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ROBOTS CLASS

7 Lessons Beginner Level

Building robots is fun, easy, and can be done by nearly anyone. My class guides you through the
tools and techniques you will need to get started building robots
This class was designed with the absolute beginner in mind, and attempts to break down complex
concepts into easy bite-sized pieces. It covers the technology you will need to know to build basic
little bots that scurry around, to complex robots that use microcontrollers and sensors.
I hope you will join me in the wild world of robotics.
Want to see a robot build in detail and ask questions as it comes together?
Check out a full video of my Simplebots Wobbler (https://www.instructables.com/id/Simple-Bots-
Wobbler/) webinar on the Instructables Facebook Page
(https://www.facebook.com/instructables/videos/10155440784981913/).
Enter an Instructables contest!
If you've made an awesome robotics project, try writing an instructable about it and entering it in
our Wireless (https://www.instructables.com/contest/wireless2017/) or Make it Move
(https://www.instructables.com/contest/mim2017/) contest to win some great prizes!

Class Author:
randofo (/member/randofo/)
Randy Sarafan is an artist, designer, inventor, and founder of the Instructables Design Studio. Over the last 10 years he has
created hundreds of step-by-step tutorials (https://www.instructables.com/member/randofo/?show=INSTRUCTABLES) on
diverse subjects ranging from pancakes to self-driving robotic queen-sized beds. He has authored two books, 62 Projects to
Make with a Dead Computer (http://www.workman.com/products/9780761152439/) and Simple Bots
(https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/id1107111656).
His work has been showcased by the NY Times, Popular Mechanics, The Today Show, The Tonight Show, NPR, the BBC,
Core77, Boing Boing, and the National Examiner (to name a few). He currently splits his time between Brooklyn, NY and the
internet.

Robots Class: Page 1


Lessons

Lesson 1: Getting Started With Robots


Begin your journey into the wild world of robotics by learning about
basic concepts and tools.

Lesson 2: Basic Electronics Skills for Robotics


A crash course to get yourself started with electronics.

Lesson 3: Motors and Motion


Learn basic skills and techniques for making things that move.

Lesson 4: Robot Brains


An introduction to the Arduino microcontroller.

Lesson 5: Servo A-Go-Go!


Everything you ever wanted to know - and more - about servo motors!

Lesson 6: Sensors
Master the concept of the H-bridge and make a bot that scurries
about

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Lesson 7: Modules and Shields
Discover how you can make your bots more robust with basic
mechanisms.

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LESSON 1: GETTING STARTED WITH ROBOTS

(https://www.instructables.com/id/Bedfellow-Robot-Bed/)Building robots is fun, easy, and can be done by


nearly anyone. You don't need to be a genius and no prior engineering experience is necessary. The only
thing required is a willingness to experiment, and learn. While it is easy to be intimidated by robotics
because it incorporates a wide range of skills over a variety of disciplines, there is no reason to be. The
fundamentals are actually quite -- well -- fundamental. In less than a month you can learn the basics
necessary to begin building robots on your own. Whether you are a hobbyist, aspiring engineer, artist,
scientist, or just plain curious, follows is a pathway you can use to begin your journey into wild world of
robotics.

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What Is a Robot?

There are many schools of robotics, and many thoughts about what constitues a robot. For argument's
sake, follows is the definition we will be using moving forwards.

A ROBOT IS:

Autonomous
It has motors (or other actuators) that enable it to move freely through space without human input.

Intelligent
It has a computer that allows it to reason, solve problems, and make decisions about its behavior and the
environment.

Responsive
It has sensors which enables it to sense and respond to environemental stimuli.

Social
It can interact with other autonomous, intelligent and responsive beings.

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Required Tools

Tools on the other hand are fairly standard. You will need quite a few for this class, but most of them you
may likely already have lying around. Please bear with me while I go over all of the tools we will be using.

Before we go over some of them in more depth below, here is a shopping list for the tools you may need
when starting out with robotics:

(x1) Scissors (http://www.amazon.com/Westcott-13901-Sewing-Scissors-8-Inches/dp/B000P0LNRE/?


tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Razor blade (http://www.amazon.com/Stanley-10-099-Classic-Retractable-Utility/dp/B00002X204/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Hacksaw (http://www.amazon.com/XtremepowerUS-Adjustable-Hacksaw-Cutting-Bi-
Metal/dp/B00OKXVGR4/?tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Diagonal cutters (http://www.amazon.com/Channellock-338-8-Inch-Diagonal-
Cutting/dp/B00004SBDD/?tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Multipurpose tool (http://www.amazon.com/Leatherman-830039-Multitool-Leather-
Combination/dp/B0002H49BC/?tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Adjustable wrench (http://www.amazon.com/GRIP-87042-Adjustable-Wrench-4-
Piece/dp/B000BN39MC/?tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) C-clamps (http://www.amazon.com/TEKTON-91809-Heavy-Duty-C-Clamp-3-
Piece/dp/B00BRL59HK/?tag=instructabl09-20)

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(x1) Bench vise (http://www.amazon.com/IRWIN-Tools-3-Inch-Clamp--226303/dp/B0001LQY44/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Power drill (http://www.amazon.com/DEWALT-DC970K-2-18-Volt-Compact-Driver/dp/B002RLR0EY/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Drill bits (http://www.amazon.com/DEWALT-DW1354-14-Piece-Titanium-Drill/dp/B0045PQ762/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Screwdrivers (http://www.amazon.com/Craftsman-Screwdriver-Phillips-Slotted-
Made/dp/B006YVTAFU/?tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Mini screwdrivers (http://www.amazon.com/Herco%C2%AE-HE826-Precision-Screwdriver-
Set/dp/B000CCUFT2/?tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Nuts and bolts (http://www.amazon.com/Hillman-Group-591518-Assortment-195-
Pack/dp/B00CR8ZRC4/?tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Zip ties (http://www.amazon.com/Cable-Matters-Combo-Self-Locking-12-Inch/dp/B00L2LGMO4/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Ruler (http://www.amazon.com/Starrett-ASE-48-Anodized-Aluminum-Straight/dp/B002BXPUKO/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Marker (http://www.amazon.com/Sharpie-Permanent-Markers-36-Pack-35010/dp/B001ELJOOM/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Hammer (http://www.amazon.com/Estwing-E3-16S-Straight-Hammer-Reduction/dp/B0000224VG/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Soldering iron kit (https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01M0DLDCG/)
(x1) Wire cutters (http://www.amazon.com/Tools-VISE-GRIP-Stripper-Crimper-
2078309/dp/B000JNNWQ2/?tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Snippers (http://www.amazon.com/Hakko-CHP-170-Stand-off-Construction-21-
Degree/dp/B017ODDPNO/?tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Heat gun (http://www.amazon.com/Kawasaki-840015-Black-10-Piece-Heat/dp/B000H4I67I/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Shrink tube (http://www.amazon.com/SummitLink-Assorted-Shrink-Colors-Tubing/dp/B00LVFDLUO/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Jumper cables (http://www.amazon.com/SE-TL10-10-Piece-Alligator-Clips/dp/B0002KRABU/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Solid core 22 AWG wire (https://www.amazon.com/Electronix-Express--Hook-Wire-
Solid/dp/B00B4ZRPEY/)
(x1) Stranded core 22 AWG wire (https://www.amazon.com/Electronix-Express-Hook-Stranded-
Gauge/dp/B00B4ZQ3L0/)
(x1) Breadboard (https://www.amazon.com/Frentaly%C2%AE-Solderless-BreadBoard-tie-points-
power/dp/B01258UZMC/)
(x1) Arduino Uno (http://www.amazon.com/Arduino-Board-Module-ATmega328P-Blue/dp/B008GRTSV6/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) USB cable (http://www.amazon.com/AmazonBasics-USB-2-0-Cable--Male/dp/B00NH13DV2/?
tag=instructabl09-20)
(x1) Multimeter (https://www.amazon.com/Flexzion-Multimeter-Automotive-Electrical-
Components/dp/B017QR594G/)
(x1) Battery holders (https://www.amazon.com/3Pcs-Battery-Holder-Standard-
Connector/dp/B014YSFMXI/)
(x1) LEDs (http://www.amazon.com/microtivity-Assorted-Diffused-Resistors-Colors/dp/B005H8MWOW/)
(x1) Resistors (http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00PNSRXCW)

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Cutting

Let's start with something simple. You will need a pair of scissors (http://www.amazon.com/Westcott-
13901-Sewing-Scissors-8-Inches/dp/B000P0LNRE/?tag=instructabl09-20). You should already have one
of these lying about, and learned how to use them if you ever attended Kindergarten. So... Moving on...

The other razor sharp tool you should have is a razor blade (http://www.amazon.com/Stanley-10-099-
Classic-Retractable-Utility/dp/B00002X204/?tag=instructabl09-20). It is recommended you get something
with a nice safe handle like a box cutter.

When a razor blade just won't cut it, you can be sure a hacksaw
(http://www.amazon.com/XtremepowerUS-Adjustable-Hacksaw-Cutting-Bi-Metal/dp/B00OKXVGR4/?
tag=instructabl09-20) will. With enough patience you can cut through most anything with a hacksaw. This
hand saw will be extremeley handy to have around.

Diagonal cutting pliers (http://www.amazon.com/Channellock-338-8-Inch-Diagonal-


Cutting/dp/B00004SBDD/?tag=instructabl09-20), or put simply, diagonal cutters, are an extremely useful
tool to have at your disposal. It's recommended you get a good solid pair of these, and not one of those
discount ones. These will be used a lot to cut through plastic, metal sheets, and rods. This tool is a bit like
scissors for plastic parts. No - it is exactly like scissors for plastic parts.

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Grabbing

Speaking of pliers, you are probably more familiar with the kind that don't cut. You should get at least one
pair of general use snub nose pliers. Pictured here is a multipurpose tool centered around a pair of pliers. If
you have the income at your disposal, you may as well invest in a nice multipurpose tool
(http://www.amazon.com/Leatherman-830039-Multitool-Leather-Combination/dp/B0002H49BC/?
tag=instructabl09-20). The added functionality always comes in handy and it will make you seem more
legit to have one of these in your arsenal. A big part of practicing robotics is looking like you know what
you are doing.

Adjustable wrenches (http://www.amazon.com/GRIP-87042-Adjustable-Wrench-4-


Piece/dp/B000BN39MC/?tag=instructabl09-20) come in a wide range of sizes. You are likely not building
truck-sized robots and will be fine with just a small one (or two). These are largely used for tightening and
loosening nuts and bolts, and it is best to have one for each side.

