Natural Learning, a Running head: NATURAL LEARNING, A 21ST CENTURY LEARNING SYNTHESIS

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NATURAL LEARNING, A 21ST CENTURY LEARNING SYNTHESIS

Mitchel Townsend Doctoral Student Inquiry and Technology EDER 779.02-L60 Dr. Sharon Friesen

Natural Learning, a Natural Learning, a 21st Century Learning Synthesis 21st century challenges and opportunities call for innovative 21st century learning and instructional theories (Fisher, 2009, p. 4). These theories are identified by a search for deeper learning that’s anchored in collaboration, co-creation of knowledge, and authentic practices supported by a synthesis of educational philosophies, history, science, and psychology (Sawyer, 2006). Natural Learning as defined by me is a synthesis of modern Brain Based Learning Theory, Individual Augmented Consciousness, and Visual Data Analysis resting upon a robust theoretical foundation of Constructivism. Natural Learning Synthesis potentially provides the key to unlocking every learners latent potential by understanding the biochemistry of learning, unlocking each individuals learning potential with augmented consciousness, and accurately charting and assessing learning with newly emerging technologies based upon cutting edge mathematical calculation theories expressed visually in the form of complex statistically generated three dimensional models. The human brain is the most sophisticated object in the universe; it creates more electrical synaptic impulses each day than all of the mobile phones in the world combined

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(Hobbs & Harrison, 2010). It weighs about three pounds and accounts for only 2% of the body’s total weight yet consumes over 20% of the bodies total energy output. Neurological research has strongly established and confirmed that multiple concrete and complex experiences are essential for meaningful learning and teaching (Ornstein & Thompson, 1991, p. 12). Understanding the processes that enable learning and memory, the effects of genetics, environment, emotion, age and social interaction upon learning and teaching could potentially transform educational theory and instructional strategies by enabling practitioners to design

2007). During the 1970’s brain based research focused upon ideas of left and right hemispheres. Brain Based Learning Theory focuses upon how the brain learns naturally at different stages of cognitive development. and assess education instructional strategies that are biologically driven (PDKI. Some of the areas that Brain Based Learning touches upon are Cooperative Learning. multi-spectrum learning. 2009. She went further to tie brain based theories of cognition to new models of educational instruction and pedagogy (PDKI. Carter. 2010). Multiple Intelligences. & Parker. and Problem Based Learning (Wilson. Page.Natural Learning. emotional experiences and individual histories in a manner that encourages and supports deeper. Cognitive science has an inclusive and diverse history within these theoretical constructs. The recorded evolutionary history of Brain Based Learning began over 6000 years ago with simple examinations and investigations (Aldridge. that cognitive processes were being stifled and impaired by current educational and classroom structures. In 1983 Leslie Hart posited in her book “Human Brain. a environments that support and optimize learning for people of all ages. Social Learning. 2007). By the 1990’s researchers began to more accurately understand the . These theories enable educators to closely connect with learner’s lives. MEG ( Magnetoencephalography) . 193). Experiential Learning. SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed tomography). p. abilities and needs (Blakemore. 2010). Using this information in concert with modern imagining technologies like fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) . design and implementation of 3 effective learning strategies and environments. Brain Based Learning Theory is an integrated approach to educational instruction using modern research from Neuroscience to inform the understanding. Human Learning”. Universal Design for Learning. and PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans educators are able for the first time to design. implement.

& Parker. Page. and integrated concept. technological advances in medical imagery and ongoing efforts from researchers and educators have enabled the distillation of this biochemical evolutionary process information down into new theories of teaching and learning that addresses educational practice as a holistic. 193). Currently. it can’t be stopped only directed and channeled. both of which have different storage . multi-faceted. and the need for social interaction. 2009. Carter. Emotions are foundational to patterning because everything we learn is drawn through a filter of our biases. p. thus it responds to the entire stimuli environment in which learning occurs.Natural Learning. Learning processes engage the entire physiology of the body and are closely related to experience and perceptions. ideas of self. fears. The last 20 years have illustrated a very large increase in knowledge and understanding concerning the brains morphology and operational structures and processes (Wilson. Spatial and Rote. The brain processes information individually and systems wide and the same time because stimulus information is directed to the areas in the brain where it’s organized to separate individual informational stimuli while comparing it within systems wide structures. Learning processes are a combination of conscious and unconscious reception of stimuli. Learning consists of both focused attention and peripheral perceptions. Our brains are parallel processors that simultaneously process informational stimuli interactively within multiple sections or locations during the same time frame. a physiology of the brain which revealed that it is characterized by a concept called Neuroplasticity. The search for meaning or understanding of our experiences is innate and continuous. Emotion and thoughts are literally inseparable. or a lifelong continuous process of physiological adaptation and cognitive 4 development (Aldridge. There are twelve major foundational elements which provide the boundary framework for Brain Based Learning Theory. The brain has at least two methods for organizing informational stimuli. 2010).

