosmos already are looking at continuing 

10 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


*K P Singh

1. An electron enters the space     5. A circuit area 0.01 m2 is kept inside a magnetic field
between the plates of a charged which is normal to its plane. The magnetic field
parallel plate capacitor as   changes from 2 T to 1 T in 1 ms. If the resistance of
shown in the figure. The charge the circuit is 2 Ω, the amount of heat evolved is
density on the plate is σ. Electric (a) 0.05 J (b) 50 J (c) 0.50 J (d) 500 J
intensity in the space between the plates is E. A
6. An LC circuit contains a 20 mH inductor and a
uniform magnetic field B also exists in the space
50 μF capacitor with an initial charge of 10 mC. The
perpendicular to the direction of E. The electron
resistance of the circuit is negligible. Let the instant
moves perpendicular to both E and B without any
the circuit is closed be t = 0. At what time is the
change in direction. The time taken by the electron energy stored completely magnetic?
to travel a distance L in the space is (a) t = 0 (b) t = 1.57 ms
σL σB ε0 LB ε L (c) t = 3.14 ms (d) t = 6.28 ms
(a) (b) (c) (d) 0
ε0 B ε0 L σ σB 7. An alternating voltage e = 200 sin100t V is applied
2. Two capacitors of capacitance 2 μF and 4 μF to a series combination R = 30 Ω and an inductor of
respectively are connected in series. The combination 400 mH. The power factor of the circuit is
is connected across a potential difference of 10 V. (a) 0.01 (b) 0.2 (c) 0.05 (d) 0.6
The ratio of energies stored by capacitors will be 8. A particle of mass 1 × 10–26 kg and charge
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 4 : 1 1.6 × 10–19 C travelling with a velocity
1.28 × 106 m s–1 along the positive X-axis enters
3. An unknown resistance R1 is connected in series with
a region in which a uniform electric field E and a
a resistance of 10 Ω. This combination is connected
uniform magnetic field of induction B are present. If
to one gap of meter bridge while, a resistance R2 is ^ ^
connected in the other gap. The balance point is at E = –102.4 × 103 k N C–1 and B = 8 × 10–2 j Wb m–2,
50 cm. Now, when the 10 Ω resistance is removed the direction of motion of the particle is
the balance point shifts to 40 cm. The value of R1 (in (a) along the positive X-axis
ohm) is (b) along the negative X-axis
(c) at 45° to the positive X-axis
(a) 20 (b) 10 (c) 60 (d) 40 (d) at 135° to the positive X-axis
4. A magnet of length 14 cm and magnetic moment 9. An object is placed at a distance of 40 cm in front of
M is broken into two parts of lengths 6 cm and a concave mirror of focal length 20 cm. The nature
8 cm. They are put at right angle to each other with of image is
opposite poles together. The magnetic moment of (a) real, inverted and of same size
the combination is (b) virtual, erect and of same size
M M (c) real, erect and of same size
(a) (b) M (c) (d) 2.8 M
10 1. 4 (d) virtual, inverted and of same size
*A renowned physics expert, KP Institute of Physics, Chandigarh, 09872662552

12 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


⎛I ⎞
(a) ⎛⎜ 0 ⎞⎟ sin2 2 θ
10. A ray of light falls on a transparent glass slab of I
refractive index 1.62. If the reflected ray and the (b) ⎜ 0 ⎟ sin2 θ
⎝8⎠ ⎝4⎠
refracted ray are mutually perpendicular, the angle
⎛I ⎞
of incidence is (c) ⎜ 0 ⎟ cos 4 θ (d) I0cos4θ
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎝2⎠
(a) tan–1(1.62) (b) tan −1 ⎜
⎝ 1.62 ⎟⎠ 16. The energy that should be added to an electron
⎛ 1 ⎞
(d) tan −1 ⎜
to reduce its de-Broglie wavelength from 1 nm to
(c) tan–1(1.33)
⎝ 1.33 ⎟⎠ 0.5 nm is
11. A ray PQ incident on (a) four times the initial energy

the refracting face BA (b) equal to the initial energy
is refracted in the prism  (c) twice the initial energy
BAC as shown in the   (d) thrice the initial energy
figure and emerges from 
 17. An electron and a neutron have same momentum.
the other refracting face
AC as RS, such that   Which of the following statements is correct?
AQ = AR. If the angle of prism A = 60° and the (a) Both neutron and electron have same kinetic energy
refractive index of the material of prism is 3 , then (b) Both neutron and electron have same de-Brolie
the angle of deviation of the ray is wavelength.
(a) 60° (b) 45° (c) Both neutron and electron have same speed.
(c) 30° (d) None of these (d) Both neutron and electron have different
12. The head lights of a car are 1.2 m apart. If the pupil de-Broglie wavelength.
of the eye of an observer has a diameter of 2 mm and 18. The energy of a photon is equal to the kinetic
light of wavelength 5896 Å is used, what should be
energy of a proton. The energy of the photon is E.
the maximum distance of the car from the observer
if the two head lights are just separated? Let λ1 be the de-Broglie wavelength of the proton
(a) 33.9 km (b) 33.9 m and λ2 be the wavelength of the photon. The ratio
(c) 3.34 km (d) 3.39 m (λ1/λ2) is proportional to
13. In a Young’s double slit experiment, the two slits act (a) E0 (b) E (c) E–1 (d) E–2
as coherent sources of waves of equal amplitude A
19. The product of linear momentum and angular
and wavelength λ. In another experiment with the
same arrangement the two slits are made to act as momentum of an electron of the hydrogen atom is
incoherent sources of waves of same amplitude and proportional to nx, where x is
wavelength. If the intensity at the middle point of (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) –2 (d) 2
the screen in the first case is I1 and in the second
I 20. A nucleus disintegrates into two nuclear parts
case I2, then the ratio 1 is which have their velocities in the ratio 2 : 1. The
I2
(a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 0.5 ratio of their nuclear sizes will be
I1 16 (a) 21/3 : 1 (b) 1 : 31/2 (c) 31/2 : 1 (d) 1 : 21/3
14. In a Young’s double slit experiment, = . Ratio
I2 9 21. A radioactive material decays by simultaneous
of maximum to minimum intensity is emission of two particles with half-lives 1620 yr
(a) 1 : 49 (b) 9 : 16 (c) 16 : 9 (d) 49 : 1 and 810 yr respectively. The time in year after which
15. Two polaroids are placed in the path of unpolarized one-fourth of the material remains, is
beam of intensity I0 such that no light is emitted (a) 4860 (b) 3240 (c) 2340 (d) 1080
from the second polaroid. If a third polaroid
whose polarization axis makes an angle θ with the 22. A radioactive sample S1 having an activity of 5 μCi
polarization axis of first polaroid, is placed between has twice the number of nuclei as another sample S2
these polaroids, then the intensity of light emerging which has an activity of 10 μCi. The half lives of S1
from the last polaroid will be and S2 can be

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 13


(a) 20 yr and 5 yr, respectively 29. A black body emits radiations of maximum intensity
(b) 20 yr and 10 yr, respectively for the wavelength of 5000 Å when the temperature
(c) 10 yr each (d) 5 yr each of the body is 1227 °C. If the temperature of the body
is increased by 1000 °C, the maximum intensity
23. A common emitter amplifier gives an output of
would be observed at
3 V for an input of 0.01 V. If β of the transistor is 100
and the input resistance is 1 kΩ, then the collector (a) 1000 Å (b) 2000 Å (c) 5000 Å (d) 3000 Å
resistance is 30. Two solid spheres A and B made of the same material
(a) 1 kΩ (b) 3 kΩ (c) 10 kΩ (d) 30 kΩ have radii rA and rB respectively. Both the spheres
are cooled from the same temperature under the
24. The output of given logic circuit is conditions valid for Newton’s law of cooling. The


ratio of the rate of cooling of A and B is
rA r rA2 r2
 (a) (b) B (c) (d) B
rB rA rB2 rA2
31. A gas is suddenly expanded such that its final volume
 becomes 3 times its initial volume. If the specific heat
(a) A + B + C (b) (A + B)·(A + C) at constant volume of the gas is 2R, then the ratio of
(c) A⋅(B ⋅ C) (d) A⋅(B + C) initial to final pressure is nearly equal to
25. A small spherical ball falling through a viscous (a) 5 (b) 6.5 (c) 7 (d) 3.5
medium of negligible density has terminal velocity 32. An ideal refrigerator has a freezer at a temperature
v. Another ball of the same mass but of radius twice of –13 °C. The coefficient of performance of the
that of the earlier falling through the same viscous engine is 5. The temperature of the air (to which
medium will have terminal velocity heat is rejected) will be
v v (a) 325°C (b) 325 K (c) 39°C (d) 320°C
(a) v (b) (c) (d) 2v
4 2 33. In a Carnot engine, when T2 = 0 °C and T1 = 200 °C,
26. The excess pressure inside one soap bubble is three its efficiency is η1 and whenT1 = 0°C and T2 = –200 °C,
η
times that inside a second soap bubble, then the its efficiency is η2, then what is 1 ?
η2
ratio of their surface areas is
(a) 1 : 9 (b) 1 : 3 (a) 0.577 (b) 0.733 (c) 0.638 (d) 0.95
(c) 3 : 1 (d) 1 : 27 34. A container with insulating walls is divided into two
27. Two rods of different materials having coefficients of equal parts by a partition fitted with a valve. One
thermal expansions α1 and α2 and Young’s moduli part is filled with an ideal gas at a pressure p and
Y1 and Y2 respectively are fixed between two rigid temperature T, whereas the other part is completely
walls. The rods are heated, such that they undergo evacuated. If the valve is suddenly opened, the
the same increase in temperature. There is no pressure and temperature of the gas will be
α 2 p p T T
bending of rods. If 1 = and stresses developed (a) , T (b) , (c) p, T (d) p,
α2 3 2 2 2 2
Y 35. If universal gas constant is R, the essential heat to
in the two rods are equal, then 1 is increase the temperature of 4 mol monoatomic ideal
Y2
gas from 273 K to 473 K at constant volume is
3 2 1
(a) (b) 1 (c) (d) (a) 200R (b) 400R (c) 800R (d) 1200R
2 3 2
36. A particle at the end of a spring executes SHM
28. 1 g of steam at 100 °C and equal mass of ice at 0 °C
with a period t1 while the corresponding period for
are mixed. The temperature of the mixture in steady
another spring is t2. If the period of oscillation with
state will be (latent heat of steam = 540 cal g–1, latent the two springs in series is T, then
heat of ice = 80 cal g–1) (a) T = t1 + t2 (b) T 2 = t12 + t22
(a) 50°C (b) 100°C (c) 67°C (d) 33°C (c) T–1 = t1–1 + t2–1 (d) T–2 = t1–2 + t2–2

14 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


37. A hollow pipe of length 0.8 m is closed at one 43. Two strings A and B are slightly out of tune and
end. At its open end a 0.5 m long uniform string produce beats of frequency 5 Hz. Increasing the
is vibrating in its second harmonic and it resonates tension in B reduces the beat frequency to 3 Hz. If
with the fundamental frequency of the pipe. If the the frequency of string A is 450 Hz, calculate the
tension in the wire is 50 N and the speed of sound frequency of string B.
is 320 m s–1, the mass of the string is (a) 460 Hz (b) 455 Hz (c) 445 Hz (d) 440 Hz
(a) 5 g (b) 10 g (c) 20 g (d) 40 g
44. If a source emitting waves of frequency υ moves
38. Ultraviolet light of wavelength 300 nm and intensity towards an observer with a velocity v/4 and the
1.0 W m–2 falls on the surface of photoelectric metal. observer moves away from the source with a
If one percent of incident photons produce velocity v/6, the apparent frequency as heard by the
photoelectrons, then the number of photoelectrons observer will be (v = velocity of sound)
emitted from an area of 1.0 cm2 of the surface is nearly 14
14 10 2
(a) 2.13 × 1011 s–1 (b) 1.5 × 1012 s–1 (a) υ (b) υ (c) υ (d) υ
15 9 9 3
(c) 3.02 × 1012 s–1 (d) none of these
45. Two bodies are in equilibrium when suspended in
39. According to Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom, for
water from the arms of a balance. The mass of one
the electron in the nth allowed orbit, the
body is 36 g and its density is 9 g cm–3. If the mass
(i) linear momentum is proportional to 1/n
of the other is 48 g, its density in g cm–3 is
(ii) radius is proportional to n
1 4 3
(iii) kinetic energy is proportional to (a) (b) (c) 3 (d) 5
n2 3 2
(iv) angular momentum is proportional to n SOLUTIONS
Choose the correct option from the codes given
below. 1. (c) : For no change in the velocity of electron,
(a) (i), (iii), (iv) are correct magnetic force = electrostatic force
(b) (i) is correct qvB = qE
(c) (i), (ii) are correct E σ
v= =
(d) (iii) is correct B ε0 B
40. Consider the nuclear reaction X200 → A120 + B80. If The time taken by electron to travel a distance L in
the binding energy per nucleon for X, A and B are that space with uniform motion
7.4 MeV, 8.2 MeV and 8.3 MeV respectively, then L L ε LB
t= = = 0
the energy released in the reaction is v σ / ε0 B σ
(a) 168 MeV (b) 200 MeV
(c) 190 MeV (d) 188 MeV q2
2. (b) : U =
41. An atomic power nuclear reactor can deliver 2C
300 MW. The energy released due to fission of each For series combination of the capacitors, q = constant
nucleus of uranium atom U238 is 170 MeV. The 1
⇒ U∝
number of uranium atoms fissioned per hour will be C
(a) 30 × 1025 (b) 4 × 1022 U1 C2 4
(c) 10 × 1020 (d) 5 × 1015 = = =2
U 2 C1 2
42. The equation of a wave on a string of linear mass
3. (a) : The balance condition of a meter bridge
density 0.04 kg m–1 is given by
experiment
⎡ ⎛ t x ⎞⎤
y = 0.02 (m)sin ⎢2 π ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥. R
=
l
⎢⎣ ⎝ 0.04 (s) 0.50 (m) ⎠ ⎥⎦ X 100 − l
The tension in the string is R + 10 50
(a) 1.25 N (b) 0.5 N (c) 6.25 N (d) 4.0 N Case (i) : 1 = ... (i)
R2 50

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 15


R 40 F = qE + q (v × B) = q (E + v × B)
Case (ii) : 1 = ... (ii)
R2 60 ^
= (1.6 × 10−19 )[(−102.4 × 103 k )
Using R2 from eqn. (ii) in (i), we get ^ ^
R1 + 10 3 + (1.28 × 106 i × 8 × 10−2 j )]
= 1 ⇒ R1 + 10 = R1 ⇒ R1 = 20 Ω ^ ^
60
R 2 = (1.6 × 10−19 )[(−102.4 × 103 k + 102.4 × 103 k )]
40 1 =0
M F
4. (c) : Pole strength of original magnet, m = Acceleration of the particle, a = =0
14 m
M M
∴ M1 = .6 and M2 = .8 Hence, the particle will move along positive x-axis.
14 14
9. (a) : From mirror formula
Magnetic moment of the combination,
1 1 1 1
M 2 2 10M M = − =−
M = M12 + M22 = 6 +8 = = v −20 (−40) 40
14 14 1. 4
v = –40 cm
5. (a) : Induced emf in coil
The image is on the same side of the object.
dB 1
∴ |e | = A = 0.01 × = 10 V v (−40)
dt 1 × 10−3 Now, magnification m = − = − = −1
u (−40)
Current produced in coil,
| e | 10 i.e., the image is real, inverted and of same size.
i= = = 5A 10. (a) : Brewster’s law, μ = tan θp
R 2
Heat evolved = i2Rt θp = θi = tan–1(1.62)
= (5)2 × (2) × 1 × 10–3 = 0.05 J 11. (a) : Ray QR travels parallel to base BC, this is the
6. (b) : For LC circuit, the time period is case of minimum deviation thus
T = 2 π LC ⎛ A + δmin ⎞ ⎛ 60° + δmin ⎞
sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟⎠
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2
T
At time t = , energy stored is completely magnetic. μ= ⇒ 3=
⎛ A⎞ ⎛ 60° ⎞
sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
4
⎝2⎠
2 π LC
So the time, t = 3 ⎛ 60° + δmin ⎞
4 ⇒ = sin ⎜
⎝ ⎟⎠ ∴ δmin = 60°
2 2
2 π 20 × 10−3 × 50 × 10−6
or t = = 1.57 ms 12. (c) : x = distance of car from eye
4
D = diameter of eye lens,
R d = separation between sources.
7. (d) : Power factor, cos φ =

R2 + ω2 L2
30
= 
(30) + (100) × (400 × 10−3)2
2 2  

30 30 
= = = 0. 6 
900 + 1600 50
d 1.22λ
8. (a) : Here, m = 1 × 10–26 kg dθ ==
x D
q = 1.6 × 10–19 C D×d 2 × 10−3 × 1.2
v = 1.28 × 106 i m s −1 ⇒ x= = = 3337 m
1.22 λ 1.22 × 5896 × 10−10
E = −102.4 × 103 k N C −1
x = 3.34 km
B = 8 × 10−2 j Wb m −2
13. (b) : I = Ia + Ib + 2 Ia Ib cos φ
Force on a charged particle in a uniform electric
and magnetic field is For incoherent sources, (cosφ)av = 0

16 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


⇒ Iics = Ia + Ib = I2 Linear momentum × angular momentum ∝ nx
I is maximum for coherent sources mcZ nh
∴ × ∝ nx
137 n 2 π
I cs = Ia + Ib + 2 Ia Ib = I1
n0 ∝ nx ⇒ x = 0
For Ia = Ib = I0
20. (d) : Using law of conservation of momentum
I1 = 4I0 and I2 = 2I0 m1v1 = m2v2
I m1 v2
So, 1 = 2 ⇒ =
I2 m2 v1
2
⎛ A1 ⎞ ⎛4 ⎞
2 m ∝ r3 for a spherical nucleus of uniform density
I ⎜⎝ A + 1⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ + 1⎟⎠
49 m1 r13 v2 r ⎛1⎞
1/3
3
14. (d) : max = 2
= = ∴ = 3= ⇒ 1 =⎜ ⎟
I min ⎛ A 2
⎛4 ⎞
2 1 m2 r v1 r2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
1 − 1⎞ − 1⎟ 2
⎜⎝ A ⎟⎠ ⎜
⎝3 ⎠
2 21. (d) : Effective half-life
I0 1 1 1 1 1
15. (a) : For P1, I = (I0)(cos2θ)av = = + = +
2 T T1 T2 1620 810
1 3 ⇒ T = 540 yr
n
 ⎛1⎞ t
0 (90° – ) Fraction left after n half lives is ⎜ ⎟ , n =
2 ⎝2⎠ 540
According to question,
n
1 ⎛1⎞ t
=⎜ ⎟ ⇒ n=2 ∴ 2= ⇒ t = 1080 yr
⎛I ⎞ 4 ⎝2⎠ 540
For P3, I = ⎜ 0 ⎟ cos2 θ 1
⎝2⎠ 22. (a) : Activity of S1 = (Activity of S2)
2
For P2, I = ⎛⎜ 0 cos2 θ ⎞⎟ cos2(90° – θ)
I
⎝2 ⎠ 1 λ1 N 2
or λ1 N1 = (λ2 N 2 ) or =
2 λ2 2 N1
= 0 (cos θ sin θ) = 0 (2 cos θ sin θ) = 0 sin2 2 θ
I 2 I 2 I
or 1 =
T 2 N1 ⎡ 0.693 ⎤
2 8 8
⎢ As T =
h T2 N 2 ⎣ λ ⎥⎦
16. (d) : de-Broglie wavelength, λ = Given N1 = 2N2 ∴ T1 = 4
2 mE
T2
λ1 E2 1 × 10−9 E2 23. (b) : Voltage gain = current gain × resistance gain
∴ = ⇒ −
= R V0 R
λ2 E1 0.5 × 10 9 E1 or AV = β × 0 or =β 0
Ri Vi Ri
E2 E
⇒ 2= ⇒ 2 = 4 ∴ E2 = 4E1 3 R0 30
E1 E1 or = 100 × 3
or R0 = = 3 kΩ
0.01 1 × 10 0 .01
∴ Energy to be added = E2 – E1
24. (b) : Here A + B = G1 (OR)
= 4E1 – E1 = 3E1
A + C = G2 (OR)
h h h and G1·G2 = Y (AND)
17. (b) : de-Broglie wavelength, λ = = =
p 2 mK mv 25. (c) : Terminal velocity of the ball falling through a
viscous medium of negligible density (σ ≈ 0) is
λ1 h / 2 mE λ 2 2
18. (b) : Required ratio, = or 1 ∝ E1/2 v= r ρg
λ2 hc / E λ2 9η

19. (a) : Linear momentum, mv =


mcZ ⎛ ⎞
137 n 2 2⎜ m ⎟
v= r g
9 η ⎜ 4 π r3 ⎟
Angular momentum =
nh ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠
2π 3

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 17


For constant m, η and g 32. (c) : Given that, the temperature of freezer,
1 T2 = –13 °C
v∝
r T2 = –13 + 273 = 260 K
Because radius of second ball is twice that of the Coefficient of performance, β = 5
first ball T2 260
v β= or 5 =
∴ v2 = 1 T1 − T2 T1 − 260
2
4T 4T 260
26. (a) : Given, = 3× ⇒
r1 1
= ∴ T1 − 260 =
r1 r2 r2 3 5
Ratio of surface areas will be or T1 – 260 = 52 or T1 = (52 + 260) K = 312 K
A1 4π r12 or T1 = (312 – 273)°C = 39°C
1
= = 33. (a) : Take temperature in Kelvin
A2 4π r22 9
273 200
27. (a) : Thermal stress = YαΔT η1 = 1 − = = 0.423 ... (i)
473 473
where Y is Young’s modulus, α the coefficient of linear
expansion and ΔT the change in temperature. T
η2 = 1 − 2 = 1 −
73 200
= = 0.732 ... (ii)
For no bending, thermal stress in each rod should T1 273 273
be equal so as to cancel other. Dividing eqn. (i) by (ii),
Since, ΔT1 = ΔT2 η1 0.423
Y1 α2 3 = = 0.577
= = η2 0.732
Y2 α1 2
34. (a) : Internal energy of the gas remains constant,
28. (b) : Heat taken by ice to raise its temperature to
hence
100°C
T2 = T
Q1 = 1 × 80 + 1 × 1 × 100 = 180 cal
Using p1V1 = p2V2
Heat given by steam when condensed
V p
Q2 = m2L2 = 1 × 540 = 540 cal p. = p2 V ⇒ p2 =
As Q2 > Q1, hence, temperature of mixture will 2 2
remain 100°C. 35. (d) : Specific heat for a monoatomic gas
fR 3 R
29. (d) : According to Wien’s displacement law, CV = =
2 2
1 (λm)1 T2
λm ∝ ⇒ = Required heat is ΔH = nCV ΔT
T (λm)2 T1
3
5000 2227 + 273 = 4 × R × 200 = 1200R
∴ = ⇒ (λm)2 = 3000 Å 2
(λm)2 1227 + 273 36. (b) : For series springs, equivalent spring constant
30. (b) : Rate of cooling, 2
1 1 1 1⎛T ⎞ 1
dT 4 e A σ TS3 area is given by, = + . Also ⎜ ⎟ =
− = (T − TS ) ∝ ks k1 k2 m ⎝ ⎠
2 π k
dt mc mass 2 2 2
For given surrounding and object temperature 1⎛T ⎞ 1⎛t ⎞ 1⎛t ⎞
⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟
dT R2 1 m ⎝2π⎠ m ⎝2π⎠ m ⎝2π⎠
− ∝ =
dt R3 R
H r ∴ T2 = t12 + t22
Ratio of rates of cooling, A = B 37. (b) : According to question, 2 × fundamental
H B rA
frequency of string = fundamental frequency of
31. (a) : Suddenly expanded ⇒ adiabatic process,
pipe
i.e., pVγ = constant
γ
p1V1 = p2(3V)γ ⎛ v ⎞ v T / μ 320
2⎜ 1 ⎟ = 2 ⇒ =
Cp 3R p1 ⎝ 2 L1 ⎠ 4 L2 L1 4 L2
γ= = = 1. 5 ⇒ = 3γ = 31.5 ≈ 5
CV 2 R p2 (μ = mass per unit length of wire)

18 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


50 / μ 320 T
or = or, μ = 0.02 kg m–1 But v = ⇒ T = v2 μ
0. 5 4 × 0. 8 μ
∵ length of string, l = 0.5 m ∴ T = (12.5)2 × 0.04 = 6.25 N
∴ Mass of string = μ × l = 0.02 × 0.5 43. (c) :
= 10 × 10–3 kg = 10 g
υ(A) υ(B) beat frequency
hc
38. (b) : Energy of each photon, E = (i) 450 υ 5
λ (ii) 450 υ′ (> υ) 3
−34 8
6.6 × 10 × 3 × 10
= −9
= 6.6 × 10−19 J (i) ⇒ υ = 455 Hz or 445 Hz
300 × 10 (ii) υ′ – 450 = ±3
Power of source is, (iii) Also υ′ > υ′ (slightly)
P = intensity × areav = 1.0 × 1.0 × 10–4 = 10–4 W Only 445 Hz satisfies condition (ii) and (iii)
Number of photons per second (N) fall on the
44. (c) : When source and observer both are moving in
surface,
the same direction and observer is ahead of source,
P 10−4 then apparent frequency is given by
= =
E 6.6 × 10−19 v−
v
⎛ v − vo ⎞ 6 × υ = 10 υ
Now number of electrons emitted = 1 % of N υ′ = ⎜ υ=
⎝ v − v s ⎟⎠ v 9
1 10−4 v−
= × −19
= 1.5 × 1012 per second 4
100 6.6 × 10 45. (c) : For equilibrium Fnet (Apparent weight) on
h each pan should be same.
39. (a) : Angular momentum, L = n
2π Fnet = W – U = mg – σVg
σm
or m − = constant
n2 ρ
Radius of the orbit, r = 0.52
Z 36 48
⇒ 36 − 1 × = 48 − 1 ×
Z2 9 ρ
Kinetic energy = –E = +13.6 2 eV 2 1
n ⇒ = 1− ⇒ ρ=3
3 ρ
40. (a) : For X, binding energy = 200 × 7.4 = 1480 MeV 
For A, binding energy = 120 × 8.2 = 984 MeV
For B, binding energy = 80 × 8.3 = 664 MeV EXAM DATES 2016
Therefore, energy released
= (984 + 664) – 1480 = 168 MeV JEE Main : 3rd April (offline),
9th & 10th April (online)
energy
41. (b) : Power = = 300 × 106 W = 3 × 108 J s–1 VITEEE : 6th to 17th April
time MGIMS : 17th April
170 MeV = 170 × 1.6 × 10–13 J = 27.2 × 10–12 J AMU (Engg.) : 24th April
Number of atoms fissioned per second (N) Kerala PET : 25th & 26th April
3 × 108 Kerala PMT : 27th & 28th April
= APEAMCET (Engg. & Med.) : 29th April
27.2 × 10−12 AIPMT : 1st May
Number of atoms fissioned per hour Karnataka CET : 4th & 5th May
3 × 108 × 3600 MHT CET : 5th May
= N × 3600 = −12
= 4 × 1022 COMED K : 8th May
27.2 × 10 BITSAT : 14th to 28th May
42. (c) : Compare given equation with WB JEE : 17th May
y = A sin(ωt – kx) JEE Advanced : 22nd May
2π 2π AIIMS : 29th May
⇒ ω= and k =
0.04 0.50 AMU (Med.) : 1st June
JIPMER : 5th June
ω 0. 5
∴ v= = = 12.5 m s −1
k 0.04

