Table of Contents

Prematter Introduction Using the Geometry Applet About the text Euclid A quick trip through the Elements References to Euclid's Elements on the Web Subject index

Book I. The fundamentals of geometry: theories of triangles, parallels, and area. Definitions (23) Postulates (5) Common Notions (5) Propositions (48) Book II. Geometric algebra. Definitions (2) Propositions (13) Book III. Theory of circles.

Book VII. Fundamentals of number theory. Definitions (22) Propositions (39) Book VIII. Continued proportions in number theory. Propositions (27) Book IX. Number theory. Propositions (36) Book X. Classification of incommensurables.

Definitions (11) Propositions (37) Book IV. Constructions for inscribed and circumscribed figures. Definitions (7) Propositions (16) Book V. Theory of abstract proportions. Definitions (18) Propositions (25) Book VI. Similar figures and proportions in geometry. Definitions (11) Propositions (37)

Definitions I (4) Propositions 1-47 Definitions II (6) Propositions 48-84 Definitions III (6) Propositions 85-115 Book XI. Solid geometry. Definitions (28) Propositions (39) Book XII. Measurement of figures. Propositions (18) Book XIII. Regular solids. Propositions (18)

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Propositions (18)

Propositions
Proposition 1. If a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio, then the square on the greater segment added to the half of the whole is five times the square on the half. Proposition 2. If the square on a straight line is five times the square on a segment on it, then, when the double of the said segment is cut in extreme and mean ratio, the greater segment is the remaining part of the original straight line. Lemma for XIII.2. Proposition 3. If a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio, then the square on the sum of the lesser segment and the half of the greater segment is five times the square on the half of the greater segment. Proposition 4. If a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio, then the sum of the squares on the whole and on the lesser segment is triple the square on the greater segment. Proposition 5.

If a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio, and a straight line equal to the greater segment is added to it, then the whole straight line has been cut in extreme and mean ratio, and the original straight line is the greater segment. Proposition 6. If a rational straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio, then each of the segments is the irrational straight line called apotome. Proposition 7. If three angles of an equilateral pentagon, taken either in order or not in order, are equal, then the pentagon is equiangular. Proposition 8. If in an equilateral and equiangular pentagon straight lines subtend two angles are taken in order, then they cut one another in extreme and mean ratio, and their greater segments equal the side of the pentagon. Proposition 9. If the side of the hexagon and that of the decagon inscribed in the same circle are added together, then the whole straight line has been cut in extreme and mean ratio, and its greater segment is the side of the hexagon. Proposition 10. If an equilateral pentagon is inscribed ina circle, then the square on the side of the pentagon equals the sum of the squares on the sides of the hexagon and the decagon inscribed in the same circle. Proposition 11. If an equilateral pentagon is inscribed in a circle which has its diameter rational, then the side of the pentagon is the irrational straight line called minor. Proposition 12. If an equilateral triangle is inscribed in a circle, then the square on the side of the triangle is triple the square on the radius of the circle. Proposition 13. To construct a pyramid, to comprehend it in a given sphere; and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid. Lemma for XIII.13. Proposition 14. To construct an octahedron and comprehend it in a sphere, as in the preceding case; and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is double the square on the side of the octahedron.

Proposition 15. To construct a cube and comprehend it in a sphere, like the pyramid; and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is triple the square on the side of the cube. Proposition 16. To construct an icosahedron and comprehend it in a sphere, like the aforesaid figures; and to prove that the square on the side of the icosahedron is the irrational straight line called minor. Corollary. The square on the diameter of the sphere is five times the square on the radius of the circle from which the icosahedron has been described, and the diameter of the sphere is composed of the side of the hexagon and two of the sides of the decagon inscribed in the same circle. Proposition 17. To construct a dodecahedron and comprehend it in a sphere, like the aforesaid figures; and to prove that the square on the side of the dodecahedron is the irrational straight line called apotome. Corollary. When the side of the cube is cut in extreme and mean ratio, the greater segment is the side of the dodecahedron. Proposition 18. To set out the sides of the five figures and compare them with one another. Remark. No other figure, besides the said five figures, can be constructed by equilateral and equiangular figures equal to one another. Lemma. The angle of the equilateral and equiangular pentagon is a right angle and a fifth.

Elements Introduction - Book XII.

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Propositions (18)

Propositions
Proposition 1. Similar polygons inscribed in circles are to one another as the squares on their diameters. Proposition 2. Circles are to one another as the squares on their diameters. Lemma for XII.2. Proposition 3. Any pyramid with a triangular base is divided into two pyramids equal and similar to one another, similar to the whole, and having triangular bases, and into two equal prisms, and the two prisms are greater than half of the whole pyramid. Proposition 4. If there are two pyramids of the same height with triangular bases, and each of them is divided into two pyramids equal and similar to one another and similar to the whole, and into two equal prisms, then the base of the one pyramid is to the base of the other pyramid as all the prisms in the one pyramid are to all the prisms, being equal in multitude, in the other pyramid. Lemma for XII.4.

Proposition 5. Pyramids of the same height with triangular bases are to one another as their bases. Proposition 6. Pyramids of the same height with polygonal bases are to one another as their bases. Proposition 7. Any prism with a triangular base is divided into three pyramids equal to one another with triangular bases. Corollary. Any pyramid is a third part of the prism with the same base and equal height. Proposition 8. Similar pyramids with triangular bases are in triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. Corollary. Similar pyramids with polygonal bases are also to one another in triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. Proposition 9. In equal pyramids with triangular bases the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights; and those pyramids are equal in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. Proposition 10. Any cone is a third part of the cylinder with the same base and equal height. Proposition 11. Cones and cylinders of the same height are to one another as their bases. Proposition 12. Similar cones and cylinders are to one another in triplicate ratio of the diameters of their bases. Proposition 13. If a cylinder is cut by a plane parallel to its opposite planes, then the cylinder is to the cylinder as the axis is to the axis. Proposition 14. Cones and cylinders on equal bases are to one another as their heights. Proposition 15. In equal cones and cylinders the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights; and those cones and cylinders in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights are equal. Proposition 16.

Given two circles about the same center, to inscribe in the greater circle an equilateral polygon with an even number of sides which does not touch the lesser circle. Proposition 17. Given two spheres about the same center, to inscribe in the greater sphere a polyhedral solid which does not touch the lesser sphere at its surface. Corollary to XII.17. Proposition 18. Spheres are to one another in triplicate ratio of their respective diameters.

