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4 April 2016

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P hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment

the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who

send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through “Physics Musing” and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

1. A spherical insulator of radius R is charged

uniformly with a charge Q throughout its volume

(ρ1 − ρ2 ) I ε0

Q (a) zero (b)

and contains a point charge located at its centre. 2

16

Which of the following graphs best represents (c) ε0I(ρ1 – ρ2) (d) ε0I(ρ1 + ρ2 )

qualitatively, the variation of electric field intensity 4. In which material do the conduction electrons have

E with distance r from the centre? the largest mean time between collisions?

(a) Copper

(b) Aluminium

(a) (b) (c) Nichrome

(d) Tungsten

5. A capacitor of capacitance 5 μF is connected to a

source of constant emf of 200 V for a long time,

then the switch was shifted to contact 1 from

(c) (d) contact 2. The amount of heat generated in the

500 Ω resistance is H. Find 3200 H (in joule).

2. A particle of specific charge σ (q / m) moving with

a certain velocity v enters a uniform magnetic field

of strength B directed along the negative Z-axis

extending from x = r1 to x = r2. The minimum value

(a) 800 J (b) 400 J

of v required in order that the particle can just enter

(c) 200 J (d) 100 J

the region x > r2 is

(a) σr2B (b) σr1B ONE OR MORE OPTION CORRECT TYPE

(c) σ(r2 – r1) B (d) σ r22 − r12 B 6. Figure shows three spherical shells in separate

situations, with each shell having the same uniform

3. Two long straight cylindrical conductors with positive net charge. Points 1, 4 and 7 are at the same

resistivities ρ1 and ρ2 respectively are joined radial distances from the centre of their respective

together as shown in figure. The radius of each of shells; so are points 2, 5 and 8 ; and so are points

the conductor is a. If a uniform total current I flows 3, 6 and 9. With the electric potential taken equals

through the conductors, the magnitude of the total to zero at an infinite distance, choose correct

free charge at the interface of the two conductors is statement(s).

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for JEE Main & Advanced, Senior Professor Physics, RAO IIT ACADEMY, Mumbai.

COMPREHENSION TYPE

For questions 8, 9 and 10

drift along bare copper wire that carries a current of

2.56 A. It travels with the drift speed of the electron in

the wire of uniform cross section area 1mm2. Number of

free electrons for copper = 8 × 1022 cc–1 and resistivity

of copper = 1.6 × 10–8 Ω m.

(a) Point 3 has highest potential.

(b) Point 1, 4 and 7 are at same potential. 8. How much time would the caterpillar take to crawl

1.0 cm if it crawls at the drift speed of the electrons

(c) Point 9 has lowest potential.

in the wire?

(d) Point 5 and 8 are at same potential. (a) 50 s (b) 5 s

7. A simple harmonic oscillator consists of a mass (c) 5000 s (d) None of these

sliding on a frictionless surface, attached to an ideal 9. What is the order of the average time of collision

spring. Choose the correct statement(s). for free electrons of copper?

(a) Quadrupling the mass will double the period. (a) 10–14 s (b) 10–16 s

–11

(c) 10 s (d) 10–8 s

(b) Doubling the amplitude will change the

frequency. 10. If the caterpillar starts from the point of zero

(c) Doubling the amplitude will double the total potential at t = 0, it reaches a point of _____

energy of the system. potential after 10 s.

(d) Doubling the amplitude will quadruple the (a) 80 μV (b) –80 μV

total energy of the system. (c) 160 μV (d) –160 μV

Earth after One-Year Mission

N ASA astronaut and Expedition 46 Commander Scott Kelly

and his Russian counterpart Mikhail Kornienko returned

to Earth Tuesday after a historic 340-day mission aboard the

International Space Station. They landed in Kazakhstan at

11:26 p.m. EST (10:26 a.m. March 2 Kazakhstan time).

“Scott Kelly’s one-year mission aboard the International Space

Station has helped to advance deep space exploration and

America’s Journey to Mars,” said NASA Administrator Charles

Bolden. “Scott has become the ﬁrst American astronaut to

spend a year in space, and in so doing, helped us take one

giant leap toward putting boots on Mars.” During the record-

setting One-Year mission, the station crew conducted almost 400 investigations

the Fluid Shifts investigation with future space station crews.

to advance NASA’s mission and beneﬁt all of humanity. Kelly and Kornienko

The crew took advantage of the unique vantage point of the space station,

speciﬁcally participated in a number of studies to inform NASA’s Journey to

with an orbital path that covers more than 90 percent of Earth’s population, to

Mars, including research into how the human body adjusts to weightlessness,

monitor and capture images of our planet.

isolation, radiation and the stress of long-duration spaceﬂight. Kelly’s identical

Kelly and Kornienko saw the arrival of six resupply spacecraft during their

twin brother, former NASA astronaut Mark Kelly, participated in parallel twin

mission. Kelly ventured outside the conﬁnes of the space station for three

studies on Earth to help scientists compare the effects of space on the body and

spacewalks during his mission.

mind down to the cellular level.

The International Space Station is a convergence of science, technology and

One particular research project examined ﬂuid shifts that occur when bodily

human innovation that enables us to demonstrate new technologies and

ﬂuids move into the upper body during weightlessness. These shifts may be

make research breakthroughs not possible on Earth. It has been continuously

associated with visual changes and a possible increase in intracranial pressure,

occupied since November 2000 and, since then, has been visited by more than

which are signiﬁcant challenges that must be understood before humans

200 people and a variety of international and commercial spacecraft.

expand exploration beyond Earth’s orbit. The study uses the Russian Chibis

For more information about the one-year mission,

device to draw ﬂuids back into the legs while the subject’s eyes are measured

visit: http://www.nasa.gov/oneyear

to track any changes. NASA and Roscosmos already are looking at continuing

*K P Singh

1. An electron enters the space 5. A circuit area 0.01 m2 is kept inside a magnetic field

between the plates of a charged which is normal to its plane. The magnetic field

parallel plate capacitor as changes from 2 T to 1 T in 1 ms. If the resistance of

shown in the figure. The charge the circuit is 2 Ω, the amount of heat evolved is

density on the plate is σ. Electric (a) 0.05 J (b) 50 J (c) 0.50 J (d) 500 J

intensity in the space between the plates is E. A

6. An LC circuit contains a 20 mH inductor and a

uniform magnetic field B also exists in the space

50 μF capacitor with an initial charge of 10 mC. The

perpendicular to the direction of E. The electron

resistance of the circuit is negligible. Let the instant

moves perpendicular to both E and B without any

the circuit is closed be t = 0. At what time is the

change in direction. The time taken by the electron energy stored completely magnetic?

to travel a distance L in the space is (a) t = 0 (b) t = 1.57 ms

σL σB ε0 LB ε L (c) t = 3.14 ms (d) t = 6.28 ms

(a) (b) (c) (d) 0

ε0 B ε0 L σ σB 7. An alternating voltage e = 200 sin100t V is applied

2. Two capacitors of capacitance 2 μF and 4 μF to a series combination R = 30 Ω and an inductor of

respectively are connected in series. The combination 400 mH. The power factor of the circuit is

is connected across a potential difference of 10 V. (a) 0.01 (b) 0.2 (c) 0.05 (d) 0.6

The ratio of energies stored by capacitors will be 8. A particle of mass 1 × 10–26 kg and charge

(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 4 : 1 1.6 × 10–19 C travelling with a velocity

1.28 × 106 m s–1 along the positive X-axis enters

3. An unknown resistance R1 is connected in series with

a region in which a uniform electric field E and a

a resistance of 10 Ω. This combination is connected

uniform magnetic field of induction B are present. If

to one gap of meter bridge while, a resistance R2 is ^ ^

connected in the other gap. The balance point is at E = –102.4 × 103 k N C–1 and B = 8 × 10–2 j Wb m–2,

50 cm. Now, when the 10 Ω resistance is removed the direction of motion of the particle is

the balance point shifts to 40 cm. The value of R1 (in (a) along the positive X-axis

ohm) is (b) along the negative X-axis

(c) at 45° to the positive X-axis

(a) 20 (b) 10 (c) 60 (d) 40 (d) at 135° to the positive X-axis

4. A magnet of length 14 cm and magnetic moment 9. An object is placed at a distance of 40 cm in front of

M is broken into two parts of lengths 6 cm and a concave mirror of focal length 20 cm. The nature

8 cm. They are put at right angle to each other with of image is

opposite poles together. The magnetic moment of (a) real, inverted and of same size

the combination is (b) virtual, erect and of same size

M M (c) real, erect and of same size

(a) (b) M (c) (d) 2.8 M

10 1. 4 (d) virtual, inverted and of same size

*A renowned physics expert, KP Institute of Physics, Chandigarh, 09872662552

⎛I ⎞

(a) ⎛⎜ 0 ⎞⎟ sin2 2 θ

10. A ray of light falls on a transparent glass slab of I

refractive index 1.62. If the reflected ray and the (b) ⎜ 0 ⎟ sin2 θ

⎝8⎠ ⎝4⎠

refracted ray are mutually perpendicular, the angle

⎛I ⎞

of incidence is (c) ⎜ 0 ⎟ cos 4 θ (d) I0cos4θ

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎝2⎠

(a) tan–1(1.62) (b) tan −1 ⎜

⎝ 1.62 ⎟⎠ 16. The energy that should be added to an electron

⎛ 1 ⎞

(d) tan −1 ⎜

to reduce its de-Broglie wavelength from 1 nm to

(c) tan–1(1.33)

⎝ 1.33 ⎟⎠ 0.5 nm is

11. A ray PQ incident on (a) four times the initial energy

the refracting face BA (b) equal to the initial energy

is refracted in the prism (c) twice the initial energy

BAC as shown in the (d) thrice the initial energy

figure and emerges from

17. An electron and a neutron have same momentum.

the other refracting face

AC as RS, such that Which of the following statements is correct?

AQ = AR. If the angle of prism A = 60° and the (a) Both neutron and electron have same kinetic energy

refractive index of the material of prism is 3 , then (b) Both neutron and electron have same de-Brolie

the angle of deviation of the ray is wavelength.

(a) 60° (b) 45° (c) Both neutron and electron have same speed.

(c) 30° (d) None of these (d) Both neutron and electron have different

12. The head lights of a car are 1.2 m apart. If the pupil de-Broglie wavelength.

of the eye of an observer has a diameter of 2 mm and 18. The energy of a photon is equal to the kinetic

light of wavelength 5896 Å is used, what should be

energy of a proton. The energy of the photon is E.

the maximum distance of the car from the observer

if the two head lights are just separated? Let λ1 be the de-Broglie wavelength of the proton

(a) 33.9 km (b) 33.9 m and λ2 be the wavelength of the photon. The ratio

(c) 3.34 km (d) 3.39 m (λ1/λ2) is proportional to

13. In a Young’s double slit experiment, the two slits act (a) E0 (b) E (c) E–1 (d) E–2

as coherent sources of waves of equal amplitude A

19. The product of linear momentum and angular

and wavelength λ. In another experiment with the

same arrangement the two slits are made to act as momentum of an electron of the hydrogen atom is

incoherent sources of waves of same amplitude and proportional to nx, where x is

wavelength. If the intensity at the middle point of (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) –2 (d) 2

the screen in the first case is I1 and in the second

I 20. A nucleus disintegrates into two nuclear parts

case I2, then the ratio 1 is which have their velocities in the ratio 2 : 1. The

I2

(a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 0.5 ratio of their nuclear sizes will be

I1 16 (a) 21/3 : 1 (b) 1 : 31/2 (c) 31/2 : 1 (d) 1 : 21/3

14. In a Young’s double slit experiment, = . Ratio

I2 9 21. A radioactive material decays by simultaneous

of maximum to minimum intensity is emission of two particles with half-lives 1620 yr

(a) 1 : 49 (b) 9 : 16 (c) 16 : 9 (d) 49 : 1 and 810 yr respectively. The time in year after which

15. Two polaroids are placed in the path of unpolarized one-fourth of the material remains, is

beam of intensity I0 such that no light is emitted (a) 4860 (b) 3240 (c) 2340 (d) 1080

from the second polaroid. If a third polaroid

whose polarization axis makes an angle θ with the 22. A radioactive sample S1 having an activity of 5 μCi

polarization axis of first polaroid, is placed between has twice the number of nuclei as another sample S2

these polaroids, then the intensity of light emerging which has an activity of 10 μCi. The half lives of S1

from the last polaroid will be and S2 can be

(a) 20 yr and 5 yr, respectively 29. A black body emits radiations of maximum intensity

(b) 20 yr and 10 yr, respectively for the wavelength of 5000 Å when the temperature

(c) 10 yr each (d) 5 yr each of the body is 1227 °C. If the temperature of the body

is increased by 1000 °C, the maximum intensity

23. A common emitter amplifier gives an output of

would be observed at

3 V for an input of 0.01 V. If β of the transistor is 100

and the input resistance is 1 kΩ, then the collector (a) 1000 Å (b) 2000 Å (c) 5000 Å (d) 3000 Å

resistance is 30. Two solid spheres A and B made of the same material

(a) 1 kΩ (b) 3 kΩ (c) 10 kΩ (d) 30 kΩ have radii rA and rB respectively. Both the spheres

are cooled from the same temperature under the

24. The output of given logic circuit is conditions valid for Newton’s law of cooling. The

ratio of the rate of cooling of A and B is

rA r rA2 r2

(a) (b) B (c) (d) B

rB rA rB2 rA2

31. A gas is suddenly expanded such that its final volume

becomes 3 times its initial volume. If the specific heat

(a) A + B + C (b) (A + B)·(A + C) at constant volume of the gas is 2R, then the ratio of

(c) A⋅(B ⋅ C) (d) A⋅(B + C) initial to final pressure is nearly equal to

25. A small spherical ball falling through a viscous (a) 5 (b) 6.5 (c) 7 (d) 3.5

medium of negligible density has terminal velocity 32. An ideal refrigerator has a freezer at a temperature

v. Another ball of the same mass but of radius twice of –13 °C. The coefficient of performance of the

that of the earlier falling through the same viscous engine is 5. The temperature of the air (to which

medium will have terminal velocity heat is rejected) will be

v v (a) 325°C (b) 325 K (c) 39°C (d) 320°C

(a) v (b) (c) (d) 2v

4 2 33. In a Carnot engine, when T2 = 0 °C and T1 = 200 °C,

26. The excess pressure inside one soap bubble is three its efficiency is η1 and whenT1 = 0°C and T2 = –200 °C,

η

times that inside a second soap bubble, then the its efficiency is η2, then what is 1 ?

η2

ratio of their surface areas is

(a) 1 : 9 (b) 1 : 3 (a) 0.577 (b) 0.733 (c) 0.638 (d) 0.95

(c) 3 : 1 (d) 1 : 27 34. A container with insulating walls is divided into two

27. Two rods of different materials having coefficients of equal parts by a partition fitted with a valve. One

thermal expansions α1 and α2 and Young’s moduli part is filled with an ideal gas at a pressure p and

Y1 and Y2 respectively are fixed between two rigid temperature T, whereas the other part is completely

walls. The rods are heated, such that they undergo evacuated. If the valve is suddenly opened, the

the same increase in temperature. There is no pressure and temperature of the gas will be

α 2 p p T T

bending of rods. If 1 = and stresses developed (a) , T (b) , (c) p, T (d) p,

α2 3 2 2 2 2

Y 35. If universal gas constant is R, the essential heat to

in the two rods are equal, then 1 is increase the temperature of 4 mol monoatomic ideal

Y2

gas from 273 K to 473 K at constant volume is

3 2 1

(a) (b) 1 (c) (d) (a) 200R (b) 400R (c) 800R (d) 1200R

2 3 2

36. A particle at the end of a spring executes SHM

28. 1 g of steam at 100 °C and equal mass of ice at 0 °C

with a period t1 while the corresponding period for

are mixed. The temperature of the mixture in steady

another spring is t2. If the period of oscillation with

state will be (latent heat of steam = 540 cal g–1, latent the two springs in series is T, then

heat of ice = 80 cal g–1) (a) T = t1 + t2 (b) T 2 = t12 + t22

(a) 50°C (b) 100°C (c) 67°C (d) 33°C (c) T–1 = t1–1 + t2–1 (d) T–2 = t1–2 + t2–2

37. A hollow pipe of length 0.8 m is closed at one 43. Two strings A and B are slightly out of tune and

end. At its open end a 0.5 m long uniform string produce beats of frequency 5 Hz. Increasing the

is vibrating in its second harmonic and it resonates tension in B reduces the beat frequency to 3 Hz. If

with the fundamental frequency of the pipe. If the the frequency of string A is 450 Hz, calculate the

tension in the wire is 50 N and the speed of sound frequency of string B.

is 320 m s–1, the mass of the string is (a) 460 Hz (b) 455 Hz (c) 445 Hz (d) 440 Hz

(a) 5 g (b) 10 g (c) 20 g (d) 40 g

44. If a source emitting waves of frequency υ moves

38. Ultraviolet light of wavelength 300 nm and intensity towards an observer with a velocity v/4 and the

1.0 W m–2 falls on the surface of photoelectric metal. observer moves away from the source with a

If one percent of incident photons produce velocity v/6, the apparent frequency as heard by the

photoelectrons, then the number of photoelectrons observer will be (v = velocity of sound)

emitted from an area of 1.0 cm2 of the surface is nearly 14

14 10 2

(a) 2.13 × 1011 s–1 (b) 1.5 × 1012 s–1 (a) υ (b) υ (c) υ (d) υ

15 9 9 3

(c) 3.02 × 1012 s–1 (d) none of these

45. Two bodies are in equilibrium when suspended in

39. According to Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom, for

water from the arms of a balance. The mass of one

the electron in the nth allowed orbit, the

body is 36 g and its density is 9 g cm–3. If the mass

(i) linear momentum is proportional to 1/n

of the other is 48 g, its density in g cm–3 is

(ii) radius is proportional to n

1 4 3

(iii) kinetic energy is proportional to (a) (b) (c) 3 (d) 5

n2 3 2

(iv) angular momentum is proportional to n SOLUTIONS

Choose the correct option from the codes given

below. 1. (c) : For no change in the velocity of electron,

(a) (i), (iii), (iv) are correct magnetic force = electrostatic force

(b) (i) is correct qvB = qE

(c) (i), (ii) are correct E σ

v= =

(d) (iii) is correct B ε0 B

40. Consider the nuclear reaction X200 → A120 + B80. If The time taken by electron to travel a distance L in

the binding energy per nucleon for X, A and B are that space with uniform motion

7.4 MeV, 8.2 MeV and 8.3 MeV respectively, then L L ε LB

t= = = 0

the energy released in the reaction is v σ / ε0 B σ

(a) 168 MeV (b) 200 MeV

(c) 190 MeV (d) 188 MeV q2

2. (b) : U =

41. An atomic power nuclear reactor can deliver 2C

300 MW. The energy released due to fission of each For series combination of the capacitors, q = constant

nucleus of uranium atom U238 is 170 MeV. The 1

⇒ U∝

number of uranium atoms fissioned per hour will be C

(a) 30 × 1025 (b) 4 × 1022 U1 C2 4

(c) 10 × 1020 (d) 5 × 1015 = = =2

U 2 C1 2

42. The equation of a wave on a string of linear mass

3. (a) : The balance condition of a meter bridge

density 0.04 kg m–1 is given by

experiment

⎡ ⎛ t x ⎞⎤

y = 0.02 (m)sin ⎢2 π ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥. R

=

l

⎢⎣ ⎝ 0.04 (s) 0.50 (m) ⎠ ⎥⎦ X 100 − l

The tension in the string is R + 10 50

(a) 1.25 N (b) 0.5 N (c) 6.25 N (d) 4.0 N Case (i) : 1 = ... (i)

R2 50

R 40 F = qE + q (v × B) = q (E + v × B)

Case (ii) : 1 = ... (ii)

R2 60 ^

= (1.6 × 10−19 )[(−102.4 × 103 k )

Using R2 from eqn. (ii) in (i), we get ^ ^

R1 + 10 3 + (1.28 × 106 i × 8 × 10−2 j )]

= 1 ⇒ R1 + 10 = R1 ⇒ R1 = 20 Ω ^ ^

60

R 2 = (1.6 × 10−19 )[(−102.4 × 103 k + 102.4 × 103 k )]

40 1 =0

M F

4. (c) : Pole strength of original magnet, m = Acceleration of the particle, a = =0

14 m

M M

∴ M1 = .6 and M2 = .8 Hence, the particle will move along positive x-axis.

14 14

9. (a) : From mirror formula

Magnetic moment of the combination,

1 1 1 1

M 2 2 10M M = − =−

M = M12 + M22 = 6 +8 = = v −20 (−40) 40

14 14 1. 4

v = –40 cm

5. (a) : Induced emf in coil

The image is on the same side of the object.

dB 1

∴ |e | = A = 0.01 × = 10 V v (−40)

dt 1 × 10−3 Now, magnification m = − = − = −1

u (−40)

Current produced in coil,

| e | 10 i.e., the image is real, inverted and of same size.

i= = = 5A 10. (a) : Brewster’s law, μ = tan θp

R 2

Heat evolved = i2Rt θp = θi = tan–1(1.62)

= (5)2 × (2) × 1 × 10–3 = 0.05 J 11. (a) : Ray QR travels parallel to base BC, this is the

6. (b) : For LC circuit, the time period is case of minimum deviation thus

T = 2 π LC ⎛ A + δmin ⎞ ⎛ 60° + δmin ⎞

sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟⎠

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2

T

At time t = , energy stored is completely magnetic. μ= ⇒ 3=

⎛ A⎞ ⎛ 60° ⎞

sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

4

⎝2⎠

2 π LC

So the time, t = 3 ⎛ 60° + δmin ⎞

4 ⇒ = sin ⎜

⎝ ⎟⎠ ∴ δmin = 60°

2 2

2 π 20 × 10−3 × 50 × 10−6

or t = = 1.57 ms 12. (c) : x = distance of car from eye

4

D = diameter of eye lens,

R d = separation between sources.

7. (d) : Power factor, cos φ =

R2 + ω2 L2

30

=

(30) + (100) × (400 × 10−3)2

2 2

30 30

= = = 0. 6

900 + 1600 50

d 1.22λ

8. (a) : Here, m = 1 × 10–26 kg dθ ==

x D

q = 1.6 × 10–19 C D×d 2 × 10−3 × 1.2

v = 1.28 × 106 i m s −1 ⇒ x= = = 3337 m

1.22 λ 1.22 × 5896 × 10−10

E = −102.4 × 103 k N C −1

x = 3.34 km

B = 8 × 10−2 j Wb m −2

13. (b) : I = Ia + Ib + 2 Ia Ib cos φ

Force on a charged particle in a uniform electric

and magnetic field is For incoherent sources, (cosφ)av = 0

⇒ Iics = Ia + Ib = I2 Linear momentum × angular momentum ∝ nx

I is maximum for coherent sources mcZ nh

∴ × ∝ nx

137 n 2 π

I cs = Ia + Ib + 2 Ia Ib = I1

n0 ∝ nx ⇒ x = 0

For Ia = Ib = I0

20. (d) : Using law of conservation of momentum

I1 = 4I0 and I2 = 2I0 m1v1 = m2v2

I m1 v2

So, 1 = 2 ⇒ =

I2 m2 v1

2

⎛ A1 ⎞ ⎛4 ⎞

2 m ∝ r3 for a spherical nucleus of uniform density

I ⎜⎝ A + 1⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ + 1⎟⎠

49 m1 r13 v2 r ⎛1⎞

1/3

3

14. (d) : max = 2

= = ∴ = 3= ⇒ 1 =⎜ ⎟

I min ⎛ A 2

⎛4 ⎞

2 1 m2 r v1 r2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

1 − 1⎞ − 1⎟ 2

⎜⎝ A ⎟⎠ ⎜

⎝3 ⎠

2 21. (d) : Effective half-life

I0 1 1 1 1 1

15. (a) : For P1, I = (I0)(cos2θ)av = = + = +

2 T T1 T2 1620 810

1 3 ⇒ T = 540 yr

n

⎛1⎞ t

0 (90° – ) Fraction left after n half lives is ⎜ ⎟ , n =

2 ⎝2⎠ 540

According to question,

n

1 ⎛1⎞ t

=⎜ ⎟ ⇒ n=2 ∴ 2= ⇒ t = 1080 yr

⎛I ⎞ 4 ⎝2⎠ 540

For P3, I = ⎜ 0 ⎟ cos2 θ 1

⎝2⎠ 22. (a) : Activity of S1 = (Activity of S2)

2

For P2, I = ⎛⎜ 0 cos2 θ ⎞⎟ cos2(90° – θ)

I

⎝2 ⎠ 1 λ1 N 2

or λ1 N1 = (λ2 N 2 ) or =

2 λ2 2 N1

= 0 (cos θ sin θ) = 0 (2 cos θ sin θ) = 0 sin2 2 θ

I 2 I 2 I

or 1 =

T 2 N1 ⎡ 0.693 ⎤

2 8 8

⎢ As T =

h T2 N 2 ⎣ λ ⎥⎦

16. (d) : de-Broglie wavelength, λ = Given N1 = 2N2 ∴ T1 = 4

2 mE

T2

λ1 E2 1 × 10−9 E2 23. (b) : Voltage gain = current gain × resistance gain

∴ = ⇒ −

= R V0 R

λ2 E1 0.5 × 10 9 E1 or AV = β × 0 or =β 0

Ri Vi Ri

E2 E

⇒ 2= ⇒ 2 = 4 ∴ E2 = 4E1 3 R0 30

E1 E1 or = 100 × 3

or R0 = = 3 kΩ

0.01 1 × 10 0 .01

∴ Energy to be added = E2 – E1

24. (b) : Here A + B = G1 (OR)

= 4E1 – E1 = 3E1

A + C = G2 (OR)

h h h and G1·G2 = Y (AND)

17. (b) : de-Broglie wavelength, λ = = =

p 2 mK mv 25. (c) : Terminal velocity of the ball falling through a

viscous medium of negligible density (σ ≈ 0) is

λ1 h / 2 mE λ 2 2

18. (b) : Required ratio, = or 1 ∝ E1/2 v= r ρg

λ2 hc / E λ2 9η

mcZ ⎛ ⎞

137 n 2 2⎜ m ⎟

v= r g

9 η ⎜ 4 π r3 ⎟

Angular momentum =

nh ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠

2π 3

For constant m, η and g 32. (c) : Given that, the temperature of freezer,

1 T2 = –13 °C

v∝

r T2 = –13 + 273 = 260 K

Because radius of second ball is twice that of the Coefficient of performance, β = 5

first ball T2 260

v β= or 5 =

∴ v2 = 1 T1 − T2 T1 − 260

2

4T 4T 260

26. (a) : Given, = 3× ⇒

r1 1

= ∴ T1 − 260 =

r1 r2 r2 3 5

Ratio of surface areas will be or T1 – 260 = 52 or T1 = (52 + 260) K = 312 K

A1 4π r12 or T1 = (312 – 273)°C = 39°C

1

= = 33. (a) : Take temperature in Kelvin

A2 4π r22 9

273 200

27. (a) : Thermal stress = YαΔT η1 = 1 − = = 0.423 ... (i)