20 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


A current which periodically changes direction while = root of mean (average) of square of current.
its magnitude may or may not change is alternating x2
current (ac). ∫ f (x)dx
Until and unless specified otherwise, an ac is a sinusoidal x1
Note : = average (mean) value of f(x) in the
function of time, of the form x2 − x1
interval x2 – x1.
i(t) = i0 sin(ωt + φ)
t2
2
∫i dt
t1
∴ = average value of square of current in the
t2 − t1 interval t2 – t1
Let us try and find rms value of sinusoidal current.
For this we use,
sin2θ + cos2θ = 1
A current which does not change its direction, while its
∴ If < f (x) > indicates average of f (x), then
magnitude may or may not change is dc (direct current).
A dc in which magnitude changes is a pulsating dc and < sin2θ > + < cos2θ > = < 1 > = 1
until and unless we specify otherwise, a dc is assumed but, sinθ and cosθ are identical functions, just with a
to be constant dc. phase difference of π/2 between them.
1
  ∴ < sin2 θ > = < cos2 θ > =
2
∴ For sinusoidal current, i = i0sin(ωt) whose time
 

period is T =

   ω
RMS Value of a Variable Current π T
but, i2 = i02sin2(ωt) has a period of =
It represents that value of a constant dc current which ω 2
when allowed to pass through the same resistor for same
time interval as the variable current then it produces
same amount of heat energy.
t2
2
AC : H ac = ∫ i Rdt
t1
2 2
DC : H dc = idc RΔt = irms RΔt
... Hdc = Hac [according to definition]
t2
2
t2 ∫i dt
π/ω
t1
2
⇒ irms RΔt = ∫ i 2Rdt ⇒ irms = ∴ A= ∫ (i0 sin ωt )2 dt
t1 (t2 − t1) 0
Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 21


Note that, in ac circuits we cannot employ the voltmeter
∴ irms = < square of current >
and ammeter used in dc circuits since they are based on
1 the torque experienced by the coil of the galvanometer
= < i02 sin2 ωt > = i02 ×
2 and in ac circuits the magnitude as well as direction of
i peak value
irms = 0 = torque would keep on oscillating. Therefore we use hot
2 2 wire ammeters and voltmeters in ac circuits which are
This result is applicable for entire cycle or only within based on heating effect of current. Hence they measure
the crest part or trough part of the cycle. Using this rms values. So whenever the reading of a voltmeter or
result, now we can easily obtain the area A marked
ammeter in ac is given, they are rms values. Remember
in the graph.
this.
T /2
For alternating emf, two forms of representation are
∫ i02 sin2 ωt dt
i used :
irms = 0 = 0
T /2 2 (i) ε = ε0sin(ωt)

A i02 Ti 2 Here ε0 = peak value of emf and T = .
⇒ = ⇒ A= 0 ω
T /2 2 4
(ii) 220 V, 50 Hz
We should remember this result since using this we
If emf is given as separate value with frequency then
can easily calculate rms current in many cases without
it is rms value
integrating.
For example, say for i = i0cos(ωt), we are to find rms ∴ ε0 = (220) 2 V
value in the interval and ω = 2πf = 2π(50) = 100π rad s–1
π π Now, let us see the effect of imposing an alternating emf
(i) t = 0 to t = (ii) t = 0 to t =
ω 2ω on various circuit components.
    In general, we would have a combination of R, L and
 C connected to an ac source and we would be finding
   current in the circuit. For this we draw phasor diagram
   where we represent emf and current as projections of

   rotating vectors (phasors).
  

A A Ti02
+
∴ (i) irms = 2 2 = A = 4 = i0
π T T 2
ω 2 2
A Both i0 and φ are dependent upon the combination of
i
(ii) irms = 2 = 0 R, L and C.
T 2 But in such situations in general we say that the current
4
leads (for '+') or lags (for '–') by φ radians to the applied
Let us try finding the rms value of current in which dc
emf and in phasor diagram, it is represented as :
is superimposed over sinusoidal ac such as
i = a + bsin(ωt)
∴ irms = < (a + b sin ωt )2 >

= < a2 > + < (b sin ωt )2 > + 2ab < sin ωt >

b2 b2
= a2 + + 0 = a2 +
2 2

22 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


Here (ωt) is the common phase angle and their relative The equation clearly shows
phase does not change with respect to time hence for that the current leads the
convenience we can rotate both the current and voltage potential difference across
phasors by ωt in clockwise direction, as below. the terminals of capacitor
π
by rad.
2
3. Inductor
Applying KVL,
di
εs − L = 0
dt
Now, we will apply alternating emf to R, L and C and ⇒ Ldi = ε0sinωt dt
see how the current changes. ⇒ L ∫ di = ε0 ∫ sin ωtdt
1. Resistor ε
⇒ i = 0 (− cos ωt )
Applying KVL, ωL
ε π⎞
εs – iR = 0 ∴ i(t ) = 0 sin ⎜⎛ ωt − ⎟
ε ε XL ⎝ 2⎠
∴ i = s = 0 sin(ωt ) where XL = ωL = inductive reactance
R R
π
∴ i(t) = i0sin(ωt), where i0 =
ε0 ∴ i = i0 sin ⎜⎛ ωt − ⎟⎞
⎝ 2⎠
R
ε0
∴ The current passing through a resistor is in where i0 = = peak value of current
phase with the applied emf. XL
Clearly, the current through
the inductor lags in phase by
π/2 radians with respect to the
potential difference across
its terminals.
2. Capacitor 1
Applying KVL, Note : XC = shows that for high frequency, XC
ωC
q is low which means it offers negligible resistance
εs − = 0
C for the passage of such a quickly changing current.
⇒ q = Cε0 sin(ωt ) XL = ωL indicates for high frequency, XL is high
which means it offers high resistance for the passage
dq
⇒ i(t ) = = Cε0ω cos(ωt ) of such quickly changing current.
dt 

ε0 π⎞
⇒ i(t ) = sin ⎜⎛ ωt + ⎟
(1 / ωC) ⎝ 2⎠   
   
1
where = XC = capacitive reactance
ωC 
It has the same role of play in capacitive circuits  
With these concepts learnt, let us try finding current in
which is played by resistance.
some combinations of R, L and C.
ε π⎞
∴ i(t ) = 0 sin ⎜⎛ ωt + ⎟ Series RC circuit
XC ⎝ 2⎠
π⎞
= i0 sin ⎛⎜ ωt + ⎟
⎝ 2⎠
where i0 = peak value of current
ε peak value of potential difference across it
= 0 =
XC XC

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 23


Applying KVL, i0 = 0 for ω = 0
q ε
ε s − iR − = 0 i0 = 0 for ω = ∞
C R
dq q
⇒ ε0 sin(ωt ) − R − = 0
dt C
Now, with our limited knowledge of differential
equations, we clearly can see that since we cannot
separate the variables q and t so wont be able to find by
this method. Series RL circuit
So now, we use alternate method-
phase diagram method. Through
both R and C, a common current
passes, so we keep current along
reference line and hence draw the
voltage phasors with respect to it.
Here VR and VC indicate the peak value of potential Again keeping current phasor along the reference line,
difference across resistor and capacitor. we plot the phasors VR and VL.
The vector sum of VR and
∴ ε20 = VR2 + VL2
VC will give source emf.
∴ ε20 = (i0R)2 + (i0 X L )2
∴ ε20 = VC2 + VR2 ε0 ε
2 2 2 ⇒ i0 = = 0
⎛ ε ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ R + XL Z
2 2
⇒ ⎜ 0 ⎟ =⎜ C ⎟ +⎜ R ⎟
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠
⇒ ε2s = VC2 + VR2 where Z = R2 + X L2
rms rms rms
2 2 = impedance of series LR circuit
∴ In general, ε2s = VC + VR can be used for both peak
⎧ ε0
as well as rms values but not for instantaneous values. ε0 ⎪ for ω = 0
∴ i0 = =⎨ R
From phasor diagram, 2 2
R + (ωL) ⎪⎩ 0 for ω = ∞
V i X X 1
tan φ = C = 0 C = C =
VR i0R R ωCR
ε20 = VC2 + VR2 = (i0 XC )2 + (i0R)2
ε0 ε
⇒ i0 = = 0
R2 + X 2 Z C
V X
where Z = R + XC2 = impedance of RC circuit
2
From phasor diagram, tan φ = L = L
VR R
ε0 ⎛ ⎛ X ⎞⎞
∴ i(t ) = sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ C ⎟ ⎟ ε0 ⎛ ⎛ X ⎞⎞
2 2
R + XC ⎝ ⎝ R ⎠⎠ ∴ i(t ) = sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ L ⎟ ⎟
2 ⎝ ⎝ R ⎠⎠
R + X L2
⎛ ⎛ X ⎞⎞
∴ VR (t ) = (i0R)sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ C ⎟ ⎟ Series RLC Circuit (Acceptor Circuit)
⎝ ⎝ R ⎠⎠
⎛ ⎛ X ⎞ π⎞
VC (t ) = i0 XC sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ C ⎟ − ⎟
⎝ ⎝ R ⎠ 2⎠
ε0
i0 = clearly shows that
2
R2 + ⎜ ⎛ 1 ⎞
⎝ ωC ⎟⎠

24 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


Now, either amongst VC = i0XC and VL = i0XL will be If the circuit is operated at resonant frequency,
larger and will therefore decide whether current will Z = R hence it readily allows the current to pass through
lead the applied emf or it will lag the applied emf. as if L and C were not present, hence is known as
Let VC > VL acceptor circuit.
2 2 Finally,
∴ ε20 = VR2 + (VC − VL )2 = (i0R) + (i0 XC − i0 X L )
ε0 ⎛ ⎛ X − XL ⎞ ⎞
ε i(t ) = sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ C ⎟⎠ ⎟⎠
∴ i0 = 0 , where 2 2 ⎝ ⎝ R
R + (X − X )
C L
Z
Parallel RLC Circuit
Z = R2 + (XC − X L )2
2
⎛ 1 ⎞
= R2 + ⎜ − ωL ⎟
⎝ ωC ⎠
⎧∞ for ω = 0
⎪⎪ 1
= ⎨R for ω = ω0 = when XL = XC
⎪ LC
⎪⎩∞ for ω = ∞
V − VL XC − X L In parallel circuit, the potential
tan φ = C =
VR R dif ference is common for
if XL = XC ⇒ φ = 0 all. So we keep the voltage
This condition when the current through the source is phasor along the reference
found to be in phase with the source emf, is said to be line for relative phase angle
condition of resonance and the frequency at which this measurements of current.
⎛ 1 ⎞. ε ε
happens is resonant frequency ⎜ ω0 = ⎟ Now, iC > iL if 0 > 0 , i.e., XC < X L
⎝ LC ⎠ XC X L
This condition for a series LCR circuit also means that
and iL > iC if XL < XC
the impedance becomes minimum and hence current
maximum but this is not the general definition, since iL = iC if XL = XC
it might happen that when φ = 0, current will be Let iC > iL then the vector sum
minimum, as will be shown in this article further. of the 3 current phasors gives
the resultant current phasor.
∴ i02 = iR2 + (iC − iL )2
2
⎛ ε0 ⎞ ⎛ ε0 ⎞ ⎛ ε0 − ε0 ⎞
2 2
=
⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ + ⎜
Z R ⎝ XC X L ⎟⎠
2
1 1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
⇒ = +⎜ − ⎟
Z R ⎝ C
2 X X L⎠
1
Inverse of impedance, i.e., is admittance.
Z
ε0 ε0

iC − iL XC X L R R
Clearly, tan φ = = = −
iR ε 0 XC X L
R
Again, current through the source is in phase with
For XC > XL nature of circuit is overall capacitive. source emf if XL = XC
XC = XL nature of circuit is overall resistive. 1
XL > XC nature of circuit is overall inductive. i.e. at ω = ω0 = (resonant frequency)
LC

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 25


But at this frequency For a series LCR circuit,
1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1
2 X − XL
= + ⎜ ωC − ⎟ = = minimum tan φ = C
Z R 2 ⎝ ωL ⎠ R R
Hence Z = maximum R
∴ cos φ = = power factor
ε Z
∴ i0 = 0 = minimum
R R ⎛ε ⎞
∴ P = εrmsirms = ⎜ rms ⎟ irms R
Z ⎝ Z ⎠
2 ε
P = irms R where irms = rms
Z
This result gives a very important conclusion, that
the average power supplied by source is equal to the
power consumed by resistor alone inspite of the fact
that there could have been capacitors and inductors
in the circuit, which means in a complete cycle there
is no net power consumption by either capacitor or
inductor. This is due to the fact that in one half of the
cycle, work is done on them while in other half work
is done by them. Therefore inductors and capacitors
are said to be lossless components of circuit.
Power Dissipation in AC circuits Often virtual current or virtual emf terms are also used
In any circuit if we have source emf εs = ε0 sin (ωt) to indicate rms values.
then current is of the form i(t) = i0sin(ωt + φ) where ∴ εrms irms = Virtual power
φ may have positive or negative value depending upon Actual power
the circuit and operational frequency ω. ∴ Power factor=
Virtual power
Instantaneous power supplied by source,
Pinst = ε0sin(ωt) × i0 sin(ωt + φ) Half Power Frequencies (ω1 and ω2)
ε i These are those frequencies at which if the circuit is
= 0 0 [2 sin(ωt )sin(ωt + φ)] operated, the power consumption becomes half of the
2
ε0i0 maximum possible power consumption.
= [cos(φ) − cos(2ωt + φ)]
2 P 2 (i )2 R
∴ P = max ⇒ irms R = rms max
ε i ε i 2 2
= 0 0 cos φ − 0 0 cos(2ωt + φ)
2 2 (i ) (i )
Here φ is time independent parameter and cos(2ωt + φ) ⇒ irms = rms max ⇒ i0 = 0 max
is a periodic function which is changing very quickly, 2 2
generally, φ = 50 Hz, therefore their instantaneous Now, for a series LCR circuit,
values wont be noticeable. What we get to feel is their ε0 ε0 / R
average value. =
Z 2
∴ Average power supplied by source
ε i cos φ ε i ⇒ Z = 2R ⇒ R2 + ( XC − X L )2 = 2R2
P = Pinst = 0 0 − 0 0 cos(2ωt + φ)
2 2 ⇒ (XC – XL)2 = R2 ⇒ XC – XL = ±R
(... <cos(2ωt + φ)> = 0) 1
ε i ε i ∴ XC > XL for ω < ω0 ⇒ − ω1L = R ...(i)
∴ P = 0 0 cos φ = 0 0 cos φ ω1C
2 2 2 1
P = εrms irms cosφ XL > XC for ω > ω0 ⇒ − ω2 L = −R ...(ii)
ω 2C

26 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


Adding (i) and (ii), Energy stored in oscillators
⎛ ω1 + ω2 ⎞ 1 Q = 2π ×
⎜ ⎟ − (ω1 + ω2 )L = 0 Energy lost in dissipation
⎝ ω1ω2 ⎠ C Higher Q indicates a lower rate of energy loss relative to
1 the stored energy in the resonator. In electrical systems,
⇒ ω1ω2 = = ω20 the stored energy is the sum of the energy stored in
LC
Subtracting (ii) from (i), lossless inductors and capacitors. In each cycle, the
energy is alternately stored in capacitor and inductor.
⎛ ω2 − ω1 ⎞ 1
⎜⎝ ω ω ⎟⎠ C − (ω1 − ω2 )L = 2R
The maximum energy stored in either of them is equal
1 2 to their sum of energy at any instant.
⎡ 1 1 ⎤ The lost energy is the sum of the energies dissipated
⇒ (ω2 − ω1 ) ⎢ × + L ⎥ = 2R ⇒ (ω2 – ω1)2L = 2R in the resistor per cycle.
1 C
⎢ ⎥ 1 2 1 2
⎣ LC ⎦ U osc Li0
2π 2 0
Li
∴ Q = 2π = 2 π × 2 = ×
R
⇒ ω2 − ω1 = = Δω = bandwidth of operation U lost 2
irms RT0 T0 i02 R
L
ω L ω 2
Q= 0 = 0
R Δω
Hence it can also be defined as the ratio of resonant
frequency and the bandwidth of operation.

ε0
If ω1 < ω < ω2, current is greater than, hence power
2R
consumption will be greater than half the maximum
possible power consumption.
Quality factor (Q – factor)
Q–factor is 2π times the ratio of the energy stored
in the oscillator to the loss in energy per cycle in the ∴ The graph with sharp peak has more selectivity.
circuit at resonant frequency.


PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 27


PRACTICE QUESTIONS ON
Assertion & Reason

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of Reason : During ascent magnitude of retardation
Assertion is followed by a statement of Reason. Mark the is greater than magnitude of acceleration during
correct choice as : descent.
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the 6. Assertion : The energy stored in the inductor of 2 H,
correct explanation of assertion. when current of 10 A flows through it is 100 J.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the
Reason : Energy stored in an inductor is directly
correct explanation of assertion.
proportional to its inductance.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false. 7. Assertion : Thin films such as soap bubble
or thin layer of oil on water show beautiful
1. Assertion : A gas can be liquified at any temperature colours when illuminated by white light.
by increase of pressure alone.
Reason : It happens due to the interference of light
Reason : On increasing pressure, the temperature reflected from the upper surface of the thin film.
of gas decreases.
8. Assertion : A charged particle moves perpendicular
2. Assertion : In the case of a stationary wave, a person to a magnetic field. Its kinetic energy remains
hears a loud sound at the nodes as compared to the constant, but momentum changes.
antinodes. Reason : Force acts on the moving charged particles
Reason : In a stationary wave, all the particles of the in the magnetic field.
medium vibrate in phase. 9. Assertion : If the length of the conductor is doubled,
3. Assertion : When we change the unit of the drift velocity will become half of the original
measurement of a quantity, its numerical value value (keeping potential difference unchanged).
changes. Reason : At constant potential difference, drift
Reason : Smaller the unit of measurement smaller velocity is inversely proportional to the length of
is its numerical value. the conductor.

4. Assertion : Identical springs of steel and copper are 10. Assertion : A rocket works on the principle of
equally stretched. More work will be done on the conservation of linear momentum.
steel spring. Reason : Higher the velocity, smaller is the pressure
and vice-versa.
Reason : Steel is more elastic than copper.
11. Assertion : No work is done when an electron
5. Assertion : If in a projectile motion, we take air
completes a circular orbit around the nucleus of an
friction into consideration, then tascent < tdescent.
atom.

28 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


Reason : Work done by a centripetal force is SOLUTIONS
always zero. 1. (d) : Gas and vapour are two distinct state of matter.
12. Assertion : A person standing on a rotating Critical temperature is the distinguishing feature
platform suddenly stretched his arms. The platform between the two. A vapour above the critical
slows down. temperature is a gas and a gas below the critical
temperature for the substance is a vapour. A gas
Reason : This happens as angular momentum is
cannot be liquified by the application of pressure
conserved.
alone, howsoever large the pressure may be while
13. Assertion : A planet moves faster, when it is closer vapour can be liquified under pressure alone. To
to the sun in its orbit and vice-versa. liquify a gas it must be cooled upto or below its
Reason : Orbital velocity in an orbit of planet is critical temperature.
constant. 2. (c) : The person will hear the loud sound at nodes
14. Assertion : A needle placed carefully on the surface than at antinodes. We know that at antinodes the
of water may float, whereas a ball of the same displacement is maximum and strain is minimum
material will always sink. while at nodes the displacement is zero and strain
is maximum. The sound is heard due to variation of
Reason : The buoyancy of an object depends
pressure. Further, P = – E(dy/dt), where E is elasticity
both on the material and shape of the
and dy/dt is strain. As strain is maximum at nodes,
object.
hence there is maximum variation of pressure and
15. Assertion : Coefficient of thermal conductivity loud sound is heard.
of a metal rod is a function of length of the rod. 3. (c) : If u1, u2 be the units to measure a quantity Q and
Reason : Longer the rod, larger is the amount of n1, n2 be the numerical values respectively then we
heat conducted. know that Q = n1u1 = n2u2. Since the quantity Q does
16. Assertion : Two electric field lines never intersect not change irrespective of the units used to measure
1
one another at any point in space. it i.e., Q = constant. So nu = constant ⇒ n ∝ i.e.,
u
Reason : Electric field lines always start from a smaller the unit of measurement, greater is the
positive charge and end on a negative charge. corresponding numerical value.
17. Assertion : The focal length of the objective of the 4. (a) : As, work done
telescope is larger than that of eyepiece. 1 1
= × stress × strain = × Y × (strain)2
Reason : The resolving power of telescope increases 2 2
Since elasticity of steel is more than that of copper
when the aperture of objective is small.
hence more work has to be done in order to stretch
18. Assertion : When base region has larger width, the steel.
the collector current decreases. 5. (a)
Reason : Electron hole combination in base 6. (b) : The energy stored in the inductor is given by
increases base current. 1 1
U = × LI 02 = × 2 × (10)2 = 100 J
19. Assertion : The relative velocity of two photons 2 2
travelling in opposite direction is the velocity of It is clear that energy stored is directly proportional
light. to its inductance.
Reason : The rest mass of photon is zero. 7. (c) : The beautiful colours are seen on account of
interference of light reflected from the upper and the
20. Assertion : Television signals are received through
lower surface of the thin films. Since, condition for
sky-wave propagation.
constructive and destructive interference depends
Reason : The ionosphere reflects electromagnetic upon the wavelength of light therefore, coloured
waves of frequencies greater than a certain critical interference fringes are observed.
frequency.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 29


8. (b) : The charged particle would move along a f
circle. Magnitude of velocity remains constant, 17. (c) : The magnifying power of telescope, m = 0 .
fe
but its direction goes on changing. That is why So, for high magnification, the focal length of
⎛ 1 ⎞ objective should be larger than that of eyepiece.
kinetic energy ⎜ = mv 2 ⎟ remains constant but
⎝ 2 ⎠ D
Resolving power of a telescope =
momentum (= mv) goes on changing. 1.22λ
9. (a) : Drift velocity of free electron is given by For high resolving power, diameter (D) of objective
eE should be higher.
vd = τ
m 18. (a)
V 19. (b) : Velocity of first photon = u = c
Here, E =
l Velocity of second photon = v = – c
eV 1 ⎛ eV ⎞
∴ vd = τ or v d ∝ ⎜ τ is constant ⎟ Now, relative velocity of first photon with respect to
ml l ⎝m ⎠ second photon
10. (b) : Assertion and reason, both are correct. But u−v c − (−c)
= =
the reason refers to Bernoulli’s theorem, which has uv (c)(−c)
nothing to do with the assertion. 1− 2 1− 2
c c
11. (a) : W = Fs cos θ = Fs cos 90° = 0
2c 2c 2c
Centripetal force is along the radius, which is at 90° = = = =c
c 2 1+1 2
to the direction of motion (along the tangent). 1+ 2
12. (a) : On stretching arms, his moment of inertia (I) c
increases. As no torque has been applied, therefore Also the rest mass of photon is zero.
Iω = constant. 20. (d) : In sky wave propagation the radio waves
As I increases, ω decreases. which have frequency between 2 MHz to 30 MHz,
13. (c) : A planet revolves around the sun in such a are reflected back to the ground by the ionosphere.
way that its areal velocity is constant. That is why, But radio waves having frequency greater than
it moves faster, when it is closer to the sun and 30 MHz cannot be reflected by the ionosphere
vice-versa. because at this frequency they penetrate the
14. (c) : A needle placed carefully on the surface of ionosphere. It makes the sky wave propagation
water may float due to surface tension, as upward less reliable for propagation of TV signal having
forces due to surface tension balances the weight of frequency greater than 30 MHz.
the needle. But these upward forces due to surface Critical frequency is defined as the higher frequency
tension are very small as compared to weight of that is returned to the earth by the ionosphere.
ball, also the weight of liquid displaced by the ball Thus, above this frequency a wave whether it is
immersed in liquid is less than the weight of the electromagnetic will penetrate the ionosphere and
ball, hence ball sinks into the liquid. is not reflected by it.
15. (d) : Coefficient of thermal conductivity depends
only on nature of material of the rod and the length
of rod is inversely proportional to the amount of Ev
Everything is determined, the
1 beginning as well as the end,
heat conducted, ΔQ ∝ .
Δx by forces over which we have
16. (b) : Two electric field lines do not intersect one no control. It is determined for
another because if they do so then at the point of insects as well as for the stars.
intersection there will be two possible directions Human beings, vegetables or cosmic
H
dust, we all dance to a mysterious tune,
of electric field which is impossible. Electric field
intoned in the distance by an invisible piper.
lines always start from a positive charge and end on
a negative charge.