Having a couple small C-clamps (http://www.amazon.com/TEKTON-91809-Heavy-Duty-C-Clamp-3-


Piece/dp/B00BRL59HK/?tag=instructabl09-20) around can't hurt. In fact, they are meant to hold things
down so you don't get hurt. It's good to have a few of these about for holding things when drilling or
smashing things. Using your hand for this purpose can end in disaster.

Sometimes you really want to hold something right where it is. This is when a bench vise
(http://www.amazon.com/IRWIN-Tools-3-Inch-Clamp--226303/dp/B0001LQY44/?tag=instructabl09-20)
comes in handy. It's a bit like a C-clamp, but attaches to your workbench and has a wider grabbing
surface. It is quite useful for holding something down really well while drilling it.
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Drilling

Go get a drill (http://www.amazon.com/DEWALT-DC970K-2-18-Volt-Compact-Driver/dp/B002RLR0EY/?


tag=instructabl09-20). This can be a cordless or corded drill. It does not matter. Cordless drills are more
convienient in some ways, but corded drills are cheaper and just as (or sometimes more) effective. Either
will do the job. We are only going to be drilling through plastic parts and some soft metal like aluminum.

It is not important to get anything too fancy. Just about any drill will do for the purposes of this class. Albeit,
it couldn't hurt to spend a little extra dough if you plan on continuing building things after this class.
Nevertheless, the most important part is to find something aesthetically pleasing. I can't stress how
important it is to look good while building robots.

Get a set of standard sized multipurpose drill bits (http://www.amazon.com/DEWALT-DW1354-14-Piece-


Titanium-Drill/dp/B0045PQ762/?tag=instructabl09-20). If this is your first time doing something like this,
any old set will do. Don't spend a lot of money. You will likely destroy them and need to buy another set at
some point anyhow. As you start to figure out what you are doing, then you can invest in the fancy
expensive drill bits.

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Fastening

Even though you can technically screw things very tight with your power drill, sometimes you just want to
screw things the old fashioned way. It's good to have a range of screwdrivers
(http://www.amazon.com/Craftsman-Screwdriver-Phillips-Slotted-Made/dp/B006YVTAFU/?
tag=instructabl09-20) in your arsenal. While I am not going to dive too deep into this, I will say that you
should get a set of mini screwdrivers (http://www.amazon.com/Herco%C2%AE-HE826-Precision-
Screwdriver-Set/dp/B000CCUFT2/?tag=instructabl09-20). These will come in particularly handy when
dealing with robotics.

Nuts and bolts (http://www.amazon.com/Hillman-Group-591518-Assortment-195-Pack/dp/B00CR8ZRC4/?


tag=instructabl09-20) are used for fastening things together. It's good to have an assortment lying about.
That said, I will specify the ones you need before each project.

Zip ties (http://www.amazon.com/Cable-Matters-Combo-Self-Locking-12-Inch/dp/B00L2LGMO4/?


tag=instructabl09-20) are the greatest. They are quick, strong, reliable, and dirt cheap. If you make a
mistake, they are exceptionally easy to undo. Building things using zip ties lets you iterate quickly and try
out different solutions. You can chain them together, or trim them down. They can wrap around strange
angles and be used to solve all kinds of problems. If you have not already deduced by my effusive praise,
they will be the fastener of choice in this class. It is important that you get a lot of zip ties in a variety of
sizes.

Measuring

Aside from making great construction material, it is very helpful to have a few rulers
(http://www.amazon.com/Starrett-ASE-48-Anodized-Aluminum-Straight/dp/B002BXPUKO/?
tag=instructabl09-20) around. As they say, 'measure twice - cut once.'

And, of course, if you are going to be employing rulers in your robot-building activities, you got to have
some permanent markers (http://www.amazon.com/Sharpie-Permanent-Markers-36-Pack-
35010/dp/B001ELJOOM/?tag=instructabl09-20) to go along with them. We will be making a lot of cut and
drill marks, and your marker will get a lot of mileage.

Robots Class: Page 12


Smashing

When all else fails, smash things.

We are only using one smashing tool - the trusty hammer (http://www.amazon.com/Estwing-E3-16S-
Straight-Hammer-Reduction/dp/B0000224VG/?tag=instructabl09-20).

On occasion we will need to smash things. It is unavoidable.

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Electronics

Working with electronics requires its own unique set of tools. Foremost, the tools you will need before
anything else is a soldering setup (http://www.amazon.com/Neiko®-40494A-Soldering-Accessories-5-
Piece/dp/B005HY02FW/?tag=instructabl09-20). This includes a soldering iron, soldering iron stand (or
holder), cleaning pad, solder, and desoldering braid. When purchasing a soldering iron, the only important
thing to keep in mind is you want one with a fine tip suitable for electronics. For instance, a soldering iron
for automotive or home wiring is not ideal. Otherwise, you are just getting started with this so any cheap-o
iron will do. You can upgrade to a nicer soldering setup later when you are more comfortable working with
electronics. You can likely find a soldering kit that includes all of the things I listed. I recommend taking this
route to begin with.

Electronics also has its own set of cutting tools. You will want both a wire cutter
(http://www.amazon.com/Tools-VISE-GRIP-Stripper-Crimper-2078309/dp/B000JNNWQ2/?
tag=instructabl09-20) and a pair of mini diagonal cutting pliers or "snippers
(http://www.amazon.com/Hakko-CHP-170-Stand-off-Construction-21-Degree/dp/B017ODDPNO/?
tag=instructabl09-20)." The wire cutter used for cutting and stripping insulation off of wires. The snippers
are used for trimming away excess wire leads after you solder. When you are doing this for a while and
become more legit, you can use snippers for everything (in place of the wire strippers).

Robots Class: Page 14


Another indespensible set of tools is heat gun (http://www.amazon.com/Kawasaki-840015-Black-10-Piece-
Heat/dp/B000H4I67I/?tag=instructabl09-20) and shrink tube (http://www.amazon.com/SummitLink-
Assorted-Shrink-Colors-Tubing/dp/B00LVFDLUO/?tag=instructabl09-20). These are used for insulating
soldered wire connections and small components. You might be thinking that electrical tape can do the
same thing and is much cheaper. Just - NO! Get that horrible thought out of your head. Electrical tape is
dumb and unreliable. If you want your robots to break in mysterious ways, use electrical tape. If you want
to make working robots, then you should purchase shrink tube in a variety of colors and sizes. Shrink tube
is exponentially more reliable and aesthetically pleasing. In terms of a heat gun, they all basically work the
same. Just get something that makes you look cool. For instance, this black and green Kawasaki one is
fairly rad.

Jumper cables (http://www.amazon.com/SE-TL10-10-Piece-Alligator-Clips/dp/B0002KRABU/?


tag=instructabl09-20) (or test leads) are used for connecting wires together without soldering and are
important for prototyping. They have insulated alligator clips on both ends which allow you to easily grab
onto most electrical contacts. It is important to have these lying about to easily test things before making
more permanent connections. Get a set of about a dozen-or-so to start.

We are going to go over wire more thoroughly in the next lesson. For now, let's just talk about what you
should have on hand. You should have a set of 100' spools of solid core 22AWG red, green, and black
wire (http://www.amazon.com/Electronix-Express-Hook-Wire-Solid/dp/B00B4ZRPEY/?tag=instructabl09-
20). You should also have a set of 100' spools of stranded 22AWG red, green, and black wire
(http://www.amazon.com/Electronix-Express-Hook-Stranded-Gauge/dp/B00B4ZQ3L0/?tag=instructabl09-
20). Both stranded and solid core wire will be used throughout this class. These three colors are
particularly important to have because they are the standard within electronics and used for color-coding.

Again, the breadboard (http://www.amazon.com/Yueton-Tie-point-Solderless-Breadboard-


Pack/dp/B013DLU6I8/?tag=instructabl09-20) is something we are going to go over more thoroughly later.
For now, let's just say that you should get one that ideally looks approximately like this picture.

I'm not going to explain this one too much right now either. Don't worry if you are confused by what this
thing is. We will get deeper into that. The Arduino has an entire lesson dedicated to it. In the meantime,
pick up two Arduino Uno (http://www.amazon.com/Arduino-Board-Module-ATmega328P-
Blue/dp/B008GRTSV6/?tag=instructabl09-20) boards. One will be used for prototyping and the other will
live in our telepresence robot.

While you are at it, you may as well pick up a USB-A to USB-B cable

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(http://www.amazon.com/AmazonBasics-USB-2-0-Cable--Male/dp/B00NH13DV2/?tag=instructabl09-20).
This is otherwise known as a USB printer cable. You may even have a spare one lying about. This is
necessary to program the Arduino.

Continuing with the theme of things I will explain much more later, I bring you the multimeter
(http://www.amazon.com/Volmate-Digital-Voltmeter-Ohmmeter-Multimeter/dp/B00TWTLWT8/?
tag=instructabl09-20). Like most tools there is a wide range of multimeters from the extremely basic cheap
ones to the extremely fancy expensive ones. To get started, I recommend buying a cheap one. Make sure
it at least has a digital display. Otherwise, they all typically have the same basic features.

Battery holders are used to power your projects. Typically, when one is required it is specified in the list of
materials. However, in some of the lessons we use them for testing and experimenting. That said, it is
recommended that you pick up a few extra 3 X AA and 4 X AA battery holders.

LEDs (http://www.amazon.com/microtivity-Assorted-Diffused-Resistors-Colors/dp/B005H8MWOW/) are a


helpful component to have around, and you will want a mix of those at your disposal.

Lastly, you will want an assortment of resistors (http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00PNSRXCW). These are


one of the most basic electronic components, and you will be using these throughout the class.

Robots Class: Page 16


Robots Class: Page 17
LESSON 2: BASIC ELECTRONICS SKILLS FOR ROBOTICS

Electronics seem scary, but they really aren't so bad. You don't need to be an electrical engineer to start
learning electronics. You don't even need to mail away for a free brochure. All you need to do is follow
along with this simple tutorial to get started.

Presented here is a simplified overview of electronics as is necessary for practical robotics. We will barely
be scratching the surface of the science and technology behind electronics. For a more in-depth
knowledge, you can take the Electronics Class (https://www.instructables.com/class/Electronics-Class/).

To follow along with the later steps of this lesson - albeit not required - you will need a continuous rotation
servo (http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/parallax-inc/900-00008/900-00008-ND/1774454) and a 4 X
AA battery holder (http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/mpd-memory-protection-
devices/BC4AAW/BC4AAW-ND/66733).

Robots Class: Page 18


What Is Electronics?

Electronics is the science and technology concerned with regulating flow of electricity. Put simply, it lets
you move electrons around. While this may seem like a kind of pointless activity, the regulation of
electrons has enabled some of the most important innovations of the last century including computers,
televisions, rocketships, electric cars, rocketships, video games, smartphones, Tickle-Me-Elmo,
hoverboards (both those that really hover and those that do not), and - of course - rocketships.