473 473

where Y is Young’s modulus, α the coefficient of linear

expansion and ΔT the change in temperature. T

η2 = 1 − 2 = 1 −

73 200

= = 0.732 ... (ii)

For no bending, thermal stress in each rod should T1 273 273

be equal so as to cancel other. Dividing eqn. (i) by (ii),

Since, ΔT1 = ΔT2 η1 0.423

Y1 α2 3 = = 0.577

= = η2 0.732

Y2 α1 2

34. (a) : Internal energy of the gas remains constant,

28. (b) : Heat taken by ice to raise its temperature to

hence

100°C

T2 = T

Q1 = 1 × 80 + 1 × 1 × 100 = 180 cal

Using p1V1 = p2V2

Heat given by steam when condensed

V p

Q2 = m2L2 = 1 × 540 = 540 cal p. = p2 V ⇒ p2 =

As Q2 > Q1, hence, temperature of mixture will 2 2

remain 100°C. 35. (d) : Specific heat for a monoatomic gas

fR 3 R

29. (d) : According to Wien’s displacement law, CV = =

2 2

1 (λm)1 T2

λm ∝ ⇒ = Required heat is ΔH = nCV ΔT

T (λm)2 T1

3

5000 2227 + 273 = 4 × R × 200 = 1200R

∴ = ⇒ (λm)2 = 3000 Å 2

(λm)2 1227 + 273 36. (b) : For series springs, equivalent spring constant

30. (b) : Rate of cooling, 2

1 1 1 1⎛T ⎞ 1

dT 4 e A σ TS3 area is given by, = + . Also ⎜ ⎟ =

− = (T − TS ) ∝ ks k1 k2 m ⎝ ⎠

2 π k

dt mc mass 2 2 2

For given surrounding and object temperature 1⎛T ⎞ 1⎛t ⎞ 1⎛t ⎞

⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟

dT R2 1 m ⎝2π⎠ m ⎝2π⎠ m ⎝2π⎠

− ∝ =

dt R3 R

H r ∴ T2 = t12 + t22

Ratio of rates of cooling, A = B 37. (b) : According to question, 2 × fundamental

H B rA

frequency of string = fundamental frequency of

31. (a) : Suddenly expanded ⇒ adiabatic process,

pipe

i.e., pVγ = constant

γ

p1V1 = p2(3V)γ ⎛ v ⎞ v T / μ 320

2⎜ 1 ⎟ = 2 ⇒ =

Cp 3R p1 ⎝ 2 L1 ⎠ 4 L2 L1 4 L2

γ= = = 1. 5 ⇒ = 3γ = 31.5 ≈ 5

CV 2 R p2 (μ = mass per unit length of wire)

50 / μ 320 T

or = or, μ = 0.02 kg m–1 But v = ⇒ T = v2 μ

0. 5 4 × 0. 8 μ

∵ length of string, l = 0.5 m ∴ T = (12.5)2 × 0.04 = 6.25 N

∴ Mass of string = μ × l = 0.02 × 0.5 43. (c) :

= 10 × 10–3 kg = 10 g

υ(A) υ(B) beat frequency

hc

38. (b) : Energy of each photon, E = (i) 450 υ 5

λ (ii) 450 υ′ (> υ) 3

−34 8

6.6 × 10 × 3 × 10

= −9

= 6.6 × 10−19 J (i) ⇒ υ = 455 Hz or 445 Hz

300 × 10 (ii) υ′ – 450 = ±3

Power of source is, (iii) Also υ′ > υ′ (slightly)

P = intensity × areav = 1.0 × 1.0 × 10–4 = 10–4 W Only 445 Hz satisfies condition (ii) and (iii)

Number of photons per second (N) fall on the

44. (c) : When source and observer both are moving in

surface,

the same direction and observer is ahead of source,

P 10−4 then apparent frequency is given by

= =

E 6.6 × 10−19 v−

v

⎛ v − vo ⎞ 6 × υ = 10 υ

Now number of electrons emitted = 1 % of N υ′ = ⎜ υ=

⎝ v − v s ⎟⎠ v 9

1 10−4 v−

= × −19

= 1.5 × 1012 per second 4

100 6.6 × 10 45. (c) : For equilibrium Fnet (Apparent weight) on

h each pan should be same.

39. (a) : Angular momentum, L = n

2π Fnet = W – U = mg – σVg

σm

or m − = constant

n2 ρ

Radius of the orbit, r = 0.52

Z 36 48

⇒ 36 − 1 × = 48 − 1 ×

Z2 9 ρ

Kinetic energy = –E = +13.6 2 eV 2 1

n ⇒ = 1− ⇒ ρ=3

3 ρ

40. (a) : For X, binding energy = 200 × 7.4 = 1480 MeV

For A, binding energy = 120 × 8.2 = 984 MeV

For B, binding energy = 80 × 8.3 = 664 MeV EXAM DATES 2016

Therefore, energy released

= (984 + 664) – 1480 = 168 MeV JEE Main : 3rd April (ofﬂine),

9th & 10th April (online)

energy

41. (b) : Power = = 300 × 106 W = 3 × 108 J s–1 VITEEE : 6th to 17th April

time MGIMS : 17th April

170 MeV = 170 × 1.6 × 10–13 J = 27.2 × 10–12 J AMU (Engg.) : 24th April

Number of atoms fissioned per second (N) Kerala PET : 25th & 26th April

3 × 108 Kerala PMT : 27th & 28th April

= APEAMCET (Engg. & Med.) : 29th April

27.2 × 10−12 AIPMT : 1st May

Number of atoms fissioned per hour Karnataka CET : 4th & 5th May

3 × 108 × 3600 MHT CET : 5th May

= N × 3600 = −12

= 4 × 1022 COMED K : 8th May

27.2 × 10 BITSAT : 14th to 28th May

42. (c) : Compare given equation with WB JEE : 17th May

y = A sin(ωt – kx) JEE Advanced : 22nd May

2π 2π AIIMS : 29th May

⇒ ω= and k =

0.04 0.50 AMU (Med.) : 1st June

JIPMER : 5th June

ω 0. 5

∴ v= = = 12.5 m s −1

k 0.04

A current which periodically changes direction while = root of mean (average) of square of current.

its magnitude may or may not change is alternating x2

current (ac). ∫ f (x)dx

Until and unless specified otherwise, an ac is a sinusoidal x1

Note : = average (mean) value of f(x) in the

function of time, of the form x2 − x1

interval x2 – x1.

i(t) = i0 sin(ωt + φ)

t2

2

∫i dt

t1

∴ = average value of square of current in the

t2 − t1 interval t2 – t1

Let us try and find rms value of sinusoidal current.

For this we use,

sin2θ + cos2θ = 1

A current which does not change its direction, while its

∴ If < f (x) > indicates average of f (x), then

magnitude may or may not change is dc (direct current).

A dc in which magnitude changes is a pulsating dc and < sin2θ > + < cos2θ > = < 1 > = 1

until and unless we specify otherwise, a dc is assumed but, sinθ and cosθ are identical functions, just with a

to be constant dc. phase difference of π/2 between them.

1

∴ < sin2 θ > = < cos2 θ > =

2

∴ For sinusoidal current, i = i0sin(ωt) whose time

2π

period is T =

ω

RMS Value of a Variable Current π T

but, i2 = i02sin2(ωt) has a period of =

It represents that value of a constant dc current which ω 2

when allowed to pass through the same resistor for same

time interval as the variable current then it produces

same amount of heat energy.

t2

2

AC : H ac = ∫ i Rdt

t1

2 2

DC : H dc = idc RΔt = irms RΔt

... Hdc = Hac [according to definition]

t2

2

t2 ∫i dt

π/ω

t1

2

⇒ irms RΔt = ∫ i 2Rdt ⇒ irms = ∴ A= ∫ (i0 sin ωt )2 dt

t1 (t2 − t1) 0

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

Note that, in ac circuits we cannot employ the voltmeter

∴ irms = < square of current >

and ammeter used in dc circuits since they are based on

1 the torque experienced by the coil of the galvanometer

= < i02 sin2 ωt > = i02 ×

2 and in ac circuits the magnitude as well as direction of

i peak value

irms = 0 = torque would keep on oscillating. Therefore we use hot

2 2 wire ammeters and voltmeters in ac circuits which are

This result is applicable for entire cycle or only within based on heating effect of current. Hence they measure

the crest part or trough part of the cycle. Using this rms values. So whenever the reading of a voltmeter or

result, now we can easily obtain the area A marked

ammeter in ac is given, they are rms values. Remember

in the graph.

this.

T /2

For alternating emf, two forms of representation are

∫ i02 sin2 ωt dt

i used :

irms = 0 = 0

T /2 2 (i) ε = ε0sin(ωt)

2π

A i02 Ti 2 Here ε0 = peak value of emf and T = .

⇒ = ⇒ A= 0 ω

T /2 2 4

(ii) 220 V, 50 Hz

We should remember this result since using this we

If emf is given as separate value with frequency then

can easily calculate rms current in many cases without

it is rms value

integrating.

For example, say for i = i0cos(ωt), we are to find rms ∴ ε0 = (220) 2 V

value in the interval and ω = 2πf = 2π(50) = 100π rad s–1

π π Now, let us see the effect of imposing an alternating emf

(i) t = 0 to t = (ii) t = 0 to t =

ω 2ω on various circuit components.

In general, we would have a combination of R, L and

C connected to an ac source and we would be finding

current in the circuit. For this we draw phasor diagram

where we represent emf and current as projections of

rotating vectors (phasors).

A A Ti02

+

∴ (i) irms = 2 2 = A = 4 = i0

π T T 2

ω 2 2

A Both i0 and φ are dependent upon the combination of

i

(ii) irms = 2 = 0 R, L and C.

T 2 But in such situations in general we say that the current

4

leads (for '+') or lags (for '–') by φ radians to the applied

Let us try finding the rms value of current in which dc

emf and in phasor diagram, it is represented as :

is superimposed over sinusoidal ac such as

i = a + bsin(ωt)

∴ irms = < (a + b sin ωt )2 >

b2 b2

= a2 + + 0 = a2 +

2 2

Here (ωt) is the common phase angle and their relative The equation clearly shows

phase does not change with respect to time hence for that the current leads the

convenience we can rotate both the current and voltage potential difference across

phasors by ωt in clockwise direction, as below. the terminals of capacitor

π

by rad.

2

3. Inductor

Applying KVL,

di

εs − L = 0

dt

Now, we will apply alternating emf to R, L and C and ⇒ Ldi = ε0sinωt dt

see how the current changes. ⇒ L ∫ di = ε0 ∫ sin ωtdt

1. Resistor ε

⇒ i = 0 (− cos ωt )

Applying KVL, ωL

ε π⎞

εs – iR = 0 ∴ i(t ) = 0 sin ⎜⎛ ωt − ⎟

ε ε XL ⎝ 2⎠

∴ i = s = 0 sin(ωt ) where XL = ωL = inductive reactance

R R

π

∴ i(t) = i0sin(ωt), where i0 =

ε0 ∴ i = i0 sin ⎜⎛ ωt − ⎟⎞

⎝ 2⎠

R

ε0

∴ The current passing through a resistor is in where i0 = = peak value of current

phase with the applied emf. XL

Clearly, the current through

the inductor lags in phase by

π/2 radians with respect to the

potential difference across

its terminals.

2. Capacitor 1

Applying KVL, Note : XC = shows that for high frequency, XC

ωC

q is low which means it offers negligible resistance

εs − = 0

C for the passage of such a quickly changing current.

⇒ q = Cε0 sin(ωt ) XL = ωL indicates for high frequency, XL is high

which means it offers high resistance for the passage

dq

⇒ i(t ) = = Cε0ω cos(ωt ) of such quickly changing current.

dt

ε0 π⎞

⇒ i(t ) = sin ⎜⎛ ωt + ⎟

(1 / ωC) ⎝ 2⎠

1

where = XC = capacitive reactance

ωC

It has the same role of play in capacitive circuits

With these concepts learnt, let us try finding current in

which is played by resistance.

some combinations of R, L and C.

ε π⎞

∴ i(t ) = 0 sin ⎜⎛ ωt + ⎟ Series RC circuit

XC ⎝ 2⎠

π⎞

= i0 sin ⎛⎜ ωt + ⎟

⎝ 2⎠

where i0 = peak value of current

ε peak value of potential difference across it

= 0 =

XC XC

Applying KVL, i0 = 0 for ω = 0

q ε

ε s − iR − = 0 i0 = 0 for ω = ∞

C R

dq q

⇒ ε0 sin(ωt ) − R − = 0

dt C

Now, with our limited knowledge of differential

equations, we clearly can see that since we cannot

separate the variables q and t so wont be able to find by

this method. Series RL circuit

So now, we use alternate method-

phase diagram method. Through

both R and C, a common current

passes, so we keep current along

reference line and hence draw the

voltage phasors with respect to it.

Here VR and VC indicate the peak value of potential Again keeping current phasor along the reference line,

difference across resistor and capacitor. we plot the phasors VR and VL.

The vector sum of VR and

∴ ε20 = VR2 + VL2

VC will give source emf.

∴ ε20 = (i0R)2 + (i0 X L )2

∴ ε20 = VC2 + VR2 ε0 ε

2 2 2 ⇒ i0 = = 0

⎛ ε ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ R + XL Z

2 2

⇒ ⎜ 0 ⎟ =⎜ C ⎟ +⎜ R ⎟

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

⇒ ε2s = VC2 + VR2 where Z = R2 + X L2

rms rms rms

2 2 = impedance of series LR circuit

∴ In general, ε2s = VC + VR can be used for both peak

⎧ ε0

as well as rms values but not for instantaneous values. ε0 ⎪ for ω = 0

∴ i0 = =⎨ R

From phasor diagram, 2 2

R + (ωL) ⎪⎩ 0 for ω = ∞

V i X X 1

tan φ = C = 0 C = C =

VR i0R R ωCR

ε20 = VC2 + VR2 = (i0 XC )2 + (i0R)2

ε0 ε

⇒ i0 = = 0

R2 + X 2 Z C

V X

where Z = R + XC2 = impedance of RC circuit

2

From phasor diagram, tan φ = L = L

VR R

ε0 ⎛ ⎛ X ⎞⎞

∴ i(t ) = sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ C ⎟ ⎟ ε0 ⎛ ⎛ X ⎞⎞

2 2

R + XC ⎝ ⎝ R ⎠⎠ ∴ i(t ) = sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ L ⎟ ⎟

2 ⎝ ⎝ R ⎠⎠

R + X L2

⎛ ⎛ X ⎞⎞

∴ VR (t ) = (i0R)sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ C ⎟ ⎟ Series RLC Circuit (Acceptor Circuit)

⎝ ⎝ R ⎠⎠

⎛ ⎛ X ⎞ π⎞

VC (t ) = i0 XC sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ C ⎟ − ⎟

⎝ ⎝ R ⎠ 2⎠

ε0

i0 = clearly shows that

2

R2 + ⎜ ⎛ 1 ⎞

⎝ ωC ⎟⎠

Now, either amongst VC = i0XC and VL = i0XL will be If the circuit is operated at resonant frequency,

larger and will therefore decide whether current will Z = R hence it readily allows the current to pass through

lead the applied emf or it will lag the applied emf. as if L and C were not present, hence is known as

Let VC > VL acceptor circuit.

2 2 Finally,

∴ ε20 = VR2 + (VC − VL )2 = (i0R) + (i0 XC − i0 X L )

ε0 ⎛ ⎛ X − XL ⎞ ⎞

ε i(t ) = sin ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎜ C ⎟⎠ ⎟⎠

∴ i0 = 0 , where 2 2 ⎝ ⎝ R

R + (X − X )

C L

Z

Parallel RLC Circuit

Z = R2 + (XC − X L )2

2

⎛ 1 ⎞

= R2 + ⎜ − ωL ⎟

⎝ ωC ⎠

⎧∞ for ω = 0

⎪⎪ 1

= ⎨R for ω = ω0 = when XL = XC

⎪ LC

⎪⎩∞ for ω = ∞

V − VL XC − X L In parallel circuit, the potential

tan φ = C =

VR R dif ference is common for

if XL = XC ⇒ φ = 0 all. So we keep the voltage

This condition when the current through the source is phasor along the reference

found to be in phase with the source emf, is said to be line for relative phase angle

condition of resonance and the frequency at which this measurements of current.

⎛ 1 ⎞. ε ε

happens is resonant frequency ⎜ ω0 = ⎟ Now, iC > iL if 0 > 0 , i.e., XC < X L

⎝ LC ⎠ XC X L

This condition for a series LCR circuit also means that

and iL > iC if XL < XC

the impedance becomes minimum and hence current

maximum but this is not the general definition, since iL = iC if XL = XC

it might happen that when φ = 0, current will be Let iC > iL then the vector sum

minimum, as will be shown in this article further. of the 3 current phasors gives

the resultant current phasor.

∴ i02 = iR2 + (iC − iL )2

2

⎛ ε0 ⎞ ⎛ ε0 ⎞ ⎛ ε0 − ε0 ⎞

2 2

=

⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ + ⎜

Z R ⎝ XC X L ⎟⎠

2

1 1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞

⇒ = +⎜ − ⎟

Z R ⎝ C

2 X X L⎠

1

Inverse of impedance, i.e., is admittance.

Z

ε0 ε0

−

iC − iL XC X L R R

Clearly, tan φ = = = −

iR ε 0 XC X L

R

Again, current through the source is in phase with

For XC > XL nature of circuit is overall capacitive. source emf if XL = XC

XC = XL nature of circuit is overall resistive. 1

XL > XC nature of circuit is overall inductive. i.e. at ω = ω0 = (resonant frequency)

LC

But at this frequency For a series LCR circuit,

1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1

2 X − XL

= + ⎜ ωC − ⎟ = = minimum tan φ = C

Z R 2 ⎝ ωL ⎠ R R

Hence Z = maximum R

∴ cos φ = = power factor

ε Z

∴ i0 = 0 = minimum

R R ⎛ε ⎞

∴ P = εrmsirms = ⎜ rms ⎟ irms R

Z ⎝ Z ⎠

2 ε

P = irms R where irms = rms

Z

This result gives a very important conclusion, that

the average power supplied by source is equal to the

power consumed by resistor alone inspite of the fact

that there could have been capacitors and inductors

in the circuit, which means in a complete cycle there

is no net power consumption by either capacitor or

inductor. This is due to the fact that in one half of the

cycle, work is done on them while in other half work

is done by them. Therefore inductors and capacitors

are said to be lossless components of circuit.

Power Dissipation in AC circuits Often virtual current or virtual emf terms are also used

In any circuit if we have source emf εs = ε0 sin (ωt) to indicate rms values.

then current is of the form i(t) = i0sin(ωt + φ) where ∴ εrms irms = Virtual power

φ may have positive or negative value depending upon Actual power

the circuit and operational frequency ω. ∴ Power factor=

Virtual power

Instantaneous power supplied by source,

Pinst = ε0sin(ωt) × i0 sin(ωt + φ) Half Power Frequencies (ω1 and ω2)

ε i These are those frequencies at which if the circuit is

= 0 0 [2 sin(ωt )sin(ωt + φ)] operated, the power consumption becomes half of the

2

ε0i0 maximum possible power consumption.

= [cos(φ) − cos(2ωt + φ)]

2 P 2 (i )2 R

∴ P = max ⇒ irms R = rms max

ε i ε i 2 2

= 0 0 cos φ − 0 0 cos(2ωt + φ)

2 2 (i ) (i )

Here φ is time independent parameter and cos(2ωt + φ) ⇒ irms = rms max ⇒ i0 = 0 max

is a periodic function which is changing very quickly, 2 2

generally, φ = 50 Hz, therefore their instantaneous Now, for a series LCR circuit,

values wont be noticeable. What we get to feel is their ε0 ε0 / R

average value. =

Z 2

∴ Average power supplied by source

ε i cos φ ε i ⇒ Z = 2R ⇒ R2 + ( XC − X L )2 = 2R2

P = Pinst = 0 0 − 0 0 cos(2ωt + φ)

2 2 ⇒ (XC – XL)2 = R2 ⇒ XC – XL = ±R

(... <cos(2ωt + φ)> = 0) 1

ε i ε i ∴ XC > XL for ω < ω0 ⇒ − ω1L = R ...(i)

∴ P = 0 0 cos φ = 0 0 cos φ ω1C

2 2 2 1

P = εrms irms cosφ XL > XC for ω > ω0 ⇒ − ω2 L = −R ...(ii)

ω 2C

Adding (i) and (ii), Energy stored in oscillators

⎛ ω1 + ω2 ⎞ 1 Q = 2π ×

⎜ ⎟ − (ω1 + ω2 )L = 0 Energy lost in dissipation

⎝ ω1ω2 ⎠ C Higher Q indicates a lower rate of energy loss relative to

1 the stored energy in the resonator. In electrical systems,

⇒ ω1ω2 = = ω20 the stored energy is the sum of the energy stored in

LC

Subtracting (ii) from (i), lossless inductors and capacitors. In each cycle, the

energy is alternately stored in capacitor and inductor.

⎛ ω2 − ω1 ⎞ 1

⎜⎝ ω ω ⎟⎠ C − (ω1 − ω2 )L = 2R

The maximum energy stored in either of them is equal

1 2 to their sum of energy at any instant.

⎡ 1 1 ⎤ The lost energy is the sum of the energies dissipated

⇒ (ω2 − ω1 ) ⎢ × + L ⎥ = 2R ⇒ (ω2 – ω1)2L = 2R in the resistor per cycle.

1 C

⎢ ⎥ 1 2 1 2

⎣ LC ⎦ U osc Li0

2π 2 0

Li

∴ Q = 2π = 2 π × 2 = ×

R

⇒ ω2 − ω1 = = Δω = bandwidth of operation U lost 2

irms RT0 T0 i02 R

L

ω L ω 2

Q= 0 = 0

R Δω

Hence it can also be defined as the ratio of resonant

frequency and the bandwidth of operation.

ε0

If ω1 < ω < ω2, current is greater than, hence power

2R

consumption will be greater than half the maximum

possible power consumption.

Quality factor (Q – factor)

Q–factor is 2π times the ratio of the energy stored

in the oscillator to the loss in energy per cycle in the ∴ The graph with sharp peak has more selectivity.

circuit at resonant frequency.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS ON

Assertion & Reason

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of Reason : During ascent magnitude of retardation

Assertion is followed by a statement of Reason. Mark the is greater than magnitude of acceleration during

correct choice as : descent.

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the 6. Assertion : The energy stored in the inductor of 2 H,

correct explanation of assertion. when current of 10 A flows through it is 100 J.

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the

Reason : Energy stored in an inductor is directly

correct explanation of assertion.

proportional to its inductance.

(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.

(d) If both assertion and reason are false. 7. Assertion : Thin films such as soap bubble

or thin layer of oil on water show beautiful

1. Assertion : A gas can be liquified at any temperature colours when illuminated by white light.

by increase of pressure alone.

Reason : It happens due to the interference of light

Reason : On increasing pressure, the temperature reflected from the upper surface of the thin film.

of gas decreases.

8. Assertion : A charged particle moves perpendicular

2. Assertion : In the case of a stationary wave, a person to a magnetic field. Its kinetic energy remains

hears a loud sound at the nodes as compared to the constant, but momentum changes.

antinodes. Reason : Force acts on the moving charged particles

Reason : In a stationary wave, all the particles of the in the magnetic field.

medium vibrate in phase. 9. Assertion : If the length of the conductor is doubled,

3. Assertion : When we change the unit of the drift velocity will become half of the original

measurement of a quantity, its numerical value value (keeping potential difference unchanged).

changes. Reason : At constant potential difference, drift

Reason : Smaller the unit of measurement smaller velocity is inversely proportional to the length of

is its numerical value. the conductor.

4. Assertion : Identical springs of steel and copper are 10. Assertion : A rocket works on the principle of

equally stretched. More work will be done on the conservation of linear momentum.

steel spring. Reason : Higher the velocity, smaller is the pressure

and vice-versa.

Reason : Steel is more elastic than copper.

11. Assertion : No work is done when an electron

5. Assertion : If in a projectile motion, we take air

completes a circular orbit around the nucleus of an

friction into consideration, then tascent < tdescent.

atom.

Reason : Work done by a centripetal force is SOLUTIONS

always zero. 1. (d) : Gas and vapour are two distinct state of matter.

12. Assertion : A person standing on a rotating Critical temperature is the distinguishing feature

platform suddenly stretched his arms. The platform between the two. A vapour above the critical

slows down. temperature is a gas and a gas below the critical

temperature for the substance is a vapour. A gas

Reason : This happens as angular momentum is

cannot be liquified by the application of pressure

conserved.

alone, howsoever large the pressure may be while

13. Assertion : A planet moves faster, when it is closer vapour can be liquified under pressure alone. To

to the sun in its orbit and vice-versa. liquify a gas it must be cooled upto or below its

Reason : Orbital velocity in an orbit of planet is critical temperature.

constant. 2. (c) : The person will hear the loud sound at nodes

14. Assertion : A needle placed carefully on the surface than at antinodes. We know that at antinodes the

of water may float, whereas a ball of the same displacement is maximum and strain is minimum

material will always sink. while at nodes the displacement is zero and strain

is maximum. The sound is heard due to variation of

Reason : The buoyancy of an object depends

pressure. Further, P = – E(dy/dt), where E is elasticity

both on the material and shape of the

and dy/dt is strain. As strain is maximum at nodes,

object.

hence there is maximum variation of pressure and

15. Assertion : Coefficient of thermal conductivity loud sound is heard.

of a metal rod is a function of length of the rod. 3. (c) : If u1, u2 be the units to measure a quantity Q and

Reason : Longer the rod, larger is the amount of n1, n2 be the numerical values respectively then we

heat conducted. know that Q = n1u1 = n2u2. Since the quantity Q does

16. Assertion : Two electric field lines never intersect not change irrespective of the units used to measure

1

one another at any point in space. it i.e., Q = constant. So nu = constant ⇒ n ∝ i.e.,

u

Reason : Electric field lines always start from a smaller the unit of measurement, greater is the

positive charge and end on a negative charge. corresponding numerical value.

17. Assertion : The focal length of the objective of the 4. (a) : As, work done

telescope is larger than that of eyepiece. 1 1

= × stress × strain = × Y × (strain)2

Reason : The resolving power of telescope increases 2 2

Since elasticity of steel is more than that of copper

when the aperture of objective is small.

hence more work has to be done in order to stretch

18. Assertion : When base region has larger width, the steel.

the collector current decreases. 5. (a)

Reason : Electron hole combination in base 6. (b) : The energy stored in the inductor is given by

increases base current. 1 1

U = × LI 02 = × 2 × (10)2 = 100 J

19. Assertion : The relative velocity of two photons 2 2

travelling in opposite direction is the velocity of It is clear that energy stored is directly proportional

light. to its inductance.