Next book: Book XIII Previous: Book XI Elements Introduction

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Definitions (28) Propositions (39)

Definitions
Definition 1. A solid is that which has length, breadth, and depth. Definition 2. A face of a solid is a surface. Definition 3. A straight line is at right angles to a plane when it makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane. Definition 4. A plane is at right angles to a plane when the straight lines drawn in one of the planes at right angles to the intersection of the planes are at right angles to the remaining plane. Definition 5. The inclination of a straight line to a plane is, assuming a perpendicular drawn from the end of the straight line which is elevated above the plane to the plane, and a straight line joined from the point thus arising to the end of the straight line which is in the plane, the angle

contained by the straight line so drawn and the straight line standing up. Definition 6. The inclination of a plane to a plane is the acute angle contained by the straight lines drawn at right angles to the intersection at the same point, one in each of the planes. Definition 7. A plane is said to be similarly inclined to a plane as another is to another when the said angles of the inclinations equal one another. Definition 8. Parallel planes are those which do not meet. Definition 9. Similar solid figures are those contained by similar planes equal in multitude. Definition 10. Equal and similar solid figures are those contained by similar planes equal in multitude and magnitude. Definition 11. A solid angle is the inclination constituted by more than two lines which meet one another and are not in the same surface, towards all the lines, that is, a solid angle is that which is contained by more than two plane angles which are not in the same plane and are constructed to one point. Definition 12. A pyramid is a solid figure contained by planes which is constructed from one plane to one point. Definition 13. A prism is a solid figure contained by planes two of which, namely those which are opposite, are equal, similar, and parallel, while the rest are parallelograms. Definition 14. When a semicircle with fixed diameter is carried round and restored again to the same position from which it began to be moved, the figure so comprehended is a sphere. Definition 15. The axis of the sphere is the straight line which remains fixed and about which the semicircle is turned. Definition 16. The center of the sphere is the same as that of the semicircle.

Definition 17. A diameter of the sphere is any straight line drawn through the center and terminated in both directions by the surface of the sphere. Definition 18. When a right triangle with one side of those about the right angle remains fixed is carried round and restored again to the same position from which it began to be moved, the figure so comprehended is a cone. And, if the straight line which remains fixed equals the remaining side about the right angle which is carried round, the cone will be right-angled; if less, obtuseangled; and if greater, acute-angled. Definition 19. The axis of the cone is the straight line which remains fixed and about which the triangle is turned. Definition 20. And the base is the circle described by the straight in which is carried round. Definition 21. When a rectangular parallelogram with one side of those about the right angle remains fixed is carried round and restored again to the same position from which it began to be moved, the figure so comprehended is a cylinder. Definition 22. The axis of the cylinder is the straight line which remains fixed and about which the parallelogram is turned. Definition 23. And the bases are the circles described by the two sides opposite to one another which are carried round. Definition 24. Similar cones and cylinders are those in which the axes and the diameters of the bases are proportional. Definition 25. A cube is a solid figure contained by six equal squares. Definition 26. An octahedron is a solid figure contained by eight equal and equilateral triangles. Definition 27. An icosahedron is a solid figure contained by twenty equal and equilateral triangles. Definition 28.

A dodecahedron is a solid figure contained by twelve equal, equilateral and equiangular pentagons.

Propositions
Proposition 1. A part of a straight line cannot be in the plane of reference and a part in plane more elevated. Proposition 2. If two straight lines cut one another, then they lie in one plane; and every triangle lies in one plane. Proposition 3. If two planes cut one another, then their intersection is a straight line. Proposition 4. If a straight line is set up at right angles to two straight lines which cut one another at their common point of section, then it is also at right angles to the plane passing through them. Proposition 5. If a straight line is set up at right angles to three straight lines which meet one another at their common point of section, then the three straight lines lie in one plane. Proposition 6. If two straight lines are at right angles to the same plane, then the straight lines are parallel. Proposition 7. If two straight lines are parallel and points are taken at random on each of them, then the straight line joining the points is in the same plane with the parallel straight lines. Proposition 8. If two straight lines are parallel, and one of them is at right angles to any plane, then the remaining one is also at right angles to the same plane. Proposition 9 Straight lines which are parallel to the same straight line but do not lie in the same plane with it are also parallel to each other. Proposition 10. If two straight lines meeting one another are parallel to two straight lines meeting one another not in the same plane, then they contain equal angles. Proposition 11. To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given plane from a given elevated point.

Proposition 12. To set up a straight line at right angles to a give plane from a given point in it. Proposition 13. From the same point two straight lines cannot be set up at right angles to the same plane on the same side. Proposition 14. Planes to which the same straight line is at right angles are parallel. Proposition 15. If two straight lines meeting one another are parallel to two straight lines meeting one another not in the same plane, then the planes through them are parallel. Proposition 16. If two parallel planes are cut by any plane, then their intersections are parallel. Proposition 17. If two straight lines are cut by parallel planes, then they are cut in the same ratios. Proposition 18. If a straight line is at right angles to any plane, then all the planes through it are also at right angles to the same plane. Proposition 19. If two planes which cut one another are at right angles to any plane, then their intersection is also at right angles to the same plane. Proposition 20. If a solid angle is contained by three plane angles, then the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one. Proposition 21. Any solid angle is contained by plane angles whose sum is less than four right angles. Proposition 22 If there are three plane angles such that the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one, and they are contained by equal straight lines, then it is possible to construct a triangle out of the straight lines joining the ends of the equal straight lines. Proposition 23. To construct a solid angles out of three plane angles such that the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one: thus the sum of the three angles must be less than four right angles. Lemma for XI.23.

Proposition 24. If a solid is contained by parallel planes, then the opposite planes in it are equal and parallelogrammic. Proposition 25. If a parallelepipedal solid is cut by a plane parallel to the opposite planes, then the base is to the base as the solid is to the solid. Proposition 26. To construct a solid angle equal to a given solid angle on a given straight line at a given point on it. Proposition 27. To describe a parallelepipedal solid similar and similarly situated to a given parallelepipedal solid on a given straight line. Proposition 28. If a parallelepipedal solid is cut by a plane through the diagonals of the opposite planes, then the solid is bisected by the plane. Proposition 29. Parallelepipedal solids which are on the same base and of the same height, and in which the ends of their edges which stand up are on the same straight lines, equal one another. Proposition 30. Parallelepipedal solids which are on the same base and of the same height, and in which the ends of their edges which stand up are not on the same straight lines, equal one another. Proposition 31. Parallelepipedal solids which are on equal bases and of the same height equal one another. Proposition 32. Parallelepipedal solids which are of the same height are to one another as their bases. Proposition 33. Similar parallelepipedal solids are to one another in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. Corollary. If four straight lines are continuously proportional, then the first is to the fourth as a parallelepipedal solid on the first is to the similar and similarly situated parallelepipedal solid on the second, in as much as the first has to the fourth the ratio triplicate of that which it has to the second. Proposition 34. In equal parallelepipedal solids the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights; and

those parallelepipedal solids in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights are equal. Proposition 35. If there are two equal plane angles, and on their vertices there are set up elevated straight lines containing equal angles with the original straight lines respectively, if on the elevated straight lines points are taken at random and perpendiculars are drawn from them to the planes in which the original angles are, and if from the points so arising in the planes straight lines are joined to the vertices of the original angles, then they contain with the elevated straight lines equal angles. Proposition 36. If three straight lines are proportional, then the parallelepipedal solid formed out of the three equals the parallelepipedal solid on the mean which is equilateral, but equiangular with the aforesaid solid. Proposition 37. If four straight lines are proportional, then parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described are also proportional; and, if the parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described are proportional, then the straight lines themselves are also proportional. Proposition 38. If the sides of the opposite planes of a cube are bisected, and the planes are carried through the points of section, then the intersection of the planes and the diameter of the cube bisect one another. Proposition 39. If there are two prisms of equal height, and one has a parallelogram as base and the other a triangle, and if the parallelogram is double the triangle, then the prisms are equal.