When the brain is actively engaged it supports learning that is deeper. 2008). engaging individual and group activity based participation. Finally. In consolidation. Learning becomes deeper and more expressive when the brain searches for process and meaning making strategies. and differing environmental experiences. 5 individual experiences. situated and more expressional. safe and nurturing . Various teaching strategies and techniques should be utilizes to assist and enrich learning processes. activity based learning environments where the internalization of information is individualized according to a person’s life experiences (Ozden & Gultekin. a strategies. The above boundary framework elements have definite implications for educators and instructional designers as we begin to design new strategies and environments to address and support the needs of 21st century learners of all ages and abilities. Our learning process is enhanced when we encourage and support risk taking however it slows down immensely when threats are perceived.Natural Learning. situated. Learning is a dynamic process with activities and content designed to encourage participation with materials that are individually applicable. We understand and recall more effectively when our natural learning processes are supported and augmented by social interaction situated in authenticity. The Meta principles of modern Brain Based Learning Theory posit that effective learning occurs when the brain searches for meaning in multiple ways by engaging in authentic. The elimination of classroom fears and the construction of a safe and enabling learning environment is a fundamental precept practice. modern Brain Based Learning Theory strives to practice authentic contextually situated learning within environments that are characterized by individualized applicability. that every brain is uniquely constructed based upon genetics. This search for connective meaning among complex concepts enables learners to internalize and individualize their learning experiences.

2009). a spaces. feeling or idea that is somehow separated from physical structures that constitute the theoretical constructs that make up the rest of the universe (Aldridge et al. Brained Based Learning Theory is missing one very important element. 15). 2009. Have you ever been engrossed in reading a book. 2006. time change. p. Augmented Consciousness enables and supports our own individual ability to access cerebral super highways to our inner potential for multi-spectrum accelerated learning and performance (Aldridge et al. or even biological functions? This is called a state of self induced Augmented Consciousness or Auto Conscious Hypnosis (Goldberg.. It has been described as a thought. Consciousness is one of those ethereal and as yet unexplained concepts that is extremely difficult to define with any degree of specificity. supported by effective communication practices (Wilson. an individualized methodology or practice process for efficiently tapping into this natural latent potential. Every brain is a unique 6 product of our genetics. 2010). passed an exit on the Expressway through daydreaming or watched a movie to the point where you block out all other stimuli like external sights and sounds.Natural Learning. 2005). p. Consciousness has different modes . life experiences and learning processes and thus one type of educational theory or instructional strategy does not adequately address the needs of all learners. Augmented Consciousness is another term for finding “Focus” or becoming absorbed within an activity to the point where you have become totally immersed (Hobbs & Harrison. working on a computer. The theories of individually induced Augmented Consciousness or Auto Conscious Hypnosis are concept practices that have been proven to unlock these pathways to accelerated learning and meaning making potential for greatly increasing multi-spectrum learning and performance productivity by focusing attention to the exclusion of other input stimuli (Blakemore & Frith. 2010 p. 180). 69).