Robots Class: Page 19


Robots Class: Page 20
Voltage, Current and Watts

Before we can regulate electricity, let us take a very brief moment and talk about what electricity is.

Electricity is basically a form of energy resulting from charged particles. It can exist either as a static
charge or dynamically as a current.

We will be exclusively dealing with it as a current. A 'direct current' in fact. You may have heard of DC
electricity. In case you have not yet figured it out, the abbreviation DC stands for Direct Current. What this
means is that electricity flows in one direction only. Since it only flows in one predictable direction, it is
easy to regulate.

There are two ways to measure Direct Current that you should be immediately aware of.

Voltage
symbol: V
Voltage is measured in volts. If you were to think of electricty as a river, volts would be how high the water
rises above the river bed (or the depth you could say).

Current
Symbol: A
Current is measured in amperes (or - colloquially - amps). If volts is the water depth, than current is the
force with which the water is moving.

Just as it is possible to have a really deep river moving with little force, it is also possible to have a really
shallow river moving with a lot of force. Voltage and current need to be considered in relation to one
another in order to have an understanding of their combined power. The relationship between voltage and
current is measured in Watts (symbol: W). This is an expression of the overall power being exerted. You
probably have heard this term before, and should just generally be aware of this. However, it is not a
particularly important measurement for what we will be doing in this class.

Robots Class: Page 21


Batteries

Batteries are special containers which store DC electricity at a set voltage.

The most common types of batteries you will encounter are standard cylindrical dry cell batteries. Most
notably these consist of AAA, AA, C, and D batteries.

What is important to know about these batteries, is that even thought they are different sizes, they are all
rated at 1.5V (remember - V is the abbreviation for volts).

What changes as they get bigger in size is the amount of power they are capable of producing. A D battery
will be able to provide power for much longer than a AAA battery. In other words, a bigger battery can
provide more amperes for a longer amount of time than a smaller battery.

Batteries are measured in Amp Hours or Ah. This is basically the measure of how many amperes can be
drawn from the battery in an hour. For instance, a 20Ah battery will let you draw 1 ampere for 20 hours.
However, if your robot needs 5 amperes, you can run that robot for about 4 hours using the same battery
(20Ah / 5A = 4 hours).

It may have by now dawned upon you that 1.5V is not very much. You might be wondering why we don't
just use a 9V battery instead? Assuredly a 9V battery is producing more power than a 1.5V battery.

This, in fact, is not true at all. 9V batteries actually are not great in producing power at all. A good way to
think of a 9V battery is to imagine 6 really small 1.5V batteries smushed together inside. In fact, if you take
a 9V apart, that is essentially what you will find inside. Now, compare that to the size of 6 AA batteries for
instance. The 9V batteries are rather tiny by comparison!

9V batteries are nice because they are small and can produce a relatively high voltage when you need it,
but they don't offer much current and drain quickly when doing things like powering motors. Thus, they are
not great for robotics. That is why we will be using a series of 1.5V batteries.

Robots Class: Page 22


Series and Parallel

Well then, you may be wondering how you can power anything if batteries are only 1.5V? The answer is
rather simple. We connect them in series.

What this means is that we connect them front-to back in a row. So the positive (plus) end of one battery
gets connected to the ground (minus) end of the next battery, and so on and so forth. We can then
calculate the new voltage simply by adding 1.5V for each battery in the series. So, if you have three 1.5V
batteries in series, we would calculate that thus:

1.5V + 1.5V + 1.5V = 4.5V

That's pretty much all there is to it.

As illustrated above, instead of putting batteries in series, we can also wire them side-by-side. This is
called parallel. When identical power sources are connected in parallel, the voltage remains the same, but
the amount of available current increases. This is useful when you don't have enough current to power
your circuit.

For instance, say you had a 9V battery that kept draining too quickly or simply was not able to provide
enough power to run your device. You could solve this by putting 6 AA batteries in series. However, for
argument's sake, let's say your project does not have enough room to do this. You could also wire two 9V
batteries in parallel. By doing this, you are essentially doubling the available current.

Keep in mind, this will only work if the batteries are the exact same voltage and should be avoided if
possible. Without the proper protection circuit, fluctuation in voltage between the batteries will force them to
try to charge one another, decreasing their lifespan.

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Battery Holders

There are two notable things to say about battery holders. Foremost, battery holders allow you to easily
connect batteries to your circuit.

Secondly, they connect multiple batteries together in series. So you could count the number of cells it
holds and multiply it by 1.5 to calculate the voltage of the battery holder. For instance a battery holder with
6 cells provides 9V (1.5 x 6 = 9).

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The Multimeter

A multimeter is a tool used for a wide range of electronics related measurements. Or you could say they
could meter multiple measurements... multi-meter... painfully obvious - right?

A typical multimeter will measure voltage, current, resistance, and continuity. More advanced multimeters
will also measure a host of other things that are not important to get into at this junction.

We have already discussed voltage (pictured left) and current (pictured right), and you should have a rough
grasp of what that means by now. However, let's take a moment to discuss what is meant by resistance
and continuity.

Another thing you can measure with a multimeter is continuity (pictured left). This is simply a test to
determine if electricity can flow freely between two points. In other words, when you touch the two probes
to something, you are checking if there is continuous path of conductivity. This can allow you to check
whether something is conductive or not. It is also very important for testing to make sure solder
connections are correct, and the electricity can flow freely.

The other very important thing we can measure with a multimeter is resistance (pictured right). Resistance
is the measure to which a component resists the flow of electricity within a circuit. In other words,
something with resistance makes it harder for electricity to flow and converts the electrical energy to
something else. It is extremely useful to be able to measure how much resistance a component provides.

To set up the multimeter, plug the black probe into the ground / common port. Plug the red probe into the
voltage terminal. It's now all set up.

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Using the Multimeter

To use the multimeter simply turn the dial to the electrical property you would like to measure.

Sometimes meters have ranges within the property you are measuring. For instance, you can measure in
the millivolt range, or the volts range. Turn the dial to the range you intend to get results in. For instance, if
you are expecting a measurement of 5V you want to set the dial to select the option closest to that number.

For argument's sake, let's say we are measuring a 3 X AA battery pack. Touch the red probe to the
positive terminal (or red wire) of the thing you are measuring and the black probe to the ground terminal (or
black wire) of the thing that you intend to measure.

It should return a constant positive voltage reading. You may have been expecting a perfect 4.5V and
gotten a number slightly above or below this. This is normal. Batteries are not regulated and the amount of
charge they can provide fluctuates. Particularly, as you use up a battery, the amount of voltage they will be
able to provide will drop significantly.

You can also measure resistance by turning the dial to measure ohms (that Greek symbol) on the meter,
and putting something that provides resistance - like a resistor - between the probes. Like voltage, resistors
Robots Class: Page 26
can fluctuate a little. For instance, this 100K resistor gives us a reading of 99.7K, which isn't too bad really.
It can fluctuate more.

You can test continuity by turning the dial to the symbol that looks like a fast forward symbol on a cassette
player (this is actually a diode symbol). Touch one end of the wire to the black probe and the other end to
the red probe. When you touch the red probe, the reading on the meter should go from 1 to 0. On most
meters, it will also make a beeping sound to indicate electricity can flow.

Lastly, there is the matter of measuring current. While current is a simple principle, is a little bit tricky to
measure and we won't be going over it in this class. It will take a lot of time to go over, and you really won't
use this too often as a beginner.

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Voltage and Ground

If you reverse the probes of the multimeter you will notice that the meter will give you a negative voltage
reading. The reason for this is that DC electricity has a positive voltage and a ground voltage.

You can determine a voltage by subtracting the voltage at the red probe (presumably positive) from the
voltage at the black probe (presumably ground). So, if when power and voltage are read correctly the
formula is:

4.5 - 0 = 4.5

However, when you touch the red wire to ground and the black wire to the positive voltage, your formula
actually becomes:

0 - 4.5 = -4.5

The reason for this is that DC electricity has a polarity where one side is always a positive voltage, and one
side is not. When you measure the electricity backwards, you get a backwards reading. Thus, if you get a
negative voltage reading, you are measuring backwards! Reverse your probes.

Anyhow...

Power always flows between the power source (positive voltage) and ground.

In order for an electrical circuit to operate, there needs to be a path that the electricity can flow between. In
fact, given the option of mutiple paths, electricity will always travel the path of least resistance to ground.
What this means is that electricity will always take the shortest path that offers the least amount of
obstacles. Every electronic component that creates resistance in a circuit is basically an obstacle to the
flow of electricity.

Upon hearing this, you may think then that you should provide electricity with the easiest path to ground by
removing these obstacles and connecting it directly. However - and this is important to stress - you should
NEVER connect your positive voltage source directly to ground. Aside from the fact that removing all
obstacles entirely defeats the point of electronics in the first place, this is a very bad idea.

One of the other fundamental rules of electronics is that power must be used. If you connect power and
ground directly together, there will be a lot of energy that has no way of expending itself. Your circuit will
then try to release this unusued energy in highly antisocial ways. Basically, the energy will turn into heat.
However, having nothing in particular to warm, either your power source or wire will start to dramatically
heat up. This can potentially result in a damaged power supply, melted wire, or potentially a fire.

Another name of this phenomena is a "short circuit." You likely have heard this term before.

Basically, watch your power and ground connections carefully to prevent them from crossing. Don't release
the "magic smoke."

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Circuits

A circuit is basically a closed conductive loop in which electricity can flow freely. Basically, a circuit is a
bunch of things connected together in either series or parallel that enables electricity to flow between
power to ground. This can be as simple as a battery source and a light bulb, or as complex as the
controller board for a servo motor. In fact, let's take a closer look at the servo motor's circuit board.

Remove the screws in the back of a continuous rotation servo motor and lift the lid. Set the screws aside
for later.

Inside the servo you will find a circuit board that consists of a series of electrical components that have
been soldered together to form a circuit. These tiny little parts are arranged in such a way that lets a
microcontroller communicate with the servo and control the motor. Don't worry about how. Right now we
are simply concerned with the fact that this arrangement of odds and ends regulates electricity in such a
way to perform complex tasks.

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The Soldering Iron

In order for all of the components on the servo's circuit board to be attached, they needed to be soldered.
Soldering is a means of both fusing together two metal objects, and creating an electrical connection.

Unsurprisingly, the tool used for soldering is called a soldering iron.