Reason : The rest mass of photon is zero. 7. (c) : The beautiful colours are seen on account of

interference of light reflected from the upper and the

20. Assertion : Television signals are received through

lower surface of the thin films. Since, condition for

sky-wave propagation.

constructive and destructive interference depends

Reason : The ionosphere reflects electromagnetic upon the wavelength of light therefore, coloured

waves of frequencies greater than a certain critical interference fringes are observed.

frequency.

8. (b) : The charged particle would move along a f

circle. Magnitude of velocity remains constant, 17. (c) : The magnifying power of telescope, m = 0 .

fe

but its direction goes on changing. That is why So, for high magnification, the focal length of

⎛ 1 ⎞ objective should be larger than that of eyepiece.

kinetic energy ⎜ = mv 2 ⎟ remains constant but

⎝ 2 ⎠ D

Resolving power of a telescope =

momentum (= mv) goes on changing. 1.22λ

9. (a) : Drift velocity of free electron is given by For high resolving power, diameter (D) of objective

eE should be higher.

vd = τ

m 18. (a)

V 19. (b) : Velocity of first photon = u = c

Here, E =

l Velocity of second photon = v = – c

eV 1 ⎛ eV ⎞

∴ vd = τ or v d ∝ ⎜ τ is constant ⎟ Now, relative velocity of first photon with respect to

ml l ⎝m ⎠ second photon

10. (b) : Assertion and reason, both are correct. But u−v c − (−c)

= =

the reason refers to Bernoulli’s theorem, which has uv (c)(−c)

nothing to do with the assertion. 1− 2 1− 2

c c

11. (a) : W = Fs cos θ = Fs cos 90° = 0

2c 2c 2c

Centripetal force is along the radius, which is at 90° = = = =c

c 2 1+1 2

to the direction of motion (along the tangent). 1+ 2

12. (a) : On stretching arms, his moment of inertia (I) c

increases. As no torque has been applied, therefore Also the rest mass of photon is zero.

Iω = constant. 20. (d) : In sky wave propagation the radio waves

As I increases, ω decreases. which have frequency between 2 MHz to 30 MHz,

13. (c) : A planet revolves around the sun in such a are reflected back to the ground by the ionosphere.

way that its areal velocity is constant. That is why, But radio waves having frequency greater than

it moves faster, when it is closer to the sun and 30 MHz cannot be reflected by the ionosphere

vice-versa. because at this frequency they penetrate the

14. (c) : A needle placed carefully on the surface of ionosphere. It makes the sky wave propagation

water may float due to surface tension, as upward less reliable for propagation of TV signal having

forces due to surface tension balances the weight of frequency greater than 30 MHz.

the needle. But these upward forces due to surface Critical frequency is defined as the higher frequency

tension are very small as compared to weight of that is returned to the earth by the ionosphere.

ball, also the weight of liquid displaced by the ball Thus, above this frequency a wave whether it is

immersed in liquid is less than the weight of the electromagnetic will penetrate the ionosphere and

ball, hence ball sinks into the liquid. is not reflected by it.

15. (d) : Coefficient of thermal conductivity depends

only on nature of material of the rod and the length

of rod is inversely proportional to the amount of Ev

Everything is determined, the

1 beginning as well as the end,

heat conducted, ΔQ ∝ .

Δx by forces over which we have

16. (b) : Two electric field lines do not intersect one no control. It is determined for

another because if they do so then at the point of insects as well as for the stars.

intersection there will be two possible directions Human beings, vegetables or cosmic

H

dust, we all dance to a mysterious tune,

of electric field which is impossible. Electric field

intoned in the distance by an invisible piper.

lines always start from a positive charge and end on

a negative charge.

Exam on

22nd May

2016

PAPER-2

SECTION 1 (MAXIMUM MARKS : 32) according to the empirical relation s = A + BT, where

• This section contains EIGHT questions A = 100 cal kg–1 K–1 and B = 2 × 10–2 cal kg–1 K–2.

• The answer to each question is a SINGLE DIGIT The final temperature of the container is 27°C,

INTEGER ranging from 0 to 9, both inclusive

the mass of the container is x × 10–1 kg. What is

1. Four point charges + 8 μC, –1 μC, –1 μC, and + 8 μC the value of x? (Latent heat of fusion of water

27 3 3 = 8 × 104 cal kg–1, Specific heat of water

are fixed at the points − m, − m, + m, = 103 cal kg–1 K–1).

2 2 2

27

and + m respectively on the y-axis. A particle 4. A current I = 10 A flows in a ring of radius r0 = 15 cm

2 made of a very thin wire. The tensile strength of the

of mass 6 × 10–4 kg and charge + 0.1 μC moves wire is equal to T = 1.5 N. The ring is placed in a

along the x-direction. Its speed at x = + ∞ is v0. Find magnetic field, which is perpendicular to the plane

the least value of v0 (in m s–1) for which the particle

of the ring so that the forces tend to break the ring.

will cross the origin. Assume that space is gravity

Find B(in T) at which the ring is broken.

free.

1 5. There is a stream of neutrons with a kinetic energy

Given = 9 × 109 N m2 C–2.

4 πε0 of 0.0327 eV. The half life of neutrons is 700 s.

2. A narrow monochromatic beam of light of intensity Fraction of neutrons that decay before they travel

I is incident on a glass plate as shown in figure. distance of 10 m is 3.9 × 10–p, find p.

Another identical glass plate is kept close to the 6. Figure shows a part of a bigger circuit. The capacity

first one and parallel to it. Each glass plate reflects of the capacitor is 6 mF and is decreasing at the

25 percent of the light incident on it and transmits constant rate 0.5 mF s–1. The potential difference

the remaining. Find the ratio of the maximum across the capacitor at the shown moment is

and the minimum amplitudes in the interference changing as follows:

pattern formed by the two beams obtained after one

dV d 2V 1

reflection at each plate. = 2 V s −1 , 2 = V s −2

dt dt 2

– +

2H 6mF

4

3A

3. An ice cube of mass 0.1 kg at 0°C is placed in an The current in the 4 Ω resistor is decreasing at the

isolated container which is at 227°C. The specific rate of 1 mA s–1. What is the potential difference

heat s of the container varies with temperature T (in mV) across the inductor at this moment?

7. Consider the situation

shown in the figure. Mass

of block A is 6 kg and

that of block B is 12 kg.

The force constant of

–1

spring is 50 N m .

Friction is absent everywhere. System is released

from rest with the spring unstretched. Find the

speed of block A (in m s–1) when the extension in λD

x

(a) dmin = λD (b) dmin =

the spring is x = m , xm = maximum extension of 2

2 dmin

spring. (c) x = (d) x = dmin

2

8. A solid ball of density half that of water falls 12. If dimensions of length are expressed as Gxcyhz,

freely under gravity from a height of 19.6 m and where G, c and h are the universal gravitational

then enters water. How much time (in s) will it constant, speed of light and Planck's constant

take to come again to the water surface? Neglect respectively, then

air resistance and viscosity effects in water.

1 1 1 1

(Take g = 9.8 m s–2) (a) x = , y = (b) x = , z =

2 2 2 2

SECTION 2 (Maximum Marks : 32) 3 1 1 3

• This section contains EIGHT questions (c) y = – , z = (d) y = , z =

2 2 2 2

• Each question has FOUR options (a), (b), (c) and (d).

ONE OR MORE THAN ONE of these four option(s) 13. A tuning fork vibrating with a frequency of 512 Hz

is(are) correct is kept close to the open end of a tube filled with

9. A straight copper wire of length 1000 m and cross- water, as shown in the figure.

sectional area 1.0 mm2 carries a current 4.5 A.

Assuming that one free electron corresponds to each

copper atom, (Density of copper = 8.96 × 103 kg m–3,

Atomic mass of copper = 63.5 g, Resistivity of

copper wire = 1.69 × 10–8 Ω m)

(a) the time taken by an electron to displace from

one end of the wire to the other is 4 × 106 s.

(b) the sum of electric force acting on all free

electrons in the given wire is 1 × 106 N.

(c) the time taken by an electron to displace from

one end of the wire to the other is 3 × 106 s.

(d) the sum of electric force acting on all free

electrons in the given wire is 2 × 106 N.

10. Determine the period of small oscillations of a The water level in the tube is gradually lowered.

mathematical pendulum, that is a ball suspended When the water level is 17 cm below the open end,

by a thread l = 20 cm in length, if it is located in maximum intensity of sound is heard. The room

a liquid whose density is three times less than that temperature is 20°C. Then

of the ball. The resistance of the liquid is to be (a) Speed of sound in air at room temperature is

neglected. 360 m s–1.

(a) 2.2 s (b) 1.1 s (b) Speed of sound in air at 0°C is 336 m s–1.

(c) 0.5 s (d) 3.1 s (c) If the water in the tube is replaced with mercury,

11. The minimum value of d so that there is a dark then the intensity of reflected sound increases.

fringe at O is dmin, the distance at which the next (d) If the water in the tube is replaced with mercury,

bright fringe is formed is x. Then then the intensity of reflected sound decreases.

14. A steel rod of length 2l, cross-sectional area A and

mass M is set rotating (with angular speed ω) in a

horizontal plane about an axis passing through the

centre. If Y is the Young's modulus for steel, then the

extension in the length of the rod will be (Assume

Mω2l 2 Mω2l 2

(a) (b)

2YA 6YA

Mω l 2 2

M ω2l 2

(c) (d)

4YA 3YA

15. The gap between the plates of a parallel-plate

capacitor is filled with isotropic dielectric whose 17. Total magnetic flux in this loop is

permittivity ε varies linearly from ε1 to ε2(ε2 > ε1) μ Ia 2μ0 Ia

(a) 0 ln 2 (b) ln 2

in the direction perpendicular to the plates. The π π

area of each plate equals A, the separation between 4μ0 Ia μ Ia

the plates is equal to d. Then the capacitance of the (c) ln 2 (d) 0 ln 2

π 2π

capacitor will be given by

18. The instantaneous current in the circuit will be

(ε2 − ε1 )ε0 A (ε2 − ε1 )ε0 A 2μ0 I 0 ωa ln 2

(a)

d ln(ε2 / ε1 )

(b) (a) sin(ωt − θ)

d π R2 + ω 2 L2

ε2 ε0 A (ε1 − ε2 )ε0 A

(c) (d) 2μ0 I 0 ωa ln 2

d d ln(ε1 / ε2 ) (b) sin(ωt + θ)

π R2 + ω2 L2

16. A particle moves along a closed trajectory in

2μ0 I 0 ωa ln 2

a centripetal field of force where the particle's (c) sin ωt

potential energy U = kr2 (k is a positive constant, r π R2 + ω 2 L2

is the distance of the particle from the centre O of μ0 I 0 ωa ln 2 ⎛ ωL ⎞

sin(ωt − θ) ⎜ where tan θ =

R ⎟⎠

the field). The mass of the particle if its minimum (d)

π R +ω L

2 2 2

⎝

distance from the point O equals r1 and its velocity

at the point farthest from O equals v2 will be PARAGRAPH 2

2

⎛r ⎞ ⎛r ⎞ A parallel beam of light falls successively on a thin convex

(a) 2k ⎜ 1 ⎟ (b) 2k ⎜ 1 ⎟ lens of focal length 40 cm and then on a thin convex lens

⎝ v2 ⎠ ⎝ v2 ⎠

2

of focal length 10 cm as shown in the figure (a).

⎛ r2 ⎞ ⎛r ⎞

(c) 2k ⎜ 1 ⎟ (d) 4k ⎜ 1 ⎟

⎝v ⎠

2

⎝ v2 ⎠

• This section contains TWO paragraphs

• Based on each paragraph, there will be TWO questions

• Each question has FOUR options (a), (b), (c) and (d).

ONE OR MORE THAN ONE of these four options(s)

is(are) correct

PARAGRAPH 1

inductor of inductance L and resistor of resistance R is

placed between two long parallel wires. The two long

straight wires have time-varying current of magnitude

I = I0 cos ωt but the directions of current in them are

opposite.

or 4 ⎜⎛ x 2 + 3 ⎟⎞ = x 2 + or 3x 2 =

In the figure (b), the second lens is an equiconcave 27 15

lens of focal length 10 cm and made of a material of ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2

refractive index 1.5. In both the cases, the second lens

5

has an aperture equal to 1 cm. or x = ± m

2

19. The ratio of the areas illuminated by the beam of The least value of kinetic energy of the particle at

light on the screen, which passes through the second infinity should be enough so that particle can reach

lens in the two cases, i.e., (A2/A1) will be

5 5

(a) 72/5 (b) 81/1 at x = + m because at x = + m net force on

(c) 56/3 (d) 29/2 2 2

it is zero.

20. Now, a liquid of refractive index μ is filled to the 5

right of the second lens in figure (b) such that the For x > m, net force on the particle is repulsive

2

area illuminated in both the cases is the same. (towards positive x-axis).

Determine the refractive index of the liquid.

5

(a) 1 (b) 2.5 For x < m, net force on the particle is attractive

(c) 3 (d) 1.5 2

(towards negative x-axis).

SOLUTIONS 5

Let electric potential at x = m be V.

1. (3) : Let the particle be, at some instant, at a point P 2

distant x from the origin. At this point electric field

2 × (9 × 109 ) × (8 × 10−6 )

will be zero. ∴ V=

Net force towards origin = 2 F ' cos β 5 27

+

Net force away from origin = 2 F cos α 2 2

2 × (9 × 109 ) × (1 × 10−6 )

For net force at point P to become zero, −

5 3

+

2 2

+8 μC, 27

2 ⎡8 1⎤

or V = 2 × 9 × 109 × 10–6 ⎢ − ⎥

–1 μC, 3 ⎣4 2⎦

2 4

or V = 2.7 × 10 V

5

3

+0.1μC

Using energy conservation at x = m and x = ∞.

–1 μC, – 2

2 1

q × V + 0 = 0 + mv02

+8 μC, – 27 2

2 1

or (0.1 × 10 ) × (2.7 × 104) = (6 × 10–4)v02

–6

2

2 F cosα = 2 F ' cos β or v02 = 9 ... v0 = 3 m s–1

2k × (8 × 10−6 ) × (0.1 × 10−6 )cos α

∴ 2. (7) : Two plates are

⎛ 2 27 ⎞

⎜⎝ x + ⎟⎠ parallel to each other.

2

−6 −6 Each plate reflects 25%

= 2k × (1 × 10 ) × (0.1 × 10 )cosβ where k =

1

of the incident light and

⎛ 2 3⎞ 4 πε0

⎜⎝ x + ⎟⎠ transmits the remaining

2 75%. Incident beam at

8 x x

or × = A has an intensity I. This beam gets refracted and

⎛ 2 27 ⎞ ⎛ 2 27 ⎞ 1/ 2

⎛ 2 3⎞⎛ 2 3⎞

1/2

⎜⎝ x + ⎟⎠ ⎜ x + ⎟ + +

⎝⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟

x x reflected multiple number of times between the two

2 ⎝ 2⎠ 2⎠⎝ 2⎠ parallel plates. The intensities of various reflected

3/2 3/2

⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 27 ⎞ and transmitted beams are shown in the figure.

8 ⎜ x2 + ⎟ = ⎜ x2 + ⎟

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ Beam 1 and 2, from A and B, undergo interference.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 35

Intensity of beam 1 at A, I1 = I/4 ⎛ dθ ⎞

or, 2T sin ⎜ ⎟ = BIr0dθ (dl = r0 dθ)

Intensity of beam 2 at B, I2 = 9I/64 ⎝ 2 ⎠

2 T 1. 5

I min ⎛ I1 − I2 ⎞ B= = =1T

∴ =⎜ ⎟ Ir0 (10)(0.15)

I max ⎝ I1 + I2 ⎠

5. (6) : Kinetic energy of neutrons = 0.0327 eV

2

⎛1 3⎞ or K = 0.0327 × 1.6 × 10 –19 J

I min ⎜ 2 − 8 ⎟ ⎛ 1/ 8 ⎞

2

⎛1⎞

2

1

or =⎜ = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = or 1 mv2 = 0.0327 × 1.6 × 10–19

I max 1 3⎟ 7 / 8 7 49 2

⎜ + ⎟ 2 × 0.0327 × 1.6 × 10−19

⎝2 8⎠

or v2 =

1.675 × 10−27

A I 7

⇒ max = max = = 7 or v2 = 0.0625 × 108

Amin I min 1 or v = 0.25 × 104 m s–1

3. (5) : Heat lost by container = msdT or dQ = m(A + BT)dT distance 10

∴ time taken = =

or Q 300

∫0 dQ = m∫500 ( A + BT )dT velocity 0.25 × 104

–3

300 or t = 4 × 10 s

⎡ BT 2 ⎤

or Q = m ⎢ AT + ⎥ N

⎣ 2 ⎦ 500 ∴ Fraction that decays = = (1 – e–λt)

N0

300

⎡ −2 ⎤ ⎧ ⎛ 0.693 −3 ⎞ ⎫

or Q = m ⎢100T + 2 × 10 T 2 ⎥ ⎪ − ⎜⎝ 700 × 4 ×10 ⎟⎠ ⎪

= 1 – ⎨e –6 –p

⎣ 2 ⎦ 500 ⎬ = 3.96 × 10 =3.96 × 10

⎡ ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭

(300)2 − (500)2 ⎤

or Q = m ⎢100(300 − 500) + ⎥ ∴ p = 6.

⎣ 100 ⎦

or Q = m[–20000 – 1600]cal dq dV dC

6. (4) : q = CV, I = =C +V , IL = I0 – I

or Q = –21600 m calorie …(i) dt dt dt

Heat gained by ice to become water at 0°C = mL – +

∴ Q1 = 0.1 × 80000 = 8000 cal = 2H

Heat gained by water to raise its temperature from

0°C to 27°C = msΔT

∴ Q2 = 0.1 × 1000 × 27 = 2700 cal

∴ Total heat gained = 8000 + 2700 0 = 3 A

Q1 + Q2 = 10700 cal

According to principle of calorimetry, dI L dI 0 ⎡ d 2V dV dC dV dC d 2C ⎤

Heat lost = Heat gained or 21600 m = 10700 = – ⎢C 2 + + +V 2 ⎥

dt dt ⎣ dt dt dt dt dt dt ⎦

10700 –3

or m = = 0.495 kg = –1 × 10 –

21600

∴ Mass of container = 0.495 kg ⎡ −3 1 −3 −3 ⎤

= 4.95 × 10–1 ≈ 5 × 10–1 kg ⎢⎣6 × 10 × 2 + 2(−0.5 × 10 ) + 2(−0.5 × 10 ) + 0⎥⎦

4. (1) : For the equilibrium of a small part of = –2 × 10–3 A s–1

semicircular arc subtending an angle of dθ at the dI L

centre, VL = L = 2 × 2 × 10–3 = 4 × 10–3 V = 4 mV

dt

7. (4) : At maximum extension in the spring

vA = vB = 0 (momentarily)

Therefore, applying conservation of mechanical

energy :

Decrease in gravitational potential energy of block B

= increase in elastic potential energy of spring.

1 2 N Ad

or mBgxm = kx ... n= ; d = density of copper

2 m M

1 6.02 × 1023 × 8.96 × 103

or 2mgxm = kxm2 =

2 63.5 × 10−3

4mg

∴ xm = = 8.49 × 1028 electron per m3

k

x 2mg l

At x = m = We know, I = ne A vd = neA

2 k t

Let vA = vB = v(say) neAl 8.49 × 1028 × 1.6 × 10−19 × 10−6 × 103

t= =

Then, decrease in gravitational potential energy I 4. 5

of block B = increase in elastic potential energy = 3 × 106 s

of spring + increase in kinetic energy of both the Sum of electric forces

blocks. F = (nV )eE = nAle ρJ

1 1

∴ mBgx = kx2 + (mA + mB)v2 I

2 2 = nAleρ = nleρI

2 A

⎛ 2mg ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2mg ⎞ 1

or (2m)(g) ⎜ = + (m + 2m)v2 = 8.49 × 1028 × 103 × 1.6 ×10–19 × 1.69 × 10–8 × 4.5

⎝ k ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ k ⎟⎠ 2

k

= 1.03 × 106 N

m 6

∴ v = 2g = 2 × 10 = 4 m s–1 10. (b) : Let us depict the forces acting on the oscillating

3k 3 × 50 ball at an arbitrary angular position θ, relative

8. (4) : v = 2 gh = 2 × 9.8 × 19.6 = 19.6 m s–1 to equilibrium position where FB is the force of

buoyancy.

Let ρ be the density of ball and 2ρ the density of

water.

Net retardation inside the water,

upthrust − weight

a=

mass

V (2ρ) g − V (ρ) g

= (V = volume of ball)

V (ρ) The equation of motion for ball

–2

= g = 9.8 m s –mgl sinθ + FBl sin θ = ml2 θ ...(i)

4 4

Using m = πr3σ, FB = πr3ρg and sin θ θ for

3 3

small θ, in eqn (i), we get

g ⎛ ρ⎞

θ=− ⎜1 − ⎟ θ

l ⎝ σ⎠

Thus the time period of the ball

1 l/g

Hence, the ball will go upto the same depth 19.6 m T = 2π = 2π

g ⎛ ρ⎞ 1

below the water surface.

⎜1 − ⎟ 1−

Further, time taken by the ball to come back to l ⎝ σ⎠ 3

water surface is,

0 .2 / 9 .8

⎛v ⎞ ⎛ 19.6 ⎞ = 6.28 = 1 .1 s

t = 2⎜ ⎟ = 2⎜ =4s 2/3

⎝a⎠ ⎝ 9.8 ⎟⎠

11. (b, d) : There is a dark fringe at O if the path

9. (b,c): Every copper atom has one free electron.

λ

So, number of electrons per unit volume = number difference Δx = ABO – AO'O =

of atoms per unit volume. 2

14. (d) : Let us consider an element of length dx on half

portion OA of the rod at a distance x from the axis

of rotation,

1/2

⎛ d ⎞ 2

Δx = 2D ⎜1 + ⎟ − 2D

⎝ D2 ⎠

⎛ 1 d2 ⎞ d2

2D ⎜1 + ⎟ − 2 D =

⎝ 2 D2 ⎠ D

2

λ dmin

∴ = Since the rod is uniform,

2 D

mass of the element = (mass/unit length) dx

λD

= ⎜⎛ ⎞⎟ dx

or, dmin = M

2 ⎝ 2l ⎠

The bright fringe is formed at P if the path difference

Centripetal force acting on this element,

= AO'P – ABP = 0

⎛M ⎞ ⎛M⎞

⇒ D+ D 2 + x 2 − D 2 + d 2 − D 2 + (x − d )2 = 0 dF = ⎜ dx ⎟ xω2 = ⎜ ⎟ ω2xdx

⎝ 2 l ⎠ ⎝ 2l ⎠

x 2 d 2 (x 2 + d 2 − 2 xd ) Here, dF is provided by the tension in the rod due

⇒ − − =0

2D 2D 2D to elasticity.

Given d = dmin The tension (F) in half of the portion OA of the rod

λD at a distance x from its axis of rotation is due to the

On solving, x = dmin = centripetal force acting on all the elements from x

2

to l, i.e.,

12. (b, c) : [L] = [Gxcyhz] whence, x = 1/2, y = –3/2,

M ω2 M ω2 2 2

l

2l ∫x

z = 1/2. F= xdx = (l – x )

4l

13. (b, c) : The tube filled with water behaves as a closed If dδ is the extension in the element of length dx at

organ pipe of length, L = 17 cm = 0.17 m position x, then

v stress

As υ = 20 dδ =

Fdx

[as Y = ]

4L longitudinal strain

YA

v20 = 4υL = 4 × 512 × 0.17 = 348.16 m s–1 Extension in half the portion OA (of length l) of

v20 T 273 + 20 the rod, i.e.,

As = =

Fdx M ω 2 2 2

l l

v0 T0 273

273

δ= ∫0 YA = 4YAl ∫0 (l – x )dx

v0 = 348.16 × = 336 m s–1

293 M ω 2 ⎡ 3 l 3 ⎤ ⎛ M ω 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2l 3 ⎞ ⎛ M ω 2 l 2 ⎞

= ⎢l − ⎥ = ⎜ =

The resonance will still be observed for 17cm length 4YAl ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎝ 4YAl ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 6YA ⎟⎠

of air column above mercury. However, due to more Extension in the entire rod of length 2l, i.e.,

complete reflection of sound waves at mercury M ω 2l 2

2δ =

surface, the intensity of reflected sound increases. 3YA

15. (a, d) : We point the x-axis towards right and place

the origin on the left hand side plate. The left plate

is assumed to be positively charged.

Since ε varies linearly, we can write,

ε = a + bx

where a and b can be determined

from the boundary conditions.

We have,

ε = ε1 at x = 0 and ε = ε2 at x = d,

⎛ ε −ε ⎞

Thus, ε = ε1 + ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ x μ0 I ⎡2a dx 2a dx ⎤ μ0 Ia

⎝ d ⎠ φ= ⎢∫ +∫ ⎥ a; φ = ln 2

2π ⎣ a x a (3a − x ) ⎦ π

Now potential difference between the plates

σ 18. (d) : Magnitude of emf in this circuit

d d

V+ – V– = ∫ E ⋅ dr = ∫ dx

0 0ε

ε dφ μ0 a(ln 2) dI

0

ε= =

d

σ σd ε dt π dt

= ∫ ⎛ ⎛ε −ε ⎞ ⎞

dx = ln 2

(ε2 − ε1 )ε0 ε1 μ0 a ln 2

0

ε0 ⎜ ε1 + ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ x ⎟ = I0ω sin ωt

⎝ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎠ π

μ I ωa ln 2

Hence, the required capacitance, ac current, I = 0 02 sin(ωt – θ)

(ε − ε )ε A π R + ω 2 L2

σA

C= = 2 1 0 19. (b) : In case (a), the incident parallel beam emerges

V+ − V− ⎛ ε2 ⎞

⎜⎝ ln ε ⎟⎠ d as a parallel beam. So area illuminated,

1

2

⎛1⎞ π

16. (b) : For the centripetal force, r × F = 0 so angular A1 = π ⎜ ⎟ = cm2

⎝2⎠ 4

momentum is conserved. Also at maximum and

In case (b), let x be the diameter of the area

minimum separations r is perpendicular to v .

Hence from the conservation of angular momentum illuminated.

about the centre Then,

v v x 1

mv1r1 = mv2r2 or, 1 = 2 …(i) = ⇒ x = 9 cm

r2 r1 45 5

2

As potential energy, U = kr2 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 81

A2 = π ⎜ ⎟ = π cm2

dU

= −2kr ⎝2⎠ 4

So, Fr = −

dr A2 81

From Newton's law in projection form, towards =

A1 1

centre, at the minimum and maximum separations:

2k r1 = mv21/r1 …(ii) 20. (c) : When liquid of refractive index μ is filled to the

and 2k r2 = mv22/r2 …(iii) right of this (concave) lens, the first surface of the

From equations (ii) and (iii) lens (radius of curvature = 10 cm) forms the image

v21/r12 = v22 /r22 …(iv) at the object only. Considering the refraction at the

Hence from equations (i) and (iv), r2 = r1 second surface.