SPECT images recently taken of meditating Buddhist monks’ synoptic activity have also revealed that augmented consciousnesses stimulate and actuate increased neural activity throughout additional locations within the brain. 2006). thoughts. Our Subconscious mind is perpetually recording. With recent technological advances in medical imagery we are now able to definitively identify. PET scans of the brain have revealed that every level of consciousness has a specific pattern of brain activity associated with it. conscious awareness. a (emotions. . Research suggests separate yet interrelational realities or levels in which different organizational precepts apply simultaneously (Aldridge et al. p. access and recall (Goldberg. examine and chart each of the neurological processes described above. 179). It sorts all of our memories within an organized structure that is accessible though Augmented Consciousness as an individual 7 deposition and recall enabling vehicle. and can be neurologically charted (Aldridge et al. p. 178). classifying and making meaning of everything our five senses provide it and this is the place that promises the greatest increase in knowledge deposition. and perceptions) and types of awareness (awareness in the moment.Natural Learning. Even with the above information now at our disposal we have remained somewhat unsure about how to proceed in designing accurate assessment mechanisms in addition to standardized testing strategies and portfolio evidence until Visual Data Analysis Theory had matured. sensations. and self consciousness) which when acting in cooperation provide the structural blueprint for human consciousness. Braine Based Learning Theory is uniquely suited to take advantage of this knowledge by providing a potential framework for designing and creating the types of learning environments that are filled with rich authentic concepts and multi-sensory activities. 2009.

Climate Change. 2010). color. 2010). & Silva. Computational Fluid Dynamics. Visual Data Analysis creates patterns of Neuronal units in a manner that enables the recognition of data across theoretical space and thus Cluster in similarity (Horizon Report. visualization. As 8 massive amounts of data are collected it has becomes increasing possible to understand complex processes and their concepts through re-organizing data sets in new and original ways (Horizon Report. 2010). and other agencies. The most compelling aspect of these technologies is that they closely mimic the way our brains naturally organize to make sense out of complex relationships. Pasucci. Medical Imaginary. and data management have evolved over the past few decades as a result of research funding from the DOE. This science is an emerging field and is rapidly developing in many new and exciting directions. Scientific data analysis. or sound in 3 and 4 dimensional perspectives. and Social Networking Analysis. 2007). the National Science Foundation (NSF). Some of the current applications of this technology include Astrophysics. Johson. the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Simulations. which are only a few applications of this synthesis across several different disciplines (US Department of Energy. Clustering is the . Variables are introduced and their effects are charted through a series of chronological iterations to ascertain complex graphical patters which are illuminated through movement. Office of Science Data Management Challenge. Geophysics. 2004). a Visualization Data Analysis is a cutting edge technology trend that reorganizes vast amounts of data to create computer generated representations which can yield visual interpretations of complex scientific processes (Hansen. It blends highly advanced computational methods with very sophisticated graphics engines to tap into human’s extraordinary natural ability to recognize complex visual patterns (Horizon Report.Natural Learning. Today’s ability to understand and explore spatial-temporal data and non-spatial data is the result of this legacy.

It expands our understanding of learning environments and learning theories by looking at a myriad of complex variables in new and innovative ways (Horizon report. Facebook. Examining these types of engaging visual representations of information can help bring data to life and draw it into the reach of all learners (Horizon report. 2010). With the wide spread adoption and ubiquitous usage of mobile devices the extraordinary power of data visualization analysis is literally at our fingertips (Horizon Report. and Myspace. 2010). This technologies potential effect upon educational theory and specifically modern Brain Based Learning Theory is quite extraordinary. Data sets are being organized by individuals for the purpose of examining their communication and social networking structures within technologies like Twitter. The integrated use of Visual Data Analysis provides a very important tool in supporting 21st century learning environment designs. Additionally. Data can be visually manipulated to provide perspectives and patterns like Geophysics representations of earth strata layers miles under the surface of the earth which is be extrapolated from drill boring samples (Clustered Data) and graphically represented in the form of three dimensional models. . 2010). The Clustered data sets form mathematical structures that are then translated into graphical imagery which enables our conscious and sub conscious minds to recognize complex visual process patterns. Until very recently this type of graphically based complex mathematical analysis was simply unavailable in a form that was usable in educational research.Natural Learning. While this is a complex mathematical and computer programming process recent proprietary software offerings have made it possible for the general public to take advantage of 9 this technology trend. private industry and governmental agencies have begun adopting data visualization techniques on a mass scale. a mathematical partitioning of a series of data sets into a smaller amount or group.