Elements Introduction - Book X - Book XII.

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Definitions I (4) Propositions 1-47 Definitions II (6) Propositions 48-84 Definitions III (6) Propositions 85-115

Definitions I
Definition 1. Those magnitudes are said to be commensurable which are measured by the same measure, and those incommensurable which cannot have any common measure. Definition 2. Straight lines are commensurable in square when the squares on them are measured by the same area, and incommensurable in square when the squares on them cannot possibly have any area as a common measure. Definition 3. With these hypotheses, it is proved that there exist straight lines infinite in multitude which are commensurable and incommensurable respectively, some in length only, and others in square also, with an assigned straight line. Let then the assigned straight line be called rational, and those straight lines which are commensurable with it, whether in length and in

square, or in square only, rational, but those that are incommensurable with it irrational. Definition 4. And the let the square on the assigned straight line be called rational, and those areas which are commensurable with it rational, but those which are incommensurable with it irrational, and the straight lines which produce them irrational, that is, in case the areas are squares, the sides themselves, but in case they are any other rectilineal figures, the straight lines on which are described squares equal to them.

Propositions 1-47
Proposition 1. Two unequal magnitudes being set out, if from the greater there is subtracted a magnitude greater than its half, and from that which is left a magnitude greater than its half, and if this process is repeated continually, then there will be left some magnitude less than the lesser magnitude set out. And the theorem can similarly be proven even if the parts subtracted are halves. Proposition 2. If, when the less of two unequal magnitudes is continually subtracted in turn from the greater that which is left never measures the one before it, then the two magnitudes are incommensurable. Proposition 3. To find the greatest common measure of two given commensurable magnitudes. Corollary. If a magnitude measures two magnitudes, then it also measures their greatest common measure. Proposition 4. To find the greatest common measure of three given commensurable magnitudes. Corollary. If a magnitude measures three magnitudes, then it also measures their greatest common measure. The greatest common measure can be found similarly for more magnitudes, and the corollary extended. Proposition 5. Commensurable magnitudes have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number. Proposition 6. If two magnitudes have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number, then the magnitudes are commensurable. Corollary.

Proposition 7. Incommensurable magnitudes do not have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number. Proposition 8. If two magnitudes do not have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number, then the magnitudes are incommensurable. Proposition 9. The squares on straight lines commensurable in length have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number; and squares which have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number also have their sides commensurable in length. But the squares on straight lines incommensurable in length do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number; and squares which do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number also do not have their sides commensurable in length either. Corollary. Straight lines commensurable in length are always commensurable in square also, but those commensurable in square are not always also commensurable in length. Lemma. Similar plane numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number, and if two numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number, then they are similar plane numbers. Corollary 2. Numbers which are not similar plane numbers, that is, those which do not have their sides proportional, do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number Proposition 10. To find two straight lines incommensurable, the one in length only, and the other in square also, with an assigned straight line. Proposition 11. If four magnitudes are proportional, and the first is commensurable with the second, then the third also is commensurable with the fourth; but, if the first is incommensurable with the second, then the third also is incommensurable with the fourth. Proposition 12. Magnitudes commensurable with the same magnitude are also commensurable with one another. Proposition 13. If two magnitudes are commensurable, and one of them is incommensurable with any magnitude, then the remaining one is also incommensurable with the same. Proposition 14.

Lemma. Given two unequal straight lines, to find by what square the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less. And, given two straight lines, to find the straight line the square on which equals the sum of the squares on them. Proposition 14. If four straight lines are proportional, and the square on the first is greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line commensurable with the first, then the square on the third is also greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a third line commensurable with the third. And, if the square on the first is greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the first, then the square on the third is also greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a third line incommensurable with the third. Proposition 15. If two commensurable magnitudes are added together, then the whole is also commensurable with each of them; and, if the whole is commensurable with one of them, then the original magnitudes are also commensurable. Proposition 16. If two incommensurable magnitudes are added together, the sum is also incommensurable with each of them; but, if the sum is incommensurable with one of them, then the original magnitudes are also incommensurable. Proposition 17. Lemma. If to any straight line there is applied a parallelogram but falling short by a square, then the applied parallelogram equals the rectangle contained by the segments of the straight line resulting from the application. Proposition 17. If there are two unequal straight lines, and to the greater there is applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less but falling short by a square, and if it divides it into parts commensurable in length, then the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater. And if the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater, and if there is applied to the greater a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less falling short by a square, then it divides it into parts commensurable in length. Proposition 18. If there are two unequal straight lines, and to the greater there is applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less but falling short by a square, and if it divides it into incommensurable parts, then the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the greater. And if the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the greater, and if there is applied to the greater a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less but falling short by a square, then it divides it into incommensurable parts.

Proposition 19. Lemma. Proposition 19. The rectangle contained by rational straight lines commensurable in length is rational. Proposition 20. If a rational area is applied to a rational straight line, then it produces as breadth a straight line rational and commensurable in length with the straight line to which it is applied. Proposition 21. The rectangle contained by rational straight lines commensurable in square only is irrational, and the side of the square equal to it is irrational. Let the latter be called medial. Proposition 22. Lemma. If there are two straight lines, then the first is to the second as the square on the first is to the rectangle contained by the two straight lines. Proposition 22. The square on a medial straight line, if applied to a rational straight line, produces as breadth a straight line rational and incommensurable in length with that to which it is applied. Proposition 23. A straight line commensurable with a medial straight line is medial. Corollary. An area commensurable with a medial area is medial. Proposition 24. The rectangle contained by medial straight lines commensurable in length is medial. Proposition 25. The rectangle contained by medial straight lines commensurable in square only is either rational or medial. Proposition 26. A medial area does not exceed a medial area by a rational area. Proposition 27. To find medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a rational rectangle. Proposition 28. To find medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a medial rectangle. Proposition 29.