2k r12 μ 1 . 5 μ − 1. 5

Putting this value of r2 in equation (iii), m = − =

v22 ∞ −10 10

17. (a) : dφ = BdA (∵ same area ⇒ v → ∞)

⎡μ I μ0 I ⎤ ⇒ μ=3

dφ = ⎢ 0 + ⎥ adx

⎣ 2πx 2π(3a − x ) ⎦

By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

1. A block-spring pendulum is shown in figure. The The pulley is free to rotate about a fixed horizontal

system is hanging in equilibrium. A bullet of mass axis. Transverse oscillations in a particular tone

m are excited in the wire. Another particular tone is

moving at a speed of u hits the block from

2 excited in a closed pipe made of the same material.

downward direction and gets embedded in it. Find At temperature T = 300 K, both are found in

the amplitude of oscillation of the block now.

unison with a source of frequency υ0 = 100 kHz.

If coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the

material of wire and pipe is α = 10–5 °C–1, calculate

the difference in frequencies produced by wire

and organ pipe when temperature increases by

ΔT = 0.6 K if the same particular tones are excited

in wire and pipe.

2. A homogeneous cylinder of mass m and radius r

is connected to the springs of spring constant k as 4. A train A crosses a station with a speed of 40 m s–1

shown in figure. Find the time period of oscillation and whistles a short pulse of natural frequency

of the cylinder if it rolls without slipping. υ0 = 596 Hz. Another train B is approaching

towards the same station with the same speed

along a parallel track. Two tracks are separated by

a distance d = 99 m. When train A whistles, train B

is 152 m away from the station as shown in figure.

If velocity of sound in air is v = 330 m s–1, calculate

the frequency of the pulse heard by driver of train B.

3. One end of wire is fixed to a wall and a heavy

block is suspended from its other end as shown in

figure.

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

5. A uniform rope of mass 0.1 kg and length 2.45 m 2. Let the centre of cylinder move by a small distance

hangs from a ceiling. (Take g = 9.8 m s–2). OM = x towards right as shown in figure.

(a) Find the speed of transverse wave in the rope at

a point 0.5 m distant from lower end.

(b) Calculate the time taken by a transverse wave

to travel the full length of the rope.

6. A diver is at a depth h from the ship. If a siren of

the ship emits a sound, find the time after which x

The angle by which the cylinder rotates is θ = .

the diver hears the sound. Assume ρm = density of r

mercury. The point C gets displaced to N on the cylinder

connected to the springs by

x

y = (r + h)θ = (r + h) ...(i)

r

1

Potential energy stored in springs, U = 2 × ky 2

2

U = ky2

7. The tension on the wire is 3000 N. The wire is (r + h)2 x 2

3 m long and the fundamental frequency is 300 Hz. U =k (using (i))

r2

What is the mass of the wire?

Kinetic energy of cylinder,

SOLUTIONS

1 ⎛ mr 2 ⎞ ⎛ v ⎞

2

1 3

K = mv 2 + ⎜ ⎟ = mv 2

1. Extension in spring in equilibrium position, 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜⎝ r ⎟⎠ 4

x0 = mg/k.

Now, total energy, E = K + U = constant

After the bullet hits, extension of spring in

k(r + h)2 3

⎛ m⎞ ⇒ x2 + mv 2 = constant

⎜⎝ m + 2 ⎟⎠ g 3mg r 2 4

equilibrium position, x ′ = = Differentiating with resepect to time, we get

k 2k

The distance of new equilibrium position from 2k(r + h)2 3

xv + mva = 0

previous equilibrium position is r 2 2

3mg mg mg 4k(r + h)2 4k(r + h)2

x = x ′ − x0 = − = ...(i)

⇒ a=− x ⇒ ω2 =

2k k 2k

3mr 2 3mr 2

According to conservation of linear momentum;

m 3m 3mr 2

u= v ∴ T = 2π

2 2 4k(r + h)2

u

⇒ v= ...(ii)

3. Let n1 and n2 be the harmonics excited in the wire

3

where v is combined velocity. and organ pipe respectively. Also let l1 and l2 be the

Also, angular velocity is respective lengths of wire and organ pipe.

k 2k n T n2

ω= = ...(iii) Now, 105 = 1 = v

⎛3 ⎞ 3m 2l1 μ 4l2

⎜⎝ 2 m ⎟⎠ It is given that n1 and n2 will not change.

v2 Also, after the increase in temperature, T and l1 will

Since v = ω A2 − x 2 ⇒ A = + x2 ...(iv)

ω 2 remain the same. However, μ, l2 and v will change.

Putting equations (i), (ii) and (iii) in equation (iv), As mass of wire is μl = constant

2 Δμ Δl Δμ Δl

mu2 ⎛ mg ⎞ ⇒ + =0 ⇒ = − = − αΔT

we get A = +⎜ μ μ

⎝ 2k ⎟⎠

l l

6k

New value of mass per unit length is μ′ = μ(1 – αΔT).

New frequency produced by wire, −1

∴ v = 9.8 × 0.5 = 2.21 m s

n T n T

υ1′ = 1 = 1 (1 − αΔT )−1/2 (b) Let t is the time taken to reach the top of the

2l1 μ(1 − αΔT ) 2l1 μ

rope of length l.

⎛ α ⎞ From (i)

⇒ υ1′ = 105 ⎜1 + ΔT ⎟ ...(i)

⎝ 2 ⎠ dx

l t

−1/2

γRT Δv 1 ΔT 1 0.6 dt

= gx ⇒ ∫ x dx = g ∫ dt ,

Also, v = ⇒ = = × = 10−3 0 0

M v 2 T 2 300 l

New velocity, v′ = v (1 + 10–3) 1 ⎡ x1/2 ⎤ l

⇒ t= ⎢ ⎥ =2

New length of pipe, l′2 = l2 (1 + αΔT). g ⎢⎣ 1 / 2 ⎥⎦ g

0

New frequency produced by organ pipe,

2.45

n2v(1 + 10−3 ) ∴ t =2 =1s

υ2′ = 9. 8

4l2 (1 + αΔT ) B

nv 6. Speed of sound in water is v = ,

υ2′ = 2 (1 + 10−3 )(1 − αΔT ) ρ

4l2 where B (Bulk modulus) = P (Pressure at any point

⇒ υ′2 105(1 + 10–3 – αΔT) ...(ii) of water)

From equations (i) and (ii), we get P + ρgy P

then v = 0 = 0 + gy

⎛ 3 ⎞ ρ ρ

υ2′ − υ1′ = 105 ⎜10−3 − × 10−5 × 0.6 ⎟ = 100 − 0.9

⎝ 2 ⎠

dy ρ gh

= 99.1 Hz ⇒ = m m + gy

dt ρ

4. Let t be the time after which the pulse is heard

dy ⎛ρ h ⎞

by the driver of train B. In time t, train B and the ∴ = ⎜ m m + y⎟ g

sound of the whistle from train A reaches point C. dt ⎝ ρ ⎠

h t

dy

⇒ ∫ (a + y ) g

= ∫ dt

0 0

⎡ (a + y ) ⎤

h ⎛ ρm hm ⎞

⇒ t = ⎢2 ⎥ ⎜ where, a = ⎟

⎢⎣ g ⎥⎦ ⎝ ρ ⎠

0

Now, (330t)2 = (99)2 + (152 – 40t)2

(a + h) a 1 ⎛ ρm ⎞

On solving, we get ⇒ t =2 −2 =2 ⎜ hm + h ⎟

t = 0.5 s g g g⎝ ρ ⎠

152 − 40t 152 − (40 × 0.5) ρm hm

∴ cos θ = = = 0. 8 −2

330t 330 × 0.5 ρg

v + v0 cos θ 330 + 40 × 0.8 1 ⎡

Therefore, υ ′ = υ0 = 596 × ∴ t =2 (ρmhm − hρ) − ρmhm ⎤⎦

v − v s cos θ 330 − 40 × 0.8 ρg ⎣

υ′ = 724 Hz 7. Since the fundamental frequency is

5. (a) Tension at a point at a distance x from the free 1 T 1 TL

υ= =

end is T = μxg 2L μ 2L m

where, μ is the mass per unit length of the rope.

T 3000

Speed of transverse wave at this point, ∴ m= = kg ≈ 2.80 gm

2

T 4υ L 4 × (300)2 × 3

v= = gx ...(i)

μ

OLYMPIAD

PROBLEMS

1. Consider a system of two

thin lenses as shown in

l = 10 m, what was the initial speed of the flat car?

(a) 10 m s–1

figure. An object of height (b) 15 m s–1

1 cm is placed at 40 cm (c) 10 3 m s–1

from convex lens. Mark the (d) 20 2 m s–1

correct option related to

final image formed by the 5. The figure shows a uniform rod lying along the

two lens system. X-axis. The locus of all the points lying on the XY-

(a) Final image is formed at 32 cm on right of plane, about which the moment of inertia of the rod

concave lens and is 0.45 cm in size. is same as that about O is

(b) Final image is formed at 32 cm on left side of (a) an ellipse

convex lens and is 1 cm in size. (b) a circle

(c) Final image is formed at 14.5 cm on the left side (c) a parabola

of concave lens and is 0.45 cm in size. (d) a straight line

(d) None of these. 6. A uniformly charged ring of radius R is rotated

2. A thermostated chamber at a height h above earth’s about its axis with constant linear speed v of

surface maintained at 30°C has a clock fitted with each of its particles. The ratio of electric field

uncompensated pendulum. The maker of the clock to magnetic field at a point P on the axis of the

for chamber mistakenly designed it to maintain ring at distance x = R from centre of ring is

correct time at 20°C. It is found that when the (c is speed of light)

2 2

chamber is brought to earth’s surface the clock in (a) c (b) v

v c

it clicked correct time. Re is the radius of earth. The

linear coefficient of the material of pendulum is (c) c (d) v

h h 5 Re Re v c

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Re 5 Re h h SOLUTIONS

3. A light ray enters a 1. (c) : Let image formed by 1st lens be at distance v1

glass slab at an angle of from convex lens.

incidence θ1. What can

be the minimum value Now, 1 − 1 = 1

v1 − 40 20

for the index of refraction

⇒ v1 = 40 cm

of the glass if the ray does h v 40

not emerge at face BC, Size of intermediate image is, I = 1 =

irrespective of angle θ1? hO u − 40

⇒ hI = –1 cm

(a) 1 (b) 2

Negative sign tells that image formed is inverted.

(c) 3 (d) 2

The image formed by 1st lens would be treated as a

4. A pendulum bob is suspended on a flat car that virtual object for 2nd lens, let final image forms at a

moves with velocity v0. The flat car is stopped by a distance v from concave lens.

bumper. If the swing angle of pendulum is 60° and

1 1 1 KEA + PEA =KEB + PEB

− = ⇒ v = −14.5 cm

v 32 − 10 1 2

Negative sign tells that image is formed on left side mv + 0 = 0 + mg (l − l cos θ)

2 0

of concave lens. θ

The magnification produced by 2nd lens is, or v02 = 2 gl(1 − cos θ) = 4glsin2

2

θ

v

m2 = = −

14.5 or v0 = 2 gl sin

u 32 2

On substituting θ = 60°, l = 10 m, g = 10 m s–2

So, size of final image is h = 14.5 × 1 = 0.45 cm

32 we obtain, v0 = 2 (10) × (10) sin 30° = 10 m s −1

So, final image is virtual, erect and diminished.

5. (b) : Consider a point

2. (b) : Variation of acceleration due to gravity with P(x, y) in x-y plane

⎛ 2h ⎞ where we assume the 2

– + 2

altitude gh = g ⎜1 − ⎟ moment of inertia = 2

⎝ Re ⎠

2hg of the rod about P is

Δg = same as that about at

Re ,0

point O 2

Variation of l with temperature, Δl = αlΔθ IP = ICM + Mr2

Coefficient of linear expansion, α = Δl ⎡⎛ 2 ⎤ ML2

l(Δθ) ML2 L⎞ IO =

= + M ⎢⎜ x − ⎟ + y2 ⎥ ;

l l ⎛ Δg ⎞

−1/2

⎛ Δg ⎞ 12 ⎣⎝ 2⎠ ⎦ 3

Th = 2 π = 2π 1− ≈ T ⎜1 +

g − Δg g ⎜⎝ g ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 g ⎟⎠ ML2 ⎡⎛ L⎞

2 ⎤ ML2

Now, I P = IO ⇒ + M ⎢⎜ x − ⎟ + y2 ⎥ =

l + Δl l ⎛ Δl ⎞

1/2

⎛ Δl ⎞ 12 ⎣⎝ 2⎠ ⎦ 3

Tθ = 2 π = 2π ⎜1 + ⎟⎠ ≈ T ⎜⎝1 + ⎟⎠ 2 2

g g ⎝ l 2l ⎛ L⎞ 2 L =⎛L⎞

2

⇒ ⎜⎝ x − ⎟⎠ + y = ⎜ ⎟

The clock shows correct time if Th = Tθ 2 4 ⎝2⎠

Δl Δg This is equation of a circle with radius L and centre

=

2l 2 g 2

Δl Δg 2h h at ⎛⎜ L , 0 ⎞⎟ .

∴ α= = = = ⎝2 ⎠

10l 10 g 10 Re 5 Re

6. (a) : Let Q be the charge on the ring.

3. (b) : The condition for total internal reflection at

the second surface is nsinθ3 ≥ 1.

As θ2 + θ3 = 90°,

So nsin(90° – θ2) ≥ 1 or n cosθ2 ≥ 1

or n2(1 – sin2θ2) ≥ 1 ...(i) P

sin θ1

From Snell’s law, sin θ2 = ...(ii) The electric field at point P,

n

1 Qx 1 QR

From eqns (i) and (ii), E= =

⎛ sin2 θ1 ⎞ 4 πε0 (x 2 + R2 )3/2 4 πε0 (2R2 )3/2

n2 ⎜1 − ⎟ ≥1 The charged ring is equivalent to a ring in which

⎝ n2 ⎠

n2 – sin2θ1 ≥ 1 or n2 ≥ 1 + sin2θ1 current I flows, such that I = Qv

2πR

The value of n corresponds to θ1 = 90°.

The magnetic field at point P,

Hence n ≥ 2 .

μ 2 πIR2 μ QvR

4. (a) : When the flat car collides with the bumper, B= 0 = 0

due to inertia of motion the bob swings forward. 4 π (x + R )

2 2 3/ 2 4 π (2R2 )3/2

No work is done by tension of string on the bob, ∴ E 1 c2

= =

therefore energy is conserved. B μ 0 ε0 v v

CHAPTERWISE MCQs FOR PRACTICE

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams

MAGNETISM AND MATTER experiences a couple of 0.04 N m, and when its plane

1. The intensity of magnetic field at a point X on the axis of is east-west, the corresponding couple is 0.03 N m. The

a small magnet is equal to the field intensity at another magnetic induction is

point Y on its equatorial axis. The ratio of distance of X (a) 0.2 T (b) 0.3 T (c) 0.5 T (d) 0.4 T

and Y from the centre of the magnet will be 6. Two magnets are suspended by a given wire one

(a) (2)–3 (b) (2)–1/3 (c) 23 (d) 21/3 by one. In order to deflect the first magnet through

2. The length of a magnet is large compared to its 45°, the wire has to be twisted through 540° whereas

width and breadth. The time period of its oscillation with the second magnet, the wire requires a twist

in a vibration magnetometer is 2 s. The magnet is of 360° for the same deflection. Then the ratio of

cut along its length into three equal parts and these magnetic moments of the two magnets is

parts are then placed on each other with their like (a) 11/7 (b) 3/2 (c) 4/3 (d) 7/6

poles together. The time period of this combination 7. At a certain place, a magnet makes 30 oscillations

will be per minute. At another place where the magnetic

2 2 field is double, its time period will be

(a) s (b) s (c) 2 3 s (d) 2 s

3 3 (a) 4 s (b) 2 s (c) 1/2 s (d) 2 s

3. An iron rod of length 20 cm and diameter 1 cm is 8. A copper rod is suspended in a non-homogeneous

placed inside a solenoid on which the number of magnetic field region. The rod when in equilibrium

turns is 600. The relative permeability of the rod is will align itself

1000. If a current of 0.5 A is passed in the solenoid, (a) in the region where magnetic field is strongest

then the magnetisation of the rod will be (b) in the region where magnetic field is weakest and

(a) 2.997 × 102A m–1 (b) 2.997 × 103A m–1 parallel to direction of magnetic field there

(c) 2.997 × 104A m–1 (d) 2.997 × 105A m–1 (c) in the direction in which it was originally suspended

4. A long magnet is placed vertically with its S-pole (d) in the region where magnetic field is weakest

resting on the table. A neutral point is obtained and perpendicular to the direction of magnetic

10 cm from the pole due geographic north of it. field there.

If H = 3.2 × 10–5 T, then the pole strength of magnet

9. Two bar magnets of the same mass, same length

is

and breadth but having magnetic moments M and

(a) 8 ab–A cm (b) 16 ab–A cm

2M are joined together by pole and suspended by a

(c) 32 ab–A cm (d) 64 ab–A cm

string. The time period of assembly in a magnetic

5. A coil of 50 turns and area 1.25 × 10–3m2 is pivoted field of strength H is 3 s. If now the polarity of one

about a vertical diameter in a uniform horizontal of the magnets is reversed and the combination is

magnetic field and carries a current of 2 A. When again made to oscillate in the same field, the time

the coil is held with its plane in N-S direction, it period of oscillation is

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

(a) 3 s (b) 3 3 s (c) 3 / 3 s (d) 6 s

16. The magnetic field in a certain region is given by

10. A magnet performs 10 oscillations per minute in a

B = (40 i − 18 k) G. How much flux passes through a

horizontal plane at a place where the angle of dip is 45°

5.0 cm2 area loop in this region, if the loop lies flat

and the total intensity is 0.707 CGS units. The number

on the xy plane?

of oscillations per minute at a place where dip angle is

(a) –900 nWb (b) 900 nWb

60° and total intensity is 0.5 CGS units will be

(c) 0 (d) 9 Wb.

(a) 5 (b) 7 (c) 9 (d) 11

17. A fully charged capacitor C with initial charge q0 is

11. A magnetising field of 1600 A m–1 produces a connected to a coil of self inductance L at t = 0. The

magnetic flux of 2.4 × 10–5 Wb in an iron bar of time at which the energy is stored equally between

cross-sectional area 0.2 cm2. The susceptibility of the electric and the magnetic field is

the iron bar is π

(a) 298 (b) 596 (c) 1192 (d) 1788 (a) LC (b) 2π LC

4

12. A bar magnet has a magnetic moment 2.5 J T –1and (c) LC (d) π LC

is placed in a magnetic field of 0.2 T. The work done 18. The radius of the circular conducting loop shown

in turning the magnet from parallel to antiparallel in figure is R. Magnetic field is decreasing at a

position relative to field direction is constant rate α. Resistance per unit length of the

(a) 1 J (b) 2 J (c) 2 J (d) 4 J loop is ρ. Then current in wire AB is (AB is one of

13. A solenoid has core of a material with relative the diameters)

permeability 500 and its windings carry a current Rα

(a) from B to A

of 1 A. The number of turns of the solenoid is 2ρ

500 per metre. The magnetization of the material Rα

is nearly (b) from A to B

2ρ

(a) 2.5 × 103A m–1 (b) 2.5 × 105 A m–1 2Rα

3

(c) 2.0 × 10 A m –1

(d) 2.0 × 105A m–1 (c) from A to B (d) zero

ρ

14. Choose the correct statement. 19. A coil having n turns and resistance R Ω is

(a) A paramagnetic material tends to move from a connected with a galvanometer of resistance 4R Ω.

strong magnetic field to weak magnetic field. This combination is moved in time t seconds from a

(b) A magnetic material is in the paramagnetic magnetic field W1 weber to W2 weber. The induced

phase below its Curie temperature. current in the circuit is

(c) The resultant magnetic moment in an atom of a

(a) − 2

(W − W1 ) (b) − 2

(W − W1 )

diamagnetic substance is zero.

5Rnt Rnt

(d) Typical domain size of a ferromagnetic material

n (W2 − W1 ) n (W2 − W1 )

is 1 nm. (c) − (d) −

5Rt Rt

15. Materials suitable for permanent magnets, must 20. A metallic ring is dropped down, keeping its plane

have which of the following properties? perpendicular to a constant and horizontal magnetic

(a) High retentivity, low coercivity and high field at t = 0. The ring enters in the region of magnetic

permeability. field at t = 0 and completely emerges out at t = T s.

(b) Low retentivity, low coercivity and low The current in the ring varies with time as

permeability.

(c) Low retentivity, high coercivity and low (a) (b)

permeability.

(d) High retentivity, high coercivity and high

permeability. (c) (d)

21. A vertical ring of radius r and resistance R falls 25. The charge which will flow through a 200 Ω

vertically. It is in contact with two vertical rails galvanometer connected to a 400 Ω circular coil

which are joined at the top, as shown in the figure. of 1000 turns wound on a wooden stick 20 mm in

The rails are without friction and resistance. There diameter, if a magnetic field B = 0.012 T parallel to

is a horizontal uniform magnetic field of magnitude the axis of the stick decreased suddenly to zero is

B perpendicular to the plane of the ring and the (a) 6.3 μC (b) 63 μC

rails. When the speed of the ring is v, the current in (c) 0.63 μC (d) 630 μC

the section PQ is 26. A circular ring of diameter 20 cm has a resistance

2Rrv of 0.01 Ω. The charge that will flow through the

(a) zero (b)

R ring if it is turned from a position perpendicular

4Rrv 8Brv to a uniform magnetic field of 2.0 T to a position

(c) (d)

R R parallel to the field is about

22. The magnet shown in figure rotates on a pivot (a) 63 C (b) 0.63 C

(c) 6.3 C (d) 0.063 C

through its center. At the instant shown, what are

the directions of the induced currents? 27. The equivalent inductance of two inductors is

2.4 H when connected in parallel and 10 H when

connected in series. What is the value of inductances

of the individual inductors?

(a) 8 H, 2 H (b) 6 H, 4 H

(c) 5 H, 5 H (d) 7 H, 3 H

(a) A to B and C to D (b) B to A and C to D 28. A small square loop of wire of side l is placed inside

(c) A to B and D to C (d) B to A and D to C a large square loop of wire of side L(>>l). The loops

are coplanar and their centres coincide. What is the

23. Two coils A and B have coefficient of mutual

mutual inductance of the system?

inductance M = 2 H. The magnetic flux passing

μ l2 μ l2

through coil A changes by 4 Wb in 10 s due to (a) 2 2 0 (b) 8 2 0

change in current in B. Then π L π L

(a) the change in current in B in this time interval μ l 2 μ L2

(c) 2 2 0 (d) 2 2 0

is 0.5 A 2π L πl

(b) the change in current in B in this time interval 29. A circular coil with a cross-sectional area of

is 8 A 4 cm2 has 10 turns. It is placed at the centre of

(c) the change in current in B in this time interval a long solenoid that has 15 turns cm–1 and a

is 2 A cross-sectional area of 10 cm2, as shown in the

(d) the change in current of 1 A in coil A will figure. The axis of the coil coincides with the axis of

produce a change in flux passing through B by the solenoid. What is their mutual inductance?

4 Wb.

24. Two concentric and coplanar circular coils have

radii a and b as shown in figure. Resistance of the

(a) 7.54 μΗ (b) 8.54 μΗ

inner coil is R. Current in the other coil is increased

(c) 9.54 μΗ (d) 10.54 μΗ

from 0 to i, then the total charge circulating the

inner coil is 30. A conducting ring of radius 1 m is placed in a

μ iab μ iaπ uniform magnetic field B of 0.01 T oscillating with

(a) 0 (b) 0 frequency 100 Hz with its plane at right angle to B.

2R 2ab

What will be induced electric field?

μ ia2 μ ia2 (a) π V m–1 (b) 0.5 V m–1

(c) 0 (d) 0

Rb 2Rb (c) 10 V m –1

(d) 62 V m–1

SOLUTIONS and in second case, when plane of coil is turned

1. (d) : If d1is distance of point X on axial line and d2 through 90°;

is distance of point Y on equatorial line, torque = MB sin θ = 0.03 ...(ii)

μ 2M μ M Square (i) and (ii) and add

then B1 = 0 ,B = 0

4 π d13 2 4 π d23 MB = (0.04 )2 + (0.03)2 = 0.05

μ0 2 M μ0 M 0.05 0.05

As B1= B2 ∴ = ∴ B= = = 0. 4 Τ

4 π d13 4 π d23 M 0.125

d13 = 2d23 6. (a) : If C is torque per unit angular twist of the

d1 wire, then for a twist φ,

= 21/3 τ = C φ = MB sin θ.

d2

In the 1st case, φ1 = 540° – 45° = 495°, θ1 = 45°

I In the 2nd case, φ2 = 360° – 45°= 315°, θ2 = 45°

2. (d) : T = 2 s = 2 π

MB ∴ C (495°) = M1 B sin 45° ...(i)

When the magnet is cut along its length into three and C (315°) = M2 B sin 45° ...(ii)

equal parts, moment of inertia of each part becomes Dividing (i) by (ii), we get

I/3 and magnetic moment of each part also becomes

M1 495 11

M/3. = =

As the three parts are placed on each other with their M2 315 7

like poles together, therefore for the combination, I

7. (d) : As, T = 2π

I /3+ I /3+ I /3 I MB

T = 2π = 2π =2s 1

(M / 3 + M / 3 + M / 3)B MB ∴ T1 = T

2

1

3. (d) : Here, l = 20 cm, r = cm, n = 600, Initial time period, T =

60

= 2s

2 30

μr = 1000, i = 0.5 A, I = ?, 2

∴ T1 = = 2s

As 1 + χm = μr 2

χm = μr – 1 = 1000 – 1 = 999 8. (d) : Copper is a diamagnetic material, therefore its

H = ni = 600 × 0.5 = 300 rod align itself where magnetic field is weaker and

I = χmH = 999 × 300 = 2.997 × 105 A m–1 perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field in

4. (c) : As the magnet is long, we assume that the upper that region.

north pole produces no effect on the table. At the

9. (b) : M1 = 3 M and M2 = M

neutral point, magnetic field B due to south pole

T2 = ?

of the magnet is equal and opposite to horizontal

In pole combination,

component of earth’s magnetic field.