30 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16



Exam on
22nd May
2016



PAPER-2

SECTION 1 (MAXIMUM MARKS : 32) according to the empirical relation s = A + BT, where
• This section contains EIGHT questions A = 100 cal kg–1 K–1 and B = 2 × 10–2 cal kg–1 K–2.
• The answer to each question is a SINGLE DIGIT The final temperature of the container is 27°C,
INTEGER ranging from 0 to 9, both inclusive
the mass of the container is x × 10–1 kg. What is
1. Four point charges + 8 μC, –1 μC, –1 μC, and + 8 μC the value of x? (Latent heat of fusion of water
27 3 3 = 8 × 104 cal kg–1, Specific heat of water
are fixed at the points − m, − m, + m, = 103 cal kg–1 K–1).
2 2 2
27
and + m respectively on the y-axis. A particle 4. A current I = 10 A flows in a ring of radius r0 = 15 cm
2 made of a very thin wire. The tensile strength of the
of mass 6 × 10–4 kg and charge + 0.1 μC moves wire is equal to T = 1.5 N. The ring is placed in a
along the x-direction. Its speed at x = + ∞ is v0. Find magnetic field, which is perpendicular to the plane
the least value of v0 (in m s–1) for which the particle
of the ring so that the forces tend to break the ring.
will cross the origin. Assume that space is gravity
Find B(in T) at which the ring is broken.
free.
1 5. There is a stream of neutrons with a kinetic energy
Given = 9 × 109 N m2 C–2.
4 πε0 of 0.0327 eV. The half life of neutrons is 700 s.
2. A narrow monochromatic beam of light of intensity Fraction of neutrons that decay before they travel
I is incident on a glass plate as shown in figure. distance of 10 m is 3.9 × 10–p, find p.
Another identical glass plate is kept close to the 6. Figure shows a part of a bigger circuit. The capacity
first one and parallel to it. Each glass plate reflects of the capacitor is 6 mF and is decreasing at the
25 percent of the light incident on it and transmits constant rate 0.5 mF s–1. The potential difference
the remaining. Find the ratio of the maximum across the capacitor at the shown moment is
and the minimum amplitudes in the interference changing as follows:
pattern formed by the two beams obtained after one
dV d 2V 1
reflection at each plate. = 2 V s −1 , 2 = V s −2
dt dt 2
– +
2H 6mF

4

  3A

3. An ice cube of mass 0.1 kg at 0°C is placed in an The current in the 4 Ω resistor is decreasing at the
isolated container which is at 227°C. The specific rate of 1 mA s–1. What is the potential difference
heat s of the container varies with temperature T (in mV) across the inductor at this moment?

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 31


7. Consider the situation
shown in the figure. Mass  

of block A is 6 kg and

that of block B is 12 kg. 
  
The force constant of
–1
spring is 50 N m .
Friction is absent everywhere. System is released
 
from rest with the spring unstretched. Find the
speed of block A (in m s–1) when the extension in λD
x
(a) dmin = λD (b) dmin =
the spring is x = m , xm = maximum extension of 2
2 dmin
spring. (c) x = (d) x = dmin
2
8. A solid ball of density half that of water falls 12. If dimensions of length are expressed as Gxcyhz,
freely under gravity from a height of 19.6 m and where G, c and h are the universal gravitational
then enters water. How much time (in s) will it constant, speed of light and Planck's constant
take to come again to the water surface? Neglect respectively, then
air resistance and viscosity effects in water.
1 1 1 1
(Take g = 9.8 m s–2) (a) x = , y = (b) x = , z =
2 2 2 2
SECTION 2 (Maximum Marks : 32) 3 1 1 3
• This section contains EIGHT questions (c) y = – , z = (d) y = , z =
2 2 2 2
• Each question has FOUR options (a), (b), (c) and (d).
ONE OR MORE THAN ONE of these four option(s) 13. A tuning fork vibrating with a frequency of 512 Hz
is(are) correct is kept close to the open end of a tube filled with
9. A straight copper wire of length 1000 m and cross- water, as shown in the figure.
sectional area 1.0 mm2 carries a current 4.5 A.
Assuming that one free electron corresponds to each
copper atom, (Density of copper = 8.96 × 103 kg m–3,

Atomic mass of copper = 63.5 g, Resistivity of

copper wire = 1.69 × 10–8 Ω m)
(a) the time taken by an electron to displace from
one end of the wire to the other is 4 × 106 s.
(b) the sum of electric force acting on all free
electrons in the given wire is 1 × 106 N.
(c) the time taken by an electron to displace from
one end of the wire to the other is 3 × 106 s.
(d) the sum of electric force acting on all free
electrons in the given wire is 2 × 106 N.
10. Determine the period of small oscillations of a The water level in the tube is gradually lowered.
mathematical pendulum, that is a ball suspended When the water level is 17 cm below the open end,
by a thread l = 20 cm in length, if it is located in maximum intensity of sound is heard. The room
a liquid whose density is three times less than that temperature is 20°C. Then
of the ball. The resistance of the liquid is to be (a) Speed of sound in air at room temperature is
neglected. 360 m s–1.
(a) 2.2 s (b) 1.1 s (b) Speed of sound in air at 0°C is 336 m s–1.
(c) 0.5 s (d) 3.1 s (c) If the water in the tube is replaced with mercury,
11. The minimum value of d so that there is a dark then the intensity of reflected sound increases.
fringe at O is dmin, the distance at which the next (d) If the water in the tube is replaced with mercury,
bright fringe is formed is x. Then then the intensity of reflected sound decreases.

32 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


14. A steel rod of length 2l, cross-sectional area A and
mass M is set rotating (with angular speed ω) in a 
horizontal plane about an axis passing through the
centre. If Y is the Young's modulus for steel, then the
extension in the length of the rod will be (Assume     

the rod is uniform)


Mω2l 2 Mω2l 2  
(a) (b)
2YA 6YA
Mω l 2 2
M ω2l 2
(c) (d)
4YA 3YA 
15. The gap between the plates of a parallel-plate
capacitor is filled with isotropic dielectric whose 17. Total magnetic flux in this loop is
permittivity ε varies linearly from ε1 to ε2(ε2 > ε1) μ Ia 2μ0 Ia
(a) 0 ln 2 (b) ln 2
in the direction perpendicular to the plates. The π π
area of each plate equals A, the separation between 4μ0 Ia μ Ia
the plates is equal to d. Then the capacitance of the (c) ln 2 (d) 0 ln 2
π 2π
capacitor will be given by
18. The instantaneous current in the circuit will be
(ε2 − ε1 )ε0 A (ε2 − ε1 )ε0 A 2μ0 I 0 ωa ln 2
(a)
d ln(ε2 / ε1 )
(b) (a) sin(ωt − θ)
d π R2 + ω 2 L2
ε2 ε0 A (ε1 − ε2 )ε0 A
(c) (d) 2μ0 I 0 ωa ln 2
d d ln(ε1 / ε2 ) (b) sin(ωt + θ)
π R2 + ω2 L2
16. A particle moves along a closed trajectory in
2μ0 I 0 ωa ln 2
a centripetal field of force where the particle's (c) sin ωt
potential energy U = kr2 (k is a positive constant, r π R2 + ω 2 L2
is the distance of the particle from the centre O of μ0 I 0 ωa ln 2 ⎛ ωL ⎞
sin(ωt − θ) ⎜ where tan θ =
R ⎟⎠
the field). The mass of the particle if its minimum (d)
π R +ω L
2 2 2

distance from the point O equals r1 and its velocity
at the point farthest from O equals v2 will be PARAGRAPH 2
2
⎛r ⎞ ⎛r ⎞ A parallel beam of light falls successively on a thin convex
(a) 2k ⎜ 1 ⎟ (b) 2k ⎜ 1 ⎟ lens of focal length 40 cm and then on a thin convex lens
⎝ v2 ⎠ ⎝ v2 ⎠
2
of focal length 10 cm as shown in the figure (a).
⎛ r2 ⎞ ⎛r ⎞
(c) 2k ⎜ 1 ⎟ (d) 4k ⎜ 1 ⎟ 

⎝v ⎠
2
⎝ v2 ⎠

SECTION 3 (Maximum Marks : 16)


• This section contains TWO paragraphs
• Based on each paragraph, there will be TWO questions
• Each question has FOUR options (a), (b), (c) and (d).  
ONE OR MORE THAN ONE of these four options(s)
is(are) correct 

PARAGRAPH 1 

In the shown figure, a square loop consisting of an


inductor of inductance L and resistor of resistance R is
placed between two long parallel wires. The two long
straight wires have time-varying current of magnitude
 
I = I0 cos ωt but the directions of current in them are
opposite. 

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 33


or 4 ⎜⎛ x 2 + 3 ⎟⎞ = x 2 + or 3x 2 =
In the figure (b), the second lens is an equiconcave 27 15
lens of focal length 10 cm and made of a material of ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2
refractive index 1.5. In both the cases, the second lens
5
has an aperture equal to 1 cm. or x = ± m
2
19. The ratio of the areas illuminated by the beam of The least value of kinetic energy of the particle at
light on the screen, which passes through the second infinity should be enough so that particle can reach
lens in the two cases, i.e., (A2/A1) will be
5 5
(a) 72/5 (b) 81/1 at x = + m because at x = + m net force on
(c) 56/3 (d) 29/2 2 2
it is zero.
20. Now, a liquid of refractive index μ is filled to the 5
right of the second lens in figure (b) such that the For x > m, net force on the particle is repulsive
2
area illuminated in both the cases is the same. (towards positive x-axis).
Determine the refractive index of the liquid.
5
(a) 1 (b) 2.5 For x < m, net force on the particle is attractive
(c) 3 (d) 1.5 2
(towards negative x-axis).
SOLUTIONS 5
Let electric potential at x = m be V.
1. (3) : Let the particle be, at some instant, at a point P 2
distant x from the origin. At this point electric field
2 × (9 × 109 ) × (8 × 10−6 )
will be zero. ∴ V=
Net force towards origin = 2 F ' cos β 5 27
+
Net force away from origin = 2 F cos α 2 2
2 × (9 × 109 ) × (1 × 10−6 )
For net force at point P to become zero, −
5 3
 +
2 2
+8 μC, 27
2 ⎡8 1⎤
or V = 2 × 9 × 109 × 10–6 ⎢ − ⎥
–1 μC, 3 ⎣4 2⎦
2  4
  or V = 2.7 × 10 V
 
 5
3

+0.1μC 
Using energy conservation at x = m and x = ∞.
–1 μC, –  2
2 1
q × V + 0 = 0 + mv02
+8 μC, – 27 2
2 1
or (0.1 × 10 ) × (2.7 × 104) = (6 × 10–4)v02
–6
2
2 F cosα = 2 F ' cos β or v02 = 9 ... v0 = 3 m s–1
2k × (8 × 10−6 ) × (0.1 × 10−6 )cos α
∴ 2. (7) : Two plates are 
⎛ 2 27 ⎞ 
⎜⎝ x + ⎟⎠ parallel to each other.  
2  
−6 −6 Each plate reflects 25%  
= 2k × (1 × 10 ) × (0.1 × 10 )cosβ where k =
1  
of the incident light and 
⎛ 2 3⎞ 4 πε0    
⎜⎝ x + ⎟⎠ transmits the remaining 
2 75%. Incident beam at 
8 x x
or × = A has an intensity I. This beam gets refracted and
⎛ 2 27 ⎞ ⎛ 2 27 ⎞ 1/ 2
⎛ 2 3⎞⎛ 2 3⎞
1/2
⎜⎝ x + ⎟⎠ ⎜ x + ⎟ + +
⎝⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
x x reflected multiple number of times between the two
2 ⎝ 2⎠ 2⎠⎝ 2⎠ parallel plates. The intensities of various reflected
3/2 3/2
⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 27 ⎞ and transmitted beams are shown in the figure.
8 ⎜ x2 + ⎟ = ⎜ x2 + ⎟
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ Beam 1 and 2, from A and B, undergo interference.

34 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 35
Intensity of beam 1 at A, I1 = I/4 ⎛ dθ ⎞
or, 2T sin ⎜ ⎟ = BIr0dθ (dl = r0 dθ)
Intensity of beam 2 at B, I2 = 9I/64 ⎝ 2 ⎠
2 T 1. 5
I min ⎛ I1 − I2 ⎞ B= = =1T
∴ =⎜ ⎟ Ir0 (10)(0.15)
I max ⎝ I1 + I2 ⎠
5. (6) : Kinetic energy of neutrons = 0.0327 eV
2
⎛1 3⎞ or K = 0.0327 × 1.6 × 10 –19 J
I min ⎜ 2 − 8 ⎟ ⎛ 1/ 8 ⎞
2
⎛1⎞
2
1
or =⎜ = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = or 1 mv2 = 0.0327 × 1.6 × 10–19
I max 1 3⎟ 7 / 8 7 49 2
⎜ + ⎟ 2 × 0.0327 × 1.6 × 10−19
⎝2 8⎠
or v2 =
1.675 × 10−27
A I 7
⇒ max = max = = 7 or v2 = 0.0625 × 108
Amin I min 1 or v = 0.25 × 104 m s–1
3. (5) : Heat lost by container = msdT or dQ = m(A + BT)dT distance 10
∴ time taken = =
or Q 300
∫0 dQ = m∫500 ( A + BT )dT velocity 0.25 × 104
–3
300 or t = 4 × 10 s
⎡ BT 2 ⎤
or Q = m ⎢ AT + ⎥ N
⎣ 2 ⎦ 500 ∴ Fraction that decays = = (1 – e–λt)
N0
300
⎡ −2 ⎤ ⎧ ⎛ 0.693 −3 ⎞ ⎫
or Q = m ⎢100T + 2 × 10 T 2 ⎥ ⎪ − ⎜⎝ 700 × 4 ×10 ⎟⎠ ⎪
= 1 – ⎨e –6 –p
⎣ 2 ⎦ 500 ⎬ = 3.96 × 10 =3.96 × 10
⎡ ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭
(300)2 − (500)2 ⎤
or Q = m ⎢100(300 − 500) + ⎥ ∴ p = 6.
⎣ 100 ⎦
or Q = m[–20000 – 1600]cal dq dV dC
6. (4) : q = CV, I = =C +V , IL = I0 – I
or Q = –21600 m calorie …(i) dt dt dt
Heat gained by ice to become water at 0°C = mL – +
∴ Q1 = 0.1 × 80000 = 8000 cal   = 2H  
Heat gained by water to raise its temperature from
0°C to 27°C = msΔT
∴ Q2 = 0.1 × 1000 × 27 = 2700 cal
∴ Total heat gained = 8000 + 2700 0 = 3 A
Q1 + Q2 = 10700 cal
According to principle of calorimetry, dI L dI 0 ⎡ d 2V dV dC dV dC d 2C ⎤
Heat lost = Heat gained or 21600 m = 10700 = – ⎢C 2 + + +V 2 ⎥
dt dt ⎣ dt dt dt dt dt dt ⎦
10700 –3
or m = = 0.495 kg = –1 × 10 –
21600
∴ Mass of container = 0.495 kg ⎡ −3 1 −3 −3 ⎤
= 4.95 × 10–1 ≈ 5 × 10–1 kg ⎢⎣6 × 10 × 2 + 2(−0.5 × 10 ) + 2(−0.5 × 10 ) + 0⎥⎦
4. (1) : For the equilibrium of a small part of = –2 × 10–3 A s–1
semicircular arc subtending an angle of dθ at the dI L
centre, VL = L = 2 × 2 × 10–3 = 4 × 10–3 V = 4 mV
 dt


7. (4) : At maximum extension in the spring
 
  vA = vB = 0 (momentarily)
Therefore, applying conservation of mechanical


 


energy :
 
Decrease in gravitational potential energy of block B
= increase in elastic potential energy of spring.

36 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


1 2 N Ad
or mBgxm = kx ... n= ; d = density of copper
2 m M
1 6.02 × 1023 × 8.96 × 103
or 2mgxm = kxm2 =
2 63.5 × 10−3
4mg
∴ xm = = 8.49 × 1028 electron per m3
k
x 2mg l
At x = m = We know, I = ne A vd = neA
2 k t
Let vA = vB = v(say) neAl 8.49 × 1028 × 1.6 × 10−19 × 10−6 × 103
t= =
Then, decrease in gravitational potential energy I 4. 5
of block B = increase in elastic potential energy = 3 × 106 s
of spring + increase in kinetic energy of both the Sum of electric forces
blocks. F = (nV )eE = nAle ρJ
1 1
∴ mBgx = kx2 + (mA + mB)v2 I
2 2 = nAleρ = nleρI
2 A
⎛ 2mg ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2mg ⎞ 1
or (2m)(g) ⎜ = + (m + 2m)v2 = 8.49 × 1028 × 103 × 1.6 ×10–19 × 1.69 × 10–8 × 4.5
⎝ k ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ k ⎟⎠ 2
k
= 1.03 × 106 N
m 6
∴ v = 2g = 2 × 10 = 4 m s–1 10. (b) : Let us depict the forces acting on the oscillating
3k 3 × 50 ball at an arbitrary angular position θ, relative
8. (4) : v = 2 gh = 2 × 9.8 × 19.6 = 19.6 m s–1 to equilibrium position where FB is the force of
buoyancy.
Let ρ be the density of ball and 2ρ the density of
water. 
Net retardation inside the water,  

upthrust − weight
a=
mass
V (2ρ) g − V (ρ) g 
= (V = volume of ball)
V (ρ) The equation of motion for ball
–2
= g = 9.8 m s –mgl sinθ + FBl sin θ = ml2 θ ...(i)
4 4

 
Using m = πr3σ, FB = πr3ρg and sin θ θ for
3 3
small θ, in eqn (i), we get
g ⎛ ρ⎞
 θ=− ⎜1 − ⎟ θ
l ⎝ σ⎠
 Thus the time period of the ball
1 l/g
Hence, the ball will go upto the same depth 19.6 m T = 2π = 2π
g ⎛ ρ⎞ 1
below the water surface.
⎜1 − ⎟ 1−
Further, time taken by the ball to come back to l ⎝ σ⎠ 3
water surface is,
0 .2 / 9 .8
⎛v ⎞ ⎛ 19.6 ⎞ = 6.28 = 1 .1 s
t = 2⎜ ⎟ = 2⎜ =4s 2/3
⎝a⎠ ⎝ 9.8 ⎟⎠
11. (b, d) : There is a dark fringe at O if the path
9. (b,c): Every copper atom has one free electron.
λ
So, number of electrons per unit volume = number difference Δx = ABO – AO'O =
of atoms per unit volume. 2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 37


14. (d) : Let us consider an element of length dx on half

portion OA of the rod at a distance x from the axis

 of rotation,

   

 

1/2  
⎛ d ⎞ 2  
Δx = 2D ⎜1 + ⎟ − 2D
⎝ D2 ⎠
⎛ 1 d2 ⎞ d2
2D ⎜1 + ⎟ − 2 D = 
⎝ 2 D2 ⎠ D
2
λ dmin
∴ = Since the rod is uniform,
2 D
mass of the element = (mass/unit length) dx
λD
= ⎜⎛ ⎞⎟ dx
or, dmin = M
2 ⎝ 2l ⎠
The bright fringe is formed at P if the path difference
Centripetal force acting on this element,
= AO'P – ABP = 0
⎛M ⎞ ⎛M⎞
⇒ D+ D 2 + x 2 − D 2 + d 2 − D 2 + (x − d )2 = 0 dF = ⎜ dx ⎟ xω2 = ⎜ ⎟ ω2xdx
⎝ 2 l ⎠ ⎝ 2l ⎠
x 2 d 2 (x 2 + d 2 − 2 xd ) Here, dF is provided by the tension in the rod due
⇒ − − =0
2D 2D 2D to elasticity.
Given d = dmin The tension (F) in half of the portion OA of the rod
λD at a distance x from its axis of rotation is due to the
On solving, x = dmin = centripetal force acting on all the elements from x
2
to l, i.e.,
12. (b, c) : [L] = [Gxcyhz] whence, x = 1/2, y = –3/2,
M ω2 M ω2 2 2
l

2l ∫x
z = 1/2. F= xdx = (l – x )
4l
13. (b, c) : The tube filled with water behaves as a closed If dδ is the extension in the element of length dx at
organ pipe of length, L = 17 cm = 0.17 m position x, then
v stress
As υ = 20 dδ =
Fdx
[as Y = ]
4L longitudinal strain
YA
v20 = 4υL = 4 × 512 × 0.17 = 348.16 m s–1 Extension in half the portion OA (of length l) of
v20 T 273 + 20 the rod, i.e.,
As = =
Fdx M ω 2 2 2
l l
v0 T0 273
273
δ= ∫0 YA = 4YAl ∫0 (l – x )dx
v0 = 348.16 × = 336 m s–1
293 M ω 2 ⎡ 3 l 3 ⎤ ⎛ M ω 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2l 3 ⎞ ⎛ M ω 2 l 2 ⎞
= ⎢l − ⎥ = ⎜ =
The resonance will still be observed for 17cm length 4YAl ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎝ 4YAl ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 6YA ⎟⎠
of air column above mercury. However, due to more Extension in the entire rod of length 2l, i.e.,
complete reflection of sound waves at mercury M ω 2l 2
2δ =
surface, the intensity of reflected sound increases. 3YA

38 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


15. (a, d) : We point the x-axis towards right and place

the origin on the left hand side plate. The left plate
is assumed to be positively charged.
Since ε varies linearly, we can write,  
  
ε = a + bx 
where a and b can be determined 

from the boundary conditions.  
We have,  
ε = ε1 at x = 0 and ε = ε2 at x = d, 
⎛ ε −ε ⎞
Thus, ε = ε1 + ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ x  μ0 I ⎡2a dx 2a dx ⎤ μ0 Ia
⎝ d ⎠ φ= ⎢∫ +∫ ⎥ a; φ = ln 2
2π ⎣ a x a (3a − x ) ⎦ π
Now potential difference between the plates
σ 18. (d) : Magnitude of emf in this circuit
d d
V+ – V– = ∫ E ⋅ dr = ∫ dx
0 0ε
ε dφ μ0 a(ln 2) dI
0
ε= =
d
σ σd ε dt π dt
= ∫ ⎛ ⎛ε −ε ⎞ ⎞
dx = ln 2
(ε2 − ε1 )ε0 ε1 μ0 a ln 2
0
ε0 ⎜ ε1 + ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ x ⎟ = I0ω sin ωt
⎝ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎠ π
μ I ωa ln 2
Hence, the required capacitance, ac current, I = 0 02 sin(ωt – θ)
(ε − ε )ε A π R + ω 2 L2
σA
C= = 2 1 0 19. (b) : In case (a), the incident parallel beam emerges
V+ − V− ⎛ ε2 ⎞
⎜⎝ ln ε ⎟⎠ d as a parallel beam. So area illuminated,
1
2
⎛1⎞ π
16. (b) : For the centripetal force, r × F = 0 so angular A1 = π ⎜ ⎟ = cm2
⎝2⎠ 4
momentum is conserved. Also at maximum and
In case (b), let x be the diameter of the area
minimum separations r is perpendicular to v .
Hence from the conservation of angular momentum illuminated.
about the centre Then, 
v v x 1
mv1r1 = mv2r2 or, 1 = 2 …(i) = ⇒ x = 9 cm

r2 r1 45 5
2 
As potential energy, U = kr2 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 81
A2 = π ⎜ ⎟ = π cm2
dU
= −2kr ⎝2⎠ 4
So, Fr = − 
dr A2 81
From Newton's law in projection form, towards = 
A1 1
centre, at the minimum and maximum separations:
2k r1 = mv21/r1 …(ii) 20. (c) : When liquid of refractive index μ is filled to the
and 2k r2 = mv22/r2 …(iii) right of this (concave) lens, the first surface of the
From equations (ii) and (iii) lens (radius of curvature = 10 cm) forms the image
v21/r12 = v22 /r22 …(iv) at the object only. Considering the refraction at the
Hence from equations (i) and (iv), r2 = r1 second surface.
2k r12 μ 1 . 5 μ − 1. 5
Putting this value of r2 in equation (iii), m = − =
v22 ∞ −10 10
17. (a) : dφ = BdA (∵ same area ⇒ v → ∞)
⎡μ I μ0 I ⎤ ⇒ μ=3
dφ = ⎢ 0 + ⎥ adx
⎣ 2πx 2π(3a − x ) ⎦ ‰‰

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 39


By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*
1. A block-spring pendulum is shown in figure. The The pulley is free to rotate about a fixed horizontal
system is hanging in equilibrium. A bullet of mass axis. Transverse oscillations in a particular tone
m are excited in the wire. Another particular tone is
moving at a speed of u hits the block from
2 excited in a closed pipe made of the same material.
downward direction and gets embedded in it. Find At temperature T = 300 K, both are found in
the amplitude of oscillation of the block now.
unison with a source of frequency υ0 = 100 kHz.
If coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the
material of wire and pipe is α = 10–5 °C–1, calculate
the difference in frequencies produced by wire
and organ pipe when temperature increases by
ΔT = 0.6 K if the same particular tones are excited
in wire and pipe.
2. A homogeneous cylinder of mass m and radius r
is connected to the springs of spring constant k as 4. A train A crosses a station with a speed of 40 m s–1
shown in figure. Find the time period of oscillation and whistles a short pulse of natural frequency
of the cylinder if it rolls without slipping. υ0 = 596 Hz. Another train B is approaching
towards the same station with the same speed
along a parallel track. Two tracks are separated by
a distance d = 99 m. When train A whistles, train B
is 152 m away from the station as shown in figure.
If velocity of sound in air is v = 330 m s–1, calculate
the frequency of the pulse heard by driver of train B.
3. One end of wire is fixed to a wall and a heavy
block is suspended from its other end as shown in
figure.

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

40 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


5. A uniform rope of mass 0.1 kg and length 2.45 m 2. Let the centre of cylinder move by a small distance
hangs from a ceiling. (Take g = 9.8 m s–2). OM = x towards right as shown in figure.
(a) Find the speed of transverse wave in the rope at
a point 0.5 m distant from lower end.
(b) Calculate the time taken by a transverse wave
to travel the full length of the rope.
6. A diver is at a depth h from the ship. If a siren of
the ship emits a sound, find the time after which x
The angle by which the cylinder rotates is θ = .
the diver hears the sound. Assume ρm = density of r
mercury. The point C gets displaced to N on the cylinder
connected to the springs by
x
y = (r + h)θ = (r + h) ...(i)
r
1
Potential energy stored in springs, U = 2 × ky 2
2
U = ky2
7. The tension on the wire is 3000 N. The wire is (r + h)2 x 2
3 m long and the fundamental frequency is 300 Hz. U =k (using (i))
r2
What is the mass of the wire?
Kinetic energy of cylinder,
SOLUTIONS
1 ⎛ mr 2 ⎞ ⎛ v ⎞
2
1 3
K = mv 2 + ⎜ ⎟ = mv 2
1. Extension in spring in equilibrium position, 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜⎝ r ⎟⎠ 4
x0 = mg/k.
Now, total energy, E = K + U = constant
After the bullet hits, extension of spring in
k(r + h)2 3
⎛ m⎞ ⇒ x2 + mv 2 = constant
⎜⎝ m + 2 ⎟⎠ g 3mg r 2 4
equilibrium position, x ′ = = Differentiating with resepect to time, we get
k 2k
The distance of new equilibrium position from 2k(r + h)2 3
xv + mva = 0
previous equilibrium position is r 2 2
3mg mg mg 4k(r + h)2 4k(r + h)2
x = x ′ − x0 = − = ...(i)
⇒ a=− x ⇒ ω2 =
2k k 2k
3mr 2 3mr 2
According to conservation of linear momentum;
m 3m 3mr 2
u= v ∴ T = 2π
2 2 4k(r + h)2
u
⇒ v= ...(ii)
3. Let n1 and n2 be the harmonics excited in the wire
3
where v is combined velocity. and organ pipe respectively. Also let l1 and l2 be the
Also, angular velocity is respective lengths of wire and organ pipe.
k 2k n T n2
ω= = ...(iii) Now, 105 = 1 = v
⎛3 ⎞ 3m 2l1 μ 4l2
⎜⎝ 2 m ⎟⎠ It is given that n1 and n2 will not change.
v2 Also, after the increase in temperature, T and l1 will
Since v = ω A2 − x 2 ⇒ A = + x2 ...(iv)
ω 2 remain the same. However, μ, l2 and v will change.
Putting equations (i), (ii) and (iii) in equation (iv), As mass of wire is μl = constant
2 Δμ Δl Δμ Δl
mu2 ⎛ mg ⎞ ⇒ + =0 ⇒ = − = − αΔT
we get A = +⎜ μ μ
⎝ 2k ⎟⎠
l l
6k
New value of mass per unit length is μ′ = μ(1 – αΔT).