It may seem intimidating, but a basic soldering iron is actually a rather crude device. It largely consists of a
hollow metal tube with an electric heating coil inside. There is a pointy metal tip at one for melting solder,
and a heavily insulated handle at the other end to keep your hand from getting burned. There is not too
much more to it than that. Fancier soldering irons have fancy-schmancy temperature controls, which really
are not remarkably important for what we are doing.

The correct way to hold a soldering iron is like a pencil. All you need to do is hold the insulated rubber
handle as though you are holding a writing implement. This will give you a fair amount of dexterity for
moving the tip around.

Keep in mind that the uninsulated metal tube gets as hot as the inside of an oven. Whatever you do, never
grip the soldering iron from the metal part!

I once saw someone absent-mindedly grab the heated metal tube. It was not pretty! They had to go to the
Emergency Room and have their hand treated for extensive burns. You wouldn't want to go to the
Emergency Room and have your hand treated for extensive burns, so pay attention to what you are doing!

On a side note, I prefer soldering by a different method which I call the "gorilla technique," which is a bit
like holding a spoon. Even though this technique is crude and ape-like, it is - in my opinion - a highly
effective way of using it. Simply make a fist around the insulated handle, as though you are holding a
sword. Next, rotate your wrist sideways to begin soldering.

Feel free to try it out and use the method that is most comfortable for you. However, should you choose to
solder like a gorilla, be prepared for everyone and their mother to tell you that you are doing it wrong.

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Preparing the Iron

Before you start soldering your heart out, you will want to 'tin the tip.' What this basically entails is coating
the top with an even coat of solder.

Simply plug in the soldering iron and wait a few minutes for it to heat up.

Melt solder evenly around the tip of the soldering iron until there is a nice even silver coat.

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Cleaning the Iron

After you tin the tip, you will want to quickly clean the tip.

Don't worry. This is easy.

Drag the tip of the soldering iron across a brass cleaning pad two or three times until it looks silver and
clean-ish.

Finally, place the soldering iron to rest on its stand, or, should you have a fancier one, in it's holder.

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Desoldering

Okay. So you're rip, roaring, and ready to go.

However, we're going to do things a little backwards. We are going to learn to desolder (remove solder
from a circuit) before we learn to solder.

There are a number of different desoldering techniques. We will be using desoldering braid, and ignoring
all of the others.

Desoldering braid is basically a strip of tightly woven thin copper mesh that solder bonds well to. When
solder is melted, it basically flows from wherever it is at, and gets caught up in the mesh.

To use it, place the desoldering braid atop whatever terminal on a circuit board you are trying to desolder.
In our case, we are hoping to desolder the motor. Thus, locate the motor terminals on the circuit board.
These are easy to spot because they are the large terminals to the left and right of the motor. In most
cases, you can visibly see they are attached to the motor.

Once the desoldering braid is in place, place the soldering iron on top of it and firmly press down. The
desoldering braid should now be sandwiched between the soldering iron and the terminal you are trying to
desolder.

Typically, in about 10-20 seconds you will feel the solder begin to melt. Continue to hold the soldering iron
there for about 5 more seconds. Once it feels like the solder has stopped melting, quickly move away both
the soldering iron and the desoldering braid. Be careful not to touch the desoldering braid with your hands
as it is likely very hot. Lift it by it's container.

If all goes well, you should now see a pool of solder on the desoldering braid, and the solder removed the
circuit board. If not all the solder has been removed from the circuit board, repeat the process with a fresh
section of desoldering braid until the terminal is detached.

This may take some practice to get right. Fortunately there is a second terminal to desolder before you can
free the board from the motor. Desolder the other motor terminal as well in the same fashion.

Once both terminals are desoldered, gently remove the circuit board.

Also, keep in mind that soldering is going to seem like a piece of cake compared to this.

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All About Wire

Before we get to soldering, let us take a moment and discuss wire. You may be wondering what there is to
say about wire? Well - a lot!

In electronics, the wire we will be dealing with is insulated. This means that there is a metal core inside of a
rubber or plastic insulator. This allows electricity to flow, but prevents the wires from shorting if they were to
touch (because they are insulated).

There are two types of metal cores we will be dealing with.

Solid core wire has a single peice of metal inside the insulation. This wire is good for electronic circuit
boards or connecting components to a microcontroller because this type of wire can easily plug into the
board's sockets. This type of wire keeps its shape when bent, but also it more prone to break if flexed too
often.

Stranded core wire has a braid of thin metal strands inside. This wire is better for connecting to
components which are handled a lot or move around (such as connecting to motors on a robot arm). This
type of wire does not easily plug into a microcontroller's sockets, making it annoying for prototyping.
However, it is very flexible and can be bent a lot without snapping.

The thickness of wire is measured in gauges. The thicker the gauge, the more current it can handle. In
America, gauge is measured in AWG.

We will largely be dealing with wire in the 20 AWG to 22 AWG range.

Even though all wire essentially works the same regardless of color, there is a generally agreed upon
color-coding system for wire when dealing with DC electronics.

Red indicates a power wire.

Black indicates a ground wire.

Green (or any color not red or black) indicates a signal or data wire.

While you are probably thinking we've exhausted all that there is say about wire, you would be wrong.
However, there is still a lot more ground to cover and we should probably continue this wire discussion
another day. We still have a lot left to do, like soldering wires to the motor terminals inside of the servo.

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Soldering

Using the servo motor we desoldered earlier, let's now solder new wires onto the motor!

To do this, strip some of the insulation from the end of 6" piece of red wire, and hook it around the motor
terminal with a little red dot next to it. The red indcates that this is the motor's positive terminal.

Next, use the soldering iron to heat up the terminal and the end of the wire. While doing this, push the
solder into the tip of the soldering iron. All goes well, you should get a nice shiny solder connection
between the two. This might take some practice to get right.

Let the solder cool and you're done.

Repeat this process with a 6" piece of black wire and the motor's ground terminal.

When you are done, use your diagonal cutting pliers to trim away any excess leads sticking off of the
soldered connection. The less conductive material you have exposed, the better. This will also help put the
lid back on.

Take both wires and tie a knot such that the knot extends past the servo casing once tightened. The knot
should be put on the inside of the servo assembly when you close the lid. This will prevent the wires from
getting pulled out and keep the solder connections from being broken should something catch onto the
wire and pull.

Finally, close the servo back up using its screws.

For a more in-depth soldering guide, check out the soldering collection
(https://www.instructables.com/id/Soldering/).

Test Your Work

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Take a red jumper cable and connect one end to the red wire on a 4 X AA battery holder, and the other the
red wire on the motor.

Take a black jumper cable and connect together the black wire from the battery holder to the black wire
from the motor.

All goes well, the motor should spin clockwise.

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To reverse the motor direction, simply flip the connections by attaching the red jumper cable to the motor's
black wire and the black jumper cable to the motor's red wire.

DC motors change direction when the polarity is reversed. In other words, when you flip power and ground.

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LESSON 3: MOTORS AND MOTION

As things currently stand, by and large, robotic motion is created by motors. By employing motors in
creative ways, an unimaginable amount of robotic automation is possible. It is therefore important to begin
to learn about motors if you want to build robots of your own. There are a lot of different types of motors out
there in the world. This is by no means an exhaustive guide, but a crash course in using motors. While this
is just an initial general overview, we will continue to cover motors more thoroughly as we progress through
the class and our skills become more advanced.

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An electric motor is a machine that transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy. Put another way,
when this machine is powered by electricity, it moves (typically by rotating).

If you were to take apart a DC motor, it would look very complicated, but it is actually a fairly basic device.

When power is applied to the motor at their outer terminals, it travels across the brushes to the
commutator. The brushes got their name because they literally brush across the commutator as it spins
freely between them.

The commutator is made out of separate pieces of conductive material attached around the motor's shaft.
Each piece of the commutator is attached to a different wire in the motor's winding. As the shaft spins, and
the brushes rub against them, they make and break electrical contact with each one and power the
different windings.

The windings are basically inductor coils. You can learn more about this in the Inductors lesson
(https://www.instructables.com/lesson/Inductors/) in my Electronics Class
(https://www.instructables.com/class/Electronics-Class/).

When the windings are powered, they create a magnetic field through the rotor it is wound around. The
field that is created in the rotor reacts to the magnetic field of the magnets which are permanently fixed in
place inside of the stator (metal enclosure). These competing magnetic forces causes the rotor, which is
attached to the motor shaft, to spin into alignment as it is repelled / attracted to the fixed magnets.

If you understand how magnets work, you would know that once the fields are aligned, the rotor should
stop spinning. However, as it spins, the electrical connection to the winding being energized is broken, and
the commutator powers up the next winding, causing this next one to spin once more into place. As this
new one spins, the connection is broken again, and the next winding is powered up continuing the cycle.
This sequence will continue indefinitely so long as the motor is powered.

Since the rotor is attached to the the shaft, this explains why the motor's shaft rotates when electricity is
applied. For its part, the shaft is held in place by a bearing in the front (and sometimes the back) of the
stator (enclosure).

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There are three common types of motors that you will typically encounter in robotics. This is not to say
these are the only types of motors that exist, but they are the motors you are most likely to be working with.

DC motors spin freely when powered by a DC current. These motors spin freely when powered and have
no precise positioning. They are best as robotic drive motors. You can typically identify a DC motor
because it looks like a round metal tube with a shaft in the center and two terminals in the back. These
motors come in a wide range of different sizes and operating voltages.

Stepper motors have two or more separate coils that need to be powered in a particular sequence. On
account of this, the shaft moves in small "step" increments as the power is cycled between coils. These
motors are good for precise positioning and speed control, particularly when you need a motor that can
spin spin 360 degrees. You can typically identify a stepper motor because it has a box like shape and/or
has 4 or more wires coming out of its side. The most common type of stepper motor is a bipolar motor,
which has two coils, and four wires (two for each wire). These are typically the type you will encounter.

Servo motors are specialized DC gear motors with a built in control board that requires a signal from a
microcontroller. Most servos have limited rotation and are capable of being directed to move to a really
precise position. However, there are continuous rotation servos which cannot move to exact position, but
can be programmed in terms of speed. You can identify a servo motor because it is box-like and has a
gear-like thing attached to its shaft.

There is an entire servo lesson coming up where we will discuss this type of motor in more depth.

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There are some factors to consider when selecting a motor.

As a general rule, the larger of a motor you choose, the more voltage and current it can handle. This is
important because there is a correlation between voltage and speed, and another between current and
torque.

Put simply, the more voltage that is applied to a motor, the faster it spins.

However, like all electronics, motors have an optimal voltage range and should never exceed its maximum
voltage. That means DC motors also have a maximum speed (at their maximum operating voltage).