T2 M1 3M

i.e., B = ⎜⎛ μ0 ⎟⎞ = H

m = = = 3 or T2 = 3T1 = 3 3 s

⎝ 4π ⎠ r2 T1 M2 M

μ 10. (b) : Here, n1 = 10 oscillations per minute

In CGS system, 0 = 1

4π δ1 = 45o, R1 = 0.707 CGS units

m

∴ 1× = 3.2 × 10−5 × 104 gauss n2 = ?, δ2 = 60o, R2 = 0.5 CGS units

102

n2 H2 R2 cos δ2

m = 32 ab–A cm ∴ = =

n1 H1 R1 cos δ1

5. (d) : As, M = niA = 50 × 2 × 1.25 × 10–3

= 0.125 A m2 n 0.5 cos 60° 0. 5 × 1 / 2 1

⇒ 2= = =

If normal to the face of the coil makes an angle θ 10 0.707 cos 45° 0. 5 × 2 × 1 / 2 2

with the magnetic induction B, then in first case, 10

torque = MB cos θ = 0.04 ...(i) or n2 = = 7.07

2

1 1

11. (b) : Here, Magnetising field, H = 1600 A m–1 17. (a) : As ω2 = or ω =

LC LC

Magnetic flux, φ = 2.4 × 10–5 Wb 2

1 q0

Area, A = 0.2 cm2 = 0.2 × 10–4 m2 Maximum energy stored in capacitor =

2 C

φ 2.4 × 10−5 Wb

∴ B= = = 1.2 Wb m–2 Let at an instant t, the energy be stored equally

A 0.2 × 10−4 m2 between electric and magnetic field. Then energy

B stored in electric field at instant t is

Magnetic permeability, μ =

H 1 Q 2 1 ⎡ 1 q02 ⎤ 2

2 q0

1.2Wb m −2 = ⎢ ⎥ or Q =

= = 7.5 × 10−4 Wb A −1m −1 2 C 2 ⎣2 C ⎦ 2

−1

1600 A m q q π

μ or Q = 0 , q0 sin ωt = 0 or ωt =

Magnetic susceptibility, χ = −1

μ0 2 2 4

(7.5 × 10−4 Wb A −1m −1 ) π π π LC

= − 1 596 or t= = =

(4 π × 10−7 Wb A −1m −1 ) 4ω 4 × (1 / LC ) 4

12. (a) : Work done in changing the orientation of 18. (d) : As per Lenz’s law, e.m.fs of

the same magnitude are induced

a dipole of moment M in magnetic field B from

in the two loops in the clockwise

position θ1 to θ2 is given by

direction. Thus current is induced

W = MB (cos θ1 – cos θ2)

in the clockwise direction in the

Here, θ1= 0° and θ2 = 180°

outer boundary, but obviously, there is zero current

So, W = 2MB = 2 × 2.5 × 0.2 = 1 J

in wire AB.

13. (b) : Here, n = 500 turns m–1 ε −ndφ / dt

I = 1 A, μr = 500 19. (c) : The induced current, I = =

−n(W2 − W1 ) / t R ′ R′

Magnetic intensity, H = nI = 500 m–1 × 1 A I=

= 500 A m–1 R + 4R

Magnetisation, M = χH −n(W2 − W1 )

I=

where χ is the magnetic susceptibility of the material 5Rt

= (μr−1)H = (500 –1) × 500 A m–1 (∵ χ = (μr – 1)) Note that W1, W2 are in weber. Therefore, they

= 499 × 500 A m–1 = 2.495 × 105 A m–1 represent magnetic flux and not magnetic field.

≈ 2.5 × 105 A m–1 20. (c) : At t = 0, the ring enters the region of magnetic

14. (c) : Diamagnetic substances are those substances in field. Magnetic flux linked with the ring varies till

which resultant magnetic moment in an atom is zero. the entire ring is in the field. For this time only,

A paramagnetic material tends to move from a e.m.f. is induced in the ring, in one direction.

weak magnetic field to strong magnetic field. When the entire ring is moving in the magnetic

A magnetic material is in the paramagnetic phase field, the magnetic flux linked with the ring is

above its Curie temperature. constant. Therefore, ε = 0.

Typical domain size of a ferromagnetic material is When the ring starts moving out of the magnetic

1 mm. field, magnetic flux linked with the ring is

15. (d) : Materials suitable for permanent magnets decreasing. Therefore, e.m.f. is induced in the ring

should have high retentivity, high coercivity and in opposite direction, only till the entire ring is out

high permeability. of the magnetic field.

16. (a) : As loop is in xy plane, only z component of 21. (d) : When a ring moves in magnetic field in a

magnetic field is effective direction perpendicular to its plane, we replace

B = –18 G = –18 × 10–4 T the ring by a diameter (2r) perpendicular to the

A = 5 × 10–4 m2 direction of motion. The e.m.f., is induced across

this diameter. Current flow in the ring will be

φ = BA cos 0o = –18 × 10–4 × 5 × 10–4

through the two semicircular portions in parallel.

= – 90 × 10–8 Wb = – 900 × 10–9 Wb = – 900 nWb Induced e.m.f. = B(2r)v.

Resistance of each half of ring = R/2 (L1 – L2)2= (L1 + L2)2 _ 4L1L2

As the two halves are in parallel, therefore, L1 – L2 = [102– 4 × 24]1/2 = 2 H ...(iii)

equivalent resistance = R/4

Solving (i) and (iii), we get

B(2r )v 8Brv

∴ Current in the section = = L1 = 6 H, L2 = 4 H

R/4 R

28. (a) : Let the current I be flowing

22. (a) : As per Lenz’s law, N pole should develop at in the larger loop. The larger loop

the end corresponding to C. Induced current flows

is made up of four wires each of

from C to D. Again S pole should develop at the

length L, the field at the centre i.e.,

end corresponding to B. Therefore, induced current

at a distance from each wire, will

in the coil flows from A to B.

be

23. (c) : Here, M = 2 H, dφ = 4 Wb, dt = 10 s μ0 I

B=4× (sin 45° + sin 45°)

Αs φ = Mi 4 π(L / 2)

dφ = M di μ 2I 2 μ I

=4× 0 =2 2 0

dφ 4 4π L 2 π L

or di = = =2A

M 2 Flux linked with smaller loop

Also, dφ = M(di) = 2(1) = 2 Wb μ I

φ2 = BA2 = 2 2 0 × l 2

μ i

24. (d) : Change in flux, dφ = ⎜⎛ 0 ⎟⎞ πa2 π L

⎝ 2 πb ⎠ φ μ l2

Hence, M = 2 ⇒ M = 2 2 0

dφ π L

Αs dq = I

R 29. (a) : Let us refer to the coil as circuit 1 and the

∴ Τotal charge circulating the inner coil is solenoid as circuit 2. The field in the central region

2 μ ia2

⎛ μ i ⎞ πa of the solenoid is uniform, so the flux through the

=⎜ 0 ⎟ = 0

⎝ 2 πb ⎠ R 2Rb coil is

Δφ NA(B2 − B1 ) N πr 2 (B2 − B1 ) φ12 = B2A1 = (μ0n2I2)A1

25. (a) : q = = = where n2 = N2/l = 1500 turns m–1,

R R R

The mutual inductance is

1000 × π × 10−4 × (0.012 − 0) Nφ

=

(200 + 400) M = 1 12 = μ0n2 N1 A1

I2

= 6.3 × 10−6 C = 6.3 μC

= (4π × 10–7 T m A–1) (1500 m–1)(10) (4 × 10–4m2)

−dφ BA(cos 0° − cos 90°)

26. (c) : As q = = = 7.54 × 10–6 H = 7.54 μH

R R

Bπr 2 (1 − 0) Bπr 2 30. (b) : Here, r = 1 m, B = 0.01 T,

= =

R R 1 1

t= = s

υ 100

2 × 3.14 × (10−1)

2

= dφ

0.01 Induced e.m.f, ε =

dt

= 6.28 C 6.3 C

BA Bπr 2 0.01 × π(1)2

27. (b) : L1 + L2 = 10 H ...(i) = = = =πV

L1L2 t t ⎛ 1 ⎞

and = 2. 4 H ...(ii) ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠

(L1 + L2 ) 100

Induced electric field, E = = =

we get l 2 πr 2 × π × 1

L1 L2 = (2.4)(L1 + L2) = 2.4 × 10 = 24 = 0.5 V m–1

Exam

on

st

1 May

MODEL TEST PAPER 2016

1. A body of mass 1 kg is projected with velocity (a) 1 A, 3 V

50 m s–1 at an angle of 30° with the horizontal. At (b) 2 A, 3 V

the highest point of its path a force of 10 N acts (c) 1 A, 4 V E

on body for 5 s vertically upward besides gravitational (d) 4 A, 4 V

force. What is the horizontal range of the body?

6. Some magnetic flux is changed through a coil of

(g = 10 m s–2)

resistance 10 Ω. As a result an induced current is

(a) 125 3 m (b) 200 3 m developed in it, which varies with time as shown

(c) 500 m (d) 250 3 m in the figure. The magnitude of change in the flux

through the coil in Wb is

2. The kinetic energy K of a particle moving

(a) 2

along a circle of radius R depends upon

the distance s as K = as2, where a is a (b) 4

constant. The force acting on the particle is (c) 6

1/2 (d) none of these

s2 ⎡ s2 ⎤

(a) 2a (b) 2as ⎢1 + 2 ⎥ 7. An AC source is connected with a resistance (R)

R ⎣ R ⎦

(c) 2as (d) 2a and an uncharged capacitance (C), in series. The

potential difference across the resistor is in phase

3. A hemispherical bowl of radius R is kept on a with the initial potential difference across the

horizontal table. A small sphere of radius r(r <<R) capacitor for the first time at the instant (assume

is placed at the highest point at the inside of the

that at t = 0, emf is zero).

bowl and let go. The sphere rolls without slipping. π 2π π 3π

Its velocity at the lowest point is (a) (b) (c) (d)

4ω ω 2ω 2ω

(a) 5 gR / 7 (b) 3 gR / 2 8. The bob of a simple pendulum of length 1.2 m has a

(c) 4 gR / 3 (d) 10 gR / 7 velocity of 7 m s–1 when it is at the lowest point. The

4. Three plates A, B, C each of area 50 cm2 have bob would leave the circular path above the centre at a

separation 3 mm between A and B and 3 mm height

between B and C. The energy stored when the (a) 1.0 m (b) 0.867 m

plates are fully charged is (c) 0.652 m (d) 0.512 m

(a) 1.6 × 10–9 J 9. What is the height at which the weight of body will

(b) 2.1 × 10–9 J

be the same as at the same depth from the surface

(c) 5 × 10 J–9

of the earth? Radius of earth is R.

(d) 7 × 10–9 J

(a) R (b) 5 R − R

5. In the circuit shown in the figure, ammeter and 2

voltmeter are ideal. If ε = 4 V, R = 9 Ω and r = 1 Ω , 5R−R 3R−R

(c) (d)

then readings of ammeter and voltmeter are 2 2

10. A steel wire of length 20 cm and uniform cross 16. Two identical magnetic dipoles of magnetic

sectional area 1 mm2 is tied rigidly at both the ends. moment 2 A m2 are placed at a separation of 2 m

The temperature of the wire is altered from 20°C with their axes perpendicular to each other in air.

to 40°C. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel is The resultant magnetic field at a midpoint between

α = 1.1 × 10–5 per °C and Y for steel is 2.0 × 1011 N m–2; the dipoles is

the tension in wire is (a) 4 5 × 10 −5 T (b) 2 5 × 10 −5 T

(a) 2.2 × 106 N (b) 16 N (c) 4 5 × 10 T−7

(d) 2 5 × 10 −7 T

(c) 8 N (d) 44 N 17. An object is kept at a distance of 16 cm from a thin

11. The dimensional formula of a physical quantity is lens and the image formed is real. If the object is kept

[M–1 L–3 T2]. The respective errors in measuring at a distance of 6 cm from the same lens, the image

M, L, T are 2%, 3%, 4%. The maximum percentage formed is virtual. If the sizes of the image formed are

error in measuring the quantity is equal then focal length of the lens will be

(a) 2% (b) 9% (c) 8% (d) 19% (a) 21 cm (b) 11 cm (c) 15 cm (d) 17 cm

12. A bird moves with velocity 20 m s–1 in a direction 18. A charged oil drop falls with terminal velocity v0

making an angle of 600 with the eastern line and in the absence of electric field. An electric field E

600 with vertical upward line. The velocity vector of keeps it stationary. The drop acquires charge 3q, it

bird in cartesian coordinates is starts moving upwards with velocity v0. The initial

charge on the drop is

(a) 10 i + 10 j + 10 k (b) 10 i + 5 2 j + 10 k q 3q

(a) (b) q (c) (d) 2q

(c) 10 i + 10 2 j + 10 k (d) 5 i + 5 2 j + 10 k 2 2

13. The given graph 19. Which one of the following statements regarding

(m s–1)

shows the variation photo-emission of electrons is correct?

(a) Kinetic energy of electrons increases with the

of velocity of a 1000

rocket with time. intensity of incident light.

Find the time of 110 120

(b) Electrons are emitted when the wavelength of

0

burning of fuel 10 (s) the incident light is above a certain threshold

wavelength.

from the graph.

(c) Photoelectric emission is instantaneous with

(a) 10 s (b) 110 s the incidence of light.

(c) 120 s (d) Photo electrons are emitted whenever a gas is

(d) cannot be estimated from the graph irradiated with ultraviolet light.

14. In Young’s double slit experiment, the y-coordinates 20. A ball of mass m is thrown vertically upwards.

of central maxima and 10th maxima are 2 cm and Another ball of mass 2m is thrown at angle θ with

5 cm respectively. When the YDSE apparatus is the vertical. Both of them stay in air for the same

immersed in a liquid of refractive index 1.5, the period of time. The heights attained by the two balls

corresponding y-coordinates will be are in the ratio of

(a) 2 cm, 7.5 cm (b) 3 cm, 6 cm (a) 2 : 1 (b) cos θ : 1

(c) 2 cm, 4 cm (d) 4/3 cm, 10/3 cm (c) 1 : cos θ (d) 1 : 1

15. Light of wavelength 330 nm falling on a piece of 21. A block of mass 0.5 kg is moving with a speed of

metal ejects electrons with sufficient energy which 2.0 m s–1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another

requires voltage V0 to prevent them from reaching mass of 1.0 kg at rest and then they move together as

a collector. In the same setup, light of wavelength a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

220 nm, ejects electrons which require twice the (a) 0.16 J (b) 1.00 J (c) 0.67 J (d) 0.34 J

voltage V0 to stop them from reaching a collector. 22. The temperature of equal masses of three different

The numerical value of voltage V0 is liquids A, B and C are 12 °C, 19 °C and 28 °C

16 15 15 8 respectively. The final temperature when A and B are

(a) V (b) V (c) V (d) V

15 16 8 15 mixed is 16 °C and when B and C are mixed is 23 °C.

The final temperature when A and C are mixed is (b) rms value of current is 20 A.

(a) 18.2 °C (b) 22.2 °C 1

(c) Power factor of the circuit is .

(c) 20.2 °C (d) 24.2 °C 2

(d) Voltage drop across resistance is 200 V.

23. The specific heat of the mixture of two gases at

constant volume is 13 R/6. The ratio of the number 30. The potential difference across 100 Ω resistance in

of moles of the first gas to the second is 1 : 2. The the circuit is measured by a voltmeter of 900 Ω

respective gases may be resistance. The percentage error in reading the

(a) He, Ne (b) He, N2 (c) N2, O2 (d) N2, He potential difference is

24. A spring has force constant K and a mass m is 10

(a)

suspended from it. The spring is cut in two parts in 9

the ratio 1 : 3, and the same mass is suspended from (b) 0.1

the larger part. If the frequency of oscillation in the (c) 1.0

first case is υ, then the frequency in the second case (d) 10.0

will be 31. A charge q is moving with a velocity v1 = 1i m s–1

2υ 3

(a) 2 υ (b) 3υ (c) (d) υ at a point in a magnetic field and experiences a

3 2 force F = q[− j + k] N . If the charge is moving

25. A string is under tension so that its length is

1 with a velocity v2 = 1 j m s–1 at the same point, it

increased by times its original length. The ratio of

n experiences a force F2 = q(i − k ) N. The magnetic

fundamental frequency of longitudinal vibrations induction at that point is

and transverse vibrations will be −2 −2

(a) (i + j + k) Wb m (b) (i − j + k) Wb m

(a) 1 : n (b) n2 : 1 (c) n :1 (d) n : 1 −2 −2

(c) (−i + j − k ) Wb m (d) (i + j − k) Wb m

26. The driver of a car travelling with speed 30 m s–1

towards a hill sounds a horn of frequency 600 Hz. If the 32. A light string passing over a smooth light pulley

velocity of sound in air is 330 m s–1, the frequency connects two blocks of masses m1 and m2 (vertically).

of reflected sound as heard by driver is If the acceleration of the masses is (g/8), then the

(a) 500 Hz (b) 550 Hz ratio of masses is

(c) 555.5 Hz (d) 720 Hz (a) 8 : 1 (b) 9 : 7 (c) 4 : 3 (d) 5 : 3

27. When forward bias is applied to a p-n junction, 33. The velocity of a body moving in a vertical circle

then what happens to the potential barrier VB' and of radius r is 7gr at the lowest point of the circle.

the width of charge depleted region x ? What is the ratio of maximum and minimum

(a) VB increases, x decreases tension ?

(b) VB decreases, x increases (a) 4 : 1 (b) 7 : 1 (c) 3 : 1 (d) 2 : 1

(c) VB increases, x increases

(d) VB decreases, x decreases 34. A coin of mass m and radius r having moment of inertia

I about the axis passes through its centre and

28. The half-life of radium is 1620 yr and its atomic weight

perpendicular to its plane. It is beaten uniformly to

is 226 g mol–1 The number of atoms that will decay

form a disc of radius 2r. What will be the moment

from its 1 g sample per second will be (Avogadro's

of inertia about the same axis?

number N = 6.023 × 1023 atom per mole)

(a) 3.61 × 1010 Bq (b) 3.61 × 1012 Bq (a) I (b) 2I (c) 4I (d) 16I

(c) 3.11 × 1015 Bq (d) 31.1 × 1015 Bq 35. A spherical soap bubble of radius 1 cm is formed

29. Which of the following inside another bubble of radius 3 cm. The radius

statements is incorrect of a single soap bubble which maintains the same

regarding the given LCR pressure difference as inside the smaller and outside

circuit ? the larger soap bubble is

(a) Voltage will lead the (a) 0.75 cm (b) 0.75 m

current. (c) 7.5 cm (d) 7.5 m

36. A heat engine has an efficiency η. Temperatures of (a) the emitter junction is reverse biased in the n-p-n

source and sink are each decreased by 100 K. Then, and forward biased in the p-n-p

the efficiency of the engine (b) the emitter injects minority carriers into the

(a) increases (b) decreases base region of the p-n-p and majority carriers

(c) remains constant (d) becomes 1 in the base region of the n-p-n

37. Two masses m1 and m2 are suspended together by a (c) the emitter injects holes into the base region of

massless spring of force constant k. When the masses the p-n-p and electrons into the base region of

are in equilibrium, m1 is removed without disturbing the n-p-n

the system. The amplitude of oscillation is (d) the emitter injects electrons into the base region

mg m g of the p-n-p and holes into the base region of

(a) 1 (b) 2 the n-p-n.

k k

(m1 + m2 ) g (m1 − m2 ) g 44. An AC source of variable frequency υ is connected

(c) (d) to an L-C-R series circuit. Which one of the graphs

k k

in figure represents the variation of current I in the

38. A beam of light of wavelength 600 nm from a distant

circuit with frequency υ ?

source falls on a single slit 1.00 mm wide and the

resulting diffraction pattern is observed on a screen

2 m away. The distance between the first dark fringes

on either side of the central bright fringe is (a) (b)

(a) 1.2 cm (b) 1.2 mm

(c) 2.4 cm (d) 2.4 mm U U

and the magnetic field (B) vectors in an electromagnetic

wave propagating in vacuum are related as

(c) (d)

B

(a) E = (b) E = cB

c U U

B

(c) E = 2 (d) E = c2B 45. The insulation property of air breaks down at

c E = 3 × 106 V m–1. The maximum charge that can be

40. The threshold frequency for a photosensitive metal is

given to a sphere of diameter 5 m is approximately

3.3 × 1014 Hz. If light of frequency 8.2 × 1014 Hz

is incident on this metal, the cut-off voltage for the (in coulombs)

photoelectron emission is nearly (a) 2 × 10–2 (b) 2 × 10–3

–4

(a) 1 V (b) 2 V (c) 3 V (d) 5 V (c) 2 × 10 (d) 2 × 10–5

41. Half life of a radioactive substance A is two times SOLUTIONS

the half life of another radioactive substance B. 1. (d) : For 5 s, weight of the body is balanced by the

Initially, the number of nuclei of A and B are NA and given force. Hence, it will move in a straight line as

NB respectively. After three half lives of A, number shown in the figure.

N

of nuclei of both are equal. Then the ratio A is

NB

1 1 1 1

(a) (b) (c) (d)

3 6 8 4

42. The transition in He+ ion that will give rise to a

spectral line having the same wavelength as that of

some spectral line in hydrogen atom is

u 2 sin 2 θ

(a) n = 3 to n = 1 (b) n = 3 to n = 2 R= + (u cos θ)(5)

(c) n = 4 to n = 2 (d) n = 4 to n = 3 g

43. One way in which the operation of an n-p-n transistor (50)2 ⋅ sin 60°

= + (50 × cos 30°)(5) = 250 3 m

differs from that of a p-n-p transistor is that 10

1 2 i ⎛ 1⎞

2. (b) : Here,K = mv = as ∴ mv 2 = 2as 2

2

V = R = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ (9) = 3 V

2 3 3

Differentiating with respect to time t 6. (a) : Charge induced in coil

dv ds dv dφ

2mv = 4as = 4asv ⇒ m = 2as dq = = i dt = Area under i-t graph

dt dt dt R

∴ Tangential force, Ft = 2as ∴ dφ = (Area under i-t graph) R

mv 2 2as 2 1

Centripetalforce, Fc = = = × 4 × 0.1 × 10 = 2 Wb

R R 2

∴ Net force acting on the particle 7. (d) : Let V = V0 sin ωt (as V = 0 at t = 0)

Then VR = V0 sin ωt

2

⎛ 2as 2 ⎞ and VC = V0 sin(ωt − π / 2)

F= Ft2 + Fc2 = (2as) + ⎜

2

= 2as 1 + s 2 / R2

⎝ R ⎟⎠ V and VR are in same phase. While VC lags V (or

VR) by 900. Now VR is in same phase with initial

3. (d) : As, it is clear from figure,

potential difference across the capacitor for the first

on reaching the bottom

time when,

of the bowl, loss in π 3π

potential energy = mgR, and gain in kinetic energy ωt = − + 2 π =

2 2

1 1 3π

= mv 2 + Iω 2 ∴ t=

2 2 2ω

1 2 1 ⎛ 2 2 ⎞ v2 8. (b) : Here, r = l = 1.2 m, u = 7 m s–1

= mv + × ⎜ mr ⎟ 2

2 2 ⎝5 ⎠r

Now, 2 gr = 2 × 9.8 × 1.2 = 4.85 m s −1

1 2 1 2 7

= mv + mv = mv 2 and 5 gr = 5 × 9.8 × 1.2 = 7.67 m s −1

2 5 10

As, gain in KE = loss in PE

The condition 2 gr < u < 5 gr is satisfied.

7

∴ mv 2 = mgR Therefore, the bob will leave the vertical circle at P,

10 where component of weight along PO is just equal

10 gR to centripetal force (mv2/r).

⇒ v=

7 Q

mv 2

i.e., mg cos θ =

4. (b) : Here circuit is equivalent to two capacitors in r

parallel.

ε A ε A 2ε A or v2 = rg cos θ = gh ...(i)

∴ Ceq = C1 + C2 = 0 + 0 = 0

d d d Height of P above the bottom = r + h

1 1 ⎛ 2ε A ⎞ At P, loss in KE = gain in PE

∴ Energystored = Ceq V 2 = ⎜ 0 ⎟ V 2 1 1

2 2⎝ d ⎠ mu2 − mv 2 = mg (r + h)

2 2

8.86 × 10 −12 × 50 × 10 −4 × 12 × 12

= = 2.1 × 10–9 J or u2 – v2 = 2g (r + h)

3 × 10 −3 using (i), u2 = gh + 2gh + 2gr = g (3h + 2r)

5. (a) : The given three resistors are in parallel

1 ⎡ u2 ⎤ 1 ⎡ 72 ⎤

h = ⎢ − 2r ⎥ = ⎢ − 2 × 1.2⎥ = 0.867 m

3⎣ g ⎦ 3 ⎣ 9. 8 ⎦

9. (c) : Weight of a body at height h = weight of the

body at depth h

g R2 ⎛ h⎞

= g ⎜1 − ⎟

E

( R + h) 2 ⎝ R⎠

ε 4

∴ i= = = 1A ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ h2 2h ⎞

r + R / 3 1+ 3 or ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎜ 1 + 2 + ⎟ = 1

⎝ R⎠ ⎝ R R⎠

hc

h3 h2h h ⎛ h2 h ⎞ eV0 = −W ...(i)

or + 2 − = 0 or ⎜ + − 1⎟ = 0 330 × 10 −9

R 3

R R R ⎝ R2 R ⎠ hc

e (2V0 ) = −W ...(ii)

h −1 ± 1 + 4 5 −1 5R − R 220 × 10 −9

or = = or h= Solving these two equations, we get

R 2 2 2

109 × h × c 109 × 6.6 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108 15

10. (d) : Increase in length due to rise in temperature, V0 = = = volt

110 × e × 6 110 × 1.6 × 10 −19 × 6 8

ΔL = αL Δ T

FL 16. (d) :

As, Y = ;

AΔL

YA ΔL YA × αL ΔT

so F = = = YA α ΔT

L L

∴ F = 2 × 1011 × 10 −6 × 1.1 × 10 −5 × 20 = 44 N Let point P be the midpoint between the dipoles.

–1

11. (d) : Here, x = [M L T ] –3 2 The point P will be in end-on position with respect

to one dipole and in broad-side on position with

Δx ΔM ⎛ ΔL ⎞ ⎛ ΔT ⎞

= + 3⎜ + 2⎜

⎝ L ⎟⎠ ⎝ T ⎟⎠

respect to the other.

x M

μ 2 M 10 −7 × 2 × 2

∴ % error in the quantity x ∴ B1 = 0 3 1 = = 4 × 10 −7 T

= 2% + 3 (3%) + 2 (4%) = 19% 4 π r1 (1)3

12. (c) : Let eastern line be x-axis, northern line as μ 0 M2 10 −7 × 2

→ and B2 = = = 2 × 10 −7 T

y-axis and vertical upward line as z-axis. Let v make 4 π r23

(1)3

angles α, β and γ with x, y and z-axis respectively. As B1 and B2 are perpendicular to each other,

Then α = 60°, γ = 60° therefore the resultant magnetic field at point P is

As cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1 B = B12 + B22 = (4 × 10 −7 )2 + (2 × 10 −7 )2

∴ cos2 60° + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1 = 10 −7 16 + 4 = 10 −7 20 = 2 5 × 10 T

−7

1

or (1 / 2)2 + cos2 β + (1 / 2)2 = 1 or cos β = 17. (b) : As a convex lens alone can form a real image

2 as well as a virtual image, therefore, the lens in

→ the present question is a convex lens. Let, f be the

Now v = (v cos α) i + (v cos β) j + (v cos γ )k

focal length of the lens and m be the magnification

= (20 cos 60°) i + (20 × 1 / 2 ) j + (20 cos 60°)k produced.