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 41


New frequency produced by wire, −1
∴ v = 9.8 × 0.5 = 2.21 m s
n T n T
υ1′ = 1 = 1 (1 − αΔT )−1/2 (b) Let t is the time taken to reach the top of the
2l1 μ(1 − αΔT ) 2l1 μ
rope of length l.
⎛ α ⎞ From (i)
⇒ υ1′ = 105 ⎜1 + ΔT ⎟ ...(i)
⎝ 2 ⎠ dx
l t
−1/2
γRT Δv 1 ΔT 1 0.6 dt
= gx ⇒ ∫ x dx = g ∫ dt ,
Also, v = ⇒ = = × = 10−3 0 0
M v 2 T 2 300 l
New velocity, v′ = v (1 + 10–3) 1 ⎡ x1/2 ⎤ l
⇒ t= ⎢ ⎥ =2
New length of pipe, l′2 = l2 (1 + αΔT). g ⎢⎣ 1 / 2 ⎥⎦ g
0
New frequency produced by organ pipe,
2.45
n2v(1 + 10−3 ) ∴ t =2 =1s
υ2′ = 9. 8
4l2 (1 + αΔT ) B
nv 6. Speed of sound in water is v = ,
υ2′ = 2 (1 + 10−3 )(1 − αΔT ) ρ
4l2 where B (Bulk modulus) = P (Pressure at any point
⇒ υ′2 105(1 + 10–3 – αΔT) ...(ii) of water)
From equations (i) and (ii), we get P + ρgy P
then v = 0 = 0 + gy
⎛ 3 ⎞ ρ ρ
υ2′ − υ1′ = 105 ⎜10−3 − × 10−5 × 0.6 ⎟ = 100 − 0.9
⎝ 2 ⎠
dy ρ gh
= 99.1 Hz ⇒ = m m + gy
dt ρ
4. Let t be the time after which the pulse is heard
dy ⎛ρ h ⎞
by the driver of train B. In time t, train B and the ∴ = ⎜ m m + y⎟ g
sound of the whistle from train A reaches point C. dt ⎝ ρ ⎠
h t
dy
⇒ ∫ (a + y ) g
= ∫ dt
0 0

⎡ (a + y ) ⎤
h ⎛ ρm hm ⎞
⇒ t = ⎢2 ⎥ ⎜ where, a = ⎟
⎢⎣ g ⎥⎦ ⎝ ρ ⎠
0
Now, (330t)2 = (99)2 + (152 – 40t)2
(a + h) a 1 ⎛ ρm ⎞
On solving, we get ⇒ t =2 −2 =2 ⎜ hm + h ⎟
t = 0.5 s g g g⎝ ρ ⎠
152 − 40t 152 − (40 × 0.5) ρm hm
∴ cos θ = = = 0. 8 −2
330t 330 × 0.5 ρg
v + v0 cos θ 330 + 40 × 0.8 1 ⎡
Therefore, υ ′ = υ0 = 596 × ∴ t =2 (ρmhm − hρ) − ρmhm ⎤⎦
v − v s cos θ 330 − 40 × 0.8 ρg ⎣
υ′ = 724 Hz 7. Since the fundamental frequency is
5. (a) Tension at a point at a distance x from the free 1 T 1 TL
υ= =
end is T = μxg 2L μ 2L m
where, μ is the mass per unit length of the rope.
T 3000
Speed of transverse wave at this point, ∴ m= = kg ≈ 2.80 gm
2
T 4υ L 4 × (300)2 × 3
v= = gx ...(i)
μ „„

42 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


OLYMPIAD
PROBLEMS
1. Consider a system of two
thin lenses as shown in 
 

l = 10 m, what was the initial speed of the flat car?
(a) 10 m s–1
figure. An object of height (b) 15 m s–1
1 cm is placed at 40 cm (c) 10 3 m s–1
from convex lens. Mark the (d) 20 2 m s–1
correct option related to
final image formed by the   5. The figure shows a uniform rod lying along the
two lens system. X-axis. The locus of all the points lying on the XY-
(a) Final image is formed at 32 cm on right of plane, about which the moment of inertia of the rod
concave lens and is 0.45 cm in size. is same as that about O is 
(b) Final image is formed at 32 cm on left side of (a) an ellipse
convex lens and is 1 cm in size. (b) a circle
(c) Final image is formed at 14.5 cm on the left side (c) a parabola

of concave lens and is 0.45 cm in size. (d) a straight line 
(d) None of these. 6. A uniformly charged ring of radius R is rotated
2. A thermostated chamber at a height h above earth’s about its axis with constant linear speed v of
surface maintained at 30°C has a clock fitted with each of its particles. The ratio of electric field
uncompensated pendulum. The maker of the clock to magnetic field at a point P on the axis of the
for chamber mistakenly designed it to maintain ring at distance x = R from centre of ring is
correct time at 20°C. It is found that when the (c is speed of light)
2 2 
chamber is brought to earth’s surface the clock in (a) c (b) v
v c  
it clicked correct time. Re is the radius of earth. The
linear coefficient of the material of pendulum is (c) c (d) v 
h h 5 Re Re v c
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Re 5 Re h h SOLUTIONS
3. A light ray enters a  1. (c) : Let image formed by 1st lens be at distance v1
glass slab at an angle of from convex lens.
 
incidence θ1. What can 
be the minimum value  Now, 1 − 1 = 1
v1 − 40 20
for the index of refraction

  ⇒ v1 = 40 cm
of the glass if the ray does  h v 40
not emerge at face BC, Size of intermediate image is, I = 1 =
irrespective of angle θ1? hO u − 40
⇒ hI = –1 cm
(a) 1 (b) 2
  Negative sign tells that image formed is inverted.
(c) 3 (d) 2
The image formed by 1st lens would be treated as a
4. A pendulum bob is suspended on a flat car that virtual object for 2nd lens, let final image forms at a
moves with velocity v0. The flat car is stopped by a distance v from concave lens.
bumper. If the swing angle of pendulum is 60° and

44 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


1 1 1 KEA + PEA =KEB + PEB
− = ⇒ v = −14.5 cm
v 32 − 10 1 2
Negative sign tells that image is formed on left side mv + 0 = 0 + mg (l − l cos θ)
2 0
of concave lens. θ
The magnification produced by 2nd lens is, or v02 = 2 gl(1 − cos θ) = 4glsin2
2
θ
v
m2 = = −
14.5 or v0 = 2 gl sin
u 32 2
On substituting θ = 60°, l = 10 m, g = 10 m s–2
So, size of final image is h = 14.5 × 1 = 0.45 cm
32 we obtain, v0 = 2 (10) × (10) sin 30° = 10 m s −1
So, final image is virtual, erect and diminished.
5. (b) : Consider a point 
2. (b) : Variation of acceleration due to gravity with P(x, y) in x-y plane
⎛ 2h ⎞ where we assume the 2
 –  + 2
altitude gh = g ⎜1 − ⎟ moment of inertia = 2

⎝ Re ⎠ 
2hg of the rod about P is

Δg = same as that about at
Re  ,0
point O 2
Variation of l with temperature, Δl = αlΔθ IP = ICM + Mr2 
Coefficient of linear expansion, α = Δl ⎡⎛ 2 ⎤ ML2
l(Δθ) ML2 L⎞ IO =
= + M ⎢⎜ x − ⎟ + y2 ⎥ ;
l l ⎛ Δg ⎞
−1/2
⎛ Δg ⎞ 12 ⎣⎝ 2⎠ ⎦ 3
Th = 2 π = 2π 1− ≈ T ⎜1 +
g − Δg g ⎜⎝ g ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 g ⎟⎠ ML2 ⎡⎛ L⎞
2 ⎤ ML2
Now, I P = IO ⇒ + M ⎢⎜ x − ⎟ + y2 ⎥ =
l + Δl l ⎛ Δl ⎞
1/2
⎛ Δl ⎞ 12 ⎣⎝ 2⎠ ⎦ 3
Tθ = 2 π = 2π ⎜1 + ⎟⎠ ≈ T ⎜⎝1 + ⎟⎠ 2 2
g g ⎝ l 2l ⎛ L⎞ 2 L =⎛L⎞
2
⇒ ⎜⎝ x − ⎟⎠ + y = ⎜ ⎟
The clock shows correct time if Th = Tθ 2 4 ⎝2⎠
Δl Δg This is equation of a circle with radius L and centre
=
2l 2 g 2
Δl Δg 2h h at ⎛⎜ L , 0 ⎞⎟ .
∴ α= = = = ⎝2 ⎠
10l 10 g 10 Re 5 Re
6. (a) : Let Q be the charge on the ring.
3. (b) : The condition for total internal reflection at

the second surface is nsinθ3 ≥ 1.

As θ2 + θ3 = 90°,
 
So nsin(90° – θ2) ≥ 1 or n cosθ2 ≥ 1 

or n2(1 – sin2θ2) ≥ 1 ...(i) P 
sin θ1
From Snell’s law, sin θ2 = ...(ii) The electric field at point P,
n
1 Qx 1 QR
From eqns (i) and (ii), E= =
⎛ sin2 θ1 ⎞ 4 πε0 (x 2 + R2 )3/2 4 πε0 (2R2 )3/2
n2 ⎜1 − ⎟ ≥1 The charged ring is equivalent to a ring in which
⎝ n2 ⎠
n2 – sin2θ1 ≥ 1 or n2 ≥ 1 + sin2θ1 current I flows, such that I = Qv
2πR
The value of n corresponds to θ1 = 90°.
The magnetic field at point P,
Hence n ≥ 2 .
μ 2 πIR2 μ QvR
4. (a) : When the flat car collides with the bumper, B= 0 = 0
due to inertia of motion the bob swings forward. 4 π (x + R )
2 2 3/ 2 4 π (2R2 )3/2
No work is done by tension of string on the bob, ∴ E 1 c2
= = ‰‰
therefore energy is conserved. B μ 0 ε0 v v

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 45


CHAPTERWISE MCQs FOR PRACTICE
Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams
MAGNETISM AND MATTER experiences a couple of 0.04 N m, and when its plane
1. The intensity of magnetic field at a point X on the axis of is east-west, the corresponding couple is 0.03 N m. The
a small magnet is equal to the field intensity at another magnetic induction is
point Y on its equatorial axis. The ratio of distance of X (a) 0.2 T (b) 0.3 T (c) 0.5 T (d) 0.4 T
and Y from the centre of the magnet will be 6. Two magnets are suspended by a given wire one
(a) (2)–3 (b) (2)–1/3 (c) 23 (d) 21/3 by one. In order to deflect the first magnet through
2. The length of a magnet is large compared to its 45°, the wire has to be twisted through 540° whereas
width and breadth. The time period of its oscillation with the second magnet, the wire requires a twist
in a vibration magnetometer is 2 s. The magnet is of 360° for the same deflection. Then the ratio of
cut along its length into three equal parts and these magnetic moments of the two magnets is
parts are then placed on each other with their like (a) 11/7 (b) 3/2 (c) 4/3 (d) 7/6
poles together. The time period of this combination 7. At a certain place, a magnet makes 30 oscillations
will be per minute. At another place where the magnetic
2 2 field is double, its time period will be
(a) s (b) s (c) 2 3 s (d) 2 s
3 3 (a) 4 s (b) 2 s (c) 1/2 s (d) 2 s
3. An iron rod of length 20 cm and diameter 1 cm is 8. A copper rod is suspended in a non-homogeneous
placed inside a solenoid on which the number of magnetic field region. The rod when in equilibrium
turns is 600. The relative permeability of the rod is will align itself
1000. If a current of 0.5 A is passed in the solenoid, (a) in the region where magnetic field is strongest
then the magnetisation of the rod will be (b) in the region where magnetic field is weakest and
(a) 2.997 × 102A m–1 (b) 2.997 × 103A m–1 parallel to direction of magnetic field there
(c) 2.997 × 104A m–1 (d) 2.997 × 105A m–1 (c) in the direction in which it was originally suspended
4. A long magnet is placed vertically with its S-pole (d) in the region where magnetic field is weakest
resting on the table. A neutral point is obtained and perpendicular to the direction of magnetic
10 cm from the pole due geographic north of it. field there.
If H = 3.2 × 10–5 T, then the pole strength of magnet
9. Two bar magnets of the same mass, same length
is
and breadth but having magnetic moments M and
(a) 8 ab–A cm (b) 16 ab–A cm
2M are joined together by pole and suspended by a
(c) 32 ab–A cm (d) 64 ab–A cm
string. The time period of assembly in a magnetic
5. A coil of 50 turns and area 1.25 × 10–3m2 is pivoted field of strength H is 3 s. If now the polarity of one
about a vertical diameter in a uniform horizontal of the magnets is reversed and the combination is
magnetic field and carries a current of 2 A. When again made to oscillate in the same field, the time
the coil is held with its plane in N-S direction, it period of oscillation is

48 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
(a) 3 s (b) 3 3 s (c) 3 / 3 s (d) 6 s
16. The magnetic field in a certain region is given by
10. A magnet performs 10 oscillations per minute in a
B = (40 i − 18 k) G. How much flux passes through a
horizontal plane at a place where the angle of dip is 45°
5.0 cm2 area loop in this region, if the loop lies flat
and the total intensity is 0.707 CGS units. The number
on the xy plane?
of oscillations per minute at a place where dip angle is
(a) –900 nWb (b) 900 nWb
60° and total intensity is 0.5 CGS units will be
(c) 0 (d) 9 Wb.
(a) 5 (b) 7 (c) 9 (d) 11
17. A fully charged capacitor C with initial charge q0 is
11. A magnetising field of 1600 A m–1 produces a connected to a coil of self inductance L at t = 0. The
magnetic flux of 2.4 × 10–5 Wb in an iron bar of time at which the energy is stored equally between
cross-sectional area 0.2 cm2. The susceptibility of the electric and the magnetic field is
the iron bar is π
(a) 298 (b) 596 (c) 1192 (d) 1788 (a) LC (b) 2π LC
4
12. A bar magnet has a magnetic moment 2.5 J T –1and (c) LC (d) π LC
is placed in a magnetic field of 0.2 T. The work done 18. The radius of the circular conducting loop shown
in turning the magnet from parallel to antiparallel in figure is R. Magnetic field is decreasing at a
position relative to field direction is constant rate α. Resistance per unit length of the
(a) 1 J (b) 2 J (c) 2 J (d) 4 J loop is ρ. Then current in wire AB is (AB is one of
13. A solenoid has core of a material with relative the diameters)
permeability 500 and its windings carry a current Rα
(a) from B to A
of 1 A. The number of turns of the solenoid is 2ρ
 
500 per metre. The magnetization of the material Rα
is nearly (b) from A to B

(a) 2.5 × 103A m–1 (b) 2.5 × 105 A m–1 2Rα
3
(c) 2.0 × 10 A m –1
(d) 2.0 × 105A m–1 (c) from A to B (d) zero
ρ
14. Choose the correct statement. 19. A coil having n turns and resistance R Ω is
(a) A paramagnetic material tends to move from a connected with a galvanometer of resistance 4R Ω.
strong magnetic field to weak magnetic field. This combination is moved in time t seconds from a
(b) A magnetic material is in the paramagnetic magnetic field W1 weber to W2 weber. The induced
phase below its Curie temperature. current in the circuit is
(c) The resultant magnetic moment in an atom of a
(a) − 2
(W − W1 ) (b) − 2
(W − W1 )
diamagnetic substance is zero.
5Rnt Rnt
(d) Typical domain size of a ferromagnetic material
n (W2 − W1 ) n (W2 − W1 )
is 1 nm. (c) − (d) −
5Rt Rt
15. Materials suitable for permanent magnets, must 20. A metallic ring is dropped down, keeping its plane
have which of the following properties? perpendicular to a constant and horizontal magnetic
(a) High retentivity, low coercivity and high field at t = 0. The ring enters in the region of magnetic
permeability. field at t = 0 and completely emerges out at t = T s.
(b) Low retentivity, low coercivity and low The current in the ring varies with time as
permeability.
 
(c) Low retentivity, high coercivity and low (a)   (b)
permeability.
(d) High retentivity, high coercivity and high
permeability. (c)   (d)  

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 49


21. A vertical ring of radius r and resistance R falls 25. The charge which will flow through a 200 Ω
vertically. It is in contact with two vertical rails galvanometer connected to a 400 Ω circular coil
which are joined at the top, as shown in the figure. of 1000 turns wound on a wooden stick 20 mm in
The rails are without friction and resistance. There diameter, if a magnetic field B = 0.012 T parallel to
is a horizontal uniform magnetic field of magnitude the axis of the stick decreased suddenly to zero is
B perpendicular to the plane of the ring and the (a) 6.3 μC (b) 63 μC
rails. When the speed of the ring is v, the current in (c) 0.63 μC (d) 630 μC
the section PQ is 26. A circular ring of diameter 20 cm has a resistance
2Rrv   of 0.01 Ω. The charge that will flow through the
(a) zero (b)
R ring if it is turned from a position perpendicular
4Rrv 8Brv to a uniform magnetic field of 2.0 T to a position
(c) (d)
R R parallel to the field is about
22. The magnet shown in figure rotates on a pivot (a) 63 C (b) 0.63 C
(c) 6.3 C (d) 0.063 C
through its center. At the instant shown, what are
the directions of the induced currents? 27. The equivalent inductance of two inductors is
 2.4 H when connected in parallel and 10 H when
connected in series. What is the value of inductances
of the individual inductors?
    (a) 8 H, 2 H (b) 6 H, 4 H
 (c) 5 H, 5 H (d) 7 H, 3 H
(a) A to B and C to D (b) B to A and C to D 28. A small square loop of wire of side l is placed inside
(c) A to B and D to C (d) B to A and D to C a large square loop of wire of side L(>>l). The loops
are coplanar and their centres coincide. What is the
23. Two coils A and B have coefficient of mutual
mutual inductance of the system?
inductance M = 2 H. The magnetic flux passing
μ l2 μ l2
through coil A changes by 4 Wb in 10 s due to (a) 2 2 0 (b) 8 2 0
change in current in B. Then π L π L
(a) the change in current in B in this time interval μ l 2 μ L2
(c) 2 2 0 (d) 2 2 0
is 0.5 A 2π L πl
(b) the change in current in B in this time interval 29. A circular coil with a cross-sectional area of
is 8 A 4 cm2 has 10 turns. It is placed at the centre of
(c) the change in current in B in this time interval a long solenoid that has 15 turns cm–1 and a
is 2 A cross-sectional area of 10 cm2, as shown in the
(d) the change in current of 1 A in coil A will figure. The axis of the coil coincides with the axis of
produce a change in flux passing through B by the solenoid. What is their mutual inductance?
4 Wb.
24. Two concentric and coplanar circular coils have
radii a and b as shown in figure. Resistance of the
(a) 7.54 μΗ (b) 8.54 μΗ
inner coil is R. Current in the other coil is increased
(c) 9.54 μΗ (d) 10.54 μΗ
from 0 to i, then the total charge circulating the
inner coil is 30. A conducting ring of radius 1 m is placed in a
μ iab μ iaπ uniform magnetic field B of 0.01 T oscillating with
(a) 0 (b) 0 frequency 100 Hz with its plane at right angle to B.
2R 2ab 
 What will be induced electric field?
μ ia2 μ ia2 (a) π V m–1 (b) 0.5 V m–1
(c) 0 (d) 0
Rb 2Rb (c) 10 V m –1
(d) 62 V m–1

50 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


SOLUTIONS and in second case, when plane of coil is turned
1. (d) : If d1is distance of point X on axial line and d2 through 90°;
is distance of point Y on equatorial line, torque = MB sin θ = 0.03 ...(ii)
μ 2M μ M Square (i) and (ii) and add
then B1 = 0 ,B = 0
4 π d13 2 4 π d23 MB = (0.04 )2 + (0.03)2 = 0.05
μ0 2 M μ0 M 0.05 0.05
As B1= B2 ∴ = ∴ B= = = 0. 4 Τ
4 π d13 4 π d23 M 0.125
d13 = 2d23 6. (a) : If C is torque per unit angular twist of the
d1 wire, then for a twist φ,
= 21/3 τ = C φ = MB sin θ.
d2
In the 1st case, φ1 = 540° – 45° = 495°, θ1 = 45°
I In the 2nd case, φ2 = 360° – 45°= 315°, θ2 = 45°
2. (d) : T = 2 s = 2 π
MB ∴ C (495°) = M1 B sin 45° ...(i)
When the magnet is cut along its length into three and C (315°) = M2 B sin 45° ...(ii)
equal parts, moment of inertia of each part becomes Dividing (i) by (ii), we get
I/3 and magnetic moment of each part also becomes
M1 495 11
M/3. = =
As the three parts are placed on each other with their M2 315 7
like poles together, therefore for the combination, I
7. (d) : As, T = 2π
I /3+ I /3+ I /3 I MB
T = 2π = 2π =2s 1
(M / 3 + M / 3 + M / 3)B MB ∴ T1 = T
2
1
3. (d) : Here, l = 20 cm, r = cm, n = 600, Initial time period, T =
60
= 2s
2 30
μr = 1000, i = 0.5 A, I = ?, 2
∴ T1 = = 2s
As 1 + χm = μr 2
χm = μr – 1 = 1000 – 1 = 999 8. (d) : Copper is a diamagnetic material, therefore its
H = ni = 600 × 0.5 = 300 rod align itself where magnetic field is weaker and
I = χmH = 999 × 300 = 2.997 × 105 A m–1 perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field in
4. (c) : As the magnet is long, we assume that the upper that region.
north pole produces no effect on the table. At the
9. (b) : M1 = 3 M and M2 = M
neutral point, magnetic field B due to south pole
T2 = ?
of the magnet is equal and opposite to horizontal
In pole combination,
component of earth’s magnetic field.
T2 M1 3M
i.e., B = ⎜⎛ μ0 ⎟⎞ = H
m = = = 3 or T2 = 3T1 = 3 3 s
⎝ 4π ⎠ r2 T1 M2 M
μ 10. (b) : Here, n1 = 10 oscillations per minute
In CGS system, 0 = 1
4π δ1 = 45o, R1 = 0.707 CGS units
m
∴ 1× = 3.2 × 10−5 × 104 gauss n2 = ?, δ2 = 60o, R2 = 0.5 CGS units
102
n2 H2 R2 cos δ2
m = 32 ab–A cm ∴ = =
n1 H1 R1 cos δ1
5. (d) : As, M = niA = 50 × 2 × 1.25 × 10–3
= 0.125 A m2 n 0.5 cos 60° 0. 5 × 1 / 2 1
⇒ 2= = =
If normal to the face of the coil makes an angle θ 10 0.707 cos 45° 0. 5 × 2 × 1 / 2 2
with the magnetic induction B, then in first case, 10
torque = MB cos θ = 0.04 ...(i) or n2 = = 7.07
2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 51


1 1
11. (b) : Here, Magnetising field, H = 1600 A m–1 17. (a) : As ω2 = or ω =
LC LC
Magnetic flux, φ = 2.4 × 10–5 Wb 2
1 q0
Area, A = 0.2 cm2 = 0.2 × 10–4 m2 Maximum energy stored in capacitor =
2 C
φ 2.4 × 10−5 Wb
∴ B= = = 1.2 Wb m–2 Let at an instant t, the energy be stored equally
A 0.2 × 10−4 m2 between electric and magnetic field. Then energy
B stored in electric field at instant t is
Magnetic permeability, μ =
H 1 Q 2 1 ⎡ 1 q02 ⎤ 2
2 q0
1.2Wb m −2 = ⎢ ⎥ or Q =
= = 7.5 × 10−4 Wb A −1m −1 2 C 2 ⎣2 C ⎦ 2
−1
1600 A m q q π
μ or Q = 0 , q0 sin ωt = 0 or ωt =
Magnetic susceptibility, χ = −1
μ0 2 2 4
(7.5 × 10−4 Wb A −1m −1 ) π π π LC
= − 1 596 or t= = =
(4 π × 10−7 Wb A −1m −1 ) 4ω 4 × (1 / LC ) 4

12. (a) : Work done in changing the orientation of 18. (d) : As per Lenz’s law, e.m.fs of
the same magnitude are induced
a dipole of moment M in magnetic field B from
in the two loops in the clockwise  
position θ1 to θ2 is given by
direction. Thus current is induced
W = MB (cos θ1 – cos θ2)
in the clockwise direction in the
Here, θ1= 0° and θ2 = 180°
outer boundary, but obviously, there is zero current
So, W = 2MB = 2 × 2.5 × 0.2 = 1 J
in wire AB.
13. (b) : Here, n = 500 turns m–1 ε −ndφ / dt
I = 1 A, μr = 500 19. (c) : The induced current, I = =
−n(W2 − W1 ) / t R ′ R′
Magnetic intensity, H = nI = 500 m–1 × 1 A I=
= 500 A m–1 R + 4R
Magnetisation, M = χH −n(W2 − W1 )
I=
where χ is the magnetic susceptibility of the material 5Rt
= (μr−1)H = (500 –1) × 500 A m–1 (∵ χ = (μr – 1)) Note that W1, W2 are in weber. Therefore, they
= 499 × 500 A m–1 = 2.495 × 105 A m–1 represent magnetic flux and not magnetic field.
≈ 2.5 × 105 A m–1 20. (c) : At t = 0, the ring enters the region of magnetic
14. (c) : Diamagnetic substances are those substances in field. Magnetic flux linked with the ring varies till
which resultant magnetic moment in an atom is zero. the entire ring is in the field. For this time only,
A paramagnetic material tends to move from a e.m.f. is induced in the ring, in one direction.
weak magnetic field to strong magnetic field. When the entire ring is moving in the magnetic
A magnetic material is in the paramagnetic phase field, the magnetic flux linked with the ring is
above its Curie temperature. constant. Therefore, ε = 0.
Typical domain size of a ferromagnetic material is When the ring starts moving out of the magnetic
1 mm. field, magnetic flux linked with the ring is
15. (d) : Materials suitable for permanent magnets decreasing. Therefore, e.m.f. is induced in the ring
should have high retentivity, high coercivity and in opposite direction, only till the entire ring is out
high permeability. of the magnetic field.
16. (a) : As loop is in xy plane, only z component of 21. (d) : When a ring moves in magnetic field in a
magnetic field is effective direction perpendicular to its plane, we replace
B = –18 G = –18 × 10–4 T the ring by a diameter (2r) perpendicular to the
A = 5 × 10–4 m2 direction of motion. The e.m.f., is induced across
this diameter. Current flow in the ring will be
φ = BA cos 0o = –18 × 10–4 × 5 × 10–4
through the two semicircular portions in parallel.
= – 90 × 10–8 Wb = – 900 × 10–9 Wb = – 900 nWb Induced e.m.f. = B(2r)v.