For those unfamiliar, torque is the amount of rotational force a motor can apply. Like speed, motors also
have a maximum amount of torque that they can produce before they stall (or stop spinning). As the motor
encounters increasing resistance and gets closer and closer to stalling, the amount of current it draws
increases. The absolute amount of current a motor can draw when it encounters so much resistance that it
stops spinning is called its stall current.

The stall current is important because it will indicate a motor's potential power. The higher this number is,
the more potential power the motor has. Although, when your robot's motor is spinning freely and not
encountering much resistance, it will not draw nearly as much current.

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Unlike the motor's voltage supply which can be varied by adjusting the voltage within its operating range,
the options for adjusting torque are not so easy. You can simply get a bigger and beefier motor to solve
this problem, or you can use a gearbox.

A gearbox is a collection of gears arranged in such a way that it translates the speed and torque of a motor
to either increase or decrease (depending on the arrangement). The motor's shaft will be attached to one
end of the gearbox, and as the motor spins, the rotation will get translated to a different speed at the output
shaft of the gearbox.

As a rule, the faster the motor spins, the less torque it provides. Slower gearboxes provide more torque
than faster ones, and vice versa.

It is rare that you would have to build your own gearbox. Many motors come assembled with a gearbox
already attached in a host of different configurations. Geared motors are a great way to get a lot of power
into a small package, or slow a DC motor down without relying on a motor controller to do all the work.

You can usually identify a geared motor because it looks like a normal motor, but with a bigger cylinder on
the end. Also, the shaft is often off-centered.

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By attaching the shaft of the motor to different mechanical systems, you can achieve different types of
motion. These assemblies can ultimately be combined to create advanced electromechanical assemblies
that solve different tasks. Albeit not quite robotic, the above tape player mechanism illustrates this.

Follows are the primary forms of motion you will achieve from a standard mechanism.

Rotary motion is the easiest to achieve because the shaft of the motor is already rotating. Typically, rotary
systems involve increasing or decreasing the motor's speed of rotation. As mentioned, this also changes
the torque of the system in relation. The type of rotary mechanism you will typically encounter involves
gears or pulleys.

Linear motion translates rotational motion into motion across a flat plane. Classic examples of this include
conveyor belts and tank tracks. This systems uses two or more rotary cogs or pulleys (one connected to
the drive shaft, and one free spinning) to pull a flat track around them. The further the distance between
these cogs, the longer the track will be. As the track gets pulled around the cogs, it moves in direction
across a flat plane.

Reciprocating motion is a motion that moves back and forth in a linear fashion. This type of motion is
often used to move a piston or in an automated door lock. There are many different ways to mechanically
achieve reciprocating motion. Common approaches involve using a yoke (as pictured), a cam, or linkages.

Oscillating motion involves any part that moves back and forth along an arc. The most classic example of
this motion is a metronome. Like most of the other movements, oscillating motion can be created by using
a range of different mechanisms, including linkages. Most typically it just requires one part one a fixed pivot
being pushed back and forth by some other part.

In order to achieve the different types of motion, you need to use mechanical parts. There are more
mechanisms in this world than I could possibly go over, but here are some common ones you may
encounter in robotics.

The simplest mechanism that you can attach is an off-centered weight on a rotary shaft. This will cause
the motor to vibrate. These are most often used in vibrobots to create complex motion. This type of motion
is the fastest path to get to gratification, but is also the most difficult to steer. The robot will tend to veer left
or right, depending on which direction the motor is spinning, but it's movements will largely be arbitrary.

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Pulleys are a type of rotational mechanism that can be used to change speed, torque, or - in some cases -
motor direction. The nice thing about using pulleys is that they are friction based, so if the drive shaft they
are attached to seizes up or gets stuck, the belts will slip and the motor will continue to spin. This puts less
pressure on both the motor and electronic system from the motor having to work harder and draw more
current as it gets closer to stalling. However, the bad thing about pulleys is that they can slip, so they are
not as precise as other mechanisms. They are thus best suited for drive systems where motor precision
isn't quite as important and the drive shaft is most likely to encounter resistance and stall.

Another type of common rotational mechanism are gears. Gears function in many of the same way pulleys
do. However, unlike pulleys, gears can also come in other shapes such as a "rack" configuration like in the
3D printed robot above, and be used to create linear motion. Gears also don't rely on friction to rotate the
shafts, but rather have a series of interlocking meshed teeth. This makes them more precise since the
meshing teeth ensure uniform and predictable amounts of rotation from one shaft to the next.

On account of the paired and meshing teeth, gears also require a very precise alignment. If they are too far
apart, the gears will skip or wear down faster, and if they are too close together the gears will apply too
much pressure and seize. Speaking of which, gear systems don't like to be stalled. This translates a lot of
force to the teeth of the gear which are usually small and brittle. This can cause a tooth on the gear to
break, which could lead to imprecision, or failure of the entire mechanical system. You can tell a geared
system is broken because it is entirely seized up or is making horrible grinding noises.

A simple way to translate rotary motion to reciprocating, linear, or oscillating motion is to use a cam. A cam
is just a lever arm which spins off-center from the shaft. The most common type of cam is oval shaped.
However, cams can come in a number of different shapes and sizes, from rectangular shaped to heart
shaped. Cams just push on things and can serve all kinds of purposes in mechanical systems. In this
instance, the two cams are both lifting and propelling the robot forward as they are rotated by the servos.

Linkages can be used to create reciprocating and oscillating motion. All that a linkage happens to be is
simply a rigid bar with holes in it for pivots. In a linkage system, some of them are constrained to other
linkages, and others are fixed to the surface upon which the motor is rotating. By creating a combination of
free and fixed pivots, the linkages are able to create a multitude of complex motions.

Another common method to translate motion is to use tracks. Aside from making any robot look like a
tank, this form of conversion creates linear motion. One of the benefits of a tracked vehicle is that its
method of locomotion has much more surface area than a wheel. This enables it to have more friction with
the ground, which is essential for climbing over uneven surfaces and obstacles. The fact that tracks
inherently have a little bit of give across their length also doesn't hurt with this either since they are able to
conform to slightly uneven planes.

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Let's now take a moment to discuss some practical concerns.

To power a DC motor, all you need to do is connect a positive voltage (within its power rating) to one
terminal on the motor, and ground to the other terminal.

To reverse the direction of the DC motor, simply reverse the wires connected to each terminal. The reason
the motor spins backwards when you do this is that the magnetic poles created within the windings is
reversed when you power it the opposite way. This forces the rotor to spin the opposite way to align with
the fixed magnets inside the stator (motor enclosure).

We will go over controlling motors with a microcontroller (such as an Arduino) in the next lesson. However,
as you can see from the project links below, there are many fun robot-like machines you can build with just
this basic knowledge of motors.

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LESSON 4: ROBOT BRAINS

To make decisions, a robot uses a computer or microcontroller. For those unfamiliar, a microcontroller is
basically an electronic component which can do three things. It can interpret inputs from the physical world,
process this information, and control output devices in the physical world. In a basic sense, a
microcontroller can read sensors, make decisions, and control lights, speakers, and motors.

By being able to both sense and respond to the world, you can create a feedback loop between the output
and the input. In other words, you can create robots and devices which are truly interactive. Another way to
think about this is that the robots can pay attention to what is happening around them, make decisions
using the Arduino, and then respond meaningfully to it. In this way, they behave a bit like most other
sentient creatures.

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The Arduino

The Arduino is a very common type of microcontroller. What sets the Arduino apart from other
microcontrollers is that is is easy to use, well documented, and has a vast online community of people
using it. This means that no matter what may go wrong, you can likely find a documented solution online or
someone willing to help you. This is extremely beneficial when getting started.

There are a number of different types of Arduinos, but for this class we will be using an Arduino Uno. This
is currently the most ubiquitous version of Arduino microcontrollers. By the time this lesson is over, you will
have a brief understanding of how to use the board, but you will by no means be an expert.

While the Arduino has a lot of features, there are a few you have to pay attention to. There is a USB port
which is used for programming. There is a power socket that is used for powering the Arduino when not
connected to your computer. There are also two rows of female sockets along the edge of the board. Each
one of these little holes connects to something different on the board, and performs a different function.
They should all be labeled fairly well to indicate what they are.

If and when you get confused, you can find a much more in-depth overview by checking out the Arduino
Class (https://www.instructables.com/class/Arduino-Class/).

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Plug It In.

To power up the board simply connect it to your computer with a USB-A to USB-B cable. This is basically
a standard USB cable that something like a computer printer would use.

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Programming the Arduino

To program the Arduino we will be using the Arduino IDE (integrated development environment). The most
current version of the software can be downloaded for free from the Arduino site
(https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Software) or used directly on the internet (soon).

A Note About Programming

The most important thing to know about programming is to fake it untill you make it. Basically, you don't
actually need to know how to program to work with code. There is a ton of example code already out there.
You just need to understand its basic structure. Once you got this, it is just a matter of finding and tweaking
code which already exists. If you just stick with this approach, keep an open mind, and a fearless spirit,
eventually you will learn to program for real-like.

However, it is not entirely a free-for-all. There are a few things you need to understand. Please bear with
me while I drop some very basic coding knowledge on you. BAM!

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Syntax

Every programming language has a syntax for how the code needs to be formatted. That is basically the
equivalent of knowing proper grammar. For instance, most expressions in programming end with a
semicolon - like so; This is a bit like writing a period at the end of the sentence. If you write an essay
without periods you will confuse the heck out of the reader. Likewise, if you write an Arduino program
without syntax, you will confuse the heck out of the compiler. The compiler interprets the code and is a bit
like the reader of an essay in our analogy.

If you are ever getting strange errors and can't tell why, chances are you have broken one of the rules of
syntax (i.e. formatting).

Code Expressions

When reading and writing code you will encounter some basic building blocks just like you would in any
other language. For instance, English has nouns, adjectives, and verbs. These components are then
structured into sentences. Programming in turn has constants, variables and operators. These are then
structured into functions.

Here are some basic definitions of common programming components:

Constants are terms which are defined once and do not change.

Variables are terms which are placeholders for other values and can change.

Operators are terms which perform an action, which is typically some form of math or logical comparison
between values.

Functions are a structured collection of constants, operators and variables. Every time a function is called,
it reads through and executes the same specific action routine.

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Program Structure

Once you have mastered the components of English grammar and have begun writing sentences, the next
logical step is to write a composition such as an essay. Just as an essay has a structure with an opening
paragraph, body text, and a closing paragraph, so does an Arduino program. However, an Arduino
program's structure is a little bit different.

A typical program is laid out as follows:

The compiler typically reads from left to right from one line to the next. Well - for the most part. There are a
few key differences from the way that a normal person that are crucial to understand.