p. Experiential Learning is a four stage cyclical theory of learning and is commonly credited to David L. and Problem Based Learning. visualization tools allow end users to personalize or take ownership of data by enabling personalization of the graphic modeling representations (Educause Learning Initiative. Mobile applications have enabled the widespread use of this technology by providing a tool for analyzing individual’s processes and practices within social networking structures and learning communities. The theoretical foundations that Natural Learning Synthesis rest upon include Experiential Learning. Universal Design for Learning. Social Learning. The elements included in this list are by no means the only ones.Natural Learning. a 10 Visual Data Analysis supports the practice of creative inquiry by providing another series of very interesting and visually stimulating tools that have recently become free and increasingly user friendly. Kolb describes this theory as “learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience” (Kolb. Practical Simulations. 38). In addition to adding significant value by making both meaning and data accessible. When you take the recent advances in Brained Based Learning Theory. It rests . 1984. 2009). p. Multiple Intelligences. the potential of Augmented Consciousness as an individual access key and ground them within a conceptual assessment and design framework of Visual Data Analysis Theory you have effectively synthesized a new form of 21st century integrated learning philosophy. but have been identified as the most applicable and relevant to our assigned course materials. 2. which I have termed Natural Learning Synthesis. This technology can also potentially provide complex 21st century assessment mechanisms for analyzing student achievement against predetermined performance proficiencies. These sub theories all reside under the comprehensive umbrella of Constructivism. Kolb (1984).

Gardner describes these intelligences as a set of abilities. 2006. and Divergers who learn better when allowed to examine and collect a wide variety of 11 informational sources (Kolb. Knowledge Base and Webliograpghy. 2006).d.stage process of examination within the seven intelligences previously listed (Gardner. Observation and Reflection.d. These intelligences include Musical. Finally that assessment is a multi. & Mainemelis. and cross-cultural comparison. and modeling and is generally credited to Albert Bandera (1963). ¶ 1). and Testing in New Situations. Bodily-Kinesthetic. reproducing mental and physical images. Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from each another. and motivational strategies (Learning-Theories: Knowledge Base and Webliography. Social Learning theory has often been described as a theoretical bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it stresses attention.Natural Learning. and motivation . Interpersonal and Intrapersonal. imitating. It focuses upon factors that increase or decrease attention. This concept is a synthesis of brain research. memory. n. evolution. retention strategies. Spatial. by observing. The theory of Multiple Intelligences is closely framed within the origins of biological problems solving skills.. Boyatkzis. Experiential Learning theory is in alignment with Natural Learning Synthesis. ¶ 1).. 1999). Multiple Intelligences theory describes seven different intelligences and is credited to Howard Gardner (1983). talents or mental skills (Gardner. human development. 7). a upon the earlier theoretical works of John Dewey and Kurt Levin (Learning Theories. Forming Abstract Concepts. n. Convergers who learn better when presented with practical applications of concepts. The four elements of Experiential Learning are Concrete Experience. The learner styles that respond well to Experiential Learning are Assimilators who learn better presented with logical theories. LogicalMathematical. Linguistic. p.

This theory is closely related to Lev Vygotsky’s Theory of Social Development (1930) and Jean Lave’s Theory of Situated Learning (1991). Strategic Networks. n. n. 1999. ¶ 2). UDL is characterized by three different learner cognitive networks Recognition Networks. and Affective Networks which are enabled and supported by Multiple Means of Representation.Natural Learning. and collaborative skills.d. 12 PBL is authentically contextualized by presenting learners with real world challenges they would naturally encounter and requiring them to act as practitioners in the process of problem examination and solution seeking (University of California at Irvine. Problem Based Learning is a learning theory that is primarily student centered where students set goals and act as practitioners and is generally credited to Case Western Reserve University in the late 1950’s (Center for Creative Inquiry San Francisco University. The term Universal Design for Learning was coined by the Center for Applied Technology or CAST in the early 1990’s to describe learning technologies that helped to provide content access to leaner’s with or without disabilities (Center Applied Special Technology. n. Multiple Means of Action and Expression. This theory is also closely aligned with the principles of Natural Learning Synthesis. problem solving skills. and Multiple Means of Engagement(National Association for Special Education Technologies .). PBL is additionally defined by teaching content through skills acquisition. PBL is experiential because it enables learners to experience what it’s like to examine issues as a practitioner. PBL is inductive in that students engage and learn content as they examine problems or tasks. Again PBL theory is in alignment with the foundational ideas behind Natural Learning Synthesis. PBL effectively addresses writing and verbal skills.).d. a as primary elements (Ormond. ¶ 2). Universal Design for Learning is a learning theory that was conceived out of an architectural movement called Universal Design and is generally credited to Ron Mace from North Carolina University.d..