In the first case, when image is real,

= 10i + 10 2 j + 10k u = –16 cm, v = (m × 16) cm

13. (a) : When the fuel is burning, velocity of the rocket 1 1 1

As − =

is increasing. After the fuel is exhausted, velocity v u f

starts decreasing. From the graph, time of burning 1 1 1 1 16

of fuel = 10 s. ∴ + = or 1 + = ...(i)

16m 16 f m f

Dλ In the second case, when image is virtual.

14. (c) : Fringe width, β = , i.e., β ∝ λ

d u = – 6 cm, v = (–6m) cm

So, wavelength λ and hence fringe width β decreases 1 1 1

1.5 times when immersed in liquid. The distance From − =

v u f

between central maxima and 10th maxima is 3 cm 1 1 1 1 6

in vacuum. When immersed in liquid it will reduce + = or 1 − = ...(ii)

−6m 6 f m f

to 2 cm. Position of central maxima will not change

Adding eqn (i) and eqn (ii), we have

while 10th maxima will be obtained at y = 4 cm.

22 22

15. (c) : Let W be the work function of metal. Then 2 = or f = = 11 cm

f 2

18. (c) : When drop is stationary, then 4s1 = 3s2 ...(i)

q1E = Weight –Upthrust (ii) When B and C are mixed,

q1E = 6πηrv0 or q1 = 6πηrv0 / E temperature of mixture = 230C

When drop moves upwards, then As heat gained by B = heat lost by C,

ms2 (23 – 19) = ms3 (28 – 23)

6πηr (v0 + v0 ) ⎛ 6πηrv0 ⎞

3q = =2×⎜ ⎟ = 2q1 ∴ 4s2 = 5s3 ...(ii)

E ⎝ E ⎠ 3 15

3 From eqns (i)and (ii), s1 = s2 = s3

∴ q1 = q 4 16

2 When A and C are mixed, suppose temperature of

19. (c) mixture = t

20. (d) : As per question, time of flight for both the balls heat gained A = heat lost by C

is equal. ms1 (t – 12) = ms3 (28 – t)

2u1 2u2 cos θ 15

s3 (t − 12) = s3 (28 − t )

= or u1 = u2 cos θ ...(i)

g g 16

15t – 180 = 448 – 16t

1

For first ball ; mu12 = mgh1 ...(ii) 31t = 448 + 180 = 628 ∴ t = 20.2°C

2

n1 CV 1 + n2 CV 2

1

For second ball ; 2m (u2 cos θ)2 = 2mgh2 23. (b) : As CV =

2

...(iii) n1 + n2

or

1

mu1 = mgh2

2

[From (i)] 13 1C + 2 CV 2 13

or R = V1 or CV 1 + 2 CV 2 = R

2 6 1+ 2 2

∴ h1 = h2 3

21. (c) : Here, m1 = 0.5 kg, u1=2.0 m s–1 If first gas is monoatomic, then CV1 = R and

2

m2 = 1.0 kg, u2 = 0 5

If v is velocity of the system after collision, then second gas is diatomic, then CV 2 = R .

2

according to the principle of conservation of linear

3 5 13

momentum, ∴ CV 1 + 2CV 2 = R + 2 × R = R

(m1 + m2) v = m1 u1 + m2 u2 = m1 u1 2 2 2

m1 u1 0. 5 × 2. 0 It means the option (b) is true.

v= =

m1 + m2 0.5 + 1.0 24. (c) : Let k be the force constant of smaller piece of

1. 0 2 spring. Then the longer piece is a combination of

v= = m s −1 three smaller pieces in series. Their effective force

1. 5 3 constant k1 = k/3. In a bigger spring, the smaller

Energy loss = initial energy – final energy pieces are connected in series, so

1 1 1 1 3 4

= m1 u12 − (m1 + m2 )v 2 = + = or k = 4 K

2 2 K k k k

2

1 1 ⎛ 2⎞ 4K

= × 0.5 × (2.0) − (0.5 + 1.0) ⎜ ⎟

2

∴ k1 =

2 2 ⎝ 3⎠ 3

1. 5 4 1 k1 1 4K / 3 2υ

= 1. 0 − × = 0.67 J υ=

1 K

and υ′ = = =

2 9 2π m 2π m 2π m 3

22. (c) : Let m1 = m2 = m3 = m

Y

Let s1, s2, s3 be the respective specific heats of the 25. (c) : Velocity of longitudinal waves, v1 =

three liquids. ρ

T

(i) When A and B are mixed, velocity of transverse waves, v2 =

m

temperature of mixture = 160 C If a is area of cross-section of string

As heat gained by A = heat lost by B mass mass

∴ ms1 (16 –12) = ms2 (19 – 16) then m = = × area = ρ a

length volume

T v1 Y ρa Ya cos φ =

R

=

1

∴ v2 = , = ⋅ =

ρ a v2 ρ T T Z 2

VR = Irms R = (20)(10) = 200 V

F T

As Y = = ⎛ 100 ⎞ 10

aΔ l / l a(Δ l / l ) 30. (c) : V

actual = ⎜ V = V1 = V

⎝ 110 ⎟⎠ 11

−1/2

v1 T a ⎛ Δl⎞ Equivalent resistance of 100 Ω and 900 Ω is 90 Ω

∴ = =⎜ ⎟

v2 ⎛ Δl⎞ T ⎝ l ⎠ ⎛ 90 ⎞ 9

a⎜ ⎟ Vmeasured = ⎜ ⎟ V = V = V2

⎝ l ⎠ ⎝ 90 + 10 ⎠ 10

Δl 1 V − V2

we are given, = % error = 1 × 100

l n V1

−1/2

v1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 9 ⎞

∴ =⎜ ⎟ = n ⎜⎝ V ⎟⎠ − ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ V

v2 ⎝ n ⎠ =

11 10

× 100 = 1%

If υ1 and υ2 are the fundamental frequencies of ⎛ 10 ⎞

⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ V

longitudinal and transverse waves then 11

υ 31. (a) : Let the magnetic field is B = B1 i + B2 j + B3 k

v1 = υ1 λ and v2 = υ2 λ. ∴ 1 = n Applying F m = q(v × B) we have,

υ2

26. (d) : As the source is moving towards the hill (the q[− j + k] = q[(i) × (B1 i + B2 j + B3 k)] = q[B2 k − B3 j]

listener), therefore, apparent frequency of horn Comparing two sides, we get,

striking the hill is B2 = 1 and B3 = 1

v 330 × 600 Further, q[i − k] = q[( j) × (B1 i + B2 j + B3 k)]

υ′ = ×υ= = 660Hz

v − vs 330 − 30 = q[− B1 k + B3 i]

For the reflected sound, driver acts as listener Again comparing we get,

moving towards source (the hill) B1 = 1 and B3 = 1

(v + v L )υ (330 + 30) 660 ∴ B = (i + j + k) Wb m −2

∴ υ′′ = = = 720H z

v 330 (m1 − m2 ) g g

32. (b) : In the given system, a = =

27. (d) : In forward biasing, both potential barrier VB and m1 + m2 8

the width of charge depleted region x decreases. m1 − m2 1

∴ =

28. (a) : Rate of change of radioactive nuclei, m1 + m2 8

⎛ dN ⎞

⎜⎝ − ⎟ = λN 8m1 – 8m2 = m1 + m2

dt ⎠ m1 9

7m1 = 9m2 or =

0.693 0.693 m2 7

∵ λ= =

T 12/ 1620 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 33. (a) : Tension is maximum at the lowest point and

6.023 × 1023 minimum at the highest point.

and N = Tension at the lowest point,

226

∴⎜−

⎛ dN ⎞

=

0.693 × 6.023 × 1023 TL = mg +

mv L2

= mg +

7mgr

= 8mg (∵ v L = 7gr )

⎝ dt ⎟⎠ 1620 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 × 226

r r

Tension at the highest point,

= 3.61 × 1010 Bq mv H2 m(v L2 − 4 gr )

TH = − mg = − mg

29. (a) : XC > XL. Hence, current will lead the voltage. r r

m(7gr − 4 gr )

Z = R2 + ( XC − X L ) = 10 2 Ω

2 =

r

− mg (

∵ v L2 − v H2 = 4 gr )

= 3mg – mg = 2mg

Vrms 400 / 2

∴ I rms = = = 20 A TL 4 T 4

Z 10 2 ∴ = or max =

TH 1 Tmin 1

PHYSICS FOR YOU | APRIL ‘16 61

34. (c) : Moment of inertia of coin of mass m and radius Here, D = 2 m; d = 1 × 10–3 m and λ = 6 × 10–7 m

r about the axis passing through the centre of mass 2 × 6 × 10 −7

and perpendicular to its plane is So, y = = 1.2 mm

1 × 10 −3

mr 2 ∴ Distance between first minima on either side

I= ...(i)

2 of central maxima, Δy = 2y = 2.4 mm.

Moment of inertia of disc of mass m and radius 2r

about the axis passing through the centre of mass 39. (b) : At every instant, the ratio of the magnitude of

and perpendicular to its plane is the electric field to that of the magnetic field in an

m (2r )2 electromagnetic wave equals the speed of light.

I′ = = 4I (Using (i))

2 40. (b) : According to Einstein’s photoelectric equation

35. (a) : Pressure outside the bigger drop = P1 eVs = hυ – h υ0

Pressure inside the bigger drop = P2 where, υ = Incident frequency

Radius of bigger drop, r1 = 3 cm υ0 = Threshold frequency

4S 4S

Excess pressure = P2 − P1 = = Vs = Cut-off or stopping potential

r1 3 h

Pressure inside small drop = P3 or Vs = (υ − υ0 )

e

4S 4S Substituting the given values, we get

Excess pressure = P3 – P2 = =

r2 1 6.63 × 10 −34 (8.2 × 1014 − 3.3 × 1014 )

Pressure difference between inner side of small Vs = ≈2V

drop and outer side of bigger drop 1.6 × 10 −19

4S 4S 16S 41. (c) : Three half lives of A are equivalent to six half

= P3 − P1 = + =

3 1 3 lives of B. As number of nuclei left are equal in the

This pressure difference should exist in a single two cases.

drop of radius r. 3 6

⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ = NB ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

4S 16S 3 Therefore, NA

∴ = or r = cm = 0.75 cm

r 3 4 3

36. (a) : Efficiency of the heat engine, NA (1 / 2)6 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1

= =⎜ ⎟ =

T T −T NB (1 / 2) ⎝ 2 ⎠

3

8

η =1− 2 = 1 2

T1 T1 42. (c) : To have the same wavelength of some spectral

where T1 and T2 are the temperatures of source and lines from different hydrogen like atoms, one must

sink respectively. have

When T1 and T2 both are decreased by 100 K each,

(T1 – T2) stays constant. T1 decreases. ⎡1 1⎤ 2 ⎡ 1 1⎤

⎢ 2 − 2⎥=Z ⎢ 2 − 2⎥

∴ η increases. ⎢⎣ n f ni ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ p f pi ⎥⎦

(m + m2 ) g where nf and ni are principal quantum numbers

37. (a) : For equilibrium of (m1 + m2 ), x1 = 1

k of final and initial orbits for hydrogen atom and pf

m2 g

and for equilibrium of m2 , x2 = and pi are those for He+ ion. Also, Z = 2. This gives

k pf = 2nf and pi = 2ni.

∴ Amplitude of oscillation will be

(m + m2 ) g m2 g m1 g 43. (c)

A = x1 − x2 = 1 − =

k k k 44. (c) : At resonance frequency, current is maximum.

38. (d) : In case of diffraction at a single slit, the position 45. (b) : Electric field on the surface of a conducting sphere

of minima is given by 1 q

is E = ⋅ 2

dsinθ = nλ 4 πε0 r

y

If θ is small, sinθ = θ =

D ∴ q = Er 2 ⋅ 4πε0

So, the position of first minimum relative to centre 3 × 106 × (2.5)2

will be given by = = 2.08 × 10 −3 C

d(y/D) = λ, i.e., y = (D/d)λ 9 × 109

Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C

contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section E

contains three questions of five marks each.

(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question

of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to aĴempt only one of the choices in such

questions.

1. Write the underlying principle of a moving coil resistance of the equivalent cell.

galvanometer. 8. State Brewster's law.

2. Why are microwaves considered suitable for radar The value of Brewster angle for a transparent

systems used in aircraft navigation? medium is different for light of different colours.

3. Define 'quality factor' of resonance in series LCR Give reason.

circuit. What is its SI unit? 9. Explain the terms (i) Attenuation and

4. A point charge +Q is placed at point O as shown (ii) Demodulation used in Communication System.

in the figure. Is the potential difference VA – VB 10. Plot a graph showing variation of de-Broglie

positive, negative or zero ? 1

wavelength λ versus , where V is accelerating

V

5. How does the electric flux due to a point charge potential for two particles A and B carrying same

enclosed by a spherical Gaussian surface get charge but of masses m1, m2 (m1 > m2). Which one

affected when its radius is increased ? of the two represents a particle of smaller mass and

SECTION-B why?

6. A nucleus with mass number A = 240 and SECTION-C

BE/A = 7.6 MeV breaks into two fragments each 11. (i) Define mutual inductance.

of A = 120 with BE/A = 8.5 MeV. Calculate the (ii) A pair of adjacent coils has a mutual inductance

released energy. of 1.5 H. If the current in one coil changes from

OR 0 to 20 A in 0.5 s, what is the change of flux

Calculate the energy in fusion reaction : linkage with the other coil ?

, where BE of = 2.23 MeV

12. Two parallel plate capacitors X and Y have the same

and of = 7.73 MeV. area of plates and same separation between them.

7. Two cells of emfs 1.5 V and 2.0 V having internal X has air between the plates while Y contains a

resistances 0.2 Ω and 0.3 Ω respectively are dielectric of εr = 4.

18. (i) State Bohr's quantization condition for

defining stationary orbits. How does de Broglie

hypothesis explain the stationary orbits ?

(ii) Find the relation between the three wavelengths

λ1, λ2 and λ3 from the energy level diagram

(i) Calculate capacitance of each capacitor if shown below.

equivalent capacitance of the combination is

4 μF.

(ii) Calculate the potential difference between the

plates of X and Y.

(iii) Estimate the ratio of electrostatic energy stored

in X and Y.

13. Two long straight parallel conductors carry steady 19. Draw a schematic ray diagram of reflecting telescope

current I1 and I2 separated by a distance d. If the showing how rays coming from a distant object are

currents are flowing in the same direction, show received at the eye-piece. Write its two important

how the magnetic field set up in one produces an advantages over a refracting telescope.

attractive force on the other. Obtain the expression 20. How are em waves produced by oscillating charges ?

for this force. Hence define one ampere. Draw a sketch of linearly polarized em waves

14. A charge is distributed uniformly over a ring of propagating in the Z-direction. Indicate the directions

radius 'a'. Obtain an expression for the electric of the oscillating electric and magnetic fields.

intensity E at a point on the axis of the ring. Hence OR

show that for points at large distances from the ring, Write Maxwell's generalization of Ampere's Circuital

it behaves like a point charge. Law. Show that in the process of charging a capacitor,

15. Write three characteristic features in photoelectric the current produced within the plates of the

effect which cannot be explained on the basis of capacitor is

wave theory of light, but can be explained only dΦ

i = ε0 E

using Einstein's equation. dt

where ΦE is the electric flux produced during

16. (a) Write the expression for the magnetic force

charging of the capacitor plates.

acting on a charged particle moving with

velocity v in the presence of magnetic field B. 21. (a) Explain any two factors which justify the need

(b) A neutron, an electron and an alpha particle of modulating a low frequency signal.

moving with equal velocities, enter a uniform (b) Write two advantages of frequency modulation

magnetic field going into the plane of the paper over amplitude modulation.

as shown. Trace their paths in the field and 22. (i) Write the functions of three segments of a

justify your answer. transistor.

(ii) Draw the circuit diagram for studying the input

and output characteristics of n-p-n transistor

in common emitter configuration. Using the

circuit, explain how input, output characteristics

are obtained.

17. (a) Calculate the distance of an object of height h

from a concave mirror of radius of curvature SECTION-D

20 cm, so as to obtain a real image of 23. Meeta's father was driving her to the school. At the

magnification 2. Find the location of image

traffic signal she noticed that each traffic light was

also.

made of many tiny lights instead of a single bulb.

(b) Using mirror formula, explain why does a

When Meeta asked this question to her father, he

convex mirror always produce a virtual image.

explained the reason for this.

Answer the following questions based on above (a) number of turns in secondary

information : (b) current in primary

(i) What were the values displayed by Meeta and (c) voltage across secondary

her father ? (d) current in secondary

(ii) What answer did Meeta's father give ? (e) power in secondary

(iii) What are the tiny lights in traffic signals called 26. (i) In Young's double slit experiment, deduce

and how do these operate ? the condition for (a) constructive, and (b)

SECTION-E destructive interference at a point on the screen.

24. (i) Define the term drift velocity. Draw a graph showing variation of intensity in

(ii) On the basis of electron drift, derive an the interference pattern against position 'x' on

expression for resistivity of a conductor in the screen.

terms of number density of free electrons and (ii) Compare the interference pattern observed

relaxation time. On what factors does resistivity in Young's double slit experiment with single

of a conductor depend ? slit diffraction pattern, pointing out three

(iii) Why alloys like constantan and manganin are distinguishing features.

OR

used for making standard resistors ?

OR (i) Plot a graph to show variation of the angle of

deviation as a function of angle of incidence

(i) State the principle of working of a potentiometer.

for light passing through a prism. Derive an

(ii) In the following potentiometer circuit AB is a

expression for refractive index of the prism in

uniform wire of length 1 m and resistance 10 Ω.

terms of angle of minimum deviation and angle

Calculate the potential gradient along the wire

of prism.

and balance length AO (= l ).

(ii) What is dispersion of light ? What is its cause ?

(iii) A ray of light incident normally on one face of

a right isosceles prism

is totally reflected as

shown in figure. What

must be the minimum

value of refractive

index of glass ? Give

relevant calculations.

25. (i) An a.c. source of voltage V = V0 sinωt is

SOLUTIONS

connected to a series combination of L, C and

R. Use the phasor diagram to obtain expressions 1. When a current carrying coil is suspended in

for impedance of the circuit and phase angle a uniform magnetic field, a torque acts on it,

between voltage and current. Find the condition magnitude of which depends on the strength of

when current will be in phase with the voltage. current. This torque tends to rotate the coil about

What is the circuit in this condition called ? the axis of suspension, so that the magnetic flux

(ii) In series LR circuit XL = R and power factor passing through the coil is maximum.

of the circuit is P1. When capacitor with 2. Microwaves have short wavelengths so they are

capacitance C such that XL = XC is put in series, suitable for radar systems used in aircraft navigation.

the power factor becomes P2. Calculate P1/P2. They can penetrate through clouds also.

OR

3. The quality factor (Q) of resonance in series LCR

(i) Write the function of a transformer. State its

circuit is defined as the ratio of voltage drop across

principle of working with the help of a diagram.

inductor (or capacitor) to the applied voltage,

Mention various energy losses in this device.

V I X ω L 1

(ii) The primary coil of an ideal step up transformer i.e., Q = L = 0 L = 0 =

has 100 turns and transformation ratio is VR I0 R R ω0CR

also 100. The input voltage and power are It is an indicator of sharpness of the resonance.

respectively 220 V and 1100 W. Calculate Quality factor has no unit.

4. ε1r2 + ε2r1 rr

εeq = , req = 1 2

r1 + r2 r1 + r2

1.5 × 0.3 + 2 × 0. 2

∴ εeq =

0. 3 + 0. 2

Potential difference due to a point charge Q at a 0.45 + 0.4 0.85

distance r is given by = = = 1. 7 V

0. 5 0. 5

1 Q

V= 0.2 × 0.3 0.06

4 πε0 r req = = = 0.12 Ω

0 . 2 + 0 . 3 0. 5

∴ From the given figure

1 Q 1 Q 8. Brewster's law : The tangent of the polarizing angle

VA = , VB = of incidence of a transparent medium is equal to its

4 πε0 rA 4 πε0 rB

refractive index, i.e., μ = tan(ip)

1 Q 1 Q

∴ VA − VB = − Brewster angle, ip = tan–1(μ)

4 πε0 rA 4 πε0 rB Refractive index of a transparent medium depends

Q ⎡1 1⎤ on the wavelength of light which falls on the

= ⎢ − ⎥

4 πε0 ⎣ rA rB ⎦ medium. So a transparent medium has different

values of refractive index for light of different

1 1 ⎛1 1⎞

∵ rB > rA ⇒ < ⇒⎜ − ⎟>0 colours. Hence the value of Brewster angle for a

rB rA ⎝ rA rB ⎠ transparent medium is different for light of different

Hence, (VA – VB) > 0 colours.

i.e., potential difference (VA – VB) is positive. 9. (i) Attenuation : The loss of strength of signal

5. According to Gauss's law, the during its propagation through the transmission

electric flux passing through a medium is called attenuation. Repeater is used to

closed surface is given by compensate the attenuation.

(ii) Demodulation : The process of recovering

qenclosed

∫ E . ds = ε0 the original information signal from the modulated

wave at the receiver end is called demodulation. It

According to question when radius of spherical is the reverse process of modulation.

Gaussian surface is increased, its surface area will

10. When a charge q at rest is accelerated through a

be increased but point charge enclosed in the sphere

potential difference V then its kinetic energy is

remains same. Hence there will be no change in the

electric flux. increased by qV.

i.e., K = qV

6. For a big nucleus, A = 240, BE/A = 7.6 MeV Momentum,

Initial binding energy = 240 × 7.6 = 1824 MeV

For two small nuclei, A = 120, BE/A = 8.5 MeV p = 2m K = 2mqV

Final binding energy = 2 × 120 × 8.5 = 2040 MeV de-Broglie wavelength,

Energy released during fission

h h

= (final BE) – (Initial BE) λ= =

= 2040 – 1824 = 216 MeV p 2mqV

OR

h 1

Fusion reaction, λ= ×

2mq V

Energy released = Final BE – Initial BE Since m1 > m2 and q1 = q2 = q

= 7.73 – (2.23 + 2.23) = 3.27 MeV ∴ (slope)(q, m ) < (slope)(q, m )

1 2

Line 2 represents particle of smaller mass because

7. its slope is more than that of line 1.

11. (i) Mutual inductance : When an emf is produced

in a coil because of change in current in a coupled

coil, the effect is called mutual inductance. The So, this current (I2) carrying wire then experiences

most common application of mutual inductance is a force due to this magnetic field which on its length

the transformer. l is given by

(ii) Here, M = 1.5 H, ΔI1 = 20 A, Δt = 0.5 s, Δφ = ? F21 = I2 (l × B1 )

We know, emf induced in the second coil, μ I

(Δφ)2 M ΔI1 F21 = F12 = I2lB1 sin 90° = I2l × 0 1

ε=− =− 2πd

Δt Δt μ 0 I1I 2

or F21 = F12 = l

∴ (Δφ)2 = MΔI1 = 1.5 × 20 = 30 Wb 2πd

ε A The vector product (l × B1 ) has a direction towards

12. Here, C x = 0 the wire carrying current I1. Hence, both the wires

d

attract each other.

ε0 εr A

Cy = = εr Cx = 4 Cx So, force per unit length that each wire exerts on the

d

other is

(i) Cx and Cy are in series, so equivalent capacitance μ II

f = 012

is given by 2πd

Cx × C y If I1 = I2 = 1 A and d = 1 m and l = 1 m

C= μ

Cx + C y then f = 0 = 2 × 10 −7 N m −1

2π

Cx × 4 Cx Thus, electric current through each of two parallel

⇒ 4= (∵ C = 4 μF) long wires placed at distance of 1m from each

Cx + 4 Cx

other is said to be 1 ampere, if they exert a force of

4 Cx 2 × 10–7 N m–1 on each other.

⇒ 4= ∴ Cx = 5 μF

5

14. Suppose total charge on ring of radius a is q. Charge

and Cy = 4 Cx = 20 μF

q is uniformly distributed. We want to find electric

(ii) Charge on each capacitor, Q = CV

field at point P on the axis of the charged ring.

Q = 4 × 10–6 × 15 = 60 × 10–6 C Consider a small element of the ring carrying charge

Potential difference between the plates of X, dq. Electric field due to this small element is dE .

Q 60 × 10−6

Vx = = = 12 V

Cx 5 × 10−6

Potential difference between the plates of Y,

Vy = V – Vx = 15 – 12 = 3 V.

(iii) Ratio of electrostatic energy stored,

Q2

U x 2Cx C y 4Cx

= 2 = = =4

Uy Q Cx Cx dE can be resolved into two components as

2Cy (i) dE cosθ along PX and (ii) dE sinθ along PY.

13. When two parallel infinite straight wires carrying Due to symmetry of ring all components of electric

currents I1 and I2 are fields of small elements along y-axis cancel out.

placed at distance d from Resultant electric field at point P,

each other, then current I1 E = ∫ dE cos θ

produces magnetic field,

1 dq 1 dq

which at any point on the Here, dE = =

second current carrying 4 πε0 r 2 4 πε0 (x 2 + a2 )

wire is x x

cos θ = =

μ0 I1 r x + a2

2

B1 = directed

2 πd 1 dq x

inwards perpendicular to plane of wires. ∴ E=∫ × 2 2 ×

4 πε0 (x + a ) ( x 2 + a2 )

1 x Magnetic force on neutron, F = 0 (as q = 0)

4 πε0 (x + a2 )3/2 ∫

= 2

dq So, neutron will move along straight line.

Magnetic force on electron

1 qx

E= Fe = q v × B = | −e v B | downwards

4 πε0 (x + a2 )3/2

2

So, curve will bend downwards as force is

For large x as x >> a, so a2 can be neglected, perpendicular to the velocity,

1 qx 1 q For a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic

∴ E= = field B perpendicular to velocity,

4 πε0 x 3 4 πε0 x 2

mv 2 mv

which is the electric intensity due to a point charge qvB = ⇒r =

r qB

at a distance x. Hence charged ring behaves as a r is the radius of curved path.

point charge for points at large distances from it. Here vα = vn = ve = v

15. According to Einstein's photoelectric equation, Radius of path traced by

kinetic energy of photoelectrons is given by 4mev 2mev

α-particle, rα = =

Kmax = hυ – hυ0 2e B eB

Three characteristic features explained by this Radius of path traced by

equation : mv

electron, re = e

i. Photoelectrons are not ejected unless the eB

frequency of incident light is above a certain 17. (a) Here, R = – 20 cm, f = R/2 = –10 cm

threshold frequency. The threshold frequency m = –2 (image is real)

depends on the work function of material. u → object distance

ii. If the frequency of incident radiation is greater v → image distance

than threshold frequency, even a light of very weak v

m = − ⇒ v = 2u

intensity will cause photoelectrons to be emitted. If u

the frequency of incident radiation is less than the 1 1 1

Using mirror formula, + =

threshold frequency, even the most intense light v u f

will not cause photoelectrons to be emitted. 1 1 1 3 1

+ = ⇒ =

iii. The kinetic energy of the ejected electrons was 2u u −10 2u −10

proportional to the frequency of the illuminating ∴ u = – 15 cm

light. This showed that whatever was knocking the Hence, v = 2u = –30 cm.

electrons out had an energy proportional to light (b) For convex mirror : f > 0, u < 0

frequency. The remarkable fact that the ejection Using mirror formula, 1 + 1 = 1

energy was independent of the total energy of v u f

illumination showed that the interaction must be 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f ×u

like that of a particle which gave all of its energy to = − = − ⇒ = + ⇒v =

v f u f (−u) v f u f +u

the electron .