A good way to think about a computer program is a bit like a choose your own adventure story. The
compiler reads the story like it would any other, but when the compiler reads a function, instead of reading
the next line, it jumps to where that function lives and reads it line by line instead. When it is done reading
the function, it goes back to the next line in the code from where it left off. Also, functions can have other
functions nested within them. So, a function, can lead to another function, to yet another function, before
going back to the main routine.

If that in and of itself were not confusing, the program all reads down the page - to a point! And this is
important to remember... When the compiler gets to the main loop(), whatever is contained within this loop
is repeated over and over and over and over until the Arduino runs out of power. The main loop() is the
endlessly repetative place where the meat of the code should live. Whatever you are trying to accomplish
should exist in the main loop().

All of this is likely very confusing and foreign to you. That's okay. Learning the Arduino programming
language is a bit like learning any language. It takes time to get the hang of it, and even then it takes a long
time to be truly fluent.

To learn more about programming, a good place to start is Codecadamy (https://www.codecademy.com/).

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Run a Program

Running a program on the Arduino is dead simple.

To begin, you need to specify the type of board you are using. That is easy, select the "Arduino/Genuino
Uno" option.

You also eneds to specify the port where the Arduino is found. That is a little bit trickier, but not too hard.
Just select the option that looks like "/dev/cu.usbmodem [random numbers]"

Open the Blink example from the Example 01.Basics menu. Then, find the upload button (this looks like
right-pointing arrow) and press it. If everything is configured correctly, it should cause the LED on the
Arduino board to blink steadily.

Try changing the number value within the delay functions and reupload the code. Notice that it changes the
rate at which it blinks.

Now that you have got this down, let's try blinking an external LED not soldered directly to the Arduino
board.

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All About Breadboards

When you need to prototype a circuit that connects to the Arduino, you should use a breadboard.

Breadboard are meant to make quick non-permananent connections between electronic components. They
are covered in tiny socket holes which are connected in rows. The board itself is broken into four sections.
There are two inner sections full of short horizontal rows, and two outer sections with longer vertical rows.

The inner sections are typically used for connecting components, and the outer sections are typically used
as power bus lines. In other words, you can connect a battery to one of the outer lines and then power
components on the inner section by connecting a wire to this section.

In the above graphic you can visually get a sense of how the rows on breadboards are electrically
connected. The two inner sections have short horizontal rows repeated down the board. The two outer
sections each have two long vertical rows. These are marked in red and blue and are meant to signify a
row for power (red) and a row for ground (blue). Not all breadboards are marked with lines like this, but
they are all laid out the same way.

For much more information about breadboard's check out this Breadboard Tutorial
(https://www.instructables.com/id/Breadboard-How-To/).

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A Quick Note on LEDs

Althought people think of LEDs as little light bulbs, they are actually quite different. LEDs are a type of
electronic component called a diode. In fact, LED is an abbreviation for light emitting diode.

There is a lot to say about their unique status as a diode, but for our purposes the only thing that you need
to know is that diodes only allow electricity to flow in one direction. They are what you would call
'polarized'. There is one leg that should always be connected to power and one that should be connected
to ground. If you connect them backwards, power won't flow.

The leg which is connected to power is called the anode. The leg which is connected to ground is called
the cathode. There are three ways to tell apart an LED's anode from its cathode.

1) The leg connected to the anode is typically longer than the one connected to the cathode.
2) The body of the LED typically has a flat spot on the cathode side.
3) If you look inside the LED, the little metal bit connected to the anode lead is much smaller than the
cathode.

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Resistors

Resistors basically add resistance to a circuit. There are many reasons for doing this, but I don't have all
day to explain.

Basically, we need a resistor in the circuit we are about to build because an LED offers no resistance. If we
connect power through an LED without any resistance, then it is basically the same as creating a short
circuit by connecting the power supply to ground. We add a resistor in series to the LED to use up some of
the power and prevent a short circuit. If you want to know more, you can learn more about resistors and
resistance in the Basic Electronics (https://www.instructables.com/id/Basic-Electronics/) tutorial.

The only thing we need to know about resistors at this juncture is that even though they roughly look the
same, they all have different values. You can tell how much resistance each one offers by reading the
resistor codes marked upon them. Resistor codes are read from left to right towards the gold (or silver)
band.

To begin, the easiest way to interpret the codes is to use an online graphical resistor calculator
(http://www.dannyg.com/examples/res2/resistor.htm). Once you use this enough, you will begin to learn
how to interpret them on your own without the calculator.

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Breadboard a Circuit

Insert an LED into a breadboard. Connect a 150 ohm resistor in series with the LED's cathode.

Using a black solid core wire, connect the opposite end of the resistor (the side not connected to the LED)
to ground on the Arduino.

Using a red solid core wire, connect the LED's anode to digital pin 7 on the Arduino.

Blink an External LED

You can blink an external LED by opening the Blink example code and changing this code and replacing
all the number 13 to the number 7 whenever it shows up. By doing this, you are simply changing the digital
pin that is being pulsed on and off from 13 to 7 in order to match the circuit you built on your breadboard.

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Once you have mastered blinking and fading LEDs, you can transfer this knowledge to controlling a motor.
However, you cannot connect a motor directly to the Arduino pin for two reasons. First, the Arduino pin is
only able to provide a little bit of current, and a motor is a current hog (especially when it starts and stops).
Also, when a motor stops, it produces a current of opposite polarity to the one it is running at. This current
is known to damage Arduino pins and stop them from working. Thus, building a buffer circuit is useful.

All you need to control a motor using an Arduino is a 2K resistor, an NPN transistor (TIP120 in this case),
and a 1N4001 diode. The 2K resistor works to protect the Arduino pin, the transistor serves as a valve
which lets more or less current flow through the motor. This is what turns the motor on and off, and controls
its speed.

The diode is used as a buffer. When electricity flows through the motor, the diode does nothing. However,
when the motor stops, the reverse current flows across the diode, and back through the motor. This
protects the circuit from sudden voltage spikes.

If all of this sounds confusing, you can learn more about these basic components in my Electronics Class
(https://www.instructables.com/class/Electronics-Class/).

If you want to turn the motor on and off using the pictured circuit you need to make two more connections.
First, connect the external battery pack's ground to the Arduino's ground pin. This is called "sharing
ground" and is necessary for the circuit to work. Next, connect pin 13 from the Arduino to the 2K resistor
connected to the transistors base. Once this is done, load the Blink example and upload it to the Arduino.
Instead of blinking an LED, it will power on and off the motor.

If you want to control the motor's speed, change the wiring to pin 13, and load the fade example to
increase and decrease the motor's speed.

It may now have dawned upon you, neither of these solutions will reverse the motor. To make a motor spin
backwards, you will need an H-bridge.

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An H-bridge is a circuit that allows a motor's direction to be reversed. More advanced H-bridges - like the
kind found inside of servo motors - also allow you to control the speed of the motor.

Essentially, an H-bridge consists of four switches or transistors. In the above example, there is a switch
between each pole of the motor and ground. There is also another set of switches between each pole of
the motor and power.

When these switches are drawn out in a diagram, they look kind of like an “H”. That is how the circuit gets
the name H-bridge.

When the set of switches labeled with “A” is closed, power flows through the motor in such a way that it
spins clockwise.

When the other “B” set is closed, power flows the opposite direction and the motor spins counterclockwise.

The important thing to remember when dealing with H-bridges is that both sets cannot be closed at the
same time, or power and ground will be directly connected, and you will have a short circuit.

As well, if you mix and match the switches such as closing A1 and B2, you will also create a short circuit. It
is important that either the “A” switches get closed or the “B” switches. Never both or some combination
thereof.

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If you want to control speed, you would use four transistors instead of switches and control the base of
each transistor using your Arduino.

Above is a crude example of a DIY H-bridge using two PNP (2N3906) and two NPN (2N3904) transistors.
Before you go out and build this circuit and put into your project, it is important to keep in mind that these
transistors can't handle much current at all. This example should only be tried with a relatively 'very small'
motors (no bigger than the one pictured), and is not necessary to build. It is primarily just here to explain
the concept of it. We will be using motor controller boards with pre-made H-bridges as we continue through
the course.

Now that is out of the way, let's discuss briefly about what is happening. Each side of the "H" consists of a
PNP transistor on "top" and a NPN transistor on "bottom." The base of each of these transistors is
connected to a common rail through a 1K resistor (to protect the Arduino), and this rail gets connected to
an Arduino pin. The emitter of the PNP transistor is connected to power, and the emitter of the NPN
transistor is connected to ground. On each side of the 'H', both collectors connect together to join a single
motor pin. Also included in the circuit are four 1N4001 silicon protection diodes which are reverse biased
between each pin of the motor and the positive voltage supply and ground.

By using a combination of PNP and NPN transistors — as opposed to four NPN transistors — two things
are accomplished. First, it creates an arrangement where one transistor on each side is always
disengaged, preventing shorts. Secondly, it allows control of the H-bridge with just two digital pins from the
Arduino.

For instance, if you have one Arduino pin sending a high signal to one side of the 'H', and the other Arduino
pin sending a low signal to the other side, electricity will flow from the PNP on one side to the NPN on the
other. If you reverse the Arduino pins, electricity will then flow through the opposite pair of transistors,
reversing motor direction.

The motor speed can also be controlled using an H-bridge like this by PWM-ing the positive Arduino pin
instead of setting it to HIGH.

If you soldiered ahead and built this circuit, you can use the following code to see it in action:

If you want to test out controlling the speed in both directions, try PWM-ing the base pins of the transistor
with this code:

Building a very reliable H-bridge is an art form unto itself and outside the scope of this class. Instead, we
will be using motor controller shield and modules. These are basically circuit boards with pre-made H-
bridges for controlling motors.

Some motors even have their own H-bridge already built in, as you will learn next in the servo lesson.

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LESSON 5: SERVO A-GO-GO!

A servo is basically a special kind of geared motor. What makes a servo different from a normal geared
motor is that it has a built-in controller board and (typically) a feedback potentiometer (like a stereo volume
knob) for accurate positioning. It is very easy to control a servo motor using a microcontroller such as an
Arduino. Typically no other control circuitry is needed. Servos are basically a very easy and reliable motor
to work with.

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Types of Servos

Hobby servos tend to come in a wide range of sizes. They also have a variety of other options such as
their overall rotation, how their gearbox is constructed, and how they communicate with microcontrollers.
Follows are some basic types of servos you may encounter.

Standard Servos

Standard servos are fairly standard as far as servos go. Hence the name, standard servo. The standard
name largely applies to the size of the motor (approximately 1.5" x 1.5" x .75"). Beyond that, there tends to
be nothing standard about the standard servo.