52 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


Resistance of each half of ring = R/2 (L1 – L2)2= (L1 + L2)2 _ 4L1L2
As the two halves are in parallel, therefore, L1 – L2 = [102– 4 × 24]1/2 = 2 H ...(iii)
equivalent resistance = R/4
Solving (i) and (iii), we get
B(2r )v 8Brv
∴ Current in the section = = L1 = 6 H, L2 = 4 H
R/4 R
28. (a) : Let the current I be flowing
22. (a) : As per Lenz’s law, N pole should develop at in the larger loop. The larger loop
the end corresponding to C. Induced current flows
is made up of four wires each of
from C to D. Again S pole should develop at the
length L, the field at the centre i.e.,
end corresponding to B. Therefore, induced current
at a distance from each wire, will
in the coil flows from A to B.
be
23. (c) : Here, M = 2 H, dφ = 4 Wb, dt = 10 s μ0 I
B=4× (sin 45° + sin 45°)
Αs φ = Mi 4 π(L / 2)
dφ = M di μ 2I 2 μ I
=4× 0 =2 2 0
dφ 4 4π L 2 π L
or di = = =2A
M 2 Flux linked with smaller loop
Also, dφ = M(di) = 2(1) = 2 Wb μ I
φ2 = BA2 = 2 2 0 × l 2
μ i
24. (d) : Change in flux, dφ = ⎜⎛ 0 ⎟⎞ πa2 π L
⎝ 2 πb ⎠ φ μ l2
Hence, M = 2 ⇒ M = 2 2 0
dφ π L
Αs dq = I
R 29. (a) : Let us refer to the coil as circuit 1 and the
∴ Τotal charge circulating the inner coil is solenoid as circuit 2. The field in the central region
2 μ ia2
⎛ μ i ⎞ πa of the solenoid is uniform, so the flux through the
=⎜ 0 ⎟ = 0
⎝ 2 πb ⎠ R 2Rb coil is
Δφ NA(B2 − B1 ) N πr 2 (B2 − B1 ) φ12 = B2A1 = (μ0n2I2)A1
25. (a) : q = = = where n2 = N2/l = 1500 turns m–1,
R R R
The mutual inductance is
1000 × π × 10−4 × (0.012 − 0) Nφ
=
(200 + 400) M = 1 12 = μ0n2 N1 A1
I2
= 6.3 × 10−6 C = 6.3 μC
= (4π × 10–7 T m A–1) (1500 m–1)(10) (4 × 10–4m2)
−dφ BA(cos 0° − cos 90°)
26. (c) : As q = = = 7.54 × 10–6 H = 7.54 μH
R R
Bπr 2 (1 − 0) Bπr 2 30. (b) : Here, r = 1 m, B = 0.01 T,
= =
R R 1 1
t= = s
υ 100
2 × 3.14 × (10−1)
2
= dφ
0.01 Induced e.m.f, ε =
dt
= 6.28 C 6.3 C
BA Bπr 2 0.01 × π(1)2
27. (b) : L1 + L2 = 10 H ...(i) = = = =πV
L1L2 t t ⎛ 1 ⎞
and = 2. 4 H ...(ii) ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠
(L1 + L2 ) 100

Substituting the value of (L1 + L2) from (i) into (ii), ε ε π


Induced electric field, E = = =
we get l 2 πr 2 × π × 1
L1 L2 = (2.4)(L1 + L2) = 2.4 × 10 = 24 = 0.5 V m–1 ‰‰

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 53


Exam
on
st
1 May
MODEL TEST PAPER 2016
1. A body of mass 1 kg is projected with velocity (a) 1 A, 3 V
50 m s–1 at an angle of 30° with the horizontal. At (b) 2 A, 3 V
the highest point of its path a force of 10 N acts (c) 1 A, 4 V E
on body for 5 s vertically upward besides gravitational (d) 4 A, 4 V
force. What is the horizontal range of the body?
6. Some magnetic flux is changed through a coil of
(g = 10 m s–2)
resistance 10 Ω. As a result an induced current is
(a) 125 3 m (b) 200 3 m developed in it, which varies with time as shown
(c) 500 m (d) 250 3 m in the figure. The magnitude of change in the flux
through the coil in Wb is
2. The kinetic energy K of a particle moving
(a) 2
along a circle of radius R depends upon
the distance s as K = as2, where a is a (b) 4
constant. The force acting on the particle is (c) 6
1/2 (d) none of these
s2 ⎡ s2 ⎤
(a) 2a (b) 2as ⎢1 + 2 ⎥ 7. An AC source is connected with a resistance (R)
R ⎣ R ⎦
(c) 2as (d) 2a and an uncharged capacitance (C), in series. The
potential difference across the resistor is in phase
3. A hemispherical bowl of radius R is kept on a with the initial potential difference across the
horizontal table. A small sphere of radius r(r <<R) capacitor for the first time at the instant (assume
is placed at the highest point at the inside of the
that at t = 0, emf is zero).
bowl and let go. The sphere rolls without slipping. π 2π π 3π
Its velocity at the lowest point is (a) (b) (c) (d)
4ω ω 2ω 2ω
(a) 5 gR / 7 (b) 3 gR / 2 8. The bob of a simple pendulum of length 1.2 m has a
(c) 4 gR / 3 (d) 10 gR / 7 velocity of 7 m s–1 when it is at the lowest point. The
4. Three plates A, B, C each of area 50 cm2 have bob would leave the circular path above the centre at a
separation 3 mm between A and B and 3 mm height
between B and C. The energy stored when the (a) 1.0 m (b) 0.867 m
plates are fully charged is (c) 0.652 m (d) 0.512 m
(a) 1.6 × 10–9 J 9. What is the height at which the weight of body will
(b) 2.1 × 10–9 J 

be the same as at the same depth from the surface
(c) 5 × 10 J–9
 of the earth? Radius of earth is R.
(d) 7 × 10–9 J
(a) R (b) 5 R − R
5. In the circuit shown in the figure, ammeter and 2
voltmeter are ideal. If ε = 4 V, R = 9 Ω and r = 1 Ω , 5R−R 3R−R
(c) (d)
then readings of ammeter and voltmeter are 2 2

54 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


10. A steel wire of length 20 cm and uniform cross 16. Two identical magnetic dipoles of magnetic
sectional area 1 mm2 is tied rigidly at both the ends. moment 2 A m2 are placed at a separation of 2 m
The temperature of the wire is altered from 20°C with their axes perpendicular to each other in air.
to 40°C. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel is The resultant magnetic field at a midpoint between
α = 1.1 × 10–5 per °C and Y for steel is 2.0 × 1011 N m–2; the dipoles is
the tension in wire is (a) 4 5 × 10 −5 T (b) 2 5 × 10 −5 T
(a) 2.2 × 106 N (b) 16 N (c) 4 5 × 10 T−7
(d) 2 5 × 10 −7 T
(c) 8 N (d) 44 N 17. An object is kept at a distance of 16 cm from a thin
11. The dimensional formula of a physical quantity is lens and the image formed is real. If the object is kept
[M–1 L–3 T2]. The respective errors in measuring at a distance of 6 cm from the same lens, the image
M, L, T are 2%, 3%, 4%. The maximum percentage formed is virtual. If the sizes of the image formed are
error in measuring the quantity is equal then focal length of the lens will be
(a) 2% (b) 9% (c) 8% (d) 19% (a) 21 cm (b) 11 cm (c) 15 cm (d) 17 cm
12. A bird moves with velocity 20 m s–1 in a direction 18. A charged oil drop falls with terminal velocity v0
making an angle of 600 with the eastern line and in the absence of electric field. An electric field E
600 with vertical upward line. The velocity vector of keeps it stationary. The drop acquires charge 3q, it
bird in cartesian coordinates is starts moving upwards with velocity v0. The initial
charge on the drop is
(a) 10 i + 10 j + 10 k (b) 10 i + 5 2 j + 10 k q 3q
(a) (b) q (c) (d) 2q
(c) 10 i + 10 2 j + 10 k (d) 5 i + 5 2 j + 10 k 2 2
13. The given graph 19. Which one of the following statements regarding
(m s–1)
shows the variation photo-emission of electrons is correct?
 (a) Kinetic energy of electrons increases with the
of velocity of a 1000
rocket with time. intensity of incident light.
Find the time of 110 120
(b) Electrons are emitted when the wavelength of
0
burning of fuel 10  (s) the incident light is above a certain threshold

wavelength.
from the graph.
(c) Photoelectric emission is instantaneous with
(a) 10 s (b) 110 s the incidence of light.
(c) 120 s (d) Photo electrons are emitted whenever a gas is
(d) cannot be estimated from the graph irradiated with ultraviolet light.
14. In Young’s double slit experiment, the y-coordinates 20. A ball of mass m is thrown vertically upwards.
of central maxima and 10th maxima are 2 cm and Another ball of mass 2m is thrown at angle θ with
5 cm respectively. When the YDSE apparatus is the vertical. Both of them stay in air for the same
immersed in a liquid of refractive index 1.5, the period of time. The heights attained by the two balls
corresponding y-coordinates will be are in the ratio of
(a) 2 cm, 7.5 cm (b) 3 cm, 6 cm (a) 2 : 1 (b) cos θ : 1
(c) 2 cm, 4 cm (d) 4/3 cm, 10/3 cm (c) 1 : cos θ (d) 1 : 1
15. Light of wavelength 330 nm falling on a piece of 21. A block of mass 0.5 kg is moving with a speed of
metal ejects electrons with sufficient energy which 2.0 m s–1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another
requires voltage V0 to prevent them from reaching mass of 1.0 kg at rest and then they move together as
a collector. In the same setup, light of wavelength a single body. The energy loss during the collision is
220 nm, ejects electrons which require twice the (a) 0.16 J (b) 1.00 J (c) 0.67 J (d) 0.34 J
voltage V0 to stop them from reaching a collector. 22. The temperature of equal masses of three different
The numerical value of voltage V0 is liquids A, B and C are 12 °C, 19 °C and 28 °C
16 15 15 8 respectively. The final temperature when A and B are
(a) V (b) V (c) V (d) V
15 16 8 15 mixed is 16 °C and when B and C are mixed is 23 °C.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 55


The final temperature when A and C are mixed is (b) rms value of current is 20 A.
(a) 18.2 °C (b) 22.2 °C 1
(c) Power factor of the circuit is .
(c) 20.2 °C (d) 24.2 °C 2
(d) Voltage drop across resistance is 200 V.
23. The specific heat of the mixture of two gases at
constant volume is 13 R/6. The ratio of the number 30. The potential difference across 100 Ω resistance in
of moles of the first gas to the second is 1 : 2. The the circuit is measured by a voltmeter of 900 Ω
respective gases may be resistance. The percentage error in reading the
(a) He, Ne (b) He, N2 (c) N2, O2 (d) N2, He potential difference is
24. A spring has force constant K and a mass m is 10
(a)
suspended from it. The spring is cut in two parts in 9
the ratio 1 : 3, and the same mass is suspended from (b) 0.1
the larger part. If the frequency of oscillation in the (c) 1.0
first case is υ, then the frequency in the second case (d) 10.0
will be 31. A charge q is moving with a velocity v1 = 1i m s–1
2υ 3
(a) 2 υ (b) 3υ (c) (d) υ at a point in a magnetic field and experiences a
3 2 force F = q[− j + k] N . If the charge is moving
25. A string is under tension so that its length is
1 with a velocity v2 = 1 j m s–1 at the same point, it
increased by times its original length. The ratio of
n experiences a force F2 = q(i − k ) N. The magnetic
fundamental frequency of longitudinal vibrations induction at that point is
and transverse vibrations will be −2 −2
(a) (i + j + k) Wb m (b) (i − j + k) Wb m
(a) 1 : n (b) n2 : 1 (c) n :1 (d) n : 1 −2 −2
(c) (−i + j − k ) Wb m (d) (i + j − k) Wb m
26. The driver of a car travelling with speed 30 m s–1
towards a hill sounds a horn of frequency 600 Hz. If the 32. A light string passing over a smooth light pulley
velocity of sound in air is 330 m s–1, the frequency connects two blocks of masses m1 and m2 (vertically).
of reflected sound as heard by driver is If the acceleration of the masses is (g/8), then the
(a) 500 Hz (b) 550 Hz ratio of masses is
(c) 555.5 Hz (d) 720 Hz (a) 8 : 1 (b) 9 : 7 (c) 4 : 3 (d) 5 : 3
27. When forward bias is applied to a p-n junction, 33. The velocity of a body moving in a vertical circle
then what happens to the potential barrier VB' and of radius r is 7gr at the lowest point of the circle.
the width of charge depleted region x ? What is the ratio of maximum and minimum
(a) VB increases, x decreases tension ?
(b) VB decreases, x increases (a) 4 : 1 (b) 7 : 1 (c) 3 : 1 (d) 2 : 1
(c) VB increases, x increases
(d) VB decreases, x decreases 34. A coin of mass m and radius r having moment of inertia
I about the axis passes through its centre and
28. The half-life of radium is 1620 yr and its atomic weight
perpendicular to its plane. It is beaten uniformly to
is 226 g mol–1 The number of atoms that will decay
form a disc of radius 2r. What will be the moment
from its 1 g sample per second will be (Avogadro's
of inertia about the same axis?
number N = 6.023 × 1023 atom per mole)
(a) 3.61 × 1010 Bq (b) 3.61 × 1012 Bq (a) I (b) 2I (c) 4I (d) 16I
(c) 3.11 × 1015 Bq (d) 31.1 × 1015 Bq 35. A spherical soap bubble of radius 1 cm is formed
29. Which of the following inside another bubble of radius 3 cm. The radius
statements is incorrect of a single soap bubble which maintains the same
regarding the given LCR pressure difference as inside the smaller and outside
circuit ? the larger soap bubble is
(a) Voltage will lead the (a) 0.75 cm (b) 0.75 m
current. (c) 7.5 cm (d) 7.5 m

56 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


36. A heat engine has an efficiency η. Temperatures of (a) the emitter junction is reverse biased in the n-p-n
source and sink are each decreased by 100 K. Then, and forward biased in the p-n-p
the efficiency of the engine (b) the emitter injects minority carriers into the
(a) increases (b) decreases base region of the p-n-p and majority carriers
(c) remains constant (d) becomes 1 in the base region of the n-p-n
37. Two masses m1 and m2 are suspended together by a (c) the emitter injects holes into the base region of
massless spring of force constant k. When the masses the p-n-p and electrons into the base region of
are in equilibrium, m1 is removed without disturbing the n-p-n
the system. The amplitude of oscillation is (d) the emitter injects electrons into the base region
mg m g of the p-n-p and holes into the base region of
(a) 1 (b) 2 the n-p-n.
k k
(m1 + m2 ) g (m1 − m2 ) g 44. An AC source of variable frequency υ is connected
(c) (d) to an L-C-R series circuit. Which one of the graphs
k k
in figure represents the variation of current I in the
38. A beam of light of wavelength 600 nm from a distant
circuit with frequency υ ?
source falls on a single slit 1.00 mm wide and the

resulting diffraction pattern is observed on a screen 
2 m away. The distance between the first dark fringes
on either side of the central bright fringe is (a) (b)
(a) 1.2 cm (b) 1.2 mm
(c) 2.4 cm (d) 2.4 mm U U

39. The instantaneous magnitudes of the electric field (E)  


and the magnetic field (B) vectors in an electromagnetic
wave propagating in vacuum are related as
(c) (d)
B
(a) E = (b) E = cB
c U U
B
(c) E = 2 (d) E = c2B 45. The insulation property of air breaks down at
c E = 3 × 106 V m–1. The maximum charge that can be
40. The threshold frequency for a photosensitive metal is
given to a sphere of diameter 5 m is approximately
3.3 × 1014 Hz. If light of frequency 8.2 × 1014 Hz
is incident on this metal, the cut-off voltage for the (in coulombs)
photoelectron emission is nearly (a) 2 × 10–2 (b) 2 × 10–3
–4
(a) 1 V (b) 2 V (c) 3 V (d) 5 V (c) 2 × 10 (d) 2 × 10–5
41. Half life of a radioactive substance A is two times SOLUTIONS
the half life of another radioactive substance B. 1. (d) : For 5 s, weight of the body is balanced by the
Initially, the number of nuclei of A and B are NA and given force. Hence, it will move in a straight line as
NB respectively. After three half lives of A, number shown in the figure.
N 
of nuclei of both are equal. Then the ratio A is
NB
1 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d) 
3 6 8 4
42. The transition in He+ ion that will give rise to a  

spectral line having the same wavelength as that of 
some spectral line in hydrogen atom is
u 2 sin 2 θ
(a) n = 3 to n = 1 (b) n = 3 to n = 2 R= + (u cos θ)(5)
(c) n = 4 to n = 2 (d) n = 4 to n = 3 g
43. One way in which the operation of an n-p-n transistor (50)2 ⋅ sin 60°
= + (50 × cos 30°)(5) = 250 3 m
differs from that of a p-n-p transistor is that 10

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 57


1 2 i ⎛ 1⎞
2. (b) : Here,K = mv = as ∴ mv 2 = 2as 2
2
V = R = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ (9) = 3 V
2 3 3
Differentiating with respect to time t 6. (a) : Charge induced in coil
dv ds dv dφ
2mv = 4as = 4asv ⇒ m = 2as dq = = i dt = Area under i-t graph
dt dt dt R
∴ Tangential force, Ft = 2as ∴ dφ = (Area under i-t graph) R
mv 2 2as 2 1
Centripetalforce, Fc = = = × 4 × 0.1 × 10 = 2 Wb
R R 2
∴ Net force acting on the particle 7. (d) : Let V = V0 sin ωt (as V = 0 at t = 0)
Then VR = V0 sin ωt
2
⎛ 2as 2 ⎞ and VC = V0 sin(ωt − π / 2)
F= Ft2 + Fc2 = (2as) + ⎜
2
= 2as 1 + s 2 / R2
⎝ R ⎟⎠ V and VR are in same phase. While VC lags V (or
VR) by 900. Now VR is in same phase with initial
3. (d) : As, it is clear from figure,
potential difference across the capacitor for the first
on reaching the bottom 
time when,
of the bowl, loss in π 3π
potential energy = mgR, and gain in kinetic energy ωt = − + 2 π =
2 2
1 1 3π
= mv 2 + Iω 2 ∴ t=
2 2 2ω
1 2 1 ⎛ 2 2 ⎞ v2 8. (b) : Here, r = l = 1.2 m, u = 7 m s–1
= mv + × ⎜ mr ⎟ 2
2 2 ⎝5 ⎠r
Now, 2 gr = 2 × 9.8 × 1.2 = 4.85 m s −1
1 2 1 2 7
= mv + mv = mv 2 and 5 gr = 5 × 9.8 × 1.2 = 7.67 m s −1
2 5 10
As, gain in KE = loss in PE
The condition 2 gr < u < 5 gr is satisfied.
7
∴ mv 2 = mgR Therefore, the bob will leave the vertical circle at P,
10 where component of weight along PO is just equal
10 gR to centripetal force (mv2/r). 
⇒ v=
7  Q
mv 2
i.e., mg cos θ = 
4. (b) : Here circuit is equivalent to two capacitors in r
parallel. 
ε A ε A 2ε A or v2 = rg cos θ = gh ...(i)
∴ Ceq = C1 + C2 = 0 + 0 = 0
d d d Height of P above the bottom = r + h
1 1 ⎛ 2ε A ⎞ At P, loss in KE = gain in PE
∴ Energystored = Ceq V 2 = ⎜ 0 ⎟ V 2 1 1
2 2⎝ d ⎠ mu2 − mv 2 = mg (r + h)
2 2
8.86 × 10 −12 × 50 × 10 −4 × 12 × 12
= = 2.1 × 10–9 J or u2 – v2 = 2g (r + h)
3 × 10 −3 using (i), u2 = gh + 2gh + 2gr = g (3h + 2r)
5. (a) : The given three resistors are in parallel
1 ⎡ u2 ⎤ 1 ⎡ 72 ⎤
  h = ⎢ − 2r ⎥ = ⎢ − 2 × 1.2⎥ = 0.867 m
3⎣ g ⎦ 3 ⎣ 9. 8 ⎦
 9. (c) : Weight of a body at height h = weight of the
  body at depth h
g R2 ⎛ h⎞
= g ⎜1 − ⎟
E 
( R + h) 2 ⎝ R⎠
ε 4
∴ i= = = 1A ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ h2 2h ⎞
r + R / 3 1+ 3 or ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎜ 1 + 2 + ⎟ = 1
⎝ R⎠ ⎝ R R⎠

58 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


hc
h3 h2h h ⎛ h2 h ⎞ eV0 = −W ...(i)
or + 2 − = 0 or ⎜ + − 1⎟ = 0 330 × 10 −9
R 3
R R R ⎝ R2 R ⎠ hc
e (2V0 ) = −W ...(ii)
h −1 ± 1 + 4 5 −1 5R − R 220 × 10 −9
or = = or h= Solving these two equations, we get
R 2 2 2
109 × h × c 109 × 6.6 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108 15
10. (d) : Increase in length due to rise in temperature, V0 = = = volt
110 × e × 6 110 × 1.6 × 10 −19 × 6 8
ΔL = αL Δ T
FL 16. (d) :
As, Y = ;
AΔL
YA ΔL YA × αL ΔT
so F = = = YA α ΔT
L L
∴ F = 2 × 1011 × 10 −6 × 1.1 × 10 −5 × 20 = 44 N Let point P be the midpoint between the dipoles.
–1
11. (d) : Here, x = [M L T ] –3 2 The point P will be in end-on position with respect
to one dipole and in broad-side on position with
Δx ΔM ⎛ ΔL ⎞ ⎛ ΔT ⎞
= + 3⎜ + 2⎜
⎝ L ⎟⎠ ⎝ T ⎟⎠
respect to the other.
x M
μ 2 M 10 −7 × 2 × 2
∴ % error in the quantity x ∴ B1 = 0 3 1 = = 4 × 10 −7 T
= 2% + 3 (3%) + 2 (4%) = 19% 4 π r1 (1)3
12. (c) : Let eastern line be x-axis, northern line as μ 0 M2 10 −7 × 2
→ and B2 = = = 2 × 10 −7 T
y-axis and vertical upward line as z-axis. Let v make 4 π r23
(1)3

angles α, β and γ with x, y and z-axis respectively. As B1 and B2 are perpendicular to each other,
Then α = 60°, γ = 60° therefore the resultant magnetic field at point P is
As cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1 B = B12 + B22 = (4 × 10 −7 )2 + (2 × 10 −7 )2
∴ cos2 60° + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1 = 10 −7 16 + 4 = 10 −7 20 = 2 5 × 10 T
−7
1
or (1 / 2)2 + cos2 β + (1 / 2)2 = 1 or cos β = 17. (b) : As a convex lens alone can form a real image
2 as well as a virtual image, therefore, the lens in
→ the present question is a convex lens. Let, f be the
Now v = (v cos α) i + (v cos β) j + (v cos γ )k
focal length of the lens and m be the magnification
= (20 cos 60°) i + (20 × 1 / 2 ) j + (20 cos 60°)k produced.
In the first case, when image is real,
= 10i + 10 2 j + 10k u = –16 cm, v = (m × 16) cm
13. (a) : When the fuel is burning, velocity of the rocket 1 1 1
As − =
is increasing. After the fuel is exhausted, velocity v u f
starts decreasing. From the graph, time of burning 1 1 1 1 16
of fuel = 10 s. ∴ + = or 1 + = ...(i)
16m 16 f m f
Dλ In the second case, when image is virtual.
14. (c) : Fringe width, β = , i.e., β ∝ λ
d u = – 6 cm, v = (–6m) cm
So, wavelength λ and hence fringe width β decreases 1 1 1
1.5 times when immersed in liquid. The distance From − =
v u f
between central maxima and 10th maxima is 3 cm 1 1 1 1 6
in vacuum. When immersed in liquid it will reduce + = or 1 − = ...(ii)
−6m 6 f m f
to 2 cm. Position of central maxima will not change
Adding eqn (i) and eqn (ii), we have
while 10th maxima will be obtained at y = 4 cm.
22 22
15. (c) : Let W be the work function of metal. Then 2 = or f = = 11 cm
f 2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 59