Natural Learning. making choices and relying upon cognitive model structures to provide negotiated meaning which allows individuals to go beyond simple didactic instruction to co-create knowledge (TIP Psychology. UDL is closely aligned with neurological science and brain based learning theories (Center for Applied Special Technology.. The careful examination of the above sub theories within a Constructivist philosophical framework suggests a close alignment with Natural Learning Synthesis. ¶ 6). Constructivism as a theory can generally be credited to J.d. ¶ 1)..d. 2010).d. assumptions and assessments (Center for Teaching and Faculty Development. This realization illuminates the strong possibility of using the principles of Natural Learning Synthesis as an integrated learning and . 2003. The three scholars that have brought Constructivist Learning Theory to prominence were Jean Piaget. Bruner (1966) and is described as an active learning process of engagement that enables learners to construct their own knowledge ideas or concepts based upon personal knowledge of past events or concepts. ¶ 12). ¶ 3). Multiple Intelligences. Natural Learning Synthesis assimilates and consolidates the most effective elements of the Constructivist inspired sub theories of learning and instruction that we’ve examined in this essay. n. n. n.. Constructivist learning theory provides the macro level Meta theory umbrella that covers the sub theories of Experiential Learning. that UDL helps 13 instructor’s meet the needs of a diverse learning population by removing barriers to the learning process. John Dewey and Seymour Papert. This is done by adhering to the needs of the three different Cognitive networks within a presentation structure of multiple representations. Universal Design for Learning and Problem Based Learning (Wilson. constructing knowledge and hypothesis’s. a (NASOSE. Social Learning. Finally. Leaners engage in the co-creation of knowledge by transforming information.

a instructional strategy to augment and compliment existing Constructivist Theories of learning and teaching.Natural Learning. In essence as educational researchers we now potentially have access to a very powerful advanced diagnostics tool for charting and measuring every learner’s individual synoptic patterns to customize learning environments for their specific needs. We are close to bridging the bio-chemical link between what we think we know and what we now know for sure. strategies and theories. fMRI. Now I will begin to examine how Natural Learning Synthesis as a philosophy augments and potentially compliments current 21st century learning theory directions. In the previous paragraphs I have tried to demonstrate the links between what I have termed Natural Learning Synthesis and several of the most current Constructivists inspired learning methodologies. Natural Learning Synthesis is a recognition that Brain Based Educational Theory is coming of age with the development of advanced neural synaptic mapping technologies like PET. Scan based graphical representations can be organized and compared in the process of trying to determine how learning takes place and more importantly under what conditions. Assessment strategies have . Rather than discarding or tossing out old 14 theories we should re-examine them and retain those elements that remain effective by retooling them into synthesized hybrids that meet the needs of learners of all ages and abilities (Sontang. This is what I am attempting to do in the case of Natural Learning Synthesis. This cognitive charting process can be examined within the framework of the 21st century learning theories and philosophies in order to potentially determine their singular or synthesized effectiveness. Natural Learning Theory is part of a long history of evolutionary advancement in educational theory development. MEG. ¶ 5). and SPECT scans. 2009. Cognitive processes are being mapped from the initial sensory stimuli input through the brain’s vast array of interconnected pathways.

Augmented Consciousness Theory potentially provides a method that every individual can access to tap this unlimited resource.. p. 194). performance artists and others have engaged in visual subconscious imagery training for decades. p. Designing learning environments that are based upon science and that are rich and engaging on every level enables the mind to flourish 15 and engage on all levels of consciousness. What is so important is that each individual has the natural innate ability to condition themselves consciously and subconsciously to supercharge their learning processes through . According to the latest neuroscience over 75% of our current learning process is conducted visually (Hobbs & Harrison. 2009. This is what makes the search for an effective learning theory or strategy so difficult. Every mind like a fingerprint is intricately different and determined by an unlimited amount of variables (Aldridge et al. p.Natural Learning. 2010. Subconscious visualization for performance improvement is based upon this biological reality. In order to access the absolute full potential of what we store in our conscious and subconscious minds we need some form of access key or ability. One size can’t possibly fit all minds and learners styles or intelligences as Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences clearly illuminates (Gardner. Encouraging ourselves to consciously engage in augmented consciousness as a learning access tool is something that’s not a new concept. 2006. a been potentially augmented with an additional triangulation tool that provides different perspectives into learning processes and practices. Every level of consciousness can be individually identified and charted and thus the synaptic impulses of Augmented Consciousness can as well. 18). Athletes. Current 21st century learning theories and instructional methodologies have came the closest to creating an engagement process that tries to address learning as a holistic concept rather than a didactic process of instructional force feeding. monks. musicians. 6).