∴ v>0

iv. The emission of photoelectrons is almost

This implies that image of object placed in front of a

instantaneous. i.e. there is no time lag between the

convex mirror is always formed behind the mirror

emission of electrons and switching on of the light

which is virtual in nature.

source.

18. (i) Bohr's quantization condition :

16. (a) Magnetic force acting on a charged particle q

The electron revolves around the nucleus only in

moving with a velocity v in a uniform magnetic

those orbits for which the angular momentum

field B is given by

is some integral multiple of h/2π.

F = q (v × B) h

i.e., L = mvr = n ; n = 1, 2, 3, ....

(b) Magnetic force on α-particle 2π

Fα = qv × B = 2 e v B upward de Broglie hypothesis may be used to derive

So, curve will bend upwards as force is perpendicular Bohr's formula by considering the electron to

to the velocity. be a wave spread over the entire orbit, rather

than as a particle which at any instant is located

at a point in its orbit. The stable orbits in an (ii) The use of parabolic mirror reduces spherical

atom are those which are standing waves. aberration.

Formation of standing waves require that the 20. Oscillating charge produces an oscillating electric

circumference of the orbit is equal in length to field in space which produces an oscillating magnetic

an integral multiple of the wavelength. Thus, if field, which in turn, is a source of oscillating

r is the radius of the orbit electric field and so on. The oscillating electric and

nh ⎛ h⎞ magnetic fields thus generate each other as the wave

⎜∵λ = p ⎟

2π r = nλ =

p

⎝ ⎠ propagates through the space. Hence em waves are

which gives the angular momentum quantization produced by oscillating charges.

h A plane electromagnetic wave is said to be

L = pr = n

2π linearly polarized. The transverse electric field

wave accompanied by a magnetic field wave is

illustrated.

(ii)

OR

Maxwell's generalization of Ampere's circuital law,

Clearly, from energy level diagram, ⎛ dφ ⎞

EC – EA = (EC – EB) + (EB – EA) ∫ B . dl = μ0 (i + id ) = μ0 ⎜⎝ i + ε0 dtE ⎟⎠

(On the basis of energy of emitted photon). In the process of charging the capacitor there is

hc hc hc change in electric flux between the capacitor plates.

= +

λ 3 λ1 λ 2

1 1 1 λλ dφ E d

⇒ = + ⇒ λ3 = 1 2 = (EA)

λ 3 λ1 λ 2 λ1 + λ 2 dt dt

q

which is the required relation between the three E → Electric field between the plates =

Aε0

given wavelengths. A → Area of the plate

19. Reflecting telescope : Schematic ray diagram dφ E d ⎛ q ⎞ 1 dq id

So, = ⎜ × A⎟ = =

dt dt ⎝ Aε0 ⎠ ε0 dt ε0

dφ E

∴ id = i = ε0

dt

21. (a) Need of modulating a low frequency signal:

(i) Low energy : The audio/video signals when

Two important advantages of reflecting telescope converted into em waves do not have sufficient

over a refracting telescope : high energy to travel upto long distances,

(i) A concave mirror of large aperture has high because of their lower frequency. Hence these

gathering power and absorbs very less amount signals are modulated with high frequency

of light than the lenses of large apertures. The carrier waves, before being sent and are

final image formed in reflecting telescope is demodulated or separated from the carrier

very bright. waves at the receiving end.

(ii) Size of antenna : For the effective transmission varying VBE. For silicon diode we have knee voltage

by an antenna, the size of the antenna should be around 0.7 V . After overcoming the knee voltage,

at least of the size λ/4, where λ is wavelength of current will rise sharply. The input characteristic

signal to be sent. will be different if we go on increasing the VCE. It

For an em wave of the frequency of the order of will be shifting right, means for the same VBE we

audio signal i.e., 20 kHz, we need an antenna of will be getting lower input current IB.

size λ/4 i.e., 3.75 km high, which is practically

impossible. Hence these low frequency signals

are superimposed with high frequencies or

radio frequencies before transmission.

(b) Advantages of frequency modulation over

amplitude modulation :

(i) Frequency of a wave does not change while

travelling through different media, while

amplitude of a wave changes while travelling

through different media. An amplitude Similarly, for different values of IB, the IC versus

modulated wave carries information in terms of VCE graph (output characteristic) is shown below.

variation of amplitude, which can get disturbed.

This is why FM signal is less susceptible to noise

than AM signal.

(ii) In FM transmission, all the transmitted power

is useful, whereas in AM transmission most of

the power wastes in transmitting carrier wave,

with no useful information.

22. (i) Functions of three segments of a transistor :

Emitter : It supplies a large number of majority

charge carriers for the flow of current through the

transistor.

Base : It controls the flow of majority charge carriers 23. (i) Values displayed by Meeta, are curiosity to learn

from emitter to collector. and good observation.

Collector : It collects a major portion of the Values displayed by her father are patience and

majority carriers supplied by emitter for the circuit knowledgeable.

operation. (ii) Meeta's father most probably explained her the

benefits of using tiny bulbs (LEDs) over a single

(ii)

bulb.

(a) Tiny lights are semiconductor devices which

consume very less power than a single bulb.

(b) Tiny lights are very cheap.

(c) If some of these tiny lights are not working, then

traffic system will not be affected. But if a single

bulb is fused, traffic system will be disturbed.

(iii) Tiny lights in traffic signals are called LEDs.

LEDs are operated in forward biased and emits

spontaneous radiation.

Let us first consider the input characteristic. Input

24. (i) Refer point 2.1(3) page no. 92 (MTG Excel in Physics)

characteristic means we have to plot the graphical

representation between IB and VBE. VBE is the (ii) Refer points 2.1(4) and 2.2(4, 9(a)) page no. 92-94

emitter to base voltage or the forward bias voltage (MTG Excel in Physics)

and IB is the base current. In this forward biasing, (iii) Refer point 2.2(9(b)), page no. 94 (MTG Excel in Physics)

E is at lower potential than B. We will be plotting IB OR

versus VBE because base is at higher potential than

(i) Refer point 2.5(7) page no. 101 (MTG Excel in Physics)

emitter, so that will be reflected here. Now go on

(ii) Here AB = 1 m, RAB = 10 Ω, PO 1100 1

(d) IS = = = A (∵ PO = PI)

Potential gradient, k = ?, AO = l = ? εS 22000 20

Current passing (e) PS = PO = PI = 1100 W.

through AB, 26. (i) Refer point 6.13(6) page no. 447

2 (MTG Excel in Physics)

I=

15 + R AB (ii) Refer point 6.14(7) page no. 452

2 2 (MTG Excel in Physics)

= = A

15 + 10 25 OR

2 4 (i) Refer point 6.7(3, 5) page no. 378

VAB = I × RAB = × 10 = V (MTG Excel in Physics)

25 5

VAB 4 − (ii) Refer point 6.7(6, 7) page no. 379

∴ k= = Vm 1

AB 5 (MTG Excel in Physics)

Current in the external circuit, (iii) At point B, for total internal reflection,

1.5 1. 5 μ sin i ≥ 1

I′ = = =1A 1

1 . 2 + 0 . 3 1. 5 μ≥

sini

For no deflection in galvanometer, 1

Potential difference across AO = 1.5 – 1.2 I' μ≥ = 2

sin 45°

⇒ k (l) = 1.5 – 1.2 × I′ (∵ i = 45°)

4 0 .3 × 5

⇒ l = 0.3 or, l = = 0.375 m ∴ μ≥ 2

5 4

∴ l = 37.5 cm μ min = 2 .

25. (i) Refer point 4.6(6, 7) page no. 269, 270

(MTG Excel in Physics) SOLUTION OF MARCH 2016 CROSSWORD

(ii) For LR circuit, XL = R

Power factor,

R R 1

P1 = cos φ = = =

R 2 + X L2 R +R

2 2 2

For LCR circuit, as C is put in series with LR circuit

Also, XL = XC

R

Power factor, P2 = cos φ' =

R 2 + (X L − XC )2

R R

= = =1

R + (X L − X L )

2 2 R

P1 1

Required ratio = =

P2 2

OR

(i) Refer point 4.8(1) page no. 274 (MTG Excel in Physics)

N

(ii) Here NP = 100, S = 100

NP

εi = εP = 220 V, PI = 1100 W

WINNERS (March 2016)

Manjit Bakshi (Punjab)

(a) NP = 100 NS = 10000 Rohini Rani (Bihar)

P 1100 Anirban Das (WB)

(b) IP = I = =5A Solution Senders (February 2016)

ε P 220

Sreehari K (Kerala)

N Vishal Saxena (Rajasthan)

(c) εS = S × εP = 100 × 220 = 22000 V Satwik Jain (Rajasthan)

NP

Exam from

14th to 28th

May 2016

1. In a race for 100 m dash, the first and the second

runners have a gap of one metre at the mid way (a) (b)

stage. Assuming the first runner goes steady, by

what percentage should the second runner increase

his speed just to win the race?

(a) 2% (b) 4%

(c) (d)

(c) more than 4% (d) less than 4%

2. A sand bag of mass m is suspended from a

m

long string. A bullet of mass moving with a

20 7. In an L – R circuit, the value of L is (0.4/π) H and

horizontal velocity v strikes it and gets embedded

the value of R is 30 Ω. If in the circuit, an alternating

into it. Calculate the velocity gained by the bag

emf of 200 V at 50 cycle per second is connected,

in this process and fraction of energy lost in the

process. the impedance of the circuit and current will be

(a) 11.4 Ω, 17.5 A (b) 30.7 Ω, 6.5 A

v 20 v 18

(a) ; (b) ; (c) 40.4 Ω, 5 A (d) 50 Ω, 4 A

21 21 24 20

v 20 v 20 8. A microscope has an objective of focal length 1.5 cm

(c) ; (d) ; and eyepiece of focal length 2.5 cm. If the distance

21 22 19 21

3. The bodies situated on the surface of earth at its between objective and eyepiece is 25 cm, what is the

equator, become weightless, when the kinetic approximate value of magnification produced for

energy of rotation of earth about its axis is relaxed eye?

(a) MgR (b) 2MgR/5 (a) 75 (b) 110 (c) 140 (d) 25

(c) MgR/5 (d) 5MgR/2 9. Two small conducting spheres of equal radius

4. Two linear SHMs of equal amplitude A and angular have charges +10 μC and –20 μC and placed at a

frequencies ω and 2ω are impressed on a particle distance R from each other experience force F1. If

along the axes x and y respectively. If the initial they are brought in contact and separated to the

phase difference between them is π/2, the resultant same distance, they experience force F2. The ratio

path followed by the particle is of F1 to F2 is

(a) y2 = x2(1 – x2/A2) (b) y2 = 2x2(1 – x2/A2) (a) 1 : 2 (b) –8 : 1 (c) 1 : 8 (d) –2 : 1

(c) y2 = 4x2(1 – x2/A2) (d) y2 = 8x2(1 – x2/A2) 10. Two masses 40 kg and

5. A calorie is a unit of heat and equals 4.2 J. Suppose we 30 kg are connected by a

employ a system of units in which the unit of mass is weightless string passing

α kg, the unit of length is β m and the unit of time is over a frictionless pulley

γ s. In this new system, 1 calorie will be as shown in the figure.

(a) α–1β–2γ2 (b) 4.2αβ2γ2 The tension in the string

(c) αβ γ 2 2

(d) 4.2α–1β–2γ2 will be

(a) 188 N (b) 368 N (c) 288 N (d) 168 N

6. Which of the following graph represents the

variation of magnetic flux density B with distance 11. At constant temperature, the volume of a gas is to be

r for a straight long wire carrying an electric decreased by 4%. The pressure must be increased by

current? (a) 5.34% (b) 4.16% (c) 2.96% (d) 3.86%

12. In a Young's double slit experiment, one of the slits 20. A launching vehicle carrying an artificial satellite of

is covered with a transparent sheet of thickness mass m is set for launch on the surface of the earth

3.6 × 10–5 m due to which position of central bright of mass M and radius R. If the satellite is intended to

fringe shifts to a position originally occupied by move in a circular orbit of radius 7R, the minimum

30th fringe. The refractive index of the sheet, if energy required to be spent by the launching vehicle

λ = 6000 Å, is on the satellite is (Gravitational constant = G)

(a) 1.5 (b) 1.9 (c) 1.3 (d) 1.7

GMm 13 GMm

13. At time t = 0, activity of a radioactive substance is (a) (b)

1600 Bq, at t = 8 s activity becomes 100 Bq. Find the R 14 R

activity at t = 2 s. GMm GMm

(c) (d)

(a) 200 Bq (b) 400 Bq 7R 14 R

(c) 600 Bq (d) 800 Bq 21. An inductance coil is connected to an ac source

14. Find the ratio of minimum to maximum energy through a 60 Ω resistance in series. The source

of radiation emitted by electron in ground state of voltage, voltage across the coil and voltage across

Bohr's hydrogen atom. the resistance are found to be 33 V, 27 V and

4 2 3 1 12 V respectively. Therefore, the resistance of the coil is

(a) (b) (c) (d) (a) 30 Ω (b) 45 Ω (c) 105 Ω (d) 75 Ω

3 3 4 2

15. In an experiment with sonometer, a tuning fork of 22. The cylindrical tube of spray pump has a cross-

frequency 256 Hz resonates with a length of 25 cm section of 8 cm2, one end of which has 40 fine holes

and another tuning fork resonates with a length of each of area 10–8 m2. If the liquid flows inside the

16 cm. Tension in the string remains constant, the tube with a speed of 0.15 m min–1, the speed with

frequency of the second tuning fork is which the liquid is ejected through the holes is

(a) 204 Hz (b) 160 Hz (c) 400 Hz (d) 320 Hz

(a) 50 m s–1 (b) 5 m s–1

–1

16. Refer to the arrangement of logic gates. For A = 0, (c) 0.05 m s (d) 0.5 m s–1

B = 0 and A = 1, B = 0, the values of output Y are,

23. A body is fired vertically upwards. At half the

respectively

maximum height, the velocity of the body is

10 m s–1. The maximum height raised by the body

is (Take g = 10 m s–2)

(a) 5 m (b) 10 m (c) 15 m (d) 20 m

(a) 0 and 1 (b) 1 and 0 24. If the masses of deuterium and helium are

(c) 1 and 1 (d) 0 and 0 2.0140 amu and 4.0026 amu, respectively and

17. If the length of stretched string is shortened by 40% 22.4 MeV energy is liberated in the reaction

6 2 4 4 6

and the tension is increased by 44 %, then the ratio 3Li + 1H → 2He + 2He, the mass of 3Li is

of the final and initial fundamental frequencies is (a) 6.015 amu (b) 6.068 amu

(a) 2 : 1 (b) 3 : 2 (c) 3 : 4 (d) 1 : 3

(c) 5.980 amu (d) 6.00 amu

18. A 220 V input is supplied to a transformer.

25. The maximum range of projectile fired with some

The output circuit draws a current of 2.0 A at

440 V. If the efficiency of the transformer is 80%, initial velocity is found to be 1000 m, in the absence

the current drawn by the primary windings of the of wind and air resistance. The maximum height

transformer is reached by the projectile is

(a) 3.6 A (b) 2.8 A (c) 2.5 A (d) 5.0 A (a) 250 m (b) 500 m (c) 1000 m (d) 2000 m

19. When a metal surface is illuminated with light of 26. In the adjoining

wavelength λ, the stopping potential is V0. When figure, the equivalent

the same surface is illuminated with light of resistance between

V0 A and B is

wavelength 2λ, the stopping potential is . If the

4

velocity of light in air is c, the threshold frequency ⎛ 17 ⎞ ⎛4⎞

(a) ⎜ ⎟ Ω (b) ⎜ ⎟ Ω

of photoelectric emission is ⎝ 24 ⎠ ⎝3⎠

c c 2c 4c

(a) (b) (c) (d) ⎛ 24 ⎞ ⎛3⎞

3λ 3λ (c) ⎜ ⎟ Ω (d) ⎜ ⎟ Ω

6λ 3λ ⎝ 17 ⎠ ⎝4⎠

27. A satellite in a circular orbit of radius R has a period circuit at any time t, then which of the following

of 4 hours. Another satellite with orbital radius graphs, shows the variation of ε with I ?

3R around the same planet will have a period (in

hours)

(a) 16 (b) 4 (c) 4 27 (d) 4 8 (a) (b)

28. A body of mass M suspended from two springs

separately executes simple harmonic motion.

During oscillation the maximum velocity is equal

A1 (c) (d)

in both cases. The ratio of amplitude is

A2

k1 k2 k2 k12

(a) (b) (c) (d) 2

k2 k1 k1 k2 35. The time of vibration of a dip needle vibrating in the

29. A uniform thin bar of mass 6m and length 12L is vertical plane in the magnetic meridian is 3 s. When

bent to make a regular hexagon. Its moment of the same magnetic needle is made to vibrate in the

inertia about an axis passing through the centre of horizontal plane, the time of vibration is 3 2 s.

mass and perpendicular to the plane of hexagon is Then the angle of dip is

(a) 20mL2 (b) 6mL2 (a) 30° (b) 45° (c) 60° (d) 90°

12 2 36. A current of 2 A flows in the system of conductors

(c) mL (d) 30mL2

5 as shown in the figure. The potential difference

30. An object is displaced from position vector VP – VR will be nearly

^ ^ ^ ^ (a) – 2 V

r1 = (2 i + 3 j ) m to r2 = (4 i + 6 j ) m under a force

(b) – 1 V

^ ^

F = (3x 2 i + 2 y j ) N. The work done by this force (c) + 1 V

is (d) + 2 V

(a) 63 J (b) 73 J (c) 83 J (d) 93 J

37. When the reverse potential in the semiconductor

31. A charge Q is enclosed by a gaussian spherical

diode are 10 V and 15 V, the corresponding reverse

surface of radius R. If the radius is doubled, then

currents are 10 μA and 35 μA respectively. The

the outward electric flux will

reverse resistance of junction diode will be

(a) increase four times (b) be reduced to half

(a) 20 kΩ (b) 200 kΩ

(c) remain the same (d) be doubled

(c) 2000 kΩ (d) none of these

32. A small bulb emits 100 W of electromagnetic

radiation uniformly in all directions. What is the 38. A metal rod of Young’s modulus Y and coefficient

maximum energy density in the electric field at a of thermal expansion α is held at its two ends such

point 1.0 m from the source? that its length remains invariant. If its temperature

(a) 10.5 × 10–8 J m–3 (b) 5.30 × 10–8 J m–3 is raised by t °C, the linear stress developed in it is

(c) 2.65 × 10–8 J m–3 (d) 20.1 × 10–8 J m–3 αt Y 1

(a) (b) (c) Yαt (d)

Y αt (Y αt )

33. In an interference pattern produced by two identical

slits, the intensity at the site of the central maximum 39. The deflection in a moving coil galvanometer falls from

is I. The intensity at the same spot when either of 50 divisions to 10 divisions when a shunt of 12

the two slits is closed is I0. Therefore, ohm is applied. What is the resistance of the

(a) I = I0 galvanometer?

(b) I = 2I0 (a) 12 Ω (b) 24 Ω (c) 36 Ω (d) 48 Ω

(c) I = 4I0 40. The angular momentum of an electron in the

(d) I and I0 are not related to each other. 3h

hydrogen atom is . Here, h is Planck’s constant.

34. In an L-R ciruit shown in figure, 2π

The kinetic energy of this electron is

switch S is closed at time t = 0. If

(a) 4.35 eV (b) 1.51 eV

ε denotes the induced emf across

(c) 3.4 eV (d) 6.8 eV

inductor and I, the current in the

SOLUTIONS or y2 = 4A2 sin2 ωt cos2 ωt

1. (c) : Let v1, v2 be the initial speeds of first and x 2 ⎛ A2 − x 2 ⎞ 2

⎛ x2 ⎞

second runners. Let t be the time taken by them = 4 A2 × ×⎜ ⎟ = 4 x ⎜1− ⎟

A2 ⎝ A2 ⎠ ⎝ A2 ⎠

when the first runner has completed 50 m. During

this time, the second runner has covered a distance 5. (d) : 1 calorie = 4.2 J ∴ [calorie] = [ML2T–2].

= 50 – 1 = 49 m. Comparing with general dimensional formula

50 49 [MaLbTc], we get

So, t = = ...(i) a = 1, b = 2, c = –2

v1 v2

a b c

Suppose the second runner increases his speed to ⎡M ⎤ ⎡L ⎤ ⎡T ⎤

v3 so that he covers the remaining distance (51 m) ∵ n2 = n1 ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥

in time t. So ⎣ M2 ⎦ ⎣ L2 ⎦ ⎣ T2 ⎦

1 −2

2

51 49 51 ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎡ 1 kg ⎤ ⎡ 1 m ⎤ ⎡ 1 s ⎤

t= = or v3 = × v2 = ⎜1 + ⎟ v2 ⇒ n2 = 4.2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = 4.2 α β γ

–1 –2 2

⎝ 49 ⎠

v3 v2 49 ⎣ α kg ⎦ ⎣ β m ⎦ ⎣ γ s ⎦

v3 2 v3 − v2 2 6. (c) : Magnetic field induction at a point due to a

or −1 = or = long current carrying wire is related with distance r

v2 49 v2 49

2 by relation B ∝ 1/r. Therefore graph (c) is correct.

or % increase = × 100% = 4.1% 7. (d) : Here, XL = ωL = 2πυL

49

0. 4

i.e. more than 4% = 2 π × 50 × = 40 Ω

2. (a) : Applying principle of conservation of linear π

R = 30 Ω

momentum,

m ⎛ m⎞ 21m ∴ Z = R2 + X L2 = 302 + 402 = 50 Ω

× v = ⎜m + ⎟ v ′ = v′

20 ⎝ 20 ⎠ 20 V 200

irms = rms = =4A

v 20 v Z 50

v′ = × = 8. (c) : Length of the tube is L = v0 + fe

20 21 21 v0 = L – fe = 25 – 2.5 = 22.5 cm

This is the velocity gained by the bag.

1 1 1

1⎛m⎞ 2 Now applying − = , we have

Initial kinetic energy of bullet, E1 = ⎜ ⎟ v v0 u0 f0

2 ⎝ 20 ⎠

1 1 1

Final kinetic energy of bag and bullet, − =

2 22.5 u0 1.5

1⎛ m⎞ 1 ⎛ 21m ⎞ ⎛ v ⎞ ∴ |u0| ≈ 1.6 cm

E2 = ⎜ m + ⎟ v ′2 = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟

2⎝ 20 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 20 ⎠ ⎝ 21 ⎠ v0 D ⎛ 22.5 ⎞ ⎛ 25 ⎞

∴ M = × =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 140

Loss of energy u0 fe ⎝ 1.6 ⎠ ⎝ 2.5 ⎠

1⎛m⎞ ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1⎛m⎞ 20 k(+10)(−20) −k × 200

= E1 − E2 = ⎜ ⎟ v 2 ⎢1 − ⎥ = ⎜ ⎟ v 2 ×

2 ⎝ 20 ⎠ ⎣ 21 ⎦ 2 ⎝ 20 ⎠ 21 9. (b) : Here, F1 = 2

=

R R2

E1 − E2 20 As spheres are of equal radius, their capacities are

Fraction of energy lost = =

E1 21 same. On touching, the net charge = + 10 – 20 = –10 μC

3. (c) : When there is a weightlessness in the body at is shared equally between them i.e, each sphere

the equator, then g′ = g – Rω2 = 0 carries –5 μC charge.

k(−5)(−5) k × 25 F −8

or ω = g /R F2 = = ∴ 1=

2 2 F2 1

and linear velocity ωR = ( g /R )R = gR R R

1 2

∴ Kinetic energy of rotation of earth = Iω 10. (d) :

2

1 2 1 1

= × MR2 × ω2 = M (ωR)2 = MgR

2 5 5 5

4. (c) : x = A sin(ωt + π/2) = A cos ωt

∴ cos ωt = x/A and sin ωt = 1 − (x 2 /A2 )

y = A sin 2ωt = 2A sin ωt cos ωt

m1gsin30° – T = m1a ... (i) four half-lives are equivalent to 8 s. Hence, 2 s is

T – m2gsin30° = m2a ... (ii) equal to one half-life. So, in one half-life activity

Adding (i) and (ii), will fall half of 1600 Bq i.e., 800 Bq.

sin 30° − sin 30° 14. (c) : Energy of radiation corresponding to transition

= 1 2

From eqn. (ii), we get ⎛ 1 1 ⎞

E = 13.6 − eV .

T = m2g sin30° + m2a ⎜ n2 n2 ⎟

⎝ 1 2 ⎠

= sin 30° + 2 ( sin 30° − sin 30°) E is minimum when n1 = 1 and n2 = 2.

1+

2 1 2

2

⎛1 1 ⎞ 3

2 sin 30° 2 × 40 × 30 × 9.8 × (1 / 2) Hence, Emin = 13.6 ⎜ − ⎟ eV =13.6 × eV

= 1 2

= ⎝1 4 ⎠ 4

1+ 40 + 30

2

E is maximum when n1 = 1 and n2 = ∞ (when the

1200

= × 9.8 = 168 N atom is ionised).

70 Hence

11. (b) : At constant temperature, pV = constant ⎛ 1⎞ E 3

p1 V2 Emax = 13.6 ⎜1 − ⎟ = 13.6 eV ∴ min =

p1V1 = p2V2 or = ⎝ ∞⎠ Emax 4

p2 V1

Fractional change in volume 15. (c) : For sonometer, frequency of vibration of

V1 − V2 4 1 string, provided its tension and mass per unit length

= = 1

V1 100 25 remain same, is given by υ ∝

V2 1 V2 24 l

1− = or, = υ2 l1 υ2 25

V1 25 V1 25 ∴ = or =

υ1 l2 256 16

p1 V2 24 p2 25

∴ = = or = 256 × 25

p2 V1 25 p1 24 υ2 = = 400 Hz

16

p2 − p1 25 1

= −1 = 16. (b) :

p1 24 24

100

% increase in pressure = = 4.16 %

24

30 λD

12. (a) : The position of 30th bright fringe y30 =

d

30 λD

New position of central fringe is y0 =

d 17. (a) : Initial fundamental frequency of a stretched

But we know , y0 = shift due to transparent sheet string is

D 1 T

= (μ – 1)t υ= …(i)

d 2L μ

30 λD D where the symbols have their usual meanings.