Lemma 1. To find two square numbers such that their sum is also square. Lemma 2. To find two square numbers such that their sum is not square. Proposition 29. To find two rational straight lines commensurable in square only such that the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with the greater. Proposition 30. To find two rational straight lines commensurable in square only such that the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with the greater. Proposition 31. To find two medial straight lines commensurable in square only, containing a rational rectangle, such that the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with the greater. Proposition 32. To find two medial straight lines commensurable in square only, containing a medial rectangle, such that the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater. Proposition 33. Lemma. Proposition 33. To find two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational but the rectangle contained by them medial. Proposition 34. To find two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial but the rectangle contained by them rational. Proposition 35. To find two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial and the rectangle contained by them medial and moreover incommensurable with the sum of the squares on them. Proposition 36. If two rational straight lines commensurable in square only are added together, then the whole is irrational; let it be called binomial. Proposition 37. If two medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a rational rectangle are added together, the whole is irrational; let it be called the first bimedial straight line.

Proposition 38. If two medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a medial rectangle are added together, then the whole is irrational; let it be called the second bimedial straight line. Proposition 39. If two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational but the rectangle contained by them medial are added together, then the whole straight line is irrational; let it be called major. Proposition 40. If two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial but the rectangle contained by them rational are added together, then the whole straight line is irrational; let it be called the side of a rational plus a medial area. Proposition 41. If two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial and the rectangle contained by them medial and also incommensurable with the sum of the squares on them are added together, then the whole straight line is irrational; let it be called the side of the sum of two medial areas. Lemma. Proposition 42. A binomial straight line is divided into its terms at one point only. Proposition 43. A first bimedial straight line is divided at one and the same point only. Proposition 44. A second bimedial straight line is divided at one point only. Proposition 45. A major straight line is divided at one point only. Proposition 46. The side of a rational plus a medial area is divided at one point only. Proposition 47. The side of the sum of two medial areas is divided at one point only.

Definitions II
Definition 1.

Given a rational straight line and a binomial, divided into its terms, such that the square on the greater term is greater than the square on the lesser by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with the greater, then, if the greater term is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out, let the whole be called a first binomial straight line; Definition 2. But if the lesser term is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out, let the whole be called a second binomial; Definition 3. And if neither of the terms is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out, let the whole be called a third binomial. Definition 4. Again, if the square on the greater term is greater than the square on the lesser by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with the greater, then, if the greater term is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out, let the whole be called a fourth binomial; Definition 5. If the lesser, a fifth binomial; Definition 6. And, if neither, a sixth binomial.

Propositions 48-84
Proposition 48. To find the first binomial line. Proposition 49. To find the second binomial line. Proposition 50. To find the third binomial line. Proposition 51. To find the fourth binomial line. Proposition 52. To find the fifth binomial line. Proposition 53. To find the sixth binomial line.

Proposition 54. Lemma. Proposition 54. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the first binomial, then the side of the area is the irrational straight line which is called binomial. Proposition 55. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the second binomial, then the side of the area is the irrational straight line which is called a first bimedial. Proposition 56. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the third binomial, then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called a second bimedial. Proposition 57. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the fourth binomial, then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called major. Proposition 58. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the fifth binomial, then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called the side of a rational plus a medial area. Proposition 59. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the sixth binomial, then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called the side of the sum of two medial areas. Proposition 60. Lemma. If a straight line is cut into unequal parts, then the sum of the squares on the unequal parts is greater than twice the rectangle contained by the unequal parts. Proposition 60. The square on the binomial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the first binomial. Proposition 61. The square on the first bimedial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the second binomial. Proposition 62. The square on the second bimedial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the third binomial. Proposition 63. The square on the major straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the fourth binomial.

Proposition 64. The square on the side of a rational plus a medial area applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the fifth binomial. Proposition 65. The square on the side of the sum of two medial areas applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the sixth binomial. Proposition 66. A straight line commensurable with a binomial straight line is itself also binomial and the same in order. Proposition 67. A straight line commensurable with a bimedial straight line is itself also bimedial and the same in order. Proposition 68. A straight line commensurable with a major straight line is itself also major. Proposition 69. A straight line commensurable with the side of a rational plus a medial area is itself also the side of a rational plus a medial area. Proposition 70. A straight line commensurable with the side of the sum of two medial areas is the side of the sum of two medial areas. Proposition 71. If a rational and a medial are added together, then four irrational straight lines arise, namely a binomial or a first bimedial or a major or a side of a rational plus a medial area. Proposition 72. If two medial areas incommensurable with one another are added together, then the remaining two irrational straight lines arise, namely either a second bimedial or a side of the sum of two medial areas. Proposition. The binomial straight line and the irrational straight lines after it are neither the same with the medial nor with one another. Proposition 73. If from a rational straight line there is subtracted a rational straight line commensurable with the whole in square only, then the remainder is irrational; let it be called an apotome. Proposition 74. If from a medial straight line there is subtracted a medial straight line which is

commensurable with the whole in square only, and which contains with the whole a rational rectangle, then the remainder is irrational; let it be called first apotome of a medial straight line. Proposition 75. If from a medial straight line there is subtracted a medial straight line which is commensurable with the whole in square only, and which contains with the whole a medial rectangle, then the remainder is irrational; let it be called second apotome of a medial straight line. Proposition 76. If from a straight line there is subtracted a straight line which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which with the whole makes the sum of the squares on them added together rational, but the rectangle contained by them medial, then the remainder is irrational; let it be called minor. Proposition 77. If from a straight line there is subtracted a straight line which is incommensurable in square with the whole, and which with the whole makes the sum of the squares on them medial but twice the rectangle contained by them rational, then the remainder is irrational; let it be called that which produces with a rational area a medial whole. Proposition 78. If from a straight line there is subtracted a straight line which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which with the whole makes the sum of the squares on them medial, twice the rectangle contained by them medial, and further the squares on them incommensurable with twice the rectangle contained by them, then the remainder is irrational; let it be called that which produces with a medial area a medial whole. Proposition 79. To an apotome only one rational straight line can be annexed which is commensurable with the whole in square only. Proposition 80. To a first apotome of a medial straight line only one medial straight line can be annexed which is commensurable with the whole in square only and which contains with the whole a rational rectangle. Proposition 81. To a second apotome of a medial straight line only one medial straight line can be annexed which is commensurable with the whole in square only and which contains with the whole a medial rectangle. Proposition 82. To a minor straight line only one straight line can be annexed which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which makes, with the whole, the sum of squares on them rational

Proposition 84. Definition 2. if neither. Definition 4.but twice the rectangle contained by them medial. Definition 3. Given a rational straight line and an apotome. But if the annex is commensurable with the rational straight line set out. then. Propositions 85-115 . a sixth. a fifth. let the apotome be called a third apotome. If the annex be so commensurable. if the whole is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. Definitions III Definition 1. and the whole is commensurable in length with the rational line set out. let the apotome be called a fourth apotome. Definition 6. And. To a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole only one straight line can be annexed which is incommensurable in square with the whole straight line and which with the whole straight line makes the sum of squares on them medial and twice the rectangle contained by them both medial and also incommensurable with the sum of the squares on them. Proposition 83. if the square on the whole is greater than the square on the annex by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the whole. But if neither is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. if the square on the whole is greater than the square on the annex by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with the whole. let the apotome be called a second apotome. To a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole only one straight line can be annexed which is incommensurable in square with the whole straight line and which with the whole straight line makes the sum of squares on them medial but twice the rectangle contained by them rational. let the apotome be called a first apotome. Definition 5. Again. and the square on the whole is greater than that on the annex by the square on a straight line commensurable with the whole. and the square on the whole is greater than the square on the annex by the square on a straight line commensurable with the whole.

