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Introduction What is multimedia?

Multimedia is media that utilizes a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which only utilize traditional forms of printed or hand-produced text and still graphics. In general, multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, and interactivity content forms.

What is copyright?
Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time, after which the work enters the public domain. Generally, it is "the right to copy", but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, which may perform the work, which may financially benefit from it, and other, related rights. It is an intellectual property form (like the patent, the trademark, and the trade secret) applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete.

What is intellectual property (IP)?
Intellectual property (IP) is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical, literary, and artistic works; inventions; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce, including copyrights, trademarks, patents, and related rights. Under intellectual property law, the holder of one of these abstract "properties" has certain exclusive rights to the creative work, commercial symbol, or invention by which it is covered.

So what are the current copyright issues?
Copyright infringement (That includes copyrighted stuff uploaded to internet sharing sites; e.g. YouTube, Mininova), piracy (Both physical and digital), etc.

What copyright does? Copyright gives the author/creator limited, exclusive rights to: I. Reproduce the work;

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As long the author/creator/company holds the copyright, it gives them the power to reproduce the work. For example; EA Games can produce as many expansions and sequels to Command and Conquer as long they retains the copyrights of it using the same name, Command and Conquer.

Another example; Since Universal Pictures retains the rights to Get Smart which is a 1965 TV Series on NBC, they are allowed to create a movie adaptation of it using the same name and story.

II. Create derivative works based on the original work;

“Derivative work is an expressive creation that includes major, basic copyrighted aspects of an original, previously created first work.” For example; Harry Potter which is a fantasy based novel is being made digital via eBooks and Audiobooks which still retains the same story just in different format.

III. Distribute copies of the work; • • This is an easy one. Distribute copies of the work is like distributing music, movies, pictures, books, etc, legally. Example; Paramount retains the right to distribute copies of Iron Man DVD, Blu-ray as long they remains the distributer of Marvel Studios films which owns the copyrighted materials.
IV. To perform the work or to display the work in public.

Something like showing your work in a convention; e.g. E3.

Defining multimedia works;
The elements that can be combined into a multimedia product are virtually limitless, and include sound (musical works), photographs, clip art and other graphics (artistic works), text and data (literary works), and full motion video (dramatic works).

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Musical works (e.g. Alphabeat - This Is Alphabeat, a music album)

A picture found on Flickr which is protected under Creative Commons

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Graphics/artistic work from a game (Big Daddy from Bioshock)

Graphics/artistic work from someone (Artwork taken from deviantART)
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Since I can’t put a full video here, I would give some examples of full motion video by describing it using pictures.

Movies (e.g. The Dark Knight. In the pictures is Joker portrayed by the late Heath Ledger)

Music videos (e.g. Hadouken – Declaration of War, a music video by the band) also protected
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Some of the copyright laws;
1) Copyright Act 1968 (Australia);

• • •

Cover most intellectual property and software ownership issues, but they are not very effective when applied to groups of computing students. Protects original expression from unauthorized reproduction or adaptation. Ensured that full protection for computer programs as literary works was provided

2) Copyright Amendment Act 1984 (Australia);

3) Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA – United States of America); • DMCA amended title 17 of the U.S. Code to extend the reach of copyright, while limiting the liability of Online Providers from copyright infringement by their users. 4) Copyright Act of 1976 (United States of America); • • Cover most intellectual property and software ownership issues, but they are not very effective when applied to groups of computing students. Protects original expression from unauthorized reproduction or adaptation. 5) Copyright Act 1987 (Malaysia);

• Protection for copyrightable works. • The Act outlines the nature of works eligible for copyright (which includes
computer software, multimedia works; e.g. movies, music, etc).

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The most common copyright issues; Copyright infringement; • Unauthorized use of material that is covered by copyright law, in a manner that violates one of the copyright owner's exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works. • • Also can be described as piracy. It can be either physical or digital. Always done by internet users and “pirates”.

Examples of copyright infringement; •

Music is being distributed illegally across sharing sites like Mininova, Ares, etc. Movies are being tapped secretly in cinemas and being released as “CAM” across sharing sites, also sometimes “DVDScr” or “DVD Screener” being released illegally by someone working inside a company or some sort of organization (Inside Man); e.g. Someone working inside Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) which is an organization for the Oscars. “DVDRips” are being released almost every single day too (e.g. In picture)

Wow! So many seeds and peers. For a torrent downloader like me, sure will be happy but it’s totally illegal. I’m committing copyright infringement.
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• •

Copyrighted/protected artwork or pictures are being shared across sharing sites both legal and illegal. Legal sites sometimes unable to detect and filter out the copyrighted material. Pirates copy and re-printed someone’s works; e.g. Pirated CD, DVD and Blu-ray. Copyright protected videos are being uploaded by users everyday to video sharing site but the users won’t be sued or being faced any legal suits, they’ll first being warned then if they are repeating their infringement, their user account will be disabled. (e.g. YouTube – In Picture)

An example of copyright infringement warning e-mail (First Warning) taken from my Gmail since I’ve committed copyright infringement on my YouTube account.