There are countless different types of standard servos you may encounter. They make them with plastic or
metal gearboxes, which in turn are designed for either high speed or high toruqe opration. Most have 90
degree rotation (90 degrees in both directions - 180 total), but some have 180 degree rotation (180 degrees
in both directions - 360 total), or are continuous rotation and can spin freely. Some even have digital
control boards, as opposed to the servos with analog boards like we are using. You can even find some
that don't meet any of these descriptions. There are a lot of "standard" servos out in the world.

Nano Servos

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Nano servos are small - roughly the size of a very small coin. These are used when size constraints are an
issue. They are good for manipulating existing mechanisms (i.e. pressing a button), or building very - very -
small robots. They are manufactured largely to do things like control flaps in RC airplanes.

Micro Servos

These are like nano servos, but slighly bigger and more powerful. They have most of the same use-cases
and functionality of nano servos. They are good for building small things rather than tiny things. They are
also typically manufactured for use in RC airplanes.

1/4 Scale

If you were to judge by the name you might infer that a 1/4 scale servo is very small. However, you would
be wrong. These servos are meant to be used with model cars which are a quarter the size of the actual
thing. Thus, they are relatively big and they are typically fairly powerful. When you need something heavy
duty, this should be your go-to.

Their size and power make them ideal for drive motors. Unfortunately, these servos rarely come pre-made
for continuous rotation. However, it is possible to modify a standard servo to be a continuous rotation servo
and a number of retailers will do this for you for an extra charge.

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Gearbox Construction

As mentioned, not all servos are created equally. Every servo performs differently depending on the type of
motor used, the configuration of the gear assembly, and whether the gears are plastic or metal.

Servos with metal gears tend to be built to provide more torque than servos with plastic gears. The reason
for this is that plastic gears break under heavy loads and metal gears tend to be much stronger. Thus, the
metal geared servos are capable of dealing with the heavier loads and greater forces.

For those still confused, torque is basically the amount of force a rotating shaft can provide. What this
means is that something with more torque is less likely to stall (or stop rotating and/or applying pressure)
than something with less torque. If you need to lift something, or press down upon something, the more
torque your servo can provide, the better.

The torque measurements you may typically encounter are in ounce-inch (oz-in), kilogram-centimeter (kg-
cm), or Newton meter (N-m). Understanding this is a complicated matter. To simplify, bigger is typically
better for most applications. You should get used to working in either oz-in or kg-cm, and then use online
measurement converters to translate all measurements to the value you are most comfortable with.

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Standard Servos

When using a standard servo, you are able to send it to a very specific position along it's angle of rotation.
In other words, if you are using a servo capable of rotating 180 degrees, you can tell it to go to any degree
(say - 112 degrees for instance), and it will move there from its current position.

The reason is is able to know what position it is at is because there is a potentiometer (or variable resistor)
built into the gear box. That component is basically the twisty knob you see hovering over the top of the
circuit board. The way this works is that when the gears rotate, they also rotate the knob which changes
the amount of resistance in the circuit. The control board is able to sense this change in resistance and
precisely determine the motor shaft's position in degrees.

Since a potentiometer can only be rotated so far, these motors cannot rotate beyond their maximum angle.
Additionally, if you look closely at the largest gear on the right side of the gear box, you will notice a little
plastic tab protruding from the surface. This is a physical stop preventing the servo from extending beyond
its maximum rotation angle. Standard servos are physically restricted from making a full rotation in two
ways.

While you obviously cannot use this type of servo to drive the robot around, it is very useful for a large host
of applications. Say you are building a robot arm, for instance. You can use a servo to control each joint.
By doing this, you can tell each joint to move to a very precise position, allowing it to do very complex
tasks. You can also use them to do things like build multi-legged walking robot spiders, press down on
other things such as a spray can nozzle, or make creepy animatronic baby dolls.

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Continuous Rotation Servos

Continuous rotation servos don't have positioning ability, and are able to make a full rotation. If you look
closely at the large gear on the right you will notice that there is no physical hard stop restricting its ability
to rotate.

Rather than set position, continuous servos allow you to set motor direction and speed. This allows you to
easily do things like specify that it goes fast in a clockwise direction, pause for a moment, and then resume
very slowly in a counterclockwise direction. These servos basically have a built-in H-bridge that you can
control using a microcontroller.

They are very useful as robot drive wheels, or in mechnical systems that require a motor with continuous
rotation (such as with the paintbrush mechanism in the sponge bot). However, don't expect to get much
speed out of them. While servos are known for easy control, and decent torque, they are not known for
speed. This is because the gearboxes designed to provide torque do so at the expense of overall motor
speed.

Throughout this class we will only be using servos as drive motors because nothing we are building is
intended to go remarkably fast. However, as you get deeper into robotics and start feeling a need for
speed, you may want to research DC geared motors and motor controllers. This may sound overwhelming,
but just remember, a continuous rotation servo is basically a DC geared motor with the motor controller
already built in.

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Powering a Servo

A servo has 3 wires coming off of it.

Signal: Connected to a 5V digital control pin from a microcontroller.


Power:This can be connected to a positive voltage from 4.5V up to 6V.
Ground:Connected to common ground - always.

You may be tempted to just connect the servo's power wire to the 5V pin on the Arduino microcontroller.
DON'T!

Connecting the servo to the 5V pin is a bad idea because:


1) The Arduino's 5V pin can only provide a limited amount of current. Thus, you will likely be under-
powering the motor.
2) The 5V pin does not have much in the way of a protection circuit. What this means is that if a voltage
greater than 5V shows up at the pin, you can potentially damage the Arduino board. Motors (such as
servos) are particularly known for producing back current (i.e. unexpected electrical currents), and you
could potentially send more than 5V back to the board.
3) Also, if you draw too much current from the Arduino board, your code simply could do funny things and
not work right. It's simply best practice to power current hogs (like motors) seperately.

The simplest solution is to provide the motor with its own power supply. This can be done most easily by
Robots Class: Page 75
connecting a 6V battery supply to the servo. Well - it can almost be done that easily. There is the issue of
ground. The ground wire from the battery pack needs to be shared with the ground wire from the Arduino.
This may sound complicated, but it is really simple. Painfully simple in fact.

Whenever building a circuit with multiple DC voltage sources, or connecting together different
circuit boards, their ground wires must be connected.

Just as it is important to have common ground between all participants in a conversation, it is important to
have a common ground when working with electronics. Have a shared ground connection puts all of the
voltages on the same page, and allows them to communicate.

Speaking of communicating, connect the signal wire to Digital Pin 9 on the Arduino.

Controlling a Standard Servo

Upload the following code to the Arduino to make the Servo move back and forth:

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LESSON 6: SENSORS

What sets robots apart from basic machines is their ability to both sense and respond to phenomena in the
physical world. To do this, they use sensors. A sensor works by converting physical output from the world
into a signal that can be understood by a microcontroller. Since all sensors in some way measure
properties in the physical world, and robots are able to take actions to affect the physical world, a feedback
loop is created. It is a robot's ability to have an active and 'intentional' role in their environment that sets
them apart from most other machines.

While there is no fixed rule about the type of sensor a robot must have, we can go over a few that robots
commonly use.

One of the most popular is the ultrasonic rangefinder. This sensor sends out a highly directional
ultrasonic "ping" and counts the time it takes for the sound to bounce off the object and return to the
sensor. This sensor is good for detecting the presence of objects that are between 1" and 120" (12') away.
It is good for sensing non-moving obstacles, but not good for sensing motion.

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To sense if people in a space are moving, you would want to use an IR motion sensor. This sensor has a
pre-defined viewing angle which differs between models, which basically means that is has a field in front
of the sensor that it can detect movement within. This field tends to increase in width the farther away from
the sensor you go. It does not tell you how far people are, but is very good at identifying if people are
present and moving.

There is, however, an IR sensor which is good for sensing distance. This sensor works in much the same
way as the PING sensor, but instead of measuring sound that reflects back, it measures IR light. These
sensors vary widely in the distance ranges they measure, so it is important to check a sensor's datasheet
to make sure it is the range you are looking for before buying one. They tend to be highly precise in their
measurements, but they are also typically slightly more expensive than ultrasonic sensors.

If you want your robot to measure the amount of visible light in a space, you can use a photocell. Aside
from measuring light, a photocell and some LEDs can be fashioned into a crude color sensor. This is
because some colors reflect light better than others. Thus, this sensor can be used to identify and follow a
black line drawn on the ground. For an example of how to build such a sensor, check out my telepresence
robot (https://www.instructables.com/id/Telepresence-Robot-Edge-Detection/). The downside for using a
sensor for this purpose is that it is affected by ambient light.

You can also use the robot to measure sound. This sensor is largely just a pre-amplified microphone. This
sensor is easiest to interface with if you are just measuring the volume of sound. Listening for commands
or frequencies is very difficult for the Arduino because typically it requires too much processing power to do
anything too advanced. Albeit, it is possible (https://www.instructables.com/id/Arduino-Frequency-
Detection/) for more advanced coders to accomplish. Typically, if you want to do advanced audio
processing, you would use a shield or module to listen for frequencies or voice commands. An example of
this, again, can be found in my telepresence robot (https://www.instructables.com/id/Telepresence-Robot-
Shields-and-Modules/).

A robot collision switch is typically just a lever switch with some sort of extender arm attached to the lever.
This creates a large mechanical advantage, and gives the switch a hair trigger. It will alert the arduino
almost immediately upon being touched. They also make commercial versions of this for use as
mechanical safety switches. These are good for really big robots, such as the rubber bumper switch used
in my robotic bedframe (https://www.instructables.com/howto/bedfellow/).

Once you have selected a sensor, there is no single standard way for sensors to communicate information
to a microcontroller. Each sensor needs to be interfaced with in a manner appropriate to it. Fortunately,
most sensors are sending data in a predictable manner as either a resistance, analog voltage, digital
voltage, or data signal.

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An analog sensor produces a signal which is constant and roughly proportional to whatever is being
measured. Put another way, it puts out an uninterrupted voltage signal, or produces a variable amount of
resistance in the circuit. As a general rule, these sensors tend not to be quite as accurate as digital
sensors, but they do tend to be cheaper and more robust. For many non-precision robotic applications, an
analog sensor is more than suitable.

Many analog sensors are resistive which means that they have a fluctuating amount of resistance-based
on whatever they are measuring. Examples of such sensors are a photocell, FSR (force sensitive resistor)
or bend sensor. These sensors can be read by a microcontrollers analog input using a voltage divider.
These sensors tend to be passive, meaning that they will function and produce a reading even without an
input voltage. Put another way, you can read their resistance with a multimeter even if it is not part of a
powered circuit.