Proposition 90. Proposition 91. Proposition 93. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a fifth apotome. Proposition 87. Proposition 97. Proposition 96. then the side of the area is a second apotome of a medial straight line. then the side of the area is a first apotome of a medial straight line. To find the fifth apotome. Proposition 95. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a first apotome. Proposition 92.Proposition 85. then the side of the area is minor. The square on an apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces . To find the second apotome. Proposition 94. then the side of the area is an apotome. To find the first apotome. Proposition 86. then the side of the area is a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a second apotome. then the side of the area is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. To find the fourth apotome. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a sixth apotome. Proposition 88. Proposition 89. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a fourth apotome. To find the third apotome. To find the sixth apotome. If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a third apotome.

Proposition 103. Proposition 106. The square on a second apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a third apotome.as breadth a first apotome. The square on a first apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a second apotome. A straight line commensurable with that which produces with a rational area a medial whole is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. The square on a minor straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a fourth apotome. Proposition 100. Proposition 105. Proposition 108. . Proposition 102. A straight line commensurable with an apotome of a medial straight line is an apotome of a medial straight line and the same in order. Proposition 101. if applied to a rational straight line. A straight line commensurable with that which produces a medial area and a medial whole is itself also a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. The square on the straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. if applied to a rational straight line. produces as breadth a fifth apotome. the side of the remaining area becomes one of two irrational straight lines. Proposition 107. The square on the straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. either an apotome or a minor straight line. If from a rational area a medial area is subtracted. A straight line commensurable with a minor straight line is minor. produces as breadth a sixth apotome. Proposition 99. Proposition 98. Proposition 104. A straight line commensurable in length with an apotome is an apotome and the same in order.

The square on a rational straight line. and further the apotome so arising has the same order as the binomial straight line. There are. Proposition. then the two remaining irrational straight lines arise.Proposition 109. . thirteen irrational straight lines in all: Medial Binomial First bimedial Second bimedial Major Side of a rational plus a medial area Side of the sum of two medial areas Apotome First apotome of a medial straight line Second apotome of a medial straight line Minor Producing with a rational area a medial whole Producing with a medial area a medial whole Proposition 112. If an area is contained by an apotome and the binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the apotome and in the same ratio. Proposition 110. then the side of the area is rational. The apotome and the irrational straight lines following it are neither the same with the medial straight line nor with one another. then there arise two other irrational straight lines. If from a medial area there is subtracted a medial area incommensurable with the whole. The square on a rational straight line applied to the binomial straight line produces as breadth an apotome the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the binomial straight line and moreover in the same ratio. If from a medial area a rational area is subtracted. Proposition 111. produces as breadth the binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the apotome and in the same ratio. Proposition 114. Proposition 113. and further the binomial so arising has the same order as the apotome. if applied to an apotome. in order. either a first apotome of a medial straight line or a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. The apotome is not the same with the binomial straight line. either a second apotome of a medial straight line or a straight line which produce with a medial area a medial whole.

From a medial straight line there arise irrational straight lines infinite in number. Elements Introduction . Proposition 115. It is possible for a rational area to be contained by irrational straight lines.Corollary.Book XI. and none of them is the same as any preceding. .Book IX .

then the product is a cube. If a cubic number multiplied by itself makes some number. Proposition 6. . If two numbers multiplied by one another make a square number. Proposition 5. then it itself is also cubic. If a number multiplied by itself makes a cubic number. Proposition 4. Proposition 2. then they are similar plane numbers. Proposition 3. If two similar plane numbers multiplied by one another make some number.Table of contents q Propositions (36) Propositions Proposition 1. then the multiplied number is also cubic. If a cubic number multiplied by a cubic number makes some number. then the product is square. If a cubic number multiplied by any number makes a cubic number. then the product is a cube.

Proposition 10. If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. Proposition 15. If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. if the number after the unit is not cubic. then by whatever prime numbers the last is measured. then it is not measured by any other prime number except those originally measuring it.Proposition 7. the same place also has the number according to which it measures. and the number after the unit is square. and the number after the unit is prime. reckoned from the unit. then the less measures the greater according to some one of the numbers which appear among the proportional numbers. and the seventh is at once cubic and square are also those which leave out five. Proposition 11. then the product is solid. then neither is any other cubic except the fourth from the unit and all those which leave out two. the fourth is cubic as are also all those which leave out two. If a composite number multiplied by any number makes some number. then the greatest is not measured by any except those which have a place among the proportional numbers. then all the rest are also square. Proposition 8. Whatever place the measuring number has. in the direction of the number before it. . then the third from the unit is square as are also those which successively leave out one. If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. reckoned from the number measured. and if the number after the unit is cubic. If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. then neither is any other square except the third from the unit and all those which leave out one. If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. Proposition 9. If a number is the least that is measured by prime numbers. Proposition 13. Corollary. the next to the unit is also measured by the same. If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. and the number after the unit is not square. and. then all the rest are also cubic. Proposition 14. Proposition 12.

then the second is not to any other number as the first is to the second.If three numbers in continued proportion are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. Proposition 25. then the product is even. Proposition 20. and the extremes of them are relatively prime. If as many even numbers as we please are added together. If an even number is subtracted from an even number. then the remainder is even. Proposition 26. and their multitude is odd. Prime numbers are more than any assigned multitude of prime numbers. If an even number is subtracted from an odd number. to investigate whether it is possible to find a third proportional to them. Proposition 18. Given two numbers. then the sum is also odd. and their multitude is even. Proposition 22. Proposition 28. If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. Proposition 19. If an odd number is subtracted from an odd number. to investigate when it is possible to find a fourth proportional to them. then the remainder is odd. If as many odd numbers as we please are added together. If an odd number is subtracted from an even number. Proposition 27. Proposition 21. Proposition 24. Proposition 23. . Proposition 17. Given three numbers. If an odd number is multiplied by an even number. then the remainder is even. then the last is not to any other number as the first is to the second. If two numbers are relatively prime. then the sum is even. then the remainder is odd. Proposition 16. then the sum is even. then the sum of any two is relatively prime to the remaining number. If as many odd numbers as we please are added together.

then it is both even-times even and even-times odd. then it is also relatively prime to double it. then the product is odd. Each of the numbers which are continually doubled beginning from a dyad is even-times even only. Proposition 35. Proposition 31. nor has its half odd. then the excess of the second is to the first as the excess of the last is to the sum of all those before it. Proposition 33. Proposition 36. If as many numbers as we please are in continued proportion. then it also measures half of it. Proposition 34. and there is subtracted from the second and the last numbers equal to the first. and if the sum multiplied into the last makes some number. If an odd number is relatively prime to any number. Proposition 32. If an odd number measures an even number. If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are set out continuously in double proportion until the sum of all becomes prime. Next book: Book X Previous: Book VIII Elements Introduction – .Proposition 29. If a number has its half odd. If an [even] number neither is one of those which is continually doubled from a dyad. then the product is perfect. If an odd number is multiplied by an odd number. then it is even-times odd only. Proposition 30.