So, = (μ − 1)t

d d When the length of a stretched string is shortened

30 λ 30 × (6000 × 10−10 ) by 40% and the tension is increased by 44%, then

(μ − 1) = = = 0 .5 its length and tension become

t (3.6 × 10−5 ) 40 3

∴ μ = 1.5 44 36

L′ = L − L = L , T′ = T + T= T

n 100 5 100 25

⎛1⎞

13. (d) : Activity, R = R0 ⎜ ⎟ Then, final fundamental frequency is

⎝2⎠

1 T′ 1 36 T 2 T

where n is the number of half-lives. υ′ = = = …(ii)

n 2L ′ μ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 25 μ 2L μ

⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ L⎟

⎝5 ⎠

At t = 8 s, 100 = 1600 ⎜ ⎟

⎝2⎠

υ′ 2

1 ⎛1⎞

n

Dividing (ii) by (i), we get =

=⎜ ⎟ υ 1

16 ⎝ 2 ⎠ or n=4

18. (d) : Here, Vp = 220 V, Is = 2 A, Vs = 440 V

u2 sin 2θ

η = 80%, Ip = ? 25. (a) : Range, R =

VI VI g

η = s s or I p = s s For maximum range, angle of projection θ is 45°.

Vp I p ηV p

u2 sin (2 × 45°) u2

Substituting the given values, we get ∴ Rmax = = = 1000 m …(i)

g g

440 × 2

Ip = =5 A u2 sin2 45°

80 ∴

× 220 Maximum height, H =

2g

100

2

19. (b) 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞

⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

H= × 1000 × ⎜ = 250 m (Using (i))

20. (b) : The energy of the satellite on the surface of the 2

earth is 26. (b) : The equivalent circuit is as shown in figure.

⎛ GMm ⎞ GMm

Es = KE + PE = 0 + ⎜ − ⎟⎠ = −

⎝ R R

The energy of the satellite in an orbit of radius r is

1 ⎛ GMm ⎞

Eo = mvo2 + ⎜ − ⎟

2 ⎝ r ⎠

1 ⎛ GM ⎞ GMm ⎡ GM ⎤

= m⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ As vo = ⎥

2 ⎝ r ⎠ r ⎣ r ⎦ Resistance of arm AGB

GMm 8×2 4×6

=− = + = 1.6 + 2.4 = 4 Ω

2r 8+2 4+6

The minimum energy required to be spent by the

For equivalent resistance between A and B, the

vehicle is

resistance of arms CD, AGB and FE are in parallel.

ΔE = Eo − Es

Thus

GMm ⎡ GMm ⎤ 1 1 1 1 4+3+2 9

=− − − (∵r = 7R) = + + = =

2(7 R) ⎢⎣ R ⎥⎦ RAB 3 4 6 12 12

GMm GMm 13 GMm

=− + = 12 4

14 R R 14 R or RAB = = Ω

21. (b) 9 3

27. (c) : According to Kepler’s third law T2 ∝ R3

22. (b) : According to equation of continuity, 3/2 3/2

a1v1 = a2v2 ⎛R ⎞ ⎛ 3R ⎞

T2 = T1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 4 27 hours

⎛ 0.15 ⎞ ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝R⎠

∴ (40 × 10−8 ) × v1 = 8 × 10−4 × ⎜

⎝ 60 ⎟⎠ 28. (c) : For SHM,

−4

8 × 10 × 0.15

or v1 = = 5 m s −1 Maximum velocity, vmax = Aω

−8

40 × 10 × 60 k

23. (b) : Let h be maximum height reached by the body. For 1st case, vmax1 = A1ω1 = A1 1 ...(i)

M

Taking motion of the body from half the maximum

k2

height upto the highest point, we have For IInd case, vmax 2 = A2 ω2 = A2 ...(ii)

h M

u =10 m s–1, a = – g = – 10 m s–2, v = 0, S = According to question,

2

As v2 = u2 + 2aS vmax1 = vmax2

h

∴ 0 = 102 + 2 (– 10) × or h = 10 m k1 k A1 k

2 ∴ A1 = A2 2 or = 2

24. (a) : In the given reaction, M M A2 k1

B.E. = [(m(63Li) + m(21H) – 2m(42He)] × 931 = 22.4 29. (a) : Length of each side of hexagon = 2L

22.4 Mass of each side = m

∴ m(63Li) = – 2.0140 + 2 × 4.0026 Let O be centre of mass of hexagon.

931 Therefore, perpendicular distance of O from each

= 6.015 amu

side

r = Ltan60° = L 3 I

The desired moment 35. (c) : t1 = 3 = 2 π . …(i)

MR

of inertia of hexagon where R is resultant intensity of earth’s field

about O is I

I = 6 [Ione side] t2 = 3 2 = 2π …(ii)

MH

⎡ m (2 L) 2 ⎤ Dividing eqn.(i) by eqn.(ii)

=6⎢ + mr 2 ⎥

⎢⎣ 12 ⎥⎦ 1 H R cos δ

= = = cos δ

⎡ mL2 ⎤ ⎡ m L2 ⎤ 2 R R

=6⎢ + m(L 3 )2 ⎥ = 6 ⎢ + 3 mL2 ⎥ = 20 mL2 1

⎢⎣ 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 3 ⎥⎦ cos δ = , δ = 60°

2

30. (c) 5 × 10 10

36. (b) : Resistance between Q and S, R ′ = = Ω

31. (c) : According to Gauss’s law, the total outward 5 + 10 3

Potential difference across Q and S,

electric flux linked with gaussian surface 2 × 10 20

1 VQ − VS = = V

φE = × charge enclosed by surface. 3 3 20 4

ε0 Current through arm QPS, I1 = = A

If the radius of the gaussian surface is doubled 3×5 3

4 8

the total outward electric flux will remain the VQ − VP = × 2 = V

same as charge enclosed by the guassian surface is 3 3

20/3 2

unchanged. Current through arm QRS, I2 = = A

32. (c) : Here, P = 100 W, r = 1.0 m 2 10 3

P VQ − VR = × 3 = 2 V

Intensity of radiation at distance r, I = 3

4 πr 2 VP – VR = (VQ – VR) – (VQ – VP)

Let maximum energy density in the electric field 8 −2

= uEmax =2− = ≈ −1 V.

3 3

P ΔV 15 − 10

Then I = uE c = 37. (b) : Reverse resistance = =

max

4 πr 2 ΔI (35 − 10) × 10−6

P = 200 × 10 Ω = 200 kΩ

3

or uE =

max

4 πr 2c 38. (c) : Due to change in temperature t °C, increase in

100 length,

= = 2.65 × 10–8 J m–3 Δl

2 8

4 × 3.14 × (1) × (3 × 10 ) Δl = l α t or = αt

33. (c) : When one slit is closed, amplitude becomes l

stress stress Δl

half and intensity becomes 1/4th Y = = ∴ Stress = Y × = Yαt

1 strain Δl / l l

i.e., I0 = I or I = 4I0 39. (d) : In case of a galvanometer, ∝ θ

4 10 1 1

34. (c) : In L–R circuit, current at any time t is given by So, = = . ., =

50 5 5

−R −R

I=

V ⎡1 − e L t ⎤ = V −

V

eL

t From figure, (I – IG)S = IGG

...(i)

R ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ R R . ., ( −

1

) × 12 =

1

−R −R 5 5

dI V t ⎛R⎞ V t or, G = 4 × 12 = 48 Ω

= eL ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = eL

dt R L L

−R 3h ⎛ h ⎞

dI t 40. (b) : = n⎜ ⎟ ∴ n = 3

Induced emf ε = L = Ve L ...(ii) 2π ⎝ 2π ⎠

dt The kinetic energy of the electron in nth orbit is

−R

t 13.6

From (i), IR = V − Ve L K n = 2 eV

Using (ii), IR = V – ε or ε = V – IR n

13.6 13.6

Therefore, graph between ε and I is a straight line ∴ K 3 = 2 eV = eV = 1.51 eV

with negative slope and positive intercept. 3 9

SOLUTION SET-32

1. (b): Since the wires are infinite, so the system of

these two wires can be considered as a closed

rectangle of infinite length and breadth equal to d.

Flux through the strip of area l dr, due to current

flowing in one wire is given by

d −a μ0 I μ Il d −a ⎞

φ=∫ ( ldr ) = 0 ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ μ=

sin θ

=

1 1

= 2 ⇒ sin α = ∴ α = 30°

a 2πr 2π ⎝ a ⎠ sin α 2 sin α 2

In ΔOPQ, ∠OQP = 90° + θ − α

Applying sine rule,

R r

= 0

sin ( 90° + θ − α ) sin α

R R sin 30°

r0 = sin 30° =

sin ( 90° + 45° − 30° ) sin ( 60° + 45° )

The other wire produces the same result, so the total ⎛

R⎜ ⎟

1⎞

flux through the dotted rectangle is = ⎝2⎠ =

2R

μ Il ⎛ d − a ⎞ ⎡ 1 3 1 1 ⎤ ( 3 + 1)

φtotal = 0 ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ × + × ⎥

π ⎝ a ⎠ ⎣ 2 2 2 2⎦

The total inductance of length l, 4. (c): Since they move under mutual attraction and

φ μ l ⎛ d −a ⎞ no external force acts on them, their momentum

L = total = 0 ln ⎜ ⎟ and energy are conserved.

I π ⎝ a ⎠

L μ 1 1 GM1M2

⎛ d −a ⎞ 0 = M1v12 + M2v22 − ...(i)

Inductance per unit length = = 0 ln ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 s

l π ⎝ a ⎠

It is zero because in the beginning, both kinetic

I

2. (d): Current density, J = energy and potential energy are zero.

πR2 − π ( R / 2 )2

4I 0 = M1v1 + M2v2 ...(ii)

⇒ J= Solving the two equations (i) and (ii),

3πR2

Current in smaller cylinder, 2GM22

v12 =

⎛R⎞

2

I s ( M1 + M2 )

I1 = Jπ ⎜ ⎟ =

⎝2⎠ 3 2 2GM12

and v2 =

For A, BA = Bwhole-cylinder – Bsmall-cylinder s ( M1 + M2 )

μ ( I / 3 ) −μ0 I

⇒ BA = 0 − 0 =

2π ( R / 2 ) 3πR Solution Senders of Physics Musing

For B, BB = Bwhole-cylinder – Bsmall-cylinder SET-32

1. Spandan Senapati (Odisha)

μ ( I + I / 3 )( R / 2 ) μ I

= 0 −0 = 0 2. Mikhail Joseph (WB)

2πR 2 3πR

3. Subrata Dutta (WB)

3. (c): Let θ be angle of incidence and be the angle of 4. Parvathi Nair (Tamil Nadu)

refraction for the extreme rays. SET-31

⎛ R ⎞1 1 1. Harsh Mehta (New Delhi)

sin θ = ⎜ ⎟R = ⇒ θ = 45°

⎝ 2⎠ 2 2. Sri Krishna Sahoo (Rajasthan)

Velocity of approach = v1 –(–v2) = v1 + v2 r r r

2α ⎡ 2α ⎤

β ⎡1 ⎤

r

2G ( M1 + M2 ) =∫ dr − ∫ dr = ⎢ ⎥ + β ⎢⎣ r ⎥⎦

⎣ ( −2 ) r ⎦ ∞

3 2 2

= ∞r ∞r ∞

s

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ α β

5. (d): Rate of loss of heat ∝ difference in temperature = −α ⎜ − 0 ⎟ + β ⎜ − 0 ⎟ ⇒ U r = − 2 +

with the surroundings. ⎝ r2 ⎠ ⎝r ⎠ r r

dQ 8. (c): At equilibrium, F = 0

At 50°C, = k ( 50 − 20 ) = 10 , where k = constant

dt 2α β 2α

1 ⇒ − + = 0 ⇒ r0 =

∴ k= 3

r0 r0 2 β

3

At an average temperature of 35°C, Ionization energy,

dQ 1 E0 = –ΔU = (U –Ur0)

= ( 35 − 20 ) = 5 J s −1

dt 3 ⎡ ⎛ α β ⎞⎤

Heat lost in 1 minute, = ⎢0 − ⎜⎜ − 2 + ⎟⎟ ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ r0 r0 ⎠ ⎥⎦

dQ

= × 60 = 5 × 60 J = 300 J = −Q α β

dt E0 = −

Fall in temperature = 0.2°C = Δθ ( 2α / β ) 2 ( 2α / β )

As Q = CΔθ

β2 β2 β2 β2

Heat capacity, C = Q = 300 = 1500 J °C −1 ⇒ E0 = − =− ⇒ E0 =

Δθ 0.2 4 α 2α 4α 4α

6. (a): According to question, angular acceleration ∝ θ

9. (b): Maximum possible charge on capacitor of

dω capacitance C = CV0 and that on capacitor of

α = −c θ ⇒ ω = −c θ

dθ capacitance 2C = 2CV0. So possible change through

ωf θ each capacitor is CV0 as they are in series.

or ∫ωi

ω dω = − ∫ c θ dθ

0 Since same charge will be on both capacitors, so

1 1 1 CV0 CV0 3V

or ωi2 − ω2f = c θ2 potential difference = = = 0

2 2 2 Ceq C × 2C 2

1 2 1 2 1 C + 2C

or I ωi − I ω f = ΔE = Ic θ2 ∴ ΔE ∝ θ2

2 2 2 10. (c): Both the capacitors are in parallel means voltage

7. (b): By definition, across each is equal. Breakdown potential of both is

r r

⎛ −2α β ⎞ also equal. Therefore, they will undergo breakdown

U r − U ∞ = − ∫ F ⋅ dr = − ∫ ⎜ + ⎟ dr at the same moment.

3

∞ ∞ ⎝ r r2 ⎠

(Formerly U.P. Technical University, Lucknow) U.P. State Entrance Examination (UPSEE- 2016)

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow would conduct State Entrance Examination known as UPSEE- 2016.

A. 1st Year of B.Tech/ B. Tech. (Biotech)/B. Tech. (Ag)/ B. Arch./ B. Pharm./ B. HMCT/ B.FAD/ B.FA/ MBA/ MCA/ MAM (5 years Dual Degree)

B. Lateral Entry: Direct Admission to 2nd year of B.Tech/ B. Pharm/ MCA

SCHEME OF ENTRANCE EXAMINATION

Date of Exam Courses with Paper Code Mode of Examination

April 17,2016 (Sunday) B.Tech (Paper- 1), B. Tech (Biotech) (Paper 1 or Paper 2), B.Tech. (Ag) (Paper 1/Paper 3), OMR based Test

B.Arch. (Paper 4), B. Pharm. (Paper 1 or Paper 2)

April 23,2016 (Saturday) B.HMCT/ B.FAD/ B.FA (Paper 5), Lateral Entry: Direct Admission to 2nd year of B.Tech (Paper6/ Paper 8), Computer Based Test

B.Pharm (Paper 7)

April 24, 2016 (Sunday) MBA (Paper 9), MCA (Paper 10), MAM (5 years Dual Degree) (Paper 11), Lateral Entry: Direct Admission Computer Based Test

to 2nd year MCA (Paper 12)

The application form can be ﬁlled ONLINE only through the website http://www.upsee.nic.in. The link for ﬁlling up the ONLINE Application Form will be opened

from February 24, 2016 at 11:00 AM. The last date and time for ﬁlling up the Application Form is March 27,2016, 05:00 PM.

Y U ASK Q2. If a helium atom loses its two electrons, it

becomes an alpha particle which means it

contains two protons and two neutrons in its

WE ANSWER

Do you have a question that you just can’t get

nucleus. Is it stable?

–John Gokul (Tamil Nadu)

Ans. Alpha particle emission is modeled as a barrier

penetration process. The alpha particle is the

answered? nucleus of the helium atom and is the nucleus of

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the highest stability. The nuclear binding energy of

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly, the alpha particle is extremely high 28.3 MeV. It

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the is an exceptionally stable collection of nucleons,

questions, easy and tough. and those heavier nuclei which can be viewed as

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in collections of alpha particles (carbon-12, oxygen-

this column each month. 16, etc.) are also exceptionally stable. This contrasts

with a binding energy of only 8 MeV for helium-3,

Q1. What happened to the neutrino and positron which forms an intermediate step in the proton-

produced in nuclear fusion in the Sun? proton fusion cycle.

–Pinaki Chattopadhyay

Ans. Nuclear fusion in the Sun provides huge energy. It Q3. What is the exact definition of system and

takes place dominantly by proton-proton cycle as surroundings in thermodynamics?

–Santanu Chatterjee, Kolkata (West Bengal)

follows:

Ans. System: We are free to define our system in any

convenient way, as long as we are consistent and

can account for all energy transfer to or from the

system.

calorimeter consisting

water and ice. Then we

may assume two systems

depending on the situation

(i) ice + water (calorimeter does not take any

heat.)

(ii) ice + water + calorimeter (calorimeter is not

ideal.)

Overall view, Surrounding: Region outside the system is known

41H + 2e– 4

He + 2ν + 6γ + 26.7 MeV as surrounding. We define boundary between

In the first reaction, released positron (e+) very system and surrounding. In the shown figure,

quickly encounters a free electron (e–) in the environment is surrounding.

Sun and both particles annihilate. And their rest

Q4. Mechanical transverse waves cannot travel in

energies appear as two gamma ray photons (γ).

gas. Then how does light travel in air?

Internal energy inside the Sun is not all the energy –Sivanujhaa, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)

produced in nuclear fusion. About 0.5 MeV is Ans. Mechanical transverse waves cannot be produced

associated with two neutrinos that are produced in the gas because of very low elasticity. Hence they

in each cycle. Neutrinos escape from the sun cannot travel in the gas. Light is an electromagnetic

carrying this energy with them, because they are wave which is produced by accelerating charge. It

so penetrating. Some are intercepted by the Earth, requires no medium to travel. Also electromagnetic

bringing us our only direct information about the waves are transverse in nature.

Sun’s interior.

Nasa tests inflatable heat shield for its spacecraft to Mars

N asa has su

a parachu

successfully tested its donut-shaped inﬂatable heat shield technology that works like

parachute and will enable a spacecraft to land safely when it descends through the high

temp peratu atmosphere of a planet such as Mars. Before Nasa uses its new inﬂatable technology

temperature

fo

or slow

for slowing spacecraft that are entering the atmosphere of other planets, it will ﬁrst need

to be packed into the tight conﬁnes of a rocket. Engineers at Nasa’s Langley Research

Cen

Centre in US, put the technology to the test by packing a donut-shaped test article with

d

a diameter of 9 feet and also known as a torus, to simulate what would happen before

a space mission, called the Hypersonic Inﬂatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, or HIAD,

i works like a parachute, using the drag of a planet’s atmosphere to slow the space

it

vehicle as it descends towards the surface, researchers said. Slowing the spacecraft

protects it from the intense heat of atmospheric entry, and allows it to land more

softly. “During testing, we used a vacuum pump to compress the test article into a

s

small space,” said Keith Johnson, a lead engineer for the project. “We packed and

u

unpacked it and did thorough inspections to check for leaks and damage to the

Zy and Teﬂon materials. We repeated this three times,” said Johnson.

Zylon

The technology will enable the delivery of heavy cargo, science instruments and people

oth worlds. According to test engineer Sean Hancock, HIAD was packed the same

to other

waay each

way eac time to see how the material would handle folding, packing, and compressing.

h

Doing so helps engineers understand how it would perform after exposure to handling,

dep

storage and deployment during a space ﬂight mission, researchers said. “The test included all the

components for the latest inﬂatable torus design, so it was a good ﬁnal check to prove that the materials can

tolerate packing,” Johnson said. After successful testing, Nasa engineers can move forward in the development of creating

a larger HIAD that can withstand the high temperatures experiences when it descends through the atmosphere of a planet

such as Mars.

thinnest lens back its `planet’ status

A ustralian scientists have claimed that they have developed

a lens which is 2,000 times thinner than human hair, a

breakthrough set to revolutionise nanotechnology. The ﬁnished

P luto could be about to become a planet again, after scientists spotted

what appears to be clouds on its surface. As part of the New Horizons

mission which has already found far more complexity on Pluto than had

lens is 6.3 nanometre

nanometres in size as compared to been expected -scientists have spotted otted cloud like parts

cloud-like

the previous ssmallest lens which was of the images released from the mission. That

50 nanom

nanometres thick. According could mean that the planet has an even ven richer

to ABC News, the lens, has atmosphere than had been thought, ought,

been created by a team of according to the New Scientist.

rese

researchers led by Yuerui Lu Scientists aren’t yet sure that the he

fro

from Australian National images show clouds. But emailss

U

University (ANU). Scientists seen by the magazine seem to

ssaid the lens could have indicate that the now dwarf planet

revolutionary applications might have clouds made up of

in medicine, science and the same things in its general

technology and it could be atmosphere, which is mostly

used to create bendable made up of nitrogen.

ccomputer screens. While The discovery could lead to further

th

the new lens has already calls for Pluto to be reinstated as a

bee

been experimented by planet -a question that has already ady

techn

technology companies with been asked more and more since New

prototy

prototype TV and computer Horizons sent back detailed imagess of the

screens th that can be rolled up or dwarf planet’s rich surface. Pluto still won’t

folded, the mamass production at cheaper satisfy the International Astronomical cal Union’s rules

i iis yet to b

price be d i

devised. for what is and isn’t a planet. It was excluded on the basis of

“This type of material is the perfect candidate for future ﬂexible a criterion that it still doesn’t pass, whether or not the pictures show clouds:

displays,” Lu said. Another application of the Australian-made lens that a planet should have a clear neighbourhood of orbiting bodies.

could be arrays of micro-lenses that mimic the compound eyes of But that IAU deﬁnition has proven controversial with scientists arguing that

insects. Lu said a crystal called molybdenum disulphide was the the deﬁnition is complicated.

special ingredient.

Courtesy : The Times of India

10 TIPS to DRIVE OUT

EXAM PHOBIA If you are one of the many people who gets stressed out when it

comes to taking exams then we have a few tips for you that will help

you to overcome this and concentrating on achieving good grades.

1 LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION... notes; you’ll be thankful at test time.

If you’re serious about getting work done, ﬁnd a place that is relatively

free of distractions. Establish guidelines with roommates for quiet

7 LECTURES AND TEXTBOOKS: WHAT'S THE

BIG PICTURE?

times or use the libraries, study rooms, or empty classrooms. Many unsuccessful students see a course as “a lot of stuff to

memorize.” School/College learning requires understanding how

2 MAKE IT A HABIT: WORK EVERY DAY pieces of information ﬁt together to form a “BIG picture.”Use

course outlines, tables of content, headings and subheadings to

Avoid all-night cram sessions in which you (unsuccessfully) try to

organize the information in each of your courses. Routinely ask

understand and retain large amounts of information. Spend time yourself, “What’s the purpose of this detail?”and Does it make

on your studies each day, and you can stay on top of your courses sense?

and still have time for fun. Use small blocks of time - you’ll be

DO SOMETHING (ANYTHING!) TO REMEMBER

amazed what you can get done between study sessions. 8 KEY INFORMATION

3 HELP EXISTS! SEEK IT OUT AND IMPROVE

YOUR GRADES

Capture your understanding of course material in an active way.

Generate examples, create mnemonics, make summary notes,

Whether you’re an ‘A’ student or a ‘D’ student, you can strengthen identify key words, highlight textbooks or add margin notes. Be

your learning skills. Whenever a doubt crops up get it cleared. creative and interested and you’ll certainly do good at test time.

Never hesitate to ask for help from your teachers/parents. Also no matter how well you understand something, without

practice some forgetting will occur. Before a test, make sure that

4 WRITE IT DOWN you can recall important information from memory. Self-test by

recalling information without looking at notes or textbooks and

Remember important dates. It’s up to you to remember due by doing practice exams if available.

dates for sending applications and test dates. A wall calendar of

important dates is also a good idea. 9 BE TEST SMART

5 GET ENERGIZED - EAT, EXERCISE, SLEEP Don’t lose marks because of test-writing errors such as

misreading a question or running out of time. Also, carefully read

Not understanding? Trouble remembering? Comprehension and

instructions, budget time to marks, and do less difﬁcult questions

memory are affected by stress and fatigue. When you’re hungry,

ﬁrst to build conﬁdence.

tense, or tired your brain can’t function at its full potential. It’s

especially crucial to eat well, exercise, and get adequate sleep

during exam periods. 10 GET A MENTOR

BE A KEENER : GO TO CLASS PREPARED And ﬁnally have a mentor– someone you know who has succeeded

6 AND TAKE GOOD NOTES in Exam. It can even be your mother, father, brother or teacher.

Idolize your mentor and keep asking him for advices. Run to

Don’t fall into the habit of missing class. Someone else’s notes him when you have a problem. He can act as a single source of

aren’t going to be as good as having gone to the lecture yourself. motivation and problem solver for you.

At the end, once exams are over, don't forget to reward yourself. The reward gives you the break you deserve after all of your studying.

Treating yourself also helps you stop thinking about the test and analyzing every little mistake you may have made.

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.

Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

ACROSS

both spherical and coma

aberration. (9,4)

4. An imaginary line around the

earth parallel to the equator. (8)

10. A massive astrophysical

compact halo object, a kind of

astronomical body that might

explain the apparent presence of

dark matter in galaxy halos. (5)

14. A period of exponential

expansion thought to have

occurred around 10–36 s after the

universe began. (9)

1 dyne per square centimetre. (5)

17. Energy equivalent to the mass

of a particle at rest. (4, 6)

23. The progressive decrease of a

25. A unit prefix in the metric system

denoting a factor of 10–24. (5)

26. Product of force and the lever arm. (6) 11. A line that just touches a curve at one point, without cutting

27. The quasiparticle associated with spin waves in a crystal across it. (7)

lattice. (6) 12. An organization founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1989

28. A device which controls the flow of electricity. (6) in order to develop ways to inspire students in engineering

and technology fields. (5)

DOWN

13. A means of making measurements, in which the measured

1. A non dimensional, unitless quantity that indicates how well quantity is distant from the recording apparatus and the data

a surface reflects solar energy. (6) is sent over a particular telecommunication system from the

2. Unit of magnetic flux in CGS system. (7) measuring position to the recording position. (9)

3. The upper layer of the ionosphere at about 200 km altitude 16. Timbre or tone quality that is not characterized by frequency

by day and at 300 km by night. (8) or amplitude. (4, 5)

5. A prefix used in metric system to denote multiple of 10–1. (4) 18. A superconducting quantum interference device. (5)

6. The speed less than that of the speed of sound in medium. (8) 19. A stable, isolated wave that travels at a constant speed. (7)

7. A type of galvanometer designed to measure brief flow of 20. The curve or surface formed by the reflection of parallel rays

charges through it. (9) of light in a large aperture concave mirror. (7)

8. A temporary connection between electrical or electronic 21. An alloy of iron and other elements which is magnetic. (5)

circuits or a temporary communications channel. (4, 2) 23. An elementary particle with half integer spin. (7)

9. The production of shadow photographs of the internal 24. Particles in the standard model that mediate strong

structure of bodies, opaque to visible light. (11) interactions. (6)

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