To test out this sensor in action, wire a 10K resistor in series with a photocell. Connect their junction to pin
A0 on the Arduino. Connect the remaining resistor pin to ground, and the remaining photocell pin to 5V
power. Once the wiring is complete, open the Arduino software and upload File > Examples > 01.Basics
> AnalogReadSerial. Finally, to see it in action, open the Serial Monitor.

Some analog sensors such as temperature sensors, photo transistors, and IR rangefinders are voltage-
based and will produce a signal between 0V and 5V. This can be read directly by an Arduino's analog pin.
These sensors are usually active, meaning that without an input voltage they will not be powered on or do
anything. They are typically interfaced using the Arduino in exactly the same manner as resistive sensors.
However, it is important to keep in mind that they are outputting a current, as opposed to changing
resistance for those rare instances where interfacing with them deviates.

A digital sensor has a discrete voltage output, meaning the signal is either on or off. Put into electronics
terms this means the signal is either high or low, or 1 or 0. The digital signal can be as simple as on and
off, or it can be toggled on and off fast enough to communicate using a binary (1 or 0) data protocol.

The Arduino, in turn, is able to interpret these pulses and understand what is being communicated. It is a
bit like someone is communicating with the Arduino in morse code by tapping on a switch connected to an
input pin. Except, in this case, it is happening really - really - really - fast.

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Arguably, the most basic digital sensor is a switch. It provides a signal which is either on or off depending
on whether it is pressed or not. In normal circumstances, this involves human input. However, you can use
switches as collision switches on robots such that when the robot bumps into something, it warns its
microcontroller brain to stop driving in that direction. This type of sensor would be considered passive and
is rare as far as digital sensors go.

A more typical digital sensor that produces a basic high or low output is an IR motion sensor. It is able to
sense motion by picking up on human heat waves. This type of sensor just tells you if there is human
movement, or not.

To try it out, connect the 5V pin to 5V on the Arduino, ground to ground, and the DIG pin to digital pin 2 on
the Arduino as pictured. Next, open the Arduino software and load up File > Examples > 01.Basics >
DigitialReadSerial. Finally, point the sensor away from you (to avoid constantly triggering it), and open the
serial monitor.

Finally, there are advanced sensors such as ultrasonic rangefinder sensors and accelerometers that
communicate with the Arduino using a complex custom protocol or binary data signal (such as serial).
These sensors are specialized modules (more on that in the next lesson) that have their own IC or
microcontroller preconfigured to provide accurate sensor readings to another device.

Often these sensors will require reading their datasheet to understand how to interface with them. For
instance, the PING sensor, which is a ubiquitous brand name ultrasonic sensor produced by Parallax, has

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a pin which is used as both an input and an output. It needs to be sent a 5V pulse from the microcontroller,
and then the same pin needs to be configured as a digital input and monitored for the return signal.
However, if I hadn't just told you and you didn't read the documentation, you would have a lot of trouble
figuring this out.

If you have a PING sensor, plug it into the breadboard and wire its pins to the Arduino as follows:

Ping 5V to Arduino 5V
Ping Ground to Arduino ground
Ping Signal to Arduino digital pin 4

Once the wires are connected, upload the following code and open the Serial Monitor:

Sensors we have covered in this lesson are by no means the only sensors you might ever use. There are
more sensors in this world that I can possibly go over. Other things you might want to sense include
acceleration (accelerometer), color, natural gasses, electromagnetic fields (hall effect), orientation in space
(gyro), human touch (capacitive), wireless signal strength, weather, and air pressure (to name a few).
Chances are if there is something out there you want to sense, there is a tool out there to do it. All you
need to do is track it down and figure it out.

For a comprehensive index of existing sensors, check out the sensor list
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sensors) on Wikipedia.

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LESSON 7: MODULES AND SHIELDS

In and of itself, the Arduino is limited to very basic input and output control. To do anything more requires
building complex circuits out of many electronic components. Shield and modules are complex pre-built
circuits designed to solve a particular task. This means that instead of building and connecting your
Arduino to a big complicated homemade circuit, you can just attach it to the proper terminals on these
boards, and they will do much of the work for you. This allows you to quickly and easily expand the
functionality of the microcontroller without much fuss.

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An Arduino shield is a special circuit board that plugs in on top of the Arduino and adds special
functionality to it. It gets it's name because it is a little bit like the board is holding a shield in front of itself
as protection.

People make all kinds of shields to enhance the capabilities of the Arduino. They are basically special
circuits designed to do something very particular, and then attached directly to the Arduino. Given that
there are an endless number of circuits that you can connect to the Arduino, there are also countless
shields out in the world performing a wide variety of functions.

One of the most common types of shields encountered in hobby robotics is a motor shield. A motor shield
is a circuit for controlling motors using one or more H-bridges, which — as discussed in the "Robot Brains"
Lesson (https://www.instructables.com/lesson/Robot-Brains/) — is a special type of circuit that allows you
to control motor direction (and, typically, speed as well). This shield has four separate H-bridges which
allows you to control four different DC motors, or two stepper motors (or a combination thereof). The shield
is also configured to provide a regulated (relatively) high-current power supply to two servo motors.

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In this example I am using an Adafruit motor shield to simply control a single motor on Channel 1. To
accomplish this I just wire a DC motor to the terminals labeled M1 and connect an external power supply
(battery pack) to the power terminal block.

The benefit of using a shield is that you can connect it an external circuit board without messy wires. It fits
squarely atop the Arduino board, potentially saving space. It's also explicitly designed to work with the
Arduino, and often has a library associated with it.

Since shields tend to have fixed connections to the Arduino and a very specific functionality, they often
have libraries associated with them. A library is a set of functions that you can call in your code that helps
you perform common tasks quickly and easily. For instance, rather than writing complex Arduino code to
interface with the hardware on this motor shield to turn on the motor, you can just install a library and use
the motor "run" function.

This particular motor shield requires you to download and place the Adafruit Motor Shield V2 library
(https://github.com/ladyada/Adafruit_Motor_Shield_V2_Library/archive/master.zip) in your software's library
folder. If you are not sure how to install a library, check out the Arduino Class
(https://www.instructables.com/lesson/Skills-Infusion/#step3) for more complete instructions.

Once it is installed, restart the Arduino software, and you will now see a sketch called "DCMotorTest"
under File > Examples > Adafruit Motor Shield V2 Library. Open and run this sketch to see your motor
in action.

However, there are tradeoffs to using shield as well. The downside is that it might tie up more pins on the
Arduino than you need by connecting unwanted functionality on the shield. Even if you don't plan to use all
aspects of the shields, it nevertheless is always connecting those parts of the circuit to the Arduino. For
instance, we are controlling a single DC motor, but there are two pins hardwired to control servo motors
that we are not using. This is less than ideal if we want to connect multiple other modules and components
to the Arduino. Rarely can you stack different types of shields without these pins interfering.

An easy way to solve this problem is to use external modules and only connect the pins you need to the
Arduino.

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Modules, like shields, are boards that connect to an Arduino, and add special functionality. The difference
with modules is that they are not Arduino-specific. They do not need to plug over top of the Arduino, but
can be connected to a number of different controller boards using hookup wire, or sometimes can even run
as a stand-alone device (i.e. all by themselves).

The IR motion sensor and the Ping sensor we used in the previous sensor lesson are both examples of a
module board. As you begin working with robotics, you will continually encounter all kinds of different
modules. Just like with shields, there are countless of them out in the world which perform more functions
than you can imagine.

A common type of module you might use for robotics is the DRV8833 stepper motor controller module
pictured above. This board is essentially just a motor controller with dual H-bridges. That means it can
control the speed and direction of two DC motors, or the speed and direction a single stepper motor.

To interface with a bipolar stepper motor (two coil), each coil needs to be connected to one of the outputs
on the module. If you cannot figure out which wire is which, you can find the coils by connecting and LED
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to the motor coil and spinning the motor's shaft with your hand. If the LED lights up, you have found one
pair of coil wires. If not, try again until the LED lights up. Once you have found the first coil, the other pair of
wires should be the other coil by default.

The servo controller module has input pins, which get connected to the Arduino. This is because the
control input on the module receives the output pulses from the Arduino. The output pins from the module
get connected to the motor. Each output is a single H-bridge, and has two pins. The servo motor's coils get
connected to each output.

Put another way, each coil from the stepper gets connected to a separate H-bridge. The module processes
the commands from the Arduino to engage the H-bridges in the proper sequence to move the motor.
Fortunately, it is not necessary to figure out the proper sequence necessary to power up the coils with the
proper polarities. The Arduino's built-in stepper library solves this for you.

To wire it up, make the following input connections:

Arduino Pin 4 > AIN1


Arduino Pin 5 > AIN 2
Arduino Pin 6 > BIN1
Arduino Pin 7 > BIN 2
Arduino +5v > SLP

On the output side, you want to connect one pair of stepper coil wires to one of the pairs of H-bridge output
pins. It then follows to connect the other pair of motor wires to the other output.

Finally, plug the external power supply (battery pack) into the external power terminal block, keeping an
eye on maintaining proper polarity.

To make it work, we just need to initiate the library, initiate an instance of a stepper motor in the code, and
then configure it to match our motor. You can see an example here:

The benefit of using a module is that you can choose the functionality that you want from the board and
only the absolute minimum number of Arduino pins are being connected. Also, since it does not to sit atop
the Arduino, it can be smaller, and more compact. This small size is beneficial because it not only make it
easier to fit inside of tight project enclosures, but keeps manufacturing costs down. Modules tend to be
lower cost than shields.

Still, you might want to just go with a shield because it is potentially easier to interface with and you won't
end up with a mess of wires.

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Regardless of whether you are using a shield or module, the more advanced your robot becomes, the less
likely it is going to be that a single board will do everything you need. Both shields and modules are
typically meant to solve basic common problems. As your robot begins to evolve you will encounter
specific complex problems that exceed the abilities of these boards.

If you don't find a shield or module that does what you need, don't despair. You can always build your own
custom circuit board to suit your needs. As demonstrated above, these new prototype boards can even be
stacked atop of existing Arduino shields.If you really want to go above and beyond, you can even go a step
further by designing your own custom circuit board (https://www.instructables.com/class/Circuit-Board-
Design-Class/) and having it manufactured. This is perhaps not something you would do right away, but
will become more appealing the deeper you dive into robotics.

What Next?

Now that you are armed with all of this knowledge of electronics for robots, the next step is to actually build
a robot. I suggest you start with the Telepresence Robot (https://www.instructables.com/id/Telepresence-
Robot-2/). This is a comprehensive guide which both goes over building a robot and reviews many of the
same concepts covered in this class.

However, should that robot not strike your fancy, there are a few additional suggestions listed below.

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