Proposition 3. If three numbers in continued proportion are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. Proposition 2. Proposition 5. then the extremes are squares. Corollary. If as many numbers as we please in continued proportion are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. To find as many numbers as are prescribed in continued proportion. to find numbers in continued proportion which are the least in the given ratios. and. Proposition 4. and the least that are in a given ratio. then the extremes of them are relatively prime. cubes. then the numbers are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. if four numbers. and the extremes of them are relatively prime. .Table of contents q Propositions (27) Propositions Proposition 1. Given as many ratios as we please in least numbers.

if the side measures the side. then neither does any other measure any other. and numbers fall between them in continued proportion. so many also fall between each of them and a unit in continued proportion. and. then however many numbers fall between each of them and a unit in continued proportion. Proposition 13. If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. Proposition 7. If numbers fall between two numbers and a unit in continued proportion. then the products are proportional. If a cubic number measures a cubic number. and the square has to the square the duplicate ratio of that which the side has to the side. however many numbers fall between them in continued proportion. and each multiplied by itself makes some number. Between two square numbers there is one mean proportional number. then. Proposition 11. then the cube also measures the cube. and the first measures the last. then the square also measures the square. Proposition 12. .Plane numbers have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. Proposition 8. and. Proposition 15. If a square measures a square. Proposition 6. If between two numbers there fall numbers in continued proportion with them. if the side measures the side. then it also measures the second. Proposition 9. however many numbers fall between them in continued proportion. then. then the side also measures the side. If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. so many also fall between the numbers themselves in continued proportion. and. and the first does not measure the second. if the original numbers multiplied by the products make certain numbers. then the side also measures the side. Proposition 14. Between two cubic numbers there are two mean proportional numbers. then the latter are also proportional. If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. and the cube has to the cube the triplicate ratio of that which the side has to the side. Proposition 10. so many also fall in continued proportion between the numbers which have the same ratios with the original numbers. If two numbers are relatively prime.

if the side does not measure the side. If two numbers have to one another the ratio which a cubic number has to a cubic number. If two numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. If three numbers are in continued proportion. Proposition 18.Proposition 16. Proposition 26. and the first is square. Proposition 19. and the first is a cube. then neither does the side measure the side. and the solid number has to the solid number the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. Proposition 20. then the numbers are similar plane numbers. Proposition 22. If one mean proportional number falls between two numbers. If four numbers are in continued proportion. if the side does not measure the side. Similar plane numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Proposition 24. Proposition 17. then neither does the side measure the side. then the numbers are similar solid numbers. then the third is also square. and the plane number has to the plane number the ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. and the first is square. and the first is a cube. Proposition 23. then neither does the square measure the square. If a cubic number does not measure a cubic number. then the second is also a square. Between two similar plane numbers there is one mean proportional number. then the second is also a cube. then the fourth is also a cube. and. Proposition 25. Between two similar solid numbers there fall two mean proportional numbers. and. If a square does not measure a square. If two mean proportional numbers fall between two numbers. Proposition 21. . then neither does the cube measure the cube.

Proposition 27. Similar solid numbers have to one another the ratio which a cubic number has to a cubic number. Next book: Book IX Previous: Book VII Book VIII introduction .

. Definition 3 A number is a part of a number. Definition 4 But parts when it does not measure it. when it measures the greater.Table of contents q q Definitions (22) Propositions (39) Guide Definitions Definition 1 A unit is that by virtue of which each of the things that exist is called one. Definition 2 A number is a multitude composed of units. Definition 5 The greater number is a multiple of the less when it is measured by the less. the less of the greater.

when two numbers having multiplied one another make some number. Definition 9 An even-times odd number is that which is measured by an even number according to an odd number. and its sides are the numbers which have multiplied one another. Definition 10 An odd-times odd number is that which is measured by an odd number according to an odd number. Definition 14 Numbers relatively composite are those which are measured by some number as a common measure. Definition 7 An odd number is that which is not divisible into two equal parts. Definition 16 And. Definition 13 A composite number is that which is measured by some number.Definition 6 An even number is that which is divisible into two equal parts. Definition 15 A number is said to multiply a number when that which is multiplied is added to itself as many times as there are units in the other. the number so produced be called plane. or that which differs by a unit from an even number. . the number so produced be called solid. and its sides are the numbers which have multiplied one another. when three numbers having multiplied one another make some number. Definition 12 Numbers relatively prime are those which are measured by a unit alone as a common measure. Definition 11 A prime number is that which is measured by a unit alone. Definition 17 And. Definition 8 An even-times even number is that which is measured by an even number according to an even number.

Proposition 2 To find the greatest common measure of two given numbers not relatively prime. Proposition 4 Any number is either a part or parts of any number. or the same part. Corollary. and another is the same part of another. then the sum is also the same parts of the sum that the one is of the one. or a number which is contained by two equal numbers. Propositions Proposition 1 When two unequal numbers are set out. the less of the greater. of the second that the third is of the fourth. or a number which is contained by three equal numbers. then the sum is also the same part of the sum that the one is of the one. then the original numbers are relatively prime. Proposition 5 If a number is part of a number.Definition 18 A square number is equal multiplied by equal. Definition 19 And a cube is equal multiplied by equal and again by equal. Definition 22 A perfect number is that which is equal to the sum its own parts. then it also measures their greatest common measure. . Proposition 3 To find the greatest common measure of three given numbers not relatively prime. Proposition 6 If a number is parts of a number. and the less is continually subtracted in turn from the greater. or the same parts. and another is the same parts of another. if the number which is left never measures the one before it until a unit is left. Definition 21 Similar plane and solid numbers are those which have their sides proportional. Definition 20 Numbers are proportional when the first is the same multiple. If a number measures two numbers.