18. (c) : When drop is stationary, then 4s1 = 3s2 ...(i)
q1E = Weight –Upthrust (ii) When B and C are mixed,
q1E = 6πηrv0 or q1 = 6πηrv0 / E temperature of mixture = 230C
When drop moves upwards, then As heat gained by B = heat lost by C,
ms2 (23 – 19) = ms3 (28 – 23)
6πηr (v0 + v0 ) ⎛ 6πηrv0 ⎞
3q = =2×⎜ ⎟ = 2q1 ∴ 4s2 = 5s3 ...(ii)
E ⎝ E ⎠ 3 15
3 From eqns (i)and (ii), s1 = s2 = s3
∴ q1 = q 4 16
2 When A and C are mixed, suppose temperature of
19. (c) mixture = t
20. (d) : As per question, time of flight for both the balls heat gained A = heat lost by C
is equal. ms1 (t – 12) = ms3 (28 – t)
2u1 2u2 cos θ 15
s3 (t − 12) = s3 (28 − t )
= or u1 = u2 cos θ ...(i)
g g 16
15t – 180 = 448 – 16t
1
For first ball ; mu12 = mgh1 ...(ii) 31t = 448 + 180 = 628 ∴ t = 20.2°C
2
n1 CV 1 + n2 CV 2
1
For second ball ; 2m (u2 cos θ)2 = 2mgh2 23. (b) : As CV =
2
...(iii) n1 + n2

or
1
mu1 = mgh2
2
[From (i)] 13 1C + 2 CV 2 13
or R = V1 or CV 1 + 2 CV 2 = R
2 6 1+ 2 2
∴ h1 = h2 3
21. (c) : Here, m1 = 0.5 kg, u1=2.0 m s–1 If first gas is monoatomic, then CV1 = R and
2
m2 = 1.0 kg, u2 = 0 5
If v is velocity of the system after collision, then second gas is diatomic, then CV 2 = R .
2
according to the principle of conservation of linear
3 5 13
momentum, ∴ CV 1 + 2CV 2 = R + 2 × R = R
(m1 + m2) v = m1 u1 + m2 u2 = m1 u1 2 2 2
m1 u1 0. 5 × 2. 0 It means the option (b) is true.
v= =
m1 + m2 0.5 + 1.0 24. (c) : Let k be the force constant of smaller piece of
1. 0 2 spring. Then the longer piece is a combination of
v= = m s −1 three smaller pieces in series. Their effective force
1. 5 3 constant k1 = k/3. In a bigger spring, the smaller
Energy loss = initial energy – final energy pieces are connected in series, so
1 1 1 1 3 4
= m1 u12 − (m1 + m2 )v 2 = + = or k = 4 K
2 2 K k k k
2
1 1 ⎛ 2⎞ 4K
= × 0.5 × (2.0) − (0.5 + 1.0) ⎜ ⎟
2
∴ k1 =
2 2 ⎝ 3⎠ 3
1. 5 4 1 k1 1 4K / 3 2υ
= 1. 0 − × = 0.67 J υ=
1 K
and υ′ = = =
2 9 2π m 2π m 2π m 3
22. (c) : Let m1 = m2 = m3 = m
Y
Let s1, s2, s3 be the respective specific heats of the 25. (c) : Velocity of longitudinal waves, v1 =
three liquids. ρ
T
(i) When A and B are mixed, velocity of transverse waves, v2 =
m
temperature of mixture = 160 C If a is area of cross-section of string
As heat gained by A = heat lost by B mass mass
∴ ms1 (16 –12) = ms2 (19 – 16) then m = = × area = ρ a
length volume

60 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


T v1 Y ρa Ya cos φ =
R
=
1
∴ v2 = , = ⋅ =
ρ a v2 ρ T T Z 2
VR = Irms R = (20)(10) = 200 V
F T
As Y = = ⎛ 100 ⎞ 10
aΔ l / l a(Δ l / l ) 30. (c) : V
actual = ⎜ V = V1 = V
⎝ 110 ⎟⎠ 11
−1/2
v1 T a ⎛ Δl⎞ Equivalent resistance of 100 Ω and 900 Ω is 90 Ω
∴ = =⎜ ⎟
v2 ⎛ Δl⎞ T ⎝ l ⎠ ⎛ 90 ⎞ 9
a⎜ ⎟ Vmeasured = ⎜ ⎟ V = V = V2
⎝ l ⎠ ⎝ 90 + 10 ⎠ 10
Δl 1 V − V2
we are given, = % error = 1 × 100
l n V1
−1/2
v1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 9 ⎞
∴ =⎜ ⎟ = n ⎜⎝ V ⎟⎠ − ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ V
v2 ⎝ n ⎠ =
11 10
× 100 = 1%
If υ1 and υ2 are the fundamental frequencies of ⎛ 10 ⎞
⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ V
longitudinal and transverse waves then 11
υ 31. (a) : Let the magnetic field is B = B1 i + B2 j + B3 k
v1 = υ1 λ and v2 = υ2 λ. ∴ 1 = n Applying F m = q(v × B) we have,
υ2
26. (d) : As the source is moving towards the hill (the q[− j + k] = q[(i) × (B1 i + B2 j + B3 k)] = q[B2 k − B3 j]
listener), therefore, apparent frequency of horn Comparing two sides, we get,
striking the hill is B2 = 1 and B3 = 1
v 330 × 600 Further, q[i − k] = q[( j) × (B1 i + B2 j + B3 k)]
υ′ = ×υ= = 660Hz
v − vs 330 − 30 = q[− B1 k + B3 i]
For the reflected sound, driver acts as listener Again comparing we get,
moving towards source (the hill) B1 = 1 and B3 = 1
(v + v L )υ (330 + 30) 660 ∴ B = (i + j + k) Wb m −2
∴ υ′′ = = = 720H z
v 330 (m1 − m2 ) g g
32. (b) : In the given system, a = =
27. (d) : In forward biasing, both potential barrier VB and m1 + m2 8
the width of charge depleted region x decreases. m1 − m2 1
∴ =
28. (a) : Rate of change of radioactive nuclei, m1 + m2 8
⎛ dN ⎞
⎜⎝ − ⎟ = λN 8m1 – 8m2 = m1 + m2
dt ⎠ m1 9
7m1 = 9m2 or =
0.693 0.693 m2 7
∵ λ= =
T 12/ 1620 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 33. (a) : Tension is maximum at the lowest point and
6.023 × 1023 minimum at the highest point.
and N = Tension at the lowest point,
226

∴⎜−
⎛ dN ⎞
=
0.693 × 6.023 × 1023 TL = mg +
mv L2
= mg +
7mgr
= 8mg (∵ v L = 7gr )
⎝ dt ⎟⎠ 1620 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 × 226
r r
Tension at the highest point,
= 3.61 × 1010 Bq mv H2 m(v L2 − 4 gr )
TH = − mg = − mg
29. (a) : XC > XL. Hence, current will lead the voltage. r r
m(7gr − 4 gr )
Z = R2 + ( XC − X L ) = 10 2 Ω
2 =
r
− mg (
∵ v L2 − v H2 = 4 gr )
= 3mg – mg = 2mg
Vrms 400 / 2
∴ I rms = = = 20 A TL 4 T 4
Z 10 2 ∴ = or max =
TH 1 Tmin 1
PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 61
34. (c) : Moment of inertia of coin of mass m and radius Here, D = 2 m; d = 1 × 10–3 m and λ = 6 × 10–7 m
r about the axis passing through the centre of mass 2 × 6 × 10 −7
and perpendicular to its plane is So, y = = 1.2 mm
1 × 10 −3
mr 2 ∴ Distance between first minima on either side
I= ...(i)
2 of central maxima, Δy = 2y = 2.4 mm.
Moment of inertia of disc of mass m and radius 2r
about the axis passing through the centre of mass 39. (b) : At every instant, the ratio of the magnitude of
and perpendicular to its plane is the electric field to that of the magnetic field in an
m (2r )2 electromagnetic wave equals the speed of light.
I′ = = 4I (Using (i))
2 40. (b) : According to Einstein’s photoelectric equation
35. (a) : Pressure outside the bigger drop = P1 eVs = hυ – h υ0
Pressure inside the bigger drop = P2 where, υ = Incident frequency
Radius of bigger drop, r1 = 3 cm υ0 = Threshold frequency
4S 4S
Excess pressure = P2 − P1 = = Vs = Cut-off or stopping potential
r1 3 h
Pressure inside small drop = P3 or Vs = (υ − υ0 )
e
4S 4S Substituting the given values, we get
Excess pressure = P3 – P2 = =
r2 1 6.63 × 10 −34 (8.2 × 1014 − 3.3 × 1014 )
Pressure difference between inner side of small Vs = ≈2V
drop and outer side of bigger drop 1.6 × 10 −19
4S 4S 16S 41. (c) : Three half lives of A are equivalent to six half
= P3 − P1 = + =
3 1 3 lives of B. As number of nuclei left are equal in the
This pressure difference should exist in a single two cases.
drop of radius r. 3 6
⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞
⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ = NB ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
4S 16S 3 Therefore, NA
∴ = or r = cm = 0.75 cm
r 3 4 3
36. (a) : Efficiency of the heat engine, NA (1 / 2)6 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1
= =⎜ ⎟ =
T T −T NB (1 / 2) ⎝ 2 ⎠
3
8
η =1− 2 = 1 2
T1 T1 42. (c) : To have the same wavelength of some spectral
where T1 and T2 are the temperatures of source and lines from different hydrogen like atoms, one must
sink respectively. have
When T1 and T2 both are decreased by 100 K each,
(T1 – T2) stays constant. T1 decreases. ⎡1 1⎤ 2 ⎡ 1 1⎤
⎢ 2 − 2⎥=Z ⎢ 2 − 2⎥
∴ η increases. ⎢⎣ n f ni ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ p f pi ⎥⎦
(m + m2 ) g where nf and ni are principal quantum numbers
37. (a) : For equilibrium of (m1 + m2 ), x1 = 1
k of final and initial orbits for hydrogen atom and pf
m2 g
and for equilibrium of m2 , x2 = and pi are those for He+ ion. Also, Z = 2. This gives
k pf = 2nf and pi = 2ni.
∴ Amplitude of oscillation will be
(m + m2 ) g m2 g m1 g 43. (c)
A = x1 − x2 = 1 − =
k k k 44. (c) : At resonance frequency, current is maximum.
38. (d) : In case of diffraction at a single slit, the position 45. (b) : Electric field on the surface of a conducting sphere
of minima is given by 1 q
is E = ⋅ 2
dsinθ = nλ 4 πε0 r
y
If θ is small, sinθ = θ =
D ∴ q = Er 2 ⋅ 4πε0
So, the position of first minimum relative to centre 3 × 106 × (2.5)2
will be given by = = 2.08 × 10 −3 C
d(y/D) = λ, i.e., y = (D/d)λ 9 × 109
‰‰

62 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


Time Allowed : 3 hours
 Maximum Marks : 70
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.
(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C
contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section E
contains three questions of five marks each.
(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question
of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to aĴempt only one of the choices in such
questions.

SECTION-A connected in parallel. Calculate the emf and internal


1. Write the underlying principle of a moving coil resistance of the equivalent cell.
galvanometer. 8. State Brewster's law.
2. Why are microwaves considered suitable for radar The value of Brewster angle for a transparent
systems used in aircraft navigation? medium is different for light of different colours.
3. Define 'quality factor' of resonance in series LCR Give reason.
circuit. What is its SI unit? 9. Explain the terms (i) Attenuation and
4. A point charge +Q is placed at point O as shown (ii) Demodulation used in Communication System.
in the figure. Is the potential difference VA – VB 10. Plot a graph showing variation of de-Broglie
positive, negative or zero ? 1
wavelength λ versus , where V is accelerating
V
5. How does the electric flux due to a point charge potential for two particles A and B carrying same
enclosed by a spherical Gaussian surface get charge but of masses m1, m2 (m1 > m2). Which one
affected when its radius is increased ? of the two represents a particle of smaller mass and
SECTION-B why?
6. A nucleus with mass number A = 240 and SECTION-C
BE/A = 7.6 MeV breaks into two fragments each 11. (i) Define mutual inductance.
of A = 120 with BE/A = 8.5 MeV. Calculate the (ii) A pair of adjacent coils has a mutual inductance
released energy. of 1.5 H. If the current in one coil changes from
OR 0 to 20 A in 0.5 s, what is the change of flux
Calculate the energy in fusion reaction : linkage with the other coil ?
, where BE of = 2.23 MeV
12. Two parallel plate capacitors X and Y have the same
and of = 7.73 MeV. area of plates and same separation between them.
7. Two cells of emfs 1.5 V and 2.0 V having internal X has air between the plates while Y contains a
resistances 0.2 Ω and 0.3 Ω respectively are dielectric of εr = 4.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 63


18. (i) State Bohr's quantization condition for
defining stationary orbits. How does de Broglie
hypothesis explain the stationary orbits ?
(ii) Find the relation between the three wavelengths
λ1, λ2 and λ3 from the energy level diagram
(i) Calculate capacitance of each capacitor if shown below.
equivalent capacitance of the combination is
4 μF.
(ii) Calculate the potential difference between the
plates of X and Y.
(iii) Estimate the ratio of electrostatic energy stored
in X and Y.
13. Two long straight parallel conductors carry steady 19. Draw a schematic ray diagram of reflecting telescope
current I1 and I2 separated by a distance d. If the showing how rays coming from a distant object are
currents are flowing in the same direction, show received at the eye-piece. Write its two important
how the magnetic field set up in one produces an advantages over a refracting telescope.
attractive force on the other. Obtain the expression 20. How are em waves produced by oscillating charges ?
for this force. Hence define one ampere. Draw a sketch of linearly polarized em waves
14. A charge is distributed uniformly over a ring of propagating in the Z-direction. Indicate the directions
radius 'a'. Obtain an expression for the electric of the oscillating electric and magnetic fields.
intensity E at a point on the axis of the ring. Hence OR
show that for points at large distances from the ring, Write Maxwell's generalization of Ampere's Circuital
it behaves like a point charge. Law. Show that in the process of charging a capacitor,
15. Write three characteristic features in photoelectric the current produced within the plates of the
effect which cannot be explained on the basis of capacitor is
wave theory of light, but can be explained only dΦ
i = ε0 E
using Einstein's equation. dt
where ΦE is the electric flux produced during
16. (a) Write the expression for the magnetic force
charging of the capacitor plates.
acting on a charged particle moving with
velocity v in the presence of magnetic field B. 21. (a) Explain any two factors which justify the need
(b) A neutron, an electron and an alpha particle of modulating a low frequency signal.
moving with equal velocities, enter a uniform (b) Write two advantages of frequency modulation
magnetic field going into the plane of the paper over amplitude modulation.
as shown. Trace their paths in the field and 22. (i) Write the functions of three segments of a
justify your answer. transistor.
      (ii) Draw the circuit diagram for studying the input

      and output characteristics of n-p-n transistor

      in common emitter configuration. Using the
 circuit, explain how input, output characteristics
     
are obtained.
17. (a) Calculate the distance of an object of height h
from a concave mirror of radius of curvature SECTION-D
20 cm, so as to obtain a real image of 23. Meeta's father was driving her to the school. At the
magnification 2. Find the location of image
traffic signal she noticed that each traffic light was
also.
made of many tiny lights instead of a single bulb.
(b) Using mirror formula, explain why does a
When Meeta asked this question to her father, he
convex mirror always produce a virtual image.
explained the reason for this.

64 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


Answer the following questions based on above (a) number of turns in secondary
information : (b) current in primary
(i) What were the values displayed by Meeta and (c) voltage across secondary
her father ? (d) current in secondary
(ii) What answer did Meeta's father give ? (e) power in secondary
(iii) What are the tiny lights in traffic signals called 26. (i) In Young's double slit experiment, deduce
and how do these operate ? the condition for (a) constructive, and (b)
SECTION-E destructive interference at a point on the screen.
24. (i) Define the term drift velocity. Draw a graph showing variation of intensity in
(ii) On the basis of electron drift, derive an the interference pattern against position 'x' on
expression for resistivity of a conductor in the screen.
terms of number density of free electrons and (ii) Compare the interference pattern observed
relaxation time. On what factors does resistivity in Young's double slit experiment with single
of a conductor depend ? slit diffraction pattern, pointing out three
(iii) Why alloys like constantan and manganin are distinguishing features.
OR
used for making standard resistors ?
OR (i) Plot a graph to show variation of the angle of
deviation as a function of angle of incidence
(i) State the principle of working of a potentiometer.
for light passing through a prism. Derive an
(ii) In the following potentiometer circuit AB is a
expression for refractive index of the prism in
uniform wire of length 1 m and resistance 10 Ω.
terms of angle of minimum deviation and angle
Calculate the potential gradient along the wire
of prism.
and balance length AO (= l ).
(ii) What is dispersion of light ? What is its cause ?
(iii) A ray of light incident normally on one face of
a right isosceles prism
is totally reflected as
shown in figure. What
must be the minimum
value of refractive
index of glass ? Give
relevant calculations.
25. (i) An a.c. source of voltage V = V0 sinωt is
SOLUTIONS
connected to a series combination of L, C and
R. Use the phasor diagram to obtain expressions 1. When a current carrying coil is suspended in
for impedance of the circuit and phase angle a uniform magnetic field, a torque acts on it,
between voltage and current. Find the condition magnitude of which depends on the strength of
when current will be in phase with the voltage. current. This torque tends to rotate the coil about
What is the circuit in this condition called ? the axis of suspension, so that the magnetic flux
(ii) In series LR circuit XL = R and power factor passing through the coil is maximum.
of the circuit is P1. When capacitor with 2. Microwaves have short wavelengths so they are
capacitance C such that XL = XC is put in series, suitable for radar systems used in aircraft navigation.
the power factor becomes P2. Calculate P1/P2. They can penetrate through clouds also.
OR
3. The quality factor (Q) of resonance in series LCR
(i) Write the function of a transformer. State its
circuit is defined as the ratio of voltage drop across
principle of working with the help of a diagram.
inductor (or capacitor) to the applied voltage,
Mention various energy losses in this device.
V I X ω L 1
(ii) The primary coil of an ideal step up transformer i.e., Q = L = 0 L = 0 =
has 100 turns and transformation ratio is VR I0 R R ω0CR
also 100. The input voltage and power are It is an indicator of sharpness of the resonance.
respectively 220 V and 1100 W. Calculate Quality factor has no unit.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 65


4. ε1r2 + ε2r1 rr
εeq = , req = 1 2
r1 + r2 r1 + r2
1.5 × 0.3 + 2 × 0. 2
∴ εeq =
0. 3 + 0. 2
Potential difference due to a point charge Q at a 0.45 + 0.4 0.85
distance r is given by = = = 1. 7 V
0. 5 0. 5
1 Q
V= 0.2 × 0.3 0.06
4 πε0 r req = = = 0.12 Ω
0 . 2 + 0 . 3 0. 5
∴ From the given figure
1 Q 1 Q 8. Brewster's law : The tangent of the polarizing angle
VA = , VB = of incidence of a transparent medium is equal to its
4 πε0 rA 4 πε0 rB
refractive index, i.e., μ = tan(ip)
1 Q 1 Q
∴ VA − VB = − Brewster angle, ip = tan–1(μ)
4 πε0 rA 4 πε0 rB Refractive index of a transparent medium depends
Q ⎡1 1⎤ on the wavelength of light which falls on the
= ⎢ − ⎥
4 πε0 ⎣ rA rB ⎦ medium. So a transparent medium has different
values of refractive index for light of different
1 1 ⎛1 1⎞
∵ rB > rA ⇒ < ⇒⎜ − ⎟>0 colours. Hence the value of Brewster angle for a
rB rA ⎝ rA rB ⎠ transparent medium is different for light of different
Hence, (VA – VB) > 0 colours.
i.e., potential difference (VA – VB) is positive. 9. (i) Attenuation : The loss of strength of signal
5. According to Gauss's law, the during its propagation through the transmission
electric flux passing through a medium is called attenuation. Repeater is used to

closed surface is given by compensate the attenuation.
  (ii) Demodulation : The process of recovering
qenclosed
∫ E . ds = ε0 the original information signal from the modulated
wave at the receiver end is called demodulation. It
According to question when radius of spherical is the reverse process of modulation.
Gaussian surface is increased, its surface area will
10. When a charge q at rest is accelerated through a
be increased but point charge enclosed in the sphere
potential difference V then its kinetic energy is
remains same. Hence there will be no change in the
electric flux. increased by qV.
i.e., K = qV
6. For a big nucleus, A = 240, BE/A = 7.6 MeV Momentum,
Initial binding energy = 240 × 7.6 = 1824 MeV
For two small nuclei, A = 120, BE/A = 8.5 MeV p = 2m K = 2mqV
Final binding energy = 2 × 120 × 8.5 = 2040 MeV de-Broglie wavelength,
Energy released during fission
h h
= (final BE) – (Initial BE) λ= =
= 2040 – 1824 = 216 MeV p 2mqV
OR
h 1
Fusion reaction, λ= ×
2mq V
Energy released = Final BE – Initial BE Since m1 > m2 and q1 = q2 = q
= 7.73 – (2.23 + 2.23) = 3.27 MeV ∴ (slope)(q, m ) < (slope)(q, m )
1 2
Line 2 represents particle of smaller mass because
7. its slope is more than that of line 1.
11. (i) Mutual inductance : When an emf is produced
in a coil because of change in current in a coupled

66 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


coil, the effect is called mutual inductance. The So, this current (I2) carrying wire then experiences
most common application of mutual inductance is a force due to this magnetic field which on its length
the transformer. l is given by
(ii) Here, M = 1.5 H, ΔI1 = 20 A, Δt = 0.5 s, Δφ = ? F21 = I2 (l × B1 )
We know, emf induced in the second coil, μ I
(Δφ)2 M ΔI1 F21 = F12 = I2lB1 sin 90° = I2l × 0 1
ε=− =− 2πd
Δt Δt μ 0 I1I 2
or F21 = F12 = l
∴ (Δφ)2 = MΔI1 = 1.5 × 20 = 30 Wb 2πd
ε A The vector product (l × B1 ) has a direction towards
12. Here, C x = 0 the wire carrying current I1. Hence, both the wires
d
attract each other.
ε0 εr A
Cy = = εr Cx = 4 Cx So, force per unit length that each wire exerts on the
d
other is
(i) Cx and Cy are in series, so equivalent capacitance μ II
f = 012
is given by 2πd
Cx × C y If I1 = I2 = 1 A and d = 1 m and l = 1 m
C= μ
Cx + C y then f = 0 = 2 × 10 −7 N m −1

Cx × 4 Cx Thus, electric current through each of two parallel
⇒ 4= (∵ C = 4 μF) long wires placed at distance of 1m from each
Cx + 4 Cx
other is said to be 1 ampere, if they exert a force of
4 Cx 2 × 10–7 N m–1 on each other.
⇒ 4= ∴ Cx = 5 μF
5
14. Suppose total charge on ring of radius a is q. Charge
and Cy = 4 Cx = 20 μF
q is uniformly distributed. We want to find electric
(ii) Charge on each capacitor, Q = CV
field at point P on the axis of the charged ring.
Q = 4 × 10–6 × 15 = 60 × 10–6 C Consider a small element of the ring carrying charge
Potential difference between the plates of X, dq. Electric field due to this small element is dE .
Q 60 × 10−6
Vx = = = 12 V
Cx 5 × 10−6
Potential difference between the plates of Y,
Vy = V – Vx = 15 – 12 = 3 V.
(iii) Ratio of electrostatic energy stored,
Q2
U x 2Cx C y 4Cx
= 2 = = =4
Uy Q Cx Cx dE can be resolved into two components as
2Cy (i) dE cosθ along PX and (ii) dE sinθ along PY.
13. When two parallel infinite straight wires carrying Due to symmetry of ring all components of electric
currents I1 and I2 are fields of small elements along y-axis cancel out.
placed at distance d from Resultant electric field at point P,
each other, then current I1 E = ∫ dE cos θ
produces magnetic field,
1 dq 1 dq
which at any point on the Here, dE = =
second current carrying 4 πε0 r 2 4 πε0 (x 2 + a2 )
wire is x x
cos θ = =
μ0 I1 r x + a2
2
B1 = directed
2 πd 1 dq x
inwards perpendicular to plane of wires. ∴ E=∫ × 2 2 ×
4 πε0 (x + a ) ( x 2 + a2 )

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 67


1 x Magnetic force on neutron, F = 0 (as q = 0)
4 πε0 (x + a2 )3/2 ∫
= 2
dq So, neutron will move along straight line.
Magnetic force on electron
1 qx
E= Fe = q v × B = | −e v B | downwards
4 πε0 (x + a2 )3/2
2
So, curve will bend downwards as force is
For large x as x >> a, so a2 can be neglected, perpendicular to the velocity,
1 qx 1 q For a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic
∴ E= = field B perpendicular to velocity,
4 πε0 x 3 4 πε0 x 2
mv 2 mv
which is the electric intensity due to a point charge qvB = ⇒r =
r qB
at a distance x. Hence charged ring behaves as a r is the radius of curved path. 
point charge for points at large distances from it. Here vα = vn = ve = v      
15. According to Einstein's photoelectric equation, Radius of path traced by 

kinetic energy of photoelectrons is given by 4mev 2mev      
α-particle, rα = = 
Kmax = hυ – hυ0 2e B eB      
Three characteristic features explained by this Radius of path traced by  
equation : mv       
electron, re = e
i. Photoelectrons are not ejected unless the eB 
frequency of incident light is above a certain 17. (a) Here, R = – 20 cm, f = R/2 = –10 cm
threshold frequency. The threshold frequency m = –2 (image is real)
depends on the work function of material. u → object distance
ii. If the frequency of incident radiation is greater v → image distance
than threshold frequency, even a light of very weak v
m = − ⇒ v = 2u
intensity will cause photoelectrons to be emitted. If u
the frequency of incident radiation is less than the 1 1 1
Using mirror formula, + =
threshold frequency, even the most intense light v u f
will not cause photoelectrons to be emitted. 1 1 1 3 1
+ = ⇒ =
iii. The kinetic energy of the ejected electrons was 2u u −10 2u −10
proportional to the frequency of the illuminating ∴ u = – 15 cm
light. This showed that whatever was knocking the Hence, v = 2u = –30 cm.
electrons out had an energy proportional to light (b) For convex mirror : f > 0, u < 0
frequency. The remarkable fact that the ejection Using mirror formula, 1 + 1 = 1
energy was independent of the total energy of v u f
illumination showed that the interaction must be 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f ×u
like that of a particle which gave all of its energy to = − = − ⇒ = + ⇒v =
v f u f (−u) v f u f +u
the electron .
∴ v>0
iv. The emission of photoelectrons is almost
This implies that image of object placed in front of a
instantaneous. i.e. there is no time lag between the
convex mirror is always formed behind the mirror
emission of electrons and switching on of the light
which is virtual in nature.
source.
18. (i) Bohr's quantization condition :
16. (a) Magnetic force acting on a charged particle q
The electron revolves around the nucleus only in
moving with a velocity v in a uniform magnetic
those orbits for which the angular momentum
field B is given by
is some integral multiple of h/2π.
F = q (v × B) h
i.e., L = mvr = n ; n = 1, 2, 3, ....
(b) Magnetic force on α-particle 2π
Fα = qv × B = 2 e v B upward de Broglie hypothesis may be used to derive
So, curve will bend upwards as force is perpendicular Bohr's formula by considering the electron to
to the velocity. be a wave spread over the entire orbit, rather
than as a particle which at any instant is located

68 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


at a point in its orbit. The stable orbits in an (ii) The use of parabolic mirror reduces spherical
atom are those which are standing waves. aberration.
Formation of standing waves require that the 20. Oscillating charge produces an oscillating electric
circumference of the orbit is equal in length to field in space which produces an oscillating magnetic
an integral multiple of the wavelength. Thus, if field, which in turn, is a source of oscillating
r is the radius of the orbit electric field and so on. The oscillating electric and
nh ⎛ h⎞ magnetic fields thus generate each other as the wave
⎜∵λ = p ⎟
2π r = nλ =
p
⎝ ⎠ propagates through the space. Hence em waves are
which gives the angular momentum quantization produced by oscillating charges.
h A plane electromagnetic wave is said to be
L = pr = n
2π linearly polarized. The transverse electric field
wave accompanied by a magnetic field wave is
illustrated.