every individual easily engages in this focusing behavior on many different levels throughout each and every day.Natural Learning. a 16 increasingly focused attention. Collecting. Increased educational competency comes from understanding and harnessing this natural process in the search for deeper and more authentic learning. The formation of learning communities and communities of practice are additional areas where VDA may provide some systems level perspectives. The final element in Natural learning Synthesis is the use of Visual Data Analysis technologies to provide a systems level understanding of the complex process and variability’s involved in synthesized constructivist inspired 21st century learning strategies and theories. Visual Data Analysis or VDA takes advantage of the way the brain naturally processes information by representing complex mathematical computations graphically (Horizon Report. with a myriad of variables interacting in ways that are not well understood. 29). and developing an effective assessment protocol for biochemical and traditional assessment mechanisms that are mutually informing and supportive would be a drastic improvement over current stand alone standardized testing strategies. 2010). The ability to match performance outcomes with biochemical imagery in the process of triangulation of standardized assessment strategies may potentially provide a much . VDA’s greatest contribution to augmenting existing or a newly synthesized educational theory may lie in the area of assessment. 2010. p. According to the 2010 Horizon Report VDA may provide clues into how complex social processes function “Visual data analysis may help expand our understanding of learning itself. Learning is one of the most complex of social processes. As I have demonstrated in the proceeding pages. organizing. making it an ideal focus for the search for patterns” (Horizon Report. Understanding the power of this individual ability and harnessing it towards improving our learning processes has been proven to be extremely effective.

Individual Augmented Consciousness. Natural Learning Synthesis is a blend of modern Brain Based Learning Theory. VDA. Brain Based Learning and Augmented Consciousness are all organized along natural social and biochemical processes and when embedded within current 21st century constructivist inspired educational theories and strategies potentially provides a synthesized process for super charging our individual abilities to excel and co-create deeper and more meaningful educational experiences for ourselves and all of our leaner’s. the human brain. and thus how they can be improved. The first thing that needs to be accomplished is a well funded and exhaustive research effort concerning the potential synthesis of modern Brain Based Educational Theory and current 21st century Constructivist instructional strategies and methodologies. A similar effort needs to be initiated to examine the possibilities that this simple focusing tool may be an access and deposition tool that enables individuals to access their latent potential for super efficient learning. Augmented Consciousness as a focusing tool has already been examined in great detail at various kinesiology laboratories around the world in relation to performance based augmentation. a 17 clearer picture of what is happening under the thin surface of learning in the most complicated of all entities. Finally. and Visual Data Analysis Theory situated firmly within . we as education theorists need to continue to examine old theories.Natural Learning. Visual Data Analysis provides the systems level technology tools and visual organization theories to enable researchers to begin to understand in intimate details how learning processes work. new theories and new technologies within an informed environment in the never ending effort to meet the needs of 21st century learners of all ages and abilities. After examining how Natural Learning Synthesis fits together within current 21st century education efforts I would like to suggest some future directions. This area holds the most potential in my opinion for immediate results.

I am beginning to understand the potential of theoretical synthesis and naturalistic learning environment design philosophies as potential vehicles for bridging the gap between where we currently are in education and where we want to be in the 21st century. and wisdom residing in an information repository from which to draw upon in the design and creation of effective and engaging 21st century learning environments. a 18 Constructivist theoretical framework. Each of these theories is described as a natural or common to the human experience.Natural Learning. practice. . When you synthesis Natural Learning with existing 21st century learning methodologies strategies and theories the potential result is an extremely powerful combination of science. When I look around and see the classrooms of the future taking shape I keep asking myself when will the learning theories catch up to the technology”? Today.

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