then the remainder is also the same parts of the remainder that the whole is of the whole.Proposition 7 If a number is that part of a number which a subtracted number is of a subtracted number. Proposition 13 If four numbers are proportional. then the remainder is also the same part of the remainder that the whole is of the whole. the second is of the fourth. Proposition 12 If any number of numbers are proportional. Proposition 10 If a number is a parts of a number. then alternately. then the remainder is to the remainder as the whole is to the whole. then alternately. . which taken two and two together are in the same ratio. or the same parts. Proposition 11 If a whole is to a whole as a subtracted number is to a subtracted number. Proposition 14 If there are any number of numbers. the unit measures the third number the same number of times that the second measures the fourth. Proposition 15 If a unit number measures any number. then the numbers so produced have the same ratio as the numbers multiplied. and another is the same part of another. then alternately. Proposition 17 If a number multiplied by two numbers makes certain numbers. Proposition 9 If a number is a part of a number. the second is of the fourth. and another is the same parts of another. the same part. whatever part of parts the first is of the third. then the numbers so produced equal one another. the same part. then they are also proportional alternately. then they are also in the same ratio ex aequali. whatever part of parts the first is of the third. or the same parts. Proposition 16 If two numbers multiplied by one another make certain numbers. then one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the consequents. and others equal to them in multitude. Proposition 8 If a number is the same parts of a number that a subtracted number is of a subtracted number. and another number measures any other number the same number of times.

both to each. and. Proposition 25 If two numbers are relatively prime. if the original numbers multiplied by the products make certain numbers. then the product of one of them with itself is relatively prime to the remaining one. then the products are relatively prime. Proposition 28 If two numbers are relatively prime. Proposition 27 If two numbers are relatively prime. if the sum of two numbers is relatively prime to either of them. then their product is also relatively prime to the same. and. and the less the less. then their sum is also prime to each of them. then the four numbers are proportional. then the original numbers are also . if the number produced from the first and fourth equals that produced from the second and third. then the latter are also relatively prime. Proposition 19 If four numbers are proportional. Proposition 23 If two numbers are relatively prime. then any number which measures one of them is relatively prime to the remaining number. and. Proposition 21 Numbers relatively prime are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. Proposition 24 If two numbers are relatively prime to any number. Proposition 22 The least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them are relatively prime. Proposition 20 The least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them measure those which have the same ratio with them the same number of times.Proposition 18 If two number multiplied by any number make certain numbers. the greater the greater. then the numbers so produced have the same ratio as the multipliers. then the number produced from the first and fourth equals the number produced from the second and third. then their products are also relatively prime. Proposition 26 If two numbers are relatively prime to two numbers. and each multiplied by itself makes a certain number.

then the number which is measured has a part called by the same name as the measuring number. Proposition 39 To find the number which is the least that has given parts. then the least number measured by them also measures the same.relatively prime. Proposition 36 To find the least number which three given numbers measure. Proposition 34 To find the least number which two given numbers measure. Proposition 32 Any number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. part and multiple. Proposition 31 Any composite number is measured by some prime number. Proposition 30 If two numbers. Proposition 38 If a number has any part whatever. to find the least of those which have the same ratio with them. Proposition 29 Any prime number is relatively prime to any number which it does not measure. and any prime number measures the product. The important definitions being those for unit and number. Book VII is the first of the three books on number theory. then it is measured by a number called by the same name as the part. It begins with the 22 definitions used in these books. Proposition 37 If a number is measured by any number. even and . multiplied by one another make some number. then it also measures one of the original numbers. Proposition 33 Given as many numbers as we please. Proposition 35 If two numbers measure any number.

and only geometry had axioms. that field was one of the last to receive a careful scrutiny. Propositions VII. that is. proportions of numbers. set theory. whichever it is. too. Propositions V. Next book: Book VIII Previous: Book VI Book VII introduction . and perfect number. If that is the principle he uses. The foundations of number theory will be discussed in the Guides to the various definitions and propositions. that is.11 through VII. Missing postulates occurs as early as proposition VII. they study how many parts one number is of another in preparation for ratios and proportions.20 through VII.19 develop the theory of proportions for numbers. results in the greatest common divisor of two or more numbers. Euclid constructs a decreasing sequence of whole positive numbers.33 through VII. apparently. The basic construction for Book VII is antenaresis. and axioms for numbers weren't developed until the late 19th century. This algorithm.5 through V. The next group of propositions VII. The topics in Book VII are antenaresis and the greatest common divisor.32.1 througth VII. and mathematics was refounded in terms of set theory. then it ought to be stated as a postulate for numbers. a kind of reciprocal subtraction. About the same time that foundations for number theory were developed. Beginning with two numbers. In its proof.2. and the least common multiple. prime and relatively prime. relatively prime numbers and prime numbers. is repeatedly subtracted from the larger until a single number is left. By that time foundations for the rest of mathematics were laid upon either geometry or number theory or both.odd. studied in propositions VII. also called the Euclidean algorithm. In fact.29 discuss representing ratios in lowest terms as relatively prime numbers and properties of relatively prime numbers. Book VII finishes with least common multiples in propositions VII. there cannot be an infinite decreasing sequence of numbers.39.30 through VII.10 develop properties of fractions. Properties of prime numbers are presented in propositions VII. was created by Cantor. Numbers are so familiar that it hardly occurs to us that the theory of numbers needs axioms.3. uses a principle that conclude that the sequence must stop. and. proportion. the smaller. Postulates for numbers Postulates are as necessary for numbers as they are for geometry. a new subject.

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so is the greater to the less. Definition 2.Table of contents q q definitions (4) propositions (33) Definitions Definition 1. A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when. Definition 3. Similar rectilinear figures are such as have their angles severally equal and the sides about the equal angles proportional. The height of any figure is the perpendicular drawn from the vertex to the base. Two figures are reciprocally related when the sides about corresponding angles are reciprocally proportional. as the whole line is to the greater segment. Propositions . Definition 4.

Proposition 8. If an angle of a triangle is bisected by a straight line cutting the base. In equiangular triangles the sides about the equal angles are proportional where the corresponding sides are opposite the equal angles. Proposition 10. Proposition 6. the sides about other angles proportional. To cut off a prescribed part from a given straight line. If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle and the sides about the equal angles proportional. If in a right-angled triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the right angle to the base. Triangles and parallelograms which are under the same height are to one another as their bases. then the line joining the points of section is parallel to the remaining side of the triangle. and the remaining angles either both less or both not less than a right angle. if segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. If in a right-angled triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the right angle to the base. Proposition 5. Proposition 3. then the triangles are equiangular and have those angles equal opposite the corresponding sides. Corollary. and. To cut a given uncut straight line similarly to a given cut straight line. then the triangles are equiangular with the equal angles opposite the corresponding sides.Proposition 1. if the sides of the triangle are cut proportionally. and. Proposition 7. then the triangles adjoining the perpendicular are similar both to the whole and to one another. . Proposition 9. If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. If two triangles have their sides proportional. Proposition 4. then the straight line so drawn is a mean proportional between the segments of the base. Proposition 2. then the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. then the straight line joining the vertex to the point of section bisects the angle of the triangle. then it cuts the sides of the triangle proportionally. If a straight line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle. then the triangles are equiangular and have those angles equal the sides about which are proportional.