 
 
 
(ii)  

 
 


  OR
Maxwell's generalization of Ampere's circuital law,
Clearly, from energy level diagram, ⎛ dφ ⎞
EC – EA = (EC – EB) + (EB – EA) ∫ B . dl = μ0 (i + id ) = μ0 ⎜⎝ i + ε0 dtE ⎟⎠
(On the basis of energy of emitted photon). In the process of charging the capacitor there is
hc hc hc change in electric flux between the capacitor plates.
= +
λ 3 λ1 λ 2
1 1 1 λλ dφ E d
⇒ = + ⇒ λ3 = 1 2 = (EA)
λ 3 λ1 λ 2 λ1 + λ 2 dt dt
q
which is the required relation between the three E → Electric field between the plates =
Aε0
given wavelengths. A → Area of the plate
19. Reflecting telescope : Schematic ray diagram dφ E d ⎛ q ⎞ 1 dq id
So, = ⎜ × A⎟ = =
dt dt ⎝ Aε0 ⎠ ε0 dt ε0
dφ E
∴ id = i = ε0
dt
21. (a) Need of modulating a low frequency signal:
(i) Low energy : The audio/video signals when
Two important advantages of reflecting telescope converted into em waves do not have sufficient
over a refracting telescope : high energy to travel upto long distances,
(i) A concave mirror of large aperture has high because of their lower frequency. Hence these
gathering power and absorbs very less amount signals are modulated with high frequency
of light than the lenses of large apertures. The carrier waves, before being sent and are
final image formed in reflecting telescope is demodulated or separated from the carrier
very bright. waves at the receiving end.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 69


(ii) Size of antenna : For the effective transmission varying VBE. For silicon diode we have knee voltage
by an antenna, the size of the antenna should be around 0.7 V . After overcoming the knee voltage,
at least of the size λ/4, where λ is wavelength of current will rise sharply. The input characteristic
signal to be sent. will be different if we go on increasing the VCE. It
For an em wave of the frequency of the order of will be shifting right, means for the same VBE we
audio signal i.e., 20 kHz, we need an antenna of will be getting lower input current IB.
size λ/4 i.e., 3.75 km high, which is practically
impossible. Hence these low frequency signals
are superimposed with high frequencies or
radio frequencies before transmission.
(b) Advantages of frequency modulation over
amplitude modulation :
(i) Frequency of a wave does not change while
travelling through different media, while
amplitude of a wave changes while travelling
through different media. An amplitude Similarly, for different values of IB, the IC versus
modulated wave carries information in terms of VCE graph (output characteristic) is shown below.
variation of amplitude, which can get disturbed.
This is why FM signal is less susceptible to noise
than AM signal.
(ii) In FM transmission, all the transmitted power
is useful, whereas in AM transmission most of
the power wastes in transmitting carrier wave,
with no useful information.
22. (i) Functions of three segments of a transistor :
Emitter : It supplies a large number of majority
charge carriers for the flow of current through the
transistor.
Base : It controls the flow of majority charge carriers 23. (i) Values displayed by Meeta, are curiosity to learn
from emitter to collector. and good observation.
Collector : It collects a major portion of the Values displayed by her father are patience and
majority carriers supplied by emitter for the circuit knowledgeable.
operation. (ii) Meeta's father most probably explained her the
 benefits of using tiny bulbs (LEDs) over a single
(ii)
 bulb.
 
  (a) Tiny lights are semiconductor devices which
 consume very less power than a single bulb.
 
   (b) Tiny lights are very cheap.
  (c) If some of these tiny lights are not working, then
 
traffic system will not be affected. But if a single
bulb is fused, traffic system will be disturbed.

    
    

(iii) Tiny lights in traffic signals are called LEDs.


            LEDs are operated in forward biased and emits
 
  
spontaneous radiation.
Let us first consider the input characteristic. Input
24. (i) Refer point 2.1(3) page no. 92 (MTG Excel in Physics)
characteristic means we have to plot the graphical
representation between IB and VBE. VBE is the (ii) Refer points 2.1(4) and 2.2(4, 9(a)) page no. 92-94
emitter to base voltage or the forward bias voltage (MTG Excel in Physics)
and IB is the base current. In this forward biasing, (iii) Refer point 2.2(9(b)), page no. 94 (MTG Excel in Physics)
E is at lower potential than B. We will be plotting IB OR
versus VBE because base is at higher potential than
(i) Refer point 2.5(7) page no. 101 (MTG Excel in Physics)
emitter, so that will be reflected here. Now go on

70 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


(ii) Here AB = 1 m, RAB = 10 Ω, PO 1100 1
(d) IS = = = A (∵ PO = PI)
Potential gradient, k = ?, AO = l = ? εS 22000 20
Current passing (e) PS = PO = PI = 1100 W.
through AB, 26. (i) Refer point 6.13(6) page no. 447
2 (MTG Excel in Physics)
I=
15 + R AB (ii) Refer point 6.14(7) page no. 452
2 2 (MTG Excel in Physics)
= = A
15 + 10 25 OR
2 4 (i) Refer point 6.7(3, 5) page no. 378
VAB = I × RAB = × 10 = V (MTG Excel in Physics)
25 5
VAB 4 − (ii) Refer point 6.7(6, 7) page no. 379
∴ k= = Vm 1
AB 5 (MTG Excel in Physics)
Current in the external circuit, (iii) At point B, for total internal reflection,
1.5 1. 5 μ sin i ≥ 1
I′ = = =1A 1
1 . 2 + 0 . 3 1. 5 μ≥ 
sini
For no deflection in galvanometer, 1
Potential difference across AO = 1.5 – 1.2 I' μ≥ = 2
sin 45°
⇒ k (l) = 1.5 – 1.2 × I′ (∵ i = 45°)



4 0 .3 × 5
⇒ l = 0.3 or, l = = 0.375 m ∴ μ≥ 2
5 4 
∴ l = 37.5 cm μ min = 2 .
25. (i) Refer point 4.6(6, 7) page no. 269, 270 
(MTG Excel in Physics) SOLUTION OF MARCH 2016 CROSSWORD
(ii) For LR circuit, XL = R
Power factor,
R R 1
P1 = cos φ = = =
R 2 + X L2 R +R
2 2 2
For LCR circuit, as C is put in series with LR circuit
Also, XL = XC
R
Power factor, P2 = cos φ' =
R 2 + (X L − XC )2
R R
= = =1
R + (X L − X L )
2 2 R

P1 1
Required ratio = =
P2 2
OR
(i) Refer point 4.8(1) page no. 274 (MTG Excel in Physics)
N
(ii) Here NP = 100, S = 100
NP
εi = εP = 220 V, PI = 1100 W 
WINNERS (March 2016)
Manjit Bakshi (Punjab)
(a) NP = 100 NS = 10000  Rohini Rani (Bihar)
P 1100  Anirban Das (WB)
(b) IP = I = =5A Solution Senders (February 2016)
ε P 220
 Sreehari K (Kerala)
N  Vishal Saxena (Rajasthan)
(c) εS = S × εP = 100 × 220 = 22000 V  Satwik Jain (Rajasthan)
NP

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 71


Exam from
14th to 28th
May 2016


1. In a race for 100 m dash, the first and the second 

runners have a gap of one metre at the mid way (a) (b)
stage. Assuming the first runner goes steady, by
what percentage should the second runner increase
 
his speed just to win the race?  
(a) 2% (b) 4%
(c) (d)
(c) more than 4% (d) less than 4%
2. A sand bag of mass m is suspended from a
m  
long string. A bullet of mass moving with a
20 7. In an L – R circuit, the value of L is (0.4/π) H and
horizontal velocity v strikes it and gets embedded
the value of R is 30 Ω. If in the circuit, an alternating
into it. Calculate the velocity gained by the bag
emf of 200 V at 50 cycle per second is connected,
in this process and fraction of energy lost in the
process. the impedance of the circuit and current will be
(a) 11.4 Ω, 17.5 A (b) 30.7 Ω, 6.5 A
v 20 v 18
(a) ; (b) ; (c) 40.4 Ω, 5 A (d) 50 Ω, 4 A
21 21 24 20
v 20 v 20 8. A microscope has an objective of focal length 1.5 cm
(c) ; (d) ; and eyepiece of focal length 2.5 cm. If the distance
21 22 19 21
3. The bodies situated on the surface of earth at its between objective and eyepiece is 25 cm, what is the
equator, become weightless, when the kinetic approximate value of magnification produced for
energy of rotation of earth about its axis is relaxed eye?
(a) MgR (b) 2MgR/5 (a) 75 (b) 110 (c) 140 (d) 25
(c) MgR/5 (d) 5MgR/2 9. Two small conducting spheres of equal radius
4. Two linear SHMs of equal amplitude A and angular have charges +10 μC and –20 μC and placed at a
frequencies ω and 2ω are impressed on a particle distance R from each other experience force F1. If
along the axes x and y respectively. If the initial they are brought in contact and separated to the
phase difference between them is π/2, the resultant same distance, they experience force F2. The ratio
path followed by the particle is of F1 to F2 is
(a) y2 = x2(1 – x2/A2) (b) y2 = 2x2(1 – x2/A2) (a) 1 : 2 (b) –8 : 1 (c) 1 : 8 (d) –2 : 1
(c) y2 = 4x2(1 – x2/A2) (d) y2 = 8x2(1 – x2/A2) 10. Two masses 40 kg and
5. A calorie is a unit of heat and equals 4.2 J. Suppose we 30 kg are connected by a
employ a system of units in which the unit of mass is weightless string passing
α kg, the unit of length is β m and the unit of time is over a frictionless pulley
γ s. In this new system, 1 calorie will be as shown in the figure.
(a) α–1β–2γ2 (b) 4.2αβ2γ2 The tension in the string
(c) αβ γ 2 2
(d) 4.2α–1β–2γ2 will be
(a) 188 N (b) 368 N (c) 288 N (d) 168 N
6. Which of the following graph represents the
variation of magnetic flux density B with distance 11. At constant temperature, the volume of a gas is to be
r for a straight long wire carrying an electric decreased by 4%. The pressure must be increased by
current? (a) 5.34% (b) 4.16% (c) 2.96% (d) 3.86%

72 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


12. In a Young's double slit experiment, one of the slits 20. A launching vehicle carrying an artificial satellite of
is covered with a transparent sheet of thickness mass m is set for launch on the surface of the earth
3.6 × 10–5 m due to which position of central bright of mass M and radius R. If the satellite is intended to
fringe shifts to a position originally occupied by move in a circular orbit of radius 7R, the minimum
30th fringe. The refractive index of the sheet, if energy required to be spent by the launching vehicle
λ = 6000 Å, is on the satellite is (Gravitational constant = G)
(a) 1.5 (b) 1.9 (c) 1.3 (d) 1.7
GMm 13 GMm
13. At time t = 0, activity of a radioactive substance is (a) (b)
1600 Bq, at t = 8 s activity becomes 100 Bq. Find the R 14 R
activity at t = 2 s. GMm GMm
(c) (d)
(a) 200 Bq (b) 400 Bq 7R 14 R
(c) 600 Bq (d) 800 Bq 21. An inductance coil is connected to an ac source
14. Find the ratio of minimum to maximum energy through a 60 Ω resistance in series. The source
of radiation emitted by electron in ground state of voltage, voltage across the coil and voltage across
Bohr's hydrogen atom. the resistance are found to be 33 V, 27 V and
4 2 3 1 12 V respectively. Therefore, the resistance of the coil is
(a) (b) (c) (d) (a) 30 Ω (b) 45 Ω (c) 105 Ω (d) 75 Ω
3 3 4 2
15. In an experiment with sonometer, a tuning fork of 22. The cylindrical tube of spray pump has a cross-
frequency 256 Hz resonates with a length of 25 cm section of 8 cm2, one end of which has 40 fine holes
and another tuning fork resonates with a length of each of area 10–8 m2. If the liquid flows inside the
16 cm. Tension in the string remains constant, the tube with a speed of 0.15 m min–1, the speed with
frequency of the second tuning fork is which the liquid is ejected through the holes is
(a) 204 Hz (b) 160 Hz (c) 400 Hz (d) 320 Hz
(a) 50 m s–1 (b) 5 m s–1
–1
16. Refer to the arrangement of logic gates. For A = 0, (c) 0.05 m s (d) 0.5 m s–1
B = 0 and A = 1, B = 0, the values of output Y are,
23. A body is fired vertically upwards. At half the
respectively
 maximum height, the velocity of the body is
 10 m s–1. The maximum height raised by the body
 is (Take g = 10 m s–2)
(a) 5 m (b) 10 m (c) 15 m (d) 20 m
(a) 0 and 1 (b) 1 and 0 24. If the masses of deuterium and helium are
(c) 1 and 1 (d) 0 and 0 2.0140 amu and 4.0026 amu, respectively and
17. If the length of stretched string is shortened by 40% 22.4 MeV energy is liberated in the reaction
6 2 4 4 6
and the tension is increased by 44 %, then the ratio 3Li + 1H → 2He + 2He, the mass of 3Li is
of the final and initial fundamental frequencies is (a) 6.015 amu (b) 6.068 amu
(a) 2 : 1 (b) 3 : 2 (c) 3 : 4 (d) 1 : 3
(c) 5.980 amu (d) 6.00 amu
18. A 220 V input is supplied to a transformer.
25. The maximum range of projectile fired with some
The output circuit draws a current of 2.0 A at
440 V. If the efficiency of the transformer is 80%, initial velocity is found to be 1000 m, in the absence
the current drawn by the primary windings of the of wind and air resistance. The maximum height
transformer is reached by the projectile is
(a) 3.6 A (b) 2.8 A (c) 2.5 A (d) 5.0 A (a) 250 m (b) 500 m (c) 1000 m (d) 2000 m
19. When a metal surface is illuminated with light of 26. In the adjoining 
wavelength λ, the stopping potential is V0. When figure, the equivalent
the same surface is illuminated with light of resistance between  
 
 
V0 A and B is 
wavelength 2λ, the stopping potential is . If the
4
velocity of light in air is c, the threshold frequency ⎛ 17 ⎞ ⎛4⎞
(a) ⎜ ⎟ Ω (b) ⎜ ⎟ Ω
of photoelectric emission is ⎝ 24 ⎠ ⎝3⎠
c c 2c 4c
(a) (b) (c) (d) ⎛ 24 ⎞ ⎛3⎞
3λ 3λ (c) ⎜ ⎟ Ω (d) ⎜ ⎟ Ω
6λ 3λ ⎝ 17 ⎠ ⎝4⎠

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 73


27. A satellite in a circular orbit of radius R has a period circuit at any time t, then which of the following
of 4 hours. Another satellite with orbital radius graphs, shows the variation of ε with I ?
3R around the same planet will have a period (in  

hours)
(a) 16 (b) 4 (c) 4 27 (d) 4 8 (a) (b)
28. A body of mass M suspended from two springs 

separately executes simple harmonic motion.  
During oscillation the maximum velocity is equal
A1 (c) (d)
in both cases. The ratio of amplitude is
A2
k1 k2 k2 k12  
(a) (b) (c) (d) 2
k2 k1 k1 k2 35. The time of vibration of a dip needle vibrating in the
29. A uniform thin bar of mass 6m and length 12L is vertical plane in the magnetic meridian is 3 s. When
bent to make a regular hexagon. Its moment of the same magnetic needle is made to vibrate in the
inertia about an axis passing through the centre of horizontal plane, the time of vibration is 3 2 s.
mass and perpendicular to the plane of hexagon is Then the angle of dip is
(a) 20mL2 (b) 6mL2 (a) 30° (b) 45° (c) 60° (d) 90°
12 2 36. A current of 2 A flows in the system of conductors
(c) mL (d) 30mL2
5 as shown in the figure. The potential difference
30. An object is displaced from position vector VP – VR will be nearly 
^ ^ ^ ^ (a) – 2 V
r1 = (2 i + 3 j ) m to r2 = (4 i + 6 j ) m under a force  
(b) – 1 V  
^ ^
F = (3x 2 i + 2 y j ) N. The work done by this force (c) + 1 V 
is (d) + 2 V  
(a) 63 J (b) 73 J (c) 83 J (d) 93 J 
37. When the reverse potential in the semiconductor
31. A charge Q is enclosed by a gaussian spherical
diode are 10 V and 15 V, the corresponding reverse
surface of radius R. If the radius is doubled, then
currents are 10 μA and 35 μA respectively. The
the outward electric flux will
reverse resistance of junction diode will be
(a) increase four times (b) be reduced to half
(a) 20 kΩ (b) 200 kΩ
(c) remain the same (d) be doubled
(c) 2000 kΩ (d) none of these
32. A small bulb emits 100 W of electromagnetic
radiation uniformly in all directions. What is the 38. A metal rod of Young’s modulus Y and coefficient
maximum energy density in the electric field at a of thermal expansion α is held at its two ends such
point 1.0 m from the source? that its length remains invariant. If its temperature
(a) 10.5 × 10–8 J m–3 (b) 5.30 × 10–8 J m–3 is raised by t °C, the linear stress developed in it is
(c) 2.65 × 10–8 J m–3 (d) 20.1 × 10–8 J m–3 αt Y 1
(a) (b) (c) Yαt (d)
Y αt (Y αt )
33. In an interference pattern produced by two identical
slits, the intensity at the site of the central maximum 39. The deflection in a moving coil galvanometer falls from
is I. The intensity at the same spot when either of 50 divisions to 10 divisions when a shunt of 12
the two slits is closed is I0. Therefore, ohm is applied. What is the resistance of the
(a) I = I0 galvanometer?
(b) I = 2I0 (a) 12 Ω (b) 24 Ω (c) 36 Ω (d) 48 Ω
(c) I = 4I0 40. The angular momentum of an electron in the
(d) I and I0 are not related to each other. 3h
hydrogen atom is . Here, h is Planck’s constant.
34. In an L-R ciruit shown in figure,   2π
The kinetic energy of this electron is
switch S is closed at time t = 0. If
(a) 4.35 eV (b) 1.51 eV
ε denotes the induced emf across
  (c) 3.4 eV (d) 6.8 eV
inductor and I, the current in the

74 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


SOLUTIONS or y2 = 4A2 sin2 ωt cos2 ωt
1. (c) : Let v1, v2 be the initial speeds of first and x 2 ⎛ A2 − x 2 ⎞ 2
⎛ x2 ⎞
second runners. Let t be the time taken by them = 4 A2 × ×⎜ ⎟ = 4 x ⎜1− ⎟
A2 ⎝ A2 ⎠ ⎝ A2 ⎠
when the first runner has completed 50 m. During
this time, the second runner has covered a distance 5. (d) : 1 calorie = 4.2 J ∴ [calorie] = [ML2T–2].
= 50 – 1 = 49 m. Comparing with general dimensional formula
50 49 [MaLbTc], we get
So, t = = ...(i) a = 1, b = 2, c = –2
v1 v2
a b c
Suppose the second runner increases his speed to ⎡M ⎤ ⎡L ⎤ ⎡T ⎤
v3 so that he covers the remaining distance (51 m) ∵ n2 = n1 ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥
in time t. So ⎣ M2 ⎦ ⎣ L2 ⎦ ⎣ T2 ⎦
1 −2
2
51 49 51 ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎡ 1 kg ⎤ ⎡ 1 m ⎤ ⎡ 1 s ⎤
t= = or v3 = × v2 = ⎜1 + ⎟ v2 ⇒ n2 = 4.2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = 4.2 α β γ
–1 –2 2
⎝ 49 ⎠
v3 v2 49 ⎣ α kg ⎦ ⎣ β m ⎦ ⎣ γ s ⎦
v3 2 v3 − v2 2 6. (c) : Magnetic field induction at a point due to a
or −1 = or = long current carrying wire is related with distance r
v2 49 v2 49
2 by relation B ∝ 1/r. Therefore graph (c) is correct.
or % increase = × 100% = 4.1% 7. (d) : Here, XL = ωL = 2πυL
49
0. 4
i.e. more than 4% = 2 π × 50 × = 40 Ω
2. (a) : Applying principle of conservation of linear π
R = 30 Ω
momentum,
m ⎛ m⎞ 21m ∴ Z = R2 + X L2 = 302 + 402 = 50 Ω
× v = ⎜m + ⎟ v ′ = v′
20 ⎝ 20 ⎠ 20 V 200
irms = rms = =4A
v 20 v Z 50
v′ = × = 8. (c) : Length of the tube is L = v0 + fe
20 21 21 v0 = L – fe = 25 – 2.5 = 22.5 cm
This is the velocity gained by the bag.
1 1 1
1⎛m⎞ 2 Now applying − = , we have
Initial kinetic energy of bullet, E1 = ⎜ ⎟ v v0 u0 f0
2 ⎝ 20 ⎠
1 1 1
Final kinetic energy of bag and bullet, − =
2 22.5 u0 1.5
1⎛ m⎞ 1 ⎛ 21m ⎞ ⎛ v ⎞ ∴ |u0| ≈ 1.6 cm
E2 = ⎜ m + ⎟ v ′2 = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
2⎝ 20 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 20 ⎠ ⎝ 21 ⎠ v0 D ⎛ 22.5 ⎞ ⎛ 25 ⎞
∴ M = × =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 140
Loss of energy u0 fe ⎝ 1.6 ⎠ ⎝ 2.5 ⎠
1⎛m⎞ ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1⎛m⎞ 20 k(+10)(−20) −k × 200
= E1 − E2 = ⎜ ⎟ v 2 ⎢1 − ⎥ = ⎜ ⎟ v 2 ×
2 ⎝ 20 ⎠ ⎣ 21 ⎦ 2 ⎝ 20 ⎠ 21 9. (b) : Here, F1 = 2
=
R R2
E1 − E2 20 As spheres are of equal radius, their capacities are
Fraction of energy lost = =
E1 21 same. On touching, the net charge = + 10 – 20 = –10 μC
3. (c) : When there is a weightlessness in the body at is shared equally between them i.e, each sphere
the equator, then g′ = g – Rω2 = 0 carries –5 μC charge.
k(−5)(−5) k × 25 F −8
or ω = g /R F2 = = ∴ 1=
2 2 F2 1
and linear velocity ωR = ( g /R )R = gR R R
1 2
∴ Kinetic energy of rotation of earth = Iω 10. (d) :
2
1 2 1 1  
= × MR2 × ω2 = M (ωR)2 = MgR
2 5 5 5
4. (c) : x = A sin(ωt + π/2) = A cos ωt
∴ cos ωt = x/A and sin ωt = 1 − (x 2 /A2 )
y = A sin 2ωt = 2A sin ωt cos ωt

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 75


m1gsin30° – T = m1a ... (i) four half-lives are equivalent to 8 s. Hence, 2 s is
T – m2gsin30° = m2a ... (ii) equal to one half-life. So, in one half-life activity
Adding (i) and (ii), will fall half of 1600 Bq i.e., 800 Bq.
sin 30° − sin 30° 14. (c) : Energy of radiation corresponding to transition
= 1 2

1+ 2 between two energy levels n1 and n2 is given by


From eqn. (ii), we get ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
E = 13.6 − eV .
T = m2g sin30° + m2a ⎜ n2 n2 ⎟
⎝ 1 2 ⎠
= sin 30° + 2 ( sin 30° − sin 30°) E is minimum when n1 = 1 and n2 = 2.
1+
2 1 2
2
⎛1 1 ⎞ 3
2 sin 30° 2 × 40 × 30 × 9.8 × (1 / 2) Hence, Emin = 13.6 ⎜ − ⎟ eV =13.6 × eV
= 1 2
= ⎝1 4 ⎠ 4
1+ 40 + 30
2
E is maximum when n1 = 1 and n2 = ∞ (when the
1200
= × 9.8 = 168 N atom is ionised).
70 Hence
11. (b) : At constant temperature, pV = constant ⎛ 1⎞ E 3
p1 V2 Emax = 13.6 ⎜1 − ⎟ = 13.6 eV ∴ min =
p1V1 = p2V2 or = ⎝ ∞⎠ Emax 4
p2 V1
Fractional change in volume 15. (c) : For sonometer, frequency of vibration of
V1 − V2 4 1 string, provided its tension and mass per unit length
= = 1
V1 100 25 remain same, is given by υ ∝
V2 1 V2 24 l
1− = or, = υ2 l1 υ2 25
V1 25 V1 25 ∴ = or =
υ1 l2 256 16
p1 V2 24 p2 25
∴ = = or = 256 × 25
p2 V1 25 p1 24 υ2 = = 400 Hz
16
p2 − p1 25 1
= −1 = 16. (b) :    
p1 24 24    
 

100  
% increase in pressure = = 4.16 % 
24  
 
30 λD    
12. (a) : The position of 30th bright fringe y30 = 


d  
30 λD 
New position of central fringe is y0 =
d 17. (a) : Initial fundamental frequency of a stretched
But we know , y0 = shift due to transparent sheet string is
D 1 T
= (μ – 1)t υ= …(i)
d 2L μ
30 λD D where the symbols have their usual meanings.
So, = (μ − 1)t
d d When the length of a stretched string is shortened
30 λ 30 × (6000 × 10−10 ) by 40% and the tension is increased by 44%, then
(μ − 1) = = = 0 .5 its length and tension become
t (3.6 × 10−5 ) 40 3
∴ μ = 1.5 44 36
L′ = L − L = L , T′ = T + T= T
n 100 5 100 25
⎛1⎞
13. (d) : Activity, R = R0 ⎜ ⎟ Then, final fundamental frequency is
⎝2⎠
1 T′ 1 36 T 2 T
where n is the number of half-lives. υ′ = = = …(ii)
n 2L ′ μ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 25 μ 2L μ
⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ L⎟
⎝5 ⎠
At t = 8 s, 100 = 1600 ⎜ ⎟
⎝2⎠
υ′ 2
1 ⎛1⎞
n
Dividing (ii) by (i), we get =
=⎜ ⎟ υ 1
16 ⎝ 2 ⎠ or n=4

