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# APPENDIX B

## Experimental Determination of the Chip

Compression Ratio (CCR)

## B I General Experimental Techniques

Although a number of experimental methods for the determination of the chip compres-
sion ratio (CCR) were known to researchers, modern books and other publications on
metal cutting do not consider any of them because CCR is not regarded as an important
parameter in metal cutting studies. Because it is argued in this book that major tribologi-
cal parameters and characteristics of metal cutting correlate with CCR, a need to present
a few common experimental methods for the determination of CCR is felt.

The simplest method is to measure the chip thickness and then calculate CCR as

= t2/tl, (B 1)

## where t2 is the chip thickness and tl is the uncut chip thickness.

However this is not always possible because the chip: (a) might have a saw-toothed free
surface and (b) be very small and 3D-curved.

The second method is the weighing method. A small (5-10mm long) straight piece of
the chip is separated from the rest of the chip. Then, its length Lc and width dwl are
measured. When the piece of the chip selected for the study is not straight, a computer
vision system available nowadays in most shops is used to measure its length properly.
Then, it is weighed so its weight Gch (N) is determined. The chip thickness is then
calculated as

Gch
t2 = , (B2)
dwl LcPwg

where Pw is the density of the work material (kg/m 3) and g = 9.81 m/s 2 is the gravity
constant.

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Experimental Determination of the Chip Compression Ratio (CCR) 415

For finishing operations when the depth of cut is shallow, it becomes rather difficult to
measure the width of the chip. CCR is determined in this case using the ratio of the chip
and the uncut chip cross-sectional areas, Act, and Aw, respectively, i.e.

A ch
~" = . ~ (B3)
Aw

As such, the cross-sectional area of the chip is determined using the weighing method as

G ch
Act, = (B4)
Lcpwg

## where dw is the depth of cut and f is the cutting feed.

The third method is the direct method, which is applicable in turning, milling, drilling and
other common machining operations. The essence of this method is that the workpiece
is "marked" before cutting and then the resultant marks on the chip are compared with
the original marks. The realization of this method for longitudinal turning is shown in
Fig. Bl(a). As shown, two longitudinal grooves are made on the outer surface of the

View A
_ Lg 1 (a) TURNING

Workpiece
Fragment of the chip

## Fragment of the chip

"\ Q I f
-J Fragment of the chip
Axis of the tool Trajectory of cutters

## Fig. B1. Practical methods of determining CCR.

416 Tribology of Metal Cuning

workpiece before testing and the arc distance between these grooves Lgl is measured.
After the test, a chip section with these marks can be easily found and the distance Lg2
is measured. CCR is then determined as

= Lgl/Lg2 (B6)

## The realization of the method discussed to measure CCR in drilling is shown in

Fig. Bl(b). Two small holes of diameter dl are drilled as shown in Fig. Bl(b) along
the trajectory of the point of the drill cutting edge. Diameter d2 is smaller than that (D)
of the would-be-hole. The arc distance Lgl between the centers of these holes is mea-
sured. After the test, a chip fragment having marks from the two holes is found and the
arc distance Lg2 between their centers is measured at high magnification using an optical
comparator or a computer vision system. Using Eq. (B6), CCR is determined.

The realization of the discussed method for face milling is shown in Fig. Bl(c). As
shown, the surface of the workpiece is made with a step having width Lgl - - 3 - 6 mm
and height which is 4-6 times smaller that the depth of the cut, i.e. dw/hw - 4-6. After
the test, the width Lg2 is measured and CCR is determined using Eq. (B6). Shifting the
position of the axes of the tool and the workpiece, one can determine CCR under a wide
range of uncut chip thickness.

B2 Design of Experiment

Approximation of the dependence of CCR on the factor "vtl" (the Peclet criterion) can
be accomplished using a simple test program consisting of only two runs. For example,
for the test results of which shown in Fig. 2.8, the following simple design of experiment
can be utilized. Table B1 shows the plan of tests.

## Using these test results, CCR can be approximated as follows:

vt 1 ] x(
(B7)
-- ~0 x/(Vtl)Z/(Vtl) 1

where

## Table B1. Plan and test results.

Test number (i) 103 vtl (m2/s) CCR (~'i)
1 0.25 2.60
2 1.85 1.93
Experimental Determination of the Chip Compression Ratio (CCR) 417

and

In (~'2/~'1) In (1.93/2.60)
= -0.15 (B9)
x,;. = In [(vtl)2/(vtl)l] -- In [1.85/0.25]

Finally

-0.15
Vtl (0.25 • 10 -3 < Vtl < 2 x 10 - 3 ) (BlO)
~" -- 2.24 ( 0 . 6 8 • 10 -3