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CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY


NOTES

UNIT 1

FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLOW CHARACTERISTICS


Units and dimensions- Properties of fluids- mass density, specific weight, specific
volume, specific gravity, viscosity, compressibility, vapor pressure, surface tension and
capillarity. Flow characteristics – concept of control volume - application of continuity
equation, energy equation and momentum equation.
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Viscosity
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Types of fluid flow and related mathematical formulae


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Boundary layer concepts

Fig: Boundary layer concept


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Fig: Boundary layer zones

Fig: displacement thickness illustrator diagram


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Problem
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Moody diagram:
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Fig: Plot of the moody diagram


Problems in flow through pipes in parallel:
Problem 1
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Problem 2
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Problem 3
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Table: Dimensions of various parameters


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Problems in Rayleigh’s method:


Problem 1

Problem 2
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Problem 3

Problem 4
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Problem 5
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Problems in Buckhingam – π – Theorem:


Problem 1
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Problem 2
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Problem 3
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Problem 4
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Dimensionless numbers:
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Model laws:
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Problems based on Reynold’s model law:

Problem 2 based on Reynold’s model law:


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Euler’s equation
Introduction to pumps:
Fig: Components of a Centrifugal pump
Problems in Centrifugal pumps:
Problem 1
Problem 2
Problem 3
The above mentioned equation is used for finding the specific speed of a Centrifugal pump.

Fig: characteristic curves of a Centrifugal pump


Fig: main components of a Reciprocating pump

Important formulae:
Problems in Reciprocating pump
Problem 1
Problem 2:
Fig: Ideal indicator diagram

Fig: indicator diagram influenced by both acceleration and friction


Problems in indicator diagram:
Fig: Arrangement of Air vessel in a Reciprocating pump
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2
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Fig: Schematic of a Pelton turbine

Fig: Velocity triangle arrangement of a Pelton turbine


Problems in Pelton turbine:
Problem 1:
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Problem 2
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Problem 3
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Problem 4
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Problem 5
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Problems in Francis turbine:


Problem 1
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Problem 2
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Problems in Kaplan Turbine:


Problem 1
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Fig: Types of draft tubes