76 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


18. (d) : Here, Vp = 220 V, Is = 2 A, Vs = 440 V
u2 sin 2θ
η = 80%, Ip = ? 25. (a) : Range, R =
VI VI g
η = s s or I p = s s For maximum range, angle of projection θ is 45°.
Vp I p ηV p
u2 sin (2 × 45°) u2
Substituting the given values, we get ∴ Rmax = = = 1000 m …(i)
g g
440 × 2
Ip = =5 A u2 sin2 45°
80 ∴
× 220 Maximum height, H =
2g
100
2
19. (b) 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
H= × 1000 × ⎜ = 250 m (Using (i))
20. (b) : The energy of the satellite on the surface of the 2
earth is 26. (b) : The equivalent circuit is as shown in figure.
⎛ GMm ⎞ GMm 
Es = KE + PE = 0 + ⎜ − ⎟⎠ = −  
⎝ R R  
The energy of the satellite in an orbit of radius r is
1 ⎛ GMm ⎞ 


Eo = mvo2 + ⎜ − ⎟
2 ⎝ r ⎠  
1 ⎛ GM ⎞ GMm ⎡ GM ⎤  
= m⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ As vo = ⎥ 
2 ⎝ r ⎠ r ⎣ r ⎦ Resistance of arm AGB
GMm 8×2 4×6
=− = + = 1.6 + 2.4 = 4 Ω
2r 8+2 4+6
The minimum energy required to be spent by the
For equivalent resistance between A and B, the
vehicle is
resistance of arms CD, AGB and FE are in parallel.
ΔE = Eo − Es
Thus
GMm ⎡ GMm ⎤ 1 1 1 1 4+3+2 9
=− − − (∵r = 7R) = + + = =
2(7 R) ⎢⎣ R ⎥⎦ RAB 3 4 6 12 12
GMm GMm 13 GMm
=− + = 12 4
14 R R 14 R or RAB = = Ω
21. (b) 9 3
27. (c) : According to Kepler’s third law T2 ∝ R3
22. (b) : According to equation of continuity, 3/2 3/2
a1v1 = a2v2 ⎛R ⎞ ⎛ 3R ⎞
T2 = T1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 4 27 hours
⎛ 0.15 ⎞ ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝R⎠
∴ (40 × 10−8 ) × v1 = 8 × 10−4 × ⎜
⎝ 60 ⎟⎠ 28. (c) : For SHM,
−4
8 × 10 × 0.15
or v1 = = 5 m s −1 Maximum velocity, vmax = Aω
−8
40 × 10 × 60 k
23. (b) : Let h be maximum height reached by the body. For 1st case, vmax1 = A1ω1 = A1 1 ...(i)
M
Taking motion of the body from half the maximum
k2
height upto the highest point, we have For IInd case, vmax 2 = A2 ω2 = A2 ...(ii)
h M
u =10 m s–1, a = – g = – 10 m s–2, v = 0, S = According to question,
2
As v2 = u2 + 2aS vmax1 = vmax2
h
∴ 0 = 102 + 2 (– 10) × or h = 10 m k1 k A1 k
2 ∴ A1 = A2 2 or = 2
24. (a) : In the given reaction, M M A2 k1
B.E. = [(m(63Li) + m(21H) – 2m(42He)] × 931 = 22.4 29. (a) : Length of each side of hexagon = 2L
22.4 Mass of each side = m
∴ m(63Li) = – 2.0140 + 2 × 4.0026 Let O be centre of mass of hexagon.
931 Therefore, perpendicular distance of O from each
= 6.015 amu
side

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 77



r = Ltan60° = L 3 I
The desired moment 35. (c) : t1 = 3 = 2 π . …(i)
MR
of inertia of hexagon  where R is resultant intensity of earth’s field
about O is I
I = 6 [Ione side]  t2 = 3 2 = 2π …(ii)
MH
⎡ m (2 L) 2 ⎤  Dividing eqn.(i) by eqn.(ii)
=6⎢ + mr 2 ⎥ 
⎢⎣ 12 ⎥⎦ 1 H R cos δ
= = = cos δ
⎡ mL2 ⎤ ⎡ m L2 ⎤ 2 R R
=6⎢ + m(L 3 )2 ⎥ = 6 ⎢ + 3 mL2 ⎥ = 20 mL2 1
⎢⎣ 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 3 ⎥⎦ cos δ = , δ = 60°
2
30. (c) 5 × 10 10
36. (b) : Resistance between Q and S, R ′ = = Ω
31. (c) : According to Gauss’s law, the total outward 5 + 10 3
Potential difference across Q and S,
electric flux linked with gaussian surface 2 × 10 20
1 VQ − VS = = V
φE = × charge enclosed by surface. 3 3 20 4
ε0 Current through arm QPS, I1 = = A
If the radius of the gaussian surface is doubled 3×5 3
4 8
the total outward electric flux will remain the VQ − VP = × 2 = V
same as charge enclosed by the guassian surface is 3 3
20/3 2
unchanged. Current through arm QRS, I2 = = A
32. (c) : Here, P = 100 W, r = 1.0 m 2 10 3
P VQ − VR = × 3 = 2 V
Intensity of radiation at distance r, I = 3
4 πr 2 VP – VR = (VQ – VR) – (VQ – VP)
Let maximum energy density in the electric field 8 −2
= uEmax =2− = ≈ −1 V.
3 3
P ΔV 15 − 10
Then I = uE c = 37. (b) : Reverse resistance = =
max
4 πr 2 ΔI (35 − 10) × 10−6
P = 200 × 10 Ω = 200 kΩ
3
or uE =
max
4 πr 2c 38. (c) : Due to change in temperature t °C, increase in
100 length,
= = 2.65 × 10–8 J m–3 Δl
2 8
4 × 3.14 × (1) × (3 × 10 ) Δl = l α t or = αt
33. (c) : When one slit is closed, amplitude becomes l
stress stress Δl
half and intensity becomes 1/4th Y = = ∴ Stress = Y × = Yαt
1 strain Δl / l l
i.e., I0 = I or I = 4I0 39. (d) : In case of a galvanometer, ∝ θ
4 10 1 1
34. (c) : In L–R circuit, current at any time t is given by So, = = . ., =
50 5 5
−R −R
I=
V ⎡1 − e L t ⎤ = V −
V
eL
t From figure, (I – IG)S = IGG
...(i)
R ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ R R . ., ( −
1
) × 12 =
1
−R −R 5 5
dI V t ⎛R⎞ V t or, G = 4 × 12 = 48 Ω
= eL ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = eL
dt R L L
−R 3h ⎛ h ⎞
dI t 40. (b) : = n⎜ ⎟ ∴ n = 3
Induced emf ε = L = Ve L ...(ii) 2π ⎝ 2π ⎠
dt The kinetic energy of the electron in nth orbit is
−R
t 13.6
From (i), IR = V − Ve L K n = 2 eV
Using (ii), IR = V – ε or ε = V – IR n
13.6 13.6
Therefore, graph between ε and I is a straight line ∴ K 3 = 2 eV = eV = 1.51 eV
with negative slope and positive intercept. 3 9


78 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


SOLUTION SET-32
1. (b): Since the wires are infinite, so the system of
these two wires can be considered as a closed
rectangle of infinite length and breadth equal to d.
Flux through the strip of area l dr, due to current
flowing in one wire is given by
d −a μ0 I μ Il d −a ⎞
φ=∫ ( ldr ) = 0 ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ μ=
sin θ
=
1 1
= 2 ⇒ sin α = ∴ α = 30°
a 2πr 2π ⎝ a ⎠ sin α 2 sin α 2
In ΔOPQ, ∠OQP = 90° + θ − α
Applying sine rule,
R r
= 0
sin ( 90° + θ − α ) sin α
R R sin 30°
r0 = sin 30° =
sin ( 90° + 45° − 30° ) sin ( 60° + 45° )
The other wire produces the same result, so the total ⎛
R⎜ ⎟
1⎞
flux through the dotted rectangle is = ⎝2⎠ =
2R
μ Il ⎛ d − a ⎞ ⎡ 1 3 1 1 ⎤ ( 3 + 1)
φtotal = 0 ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ × + × ⎥
π ⎝ a ⎠ ⎣ 2 2 2 2⎦
The total inductance of length l, 4. (c): Since they move under mutual attraction and
φ μ l ⎛ d −a ⎞ no external force acts on them, their momentum
L = total = 0 ln ⎜ ⎟ and energy are conserved.
I π ⎝ a ⎠
L μ 1 1 GM1M2
⎛ d −a ⎞ 0 = M1v12 + M2v22 − ...(i)
Inductance per unit length = = 0 ln ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 s
l π ⎝ a ⎠
It is zero because in the beginning, both kinetic
I
2. (d): Current density, J = energy and potential energy are zero.
πR2 − π ( R / 2 )2
4I 0 = M1v1 + M2v2 ...(ii)
⇒ J= Solving the two equations (i) and (ii),
3πR2
Current in smaller cylinder, 2GM22
v12 =
⎛R⎞
2
I s ( M1 + M2 )
I1 = Jπ ⎜ ⎟ =
⎝2⎠ 3 2 2GM12
and v2 =
For A, BA = Bwhole-cylinder – Bsmall-cylinder s ( M1 + M2 )
μ ( I / 3 ) −μ0 I
⇒ BA = 0 − 0 =
2π ( R / 2 ) 3πR Solution Senders of Physics Musing
For B, BB = Bwhole-cylinder – Bsmall-cylinder SET-32
1. Spandan Senapati (Odisha)
μ ( I + I / 3 )( R / 2 ) μ I
= 0 −0 = 0 2. Mikhail Joseph (WB)
2πR 2 3πR
3. Subrata Dutta (WB)
3. (c): Let θ be angle of incidence and be the angle of 4. Parvathi Nair (Tamil Nadu)
refraction for the extreme rays. SET-31
⎛ R ⎞1 1 1. Harsh Mehta (New Delhi)
sin θ = ⎜ ⎟R = ⇒ θ = 45°
⎝ 2⎠ 2 2. Sri Krishna Sahoo (Rajasthan)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 79


Velocity of approach = v1 –(–v2) = v1 + v2 r r r
2α ⎡ 2α ⎤
β ⎡1 ⎤
r
2G ( M1 + M2 ) =∫ dr − ∫ dr = ⎢ ⎥ + β ⎢⎣ r ⎥⎦
⎣ ( −2 ) r ⎦ ∞
3 2 2
= ∞r ∞r ∞
s
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ α β
5. (d): Rate of loss of heat ∝ difference in temperature = −α ⎜ − 0 ⎟ + β ⎜ − 0 ⎟ ⇒ U r = − 2 +
with the surroundings. ⎝ r2 ⎠ ⎝r ⎠ r r
dQ 8. (c): At equilibrium, F = 0
At 50°C, = k ( 50 − 20 ) = 10 , where k = constant
dt 2α β 2α
1 ⇒ − + = 0 ⇒ r0 =
∴ k= 3
r0 r0 2 β
3
At an average temperature of 35°C, Ionization energy,
dQ 1 E0 = –ΔU = (U –Ur0)
= ( 35 − 20 ) = 5 J s −1
dt 3 ⎡ ⎛ α β ⎞⎤
Heat lost in 1 minute, = ⎢0 − ⎜⎜ − 2 + ⎟⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎝ r0 r0 ⎠ ⎥⎦
dQ
= × 60 = 5 × 60 J = 300 J = −Q α β
dt E0 = −
Fall in temperature = 0.2°C = Δθ ( 2α / β ) 2 ( 2α / β )
As Q = CΔθ
β2 β2 β2 β2
Heat capacity, C = Q = 300 = 1500 J °C −1 ⇒ E0 = − =− ⇒ E0 =
Δθ 0.2 4 α 2α 4α 4α
6. (a): According to question, angular acceleration ∝ θ
9. (b): Maximum possible charge on capacitor of
dω capacitance C = CV0 and that on capacitor of
α = −c θ ⇒ ω = −c θ
dθ capacitance 2C = 2CV0. So possible change through
ωf θ each capacitor is CV0 as they are in series.
or ∫ωi
ω dω = − ∫ c θ dθ
0 Since same charge will be on both capacitors, so
1 1 1 CV0 CV0 3V
or ωi2 − ω2f = c θ2 potential difference = = = 0
2 2 2 Ceq C × 2C 2
1 2 1 2 1 C + 2C
or I ωi − I ω f = ΔE = Ic θ2 ∴ ΔE ∝ θ2
2 2 2 10. (c): Both the capacitors are in parallel means voltage
7. (b): By definition, across each is equal. Breakdown potential of both is
r r
⎛ −2α β ⎞ also equal. Therefore, they will undergo breakdown
U r − U ∞ = − ∫ F ⋅ dr = − ∫ ⎜ + ⎟ dr at the same moment.
3
∞ ∞ ⎝ r r2 ⎠


Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow


(Formerly U.P. Technical University, Lucknow) U.P. State Entrance Examination (UPSEE- 2016)
Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow would conduct State Entrance Examination known as UPSEE- 2016.
A. 1st Year of B.Tech/ B. Tech. (Biotech)/B. Tech. (Ag)/ B. Arch./ B. Pharm./ B. HMCT/ B.FAD/ B.FA/ MBA/ MCA/ MAM (5 years Dual Degree)
B. Lateral Entry: Direct Admission to 2nd year of B.Tech/ B. Pharm/ MCA
SCHEME OF ENTRANCE EXAMINATION
Date of Exam Courses with Paper Code Mode of Examination
April 17,2016 (Sunday) B.Tech (Paper- 1), B. Tech (Biotech) (Paper 1 or Paper 2), B.Tech. (Ag) (Paper 1/Paper 3), OMR based Test
B.Arch. (Paper 4), B. Pharm. (Paper 1 or Paper 2)
April 23,2016 (Saturday) B.HMCT/ B.FAD/ B.FA (Paper 5), Lateral Entry: Direct Admission to 2nd year of B.Tech (Paper6/ Paper 8), Computer Based Test
B.Pharm (Paper 7)
April 24, 2016 (Sunday) MBA (Paper 9), MCA (Paper 10), MAM (5 years Dual Degree) (Paper 11), Lateral Entry: Direct Admission Computer Based Test
to 2nd year MCA (Paper 12)
The application form can be filled ONLINE only through the website http://www.upsee.nic.in. The link for filling up the ONLINE Application Form will be opened
from February 24, 2016 at 11:00 AM. The last date and time for filling up the Application Form is March 27,2016, 05:00 PM.

80 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


Y U ASK Q2. If a helium atom loses its two electrons, it
becomes an alpha particle which means it
contains two protons and two neutrons in its

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just can’t get
nucleus. Is it stable?
–John Gokul (Tamil Nadu)
Ans. Alpha particle emission is modeled as a barrier
penetration process. The alpha particle is the
answered? nucleus of the helium atom and is the nucleus of
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the highest stability. The nuclear binding energy of
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly, the alpha particle is extremely high 28.3 MeV. It
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the is an exceptionally stable collection of nucleons,
questions, easy and tough. and those heavier nuclei which can be viewed as
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in collections of alpha particles (carbon-12, oxygen-
this column each month. 16, etc.) are also exceptionally stable. This contrasts
with a binding energy of only 8 MeV for helium-3,
Q1. What happened to the neutrino and positron which forms an intermediate step in the proton-
produced in nuclear fusion in the Sun? proton fusion cycle.
–Pinaki Chattopadhyay
Ans. Nuclear fusion in the Sun provides huge energy. It Q3. What is the exact definition of system and
takes place dominantly by proton-proton cycle as surroundings in thermodynamics?
–Santanu Chatterjee, Kolkata (West Bengal)
follows:
Ans. System: We are free to define our system in any
convenient way, as long as we are consistent and
can account for all energy transfer to or from the
system.
 

For example, consider a


calorimeter consisting
water and ice. Then we


may assume two systems
depending on the situation
(i) ice + water (calorimeter does not take any
heat.)
(ii) ice + water + calorimeter (calorimeter is not
ideal.)
Overall view, Surrounding: Region outside the system is known
41H + 2e– 4
He + 2ν + 6γ + 26.7 MeV as surrounding. We define boundary between
In the first reaction, released positron (e+) very system and surrounding. In the shown figure,
quickly encounters a free electron (e–) in the environment is surrounding.
Sun and both particles annihilate. And their rest
Q4. Mechanical transverse waves cannot travel in
energies appear as two gamma ray photons (γ).
gas. Then how does light travel in air?
Internal energy inside the Sun is not all the energy –Sivanujhaa, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
produced in nuclear fusion. About 0.5 MeV is Ans. Mechanical transverse waves cannot be produced
associated with two neutrinos that are produced in the gas because of very low elasticity. Hence they
in each cycle. Neutrinos escape from the sun cannot travel in the gas. Light is an electromagnetic
carrying this energy with them, because they are wave which is produced by accelerating charge. It
so penetrating. Some are intercepted by the Earth, requires no medium to travel. Also electromagnetic
bringing us our only direct information about the waves are transverse in nature.
Sun’s interior. 

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 81


Nasa tests inflatable heat shield for its spacecraft to Mars
N asa has su
a parachu
successfully tested its donut-shaped inflatable heat shield technology that works like
parachute and will enable a spacecraft to land safely when it descends through the high
temp peratu atmosphere of a planet such as Mars. Before Nasa uses its new inflatable technology
temperature
fo
or slow
for slowing spacecraft that are entering the atmosphere of other planets, it will first need
to be packed into the tight confines of a rocket. Engineers at Nasa’s Langley Research
Cen
Centre in US, put the technology to the test by packing a donut-shaped test article with
d
a diameter of 9 feet and also known as a torus, to simulate what would happen before
a space mission, called the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, or HIAD,
i works like a parachute, using the drag of a planet’s atmosphere to slow the space
it
vehicle as it descends towards the surface, researchers said. Slowing the spacecraft
protects it from the intense heat of atmospheric entry, and allows it to land more
softly. “During testing, we used a vacuum pump to compress the test article into a
s
small space,” said Keith Johnson, a lead engineer for the project. “We packed and
u
unpacked it and did thorough inspections to check for leaks and damage to the
Zy and Teflon materials. We repeated this three times,” said Johnson.
Zylon
The technology will enable the delivery of heavy cargo, science instruments and people
oth worlds. According to test engineer Sean Hancock, HIAD was packed the same
to other
waay each
way eac time to see how the material would handle folding, packing, and compressing.
h
Doing so helps engineers understand how it would perform after exposure to handling,
dep
storage and deployment during a space flight mission, researchers said. “The test included all the
components for the latest inflatable torus design, so it was a good final check to prove that the materials can
tolerate packing,” Johnson said. After successful testing, Nasa engineers can move forward in the development of creating
a larger HIAD that can withstand the high temperatures experiences when it descends through the atmosphere of a planet
such as Mars.

Oz scientists create world’s No more a dwarf? Pluto may get


thinnest lens back its `planet’ status
A ustralian scientists have claimed that they have developed
a lens which is 2,000 times thinner than human hair, a
breakthrough set to revolutionise nanotechnology. The finished
P luto could be about to become a planet again, after scientists spotted
what appears to be clouds on its surface. As part of the New Horizons
mission which has already found far more complexity on Pluto than had
lens is 6.3 nanometre
nanometres in size as compared to been expected -scientists have spotted otted cloud like parts
cloud-like
the previous ssmallest lens which was of the images released from the mission. That
50 nanom
nanometres thick. According could mean that the planet has an even ven richer
to ABC News, the lens, has atmosphere than had been thought, ought,
been created by a team of according to the New Scientist.
rese
researchers led by Yuerui Lu Scientists aren’t yet sure that the he
fro
from Australian National images show clouds. But emailss
U
University (ANU). Scientists seen by the magazine seem to
ssaid the lens could have indicate that the now dwarf planet
revolutionary applications might have clouds made up of
in medicine, science and the same things in its general
technology and it could be atmosphere, which is mostly
used to create bendable made up of nitrogen.
ccomputer screens. While The discovery could lead to further
th
the new lens has already calls for Pluto to be reinstated as a
bee
been experimented by planet -a question that has already ady
techn
technology companies with been asked more and more since New
prototy
prototype TV and computer Horizons sent back detailed imagess of the
screens th that can be rolled up or dwarf planet’s rich surface. Pluto still won’t
folded, the mamass production at cheaper satisfy the International Astronomical cal Union’s rules
i iis yet to b
price be d i
devised. for what is and isn’t a planet. It was excluded on the basis of
“This type of material is the perfect candidate for future flexible a criterion that it still doesn’t pass, whether or not the pictures show clouds:
displays,” Lu said. Another application of the Australian-made lens that a planet should have a clear neighbourhood of orbiting bodies.
could be arrays of micro-lenses that mimic the compound eyes of But that IAU definition has proven controversial with scientists arguing that
insects. Lu said a crystal called molybdenum disulphide was the the definition is complicated.
special ingredient.
Courtesy : The Times of India

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 83


10 TIPS to DRIVE OUT
EXAM PHOBIA If you are one of the many people who gets stressed out when it
comes to taking exams then we have a few tips for you that will help
you to overcome this and concentrating on achieving good grades.

In class, listen for emphasis and examples. Take a thorough set of


1 LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION... notes; you’ll be thankful at test time.

If you’re serious about getting work done, find a place that is relatively
free of distractions. Establish guidelines with roommates for quiet
7 LECTURES AND TEXTBOOKS: WHAT'S THE
BIG PICTURE?
times or use the libraries, study rooms, or empty classrooms. Many unsuccessful students see a course as “a lot of stuff to
memorize.” School/College learning requires understanding how
2 MAKE IT A HABIT: WORK EVERY DAY pieces of information fit together to form a “BIG picture.”Use
course outlines, tables of content, headings and subheadings to
Avoid all-night cram sessions in which you (unsuccessfully) try to
organize the information in each of your courses. Routinely ask
understand and retain large amounts of information. Spend time yourself, “What’s the purpose of this detail?”and Does it make
on your studies each day, and you can stay on top of your courses sense?
and still have time for fun. Use small blocks of time - you’ll be
DO SOMETHING (ANYTHING!) TO REMEMBER
amazed what you can get done between study sessions. 8 KEY INFORMATION
3 HELP EXISTS! SEEK IT OUT AND IMPROVE
YOUR GRADES
Capture your understanding of course material in an active way.
Generate examples, create mnemonics, make summary notes,
Whether you’re an ‘A’ student or a ‘D’ student, you can strengthen identify key words, highlight textbooks or add margin notes. Be
your learning skills. Whenever a doubt crops up get it cleared. creative and interested and you’ll certainly do good at test time.
Never hesitate to ask for help from your teachers/parents. Also no matter how well you understand something, without
practice some forgetting will occur. Before a test, make sure that
4 WRITE IT DOWN you can recall important information from memory. Self-test by
recalling information without looking at notes or textbooks and
Remember important dates. It’s up to you to remember due by doing practice exams if available.
dates for sending applications and test dates. A wall calendar of
important dates is also a good idea. 9 BE TEST SMART
5 GET ENERGIZED - EAT, EXERCISE, SLEEP Don’t lose marks because of test-writing errors such as
misreading a question or running out of time. Also, carefully read
Not understanding? Trouble remembering? Comprehension and
instructions, budget time to marks, and do less difficult questions
memory are affected by stress and fatigue. When you’re hungry,
first to build confidence.
tense, or tired your brain can’t function at its full potential. It’s
especially crucial to eat well, exercise, and get adequate sleep
during exam periods. 10 GET A MENTOR
BE A KEENER : GO TO CLASS PREPARED And finally have a mentor– someone you know who has succeeded
6 AND TAKE GOOD NOTES in Exam. It can even be your mother, father, brother or teacher.
Idolize your mentor and keep asking him for advices. Run to
Don’t fall into the habit of missing class. Someone else’s notes him when you have a problem. He can act as a single source of
aren’t going to be as good as having gone to the lecture yourself. motivation and problem solver for you.
At the end, once exams are over, don't forget to reward yourself. The reward gives you the break you deserve after all of your studying.
Treating yourself also helps you stop thinking about the test and analyzing every little mistake you may have made.

84 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16


Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.
Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

ACROSS 

1. Lens designed so as to minimize      


both spherical and coma  
aberration. (9,4)


4. An imaginary line around the
earth parallel to the equator. (8)  

10. A massive astrophysical 

compact halo object, a kind of  
astronomical body that might
 
explain the apparent presence of
dark matter in galaxy halos. (5)
14. A period of exponential 
 
expansion thought to have
  
occurred around 10–36 s after the
universe began. (9)  

15. A CGS unit of pressure equals to


1 dyne per square centimetre. (5) 
17. Energy equivalent to the mass

of a particle at rest. (4, 6)


22. Unit of mass in FPS system. (5)


23. The progressive decrease of a 

property due to repeated stress. (7)


25. A unit prefix in the metric system
denoting a factor of 10–24. (5)
26. Product of force and the lever arm. (6) 11. A line that just touches a curve at one point, without cutting
27. The quasiparticle associated with spin waves in a crystal across it. (7)
lattice. (6) 12. An organization founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1989
28. A device which controls the flow of electricity. (6) in order to develop ways to inspire students in engineering
and technology fields. (5)
DOWN
13. A means of making measurements, in which the measured
1. A non dimensional, unitless quantity that indicates how well quantity is distant from the recording apparatus and the data
a surface reflects solar energy. (6) is sent over a particular telecommunication system from the
2. Unit of magnetic flux in CGS system. (7) measuring position to the recording position. (9)
3. The upper layer of the ionosphere at about 200 km altitude 16. Timbre or tone quality that is not characterized by frequency
by day and at 300 km by night. (8) or amplitude. (4, 5)
5. A prefix used in metric system to denote multiple of 10–1. (4) 18. A superconducting quantum interference device. (5)
6. The speed less than that of the speed of sound in medium. (8) 19. A stable, isolated wave that travels at a constant speed. (7)
7. A type of galvanometer designed to measure brief flow of 20. The curve or surface formed by the reflection of parallel rays
charges through it. (9) of light in a large aperture concave mirror. (7)
8. A temporary connection between electrical or electronic 21. An alloy of iron and other elements which is magnetic. (5)
circuits or a temporary communications channel. (4, 2) 23. An elementary particle with half integer spin. (7)
9. The production of shadow photographs of the internal 24. Particles in the standard model that mediate strong
structure of bodies, opaque to visible light. (11) interactions. (6)


PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 85


86 PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16