One of the examples, videos were being removed because of “Code of Conduct Violation”.
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Many people think that all the videos they found YouTube are legal but they’re wrong. Only videos uploaded by their official company or certain special accounts (e.g. Artists Official YouTube Channel – Linkin Park, Hadouken!, etc)

Official company’s YouTube Channel (e.g. Universal Music Group Official YouTube Channel). They are the copyright holder and have the rights to put their videos on display.

Official Artistes’ YouTube Channel (e.g. Hadouken!’s Official YouTube Channel). They hold the rights to their songs and videos.
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Example of a copyright infringement dispute; A little article titled “Viacom Sues YouTube for $1 Billion…The End of the Tube?” (Reuters).

“Well, it happened. YouTube is facing a $1 billion+ lawsuit from Viacom today. It was known that YouTube would eventually face at least one major lawsuit, and Viacom - which had already pulled 100,000 clips from the site, was perhaps the most likely to take a distaste to the company. Viacom is accusing YouTube of “massive intentional copyright infringement”, saying that 160,000 unauthorized Viacom clips have been uploaded onto YouTube, totaling more than 1.5 billion views. In truth, the “more than $1 billion” figure sounds a little low: typically these companies seek the maximum sum of $150,000 per infringement. This was the case with Bolt.com, which decided to settle for $10 million rather than endure a lengthy legal battle against Universal. Viacom, owner of MTV and Nickelodeon, put out a release regarding the YouTube case today, with the following statement: There is no question that YouTube and Google are continuing to take the fruit of our efforts without permission and destroying enormous value in the process. This is value that rightfully belongs to the writers, directors and talent who create it and companies like Viacom that have invested to make possible this innovation and creativity.” *Personally, I agree with the title “Viacom Sues YouTube for $1 Billion…The End of the Tube?” since I don’t think they are really suing YouTube to protect their copyrighted stuff, they’re just suing for the money. Since YouTube helps a lot in promoting both mainstream and independent creations, so actually YouTube helps Viacom indirectly promoting their media materials.

One of the countermeasures taken by one of the affected countries;

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“Malaysian Government Orders Torrent Sites Shutdown” “Reports are coming in that the government in Malaysia has ordered the immediate suspension of many BitTorrent trackers hosted in the country. In a shock move, the government - citing the ‘Copyright Act 1987′ - has ordered hosts to suspend servers hosting BitTorrent sites, pending an investigation. Many sites are offline. For instance, would a site bail out of the Netherlands and move to Canada? Is Canada too dangerous now, and would a move to Sweden be more appropriate? What about moving to Ukraine-based hosting like Demonoid or further afield - China or Russia maybe? Inevitably, discussions usually involve ideas of moving sites east, to countries like Malaysia. Fairly hightech countries like this seem an attractive proposition, particularly given their government’s track-record in failing to do much about piracy. Given this background, BitTorrent tracker admins with their sites hosted in Malaysia were confronted by a very unpleasant surprise today. An administrator from a well known tracker contacted TorrentFreak this morning with worrying news, he told us: “Malaysia’s government suddenly forced all torrent websites to shut down today until further notice, a complete surprise to torrent admins and the offshore hosting companies in Malaysia.” The news was given to this and other site admins, via an email from their hosting provider, which indicates the action, has been ordered down from a high level. The email informs the admins that their servers have been suspended by the Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs, under the Copyright Act 1987. As the request came from the government, the host makes it clear they had no choice but to shut down the site. Among the affected sites are Extremebits, Rapthe, Superfundo and several others. According to sources, although torrent sites have been taken offline, other sites dealing in pirate material have also been suspended after the government decided to act on mounting copyright-related complaints.”

Conclusion;
The right way of reproduce, using and distributing these copyrighted material; • • One of the easiest is reading the rules and regulations before you distribute a copyrighted material. Distribute copyrighted material under “Fair Use”

The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes.

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○ ○

The nature of the copyrighted work. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.

○ The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Buy it legally (PC World).

iTunes Store, which you can buy and download music legally.

References;
Websites; http://www.expressnews.ualberta.ca/ualberta/Services/copyright.html http://torrentfreak.com/malaysian-government-orders-immediate-torrent-site-blackout080627/ http://www.techlearning.com/showArticle.php?articleID=23902530 http://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/faq-protect.html http://www.medialawyer.com/lec-copy.htm http://mashable.com/2007/03/13/viacom-youtube/ http://www.webpronews.com/topnews/2008/06/09/waiting-to-litigate-viacom-google-and12 | P a g e

youtube http://www.utsystem.edu/OGC/IntellectualProperty/multimed.htm http://torrentfreak.com/malaysian-government-orders-immediate-torrent-site-blackout080627/ http://www.utsystem.edu/OGC/IntellectualProperty/mmfruse.htm#law http://www.computerlaw.com.au/mm.html http://connect.educause.edu/Library/Abstract/CopyrightIssuesMultimedia/35471?time=1214 728781 Newspapers; Reuters, ‘Viacom Sues YouTube for $1 Billion…The End of the Tube?’, United States of America, 18 May, p. 31. Magazines; PC World, ‘Buy It Legally’, United States of America, 30 June, p. 92. *Appendices have been included within the contents.

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