then the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the square on the mean. Corollary. Proposition 14. Proposition 15. and. Proposition 16. and equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. Proposition 13. In equal triangles which have one angle equal to one angle the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. and into triangles equal in multitude and in the same ratio as the wholes. To find a mean proportional to two given straight lines. and the polygon has to the polygon a ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. and. Similar rectilinear figures are to one another in the duplicate ratio of the . Similar triangles are to one another in the duplicate ratio of the corresponding sides. then the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the rectangle contained by the means. then the four straight lines are proportional. Proposition 17. Corollary. If three straight lines are proportional. In equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. Proposition 12. Proposition 18. Similar polygons are divided into similar triangles. To find a fourth proportional to three given straight lines.Proposition 11. Proposition 19. To find a third proportional to two given straight lines. To describe a rectilinear figure similar and similarly situated to a given rectilinear figure on a given straight line. If four straight lines are proportional. If three straight lines are proportional. if the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the square on the mean. if the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the rectangle contained by the means. then the first is to the third as the figure described on the first is to that which is similar and similarly described on the second. are equal. and those triangles which have one angle equal to one angle. Proposition 20. and in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. then the three straight lines are proportional.

that parallelogram is greatest which is applied to the half of the straight line and is similar to the difference. then the straight lines are themselves also proportional. To apply a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure to a given straight line but exceeding it by a parallelogram similar to a given one. then it is about the same diameter with the whole. Figures which are similar to the same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another. Proposition 24. . then the rectilinear figures similar and similarly described upon them are also proportional. thus the given rectilinear figure must not be greater than the parallelogram described on the half of the straight line and similar to the given parallelogram. If four straight lines are proportional. Equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. and. Proposition 22. Proposition 25. Proposition 23. Proposition 21.corresponding sides. To construct a figure similar to one given rectilinear figure and equal to another. Of all the parallelograms applied to the same straight line falling short by parallelogrammic figures similar and similarly situated to that described on the half of the straight line. To cut a given finite straight line in extreme and mean ratio. Proposition 27. If from a parallelogram there is taken away a parallelogram similar and similarly situated to the whole and having a common angle with it. In any parallelogram the parallelograms about the diameter are similar both to the whole and to one another. Proposition 30. To apply a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure to a given straight line but falling short by a parallelogram similar to a given one. Proposition 28. if the rectilinear figures similar and similarly described upon them are proportional. Proposition 29. Proposition 26.

1 is the basis for the entire of Book VI except the last proposition VI.Proposition 31. but they do not construct new proportions using the definition of proportion. The intervening propositions use other properties of proportions developed in Book V. Proposition 32. Angles in equal circles have the same ratio as the circumferences on which they stand whether they stand at the centers or at the circumferences.33 constructs a proportion between angles and circumferences.1 constructs a proportion between lines and figures while VI. Next book: Book VII Previous: Book V Book VI introduction . Proposition VI. Proposition 33. Logical structure of Book VI Proposition VI.33. Only these two propositions directly use the definition of proportion in Book V. In right-angled triangles the figure on the side opposite the right angle equals the sum of the similar and similarly described figures on the sides containing the right angle. then the remaining sides of the triangles are in a straight line. If two triangles having two sides proportional to two sides are placed together at one angle so that their corresponding sides are also parallel.

exceed one another. when multiplied. when it measures the greater. Definition 2 The greater is a multiple of the less when it is measured by the less. Definition 3 A ratio is a sort of relation in respect of size between two magnitudes of the same kind. Definition 5 .Table of contents q q Definitions (18) Propositions (25) Guide to Book V Logical structure of Book V q q Definitions Definition 1 A magnitude is a part of a magnitude. the less of the greater. Definition 4 Magnitudes are said to have a ratio to one another which can.

of the equimultiples. the first to the second and the third to the fourth. Definition 16 . the first is said to have to the third the duplicate ratio of that which it has to the second. then the first is said to have a greater ratio to the second than the third has to the fourth. and so on continually. Definition 6 Let magnitudes which have the same ratio be called proportional. and consequents to consequents. Definition 9 When three magnitudes are proportional. and any equimultiples whatever of the second and fourth. Definition 13 Inverse ratio means taking the consequent as antecedent in relation to the antecedent as consequent. or alike fall short of. when. whatever be the proportion. Definition 15 A ratio taken separately means taking the excess by which the antecedent exceeds the consequent in relation to the consequent by itself. but the multiple of the third does not exceed the multiple of the fourth. Definition 7 When. the first is said to have to the fourth the triplicate ratio of that which it has to the second. Definition 8 A proportion in three terms is the least possible. Definition 10 When four magnitudes are continuously proportional. Definition 14 A ratio taken jointly means taking the antecedent together with the consequent as one in relation to the consequent by itself. the multiple of the first magnitude exceeds the multiple of the second. Definition 12 Alternate ratio means taking the antecedent in relation to the antecedent and the consequent in relation to the consequent. the former equimultiples alike exceed. if any equimultiples whatever are taken of the first and third.Magnitudes are said to be in the same ratio. the latter equimultiples respectively taken in corresponding order. are alike equal to. Definition 11 Antecedents are said to correspond to antecedents.

Definition 18 A perturbed proportion arises when. there being three magnitudes and another set equal to them in multitude. then the sum of the first and fifth also is the same multiple of the second that the sum of the third and sixth is of the fourth. and if equimultiples are taken of the first and third. . Definition 17 A ratio ex aequali arises when. it means taking the extreme terms by virtue of the removal of the intermediate terms. Proposition 6 If two magnitudes are equimultiples of two magnitudes. then the sum is that multiple of the sum. the first is to the last among the first magnitudes as the first is to the last among the second magnitudes. taken in corresponding order. antecedent is to consequent among the first magnitudes as antecedent is to consequent among the second magnitudes. Proposition 2 If a first magnitude is the same multiple of a second that a third is of a fourth. then any equimultiples whatever of the first and third also have the same ratio to any equimultiples whatever of the second and fourth respectively. then the remainder also is the same multiple of the remainder that the whole is of the whole.Conversion of a ratio means taking the antecedent in relation to the excess by which the antecedent exceeds the consequent. Propositions Proposition 1 If any number of magnitudes are each the same multiple of the same number of other magnitudes. then the magnitudes taken also are equimultiples respectively. Or. there being several magnitudes and another set equal to them in multitude which taken two and two are in the same proportion. then the remainders either equal the same or are equimultiples of them. the consequent is to a third among the first magnitudes as a third is to the antecedent among the second magnitudes. and any magnitudes subtracted from them are equimultiples of the same. Proposition 3 If a first magnitude is the same multiple of a second that a third is of a fourth. in other words. while. Proposition 4 If a first magnitude has to a second the same ratio as a third to a fourth. Proposition 5 If a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude that a subtracted part is of a subtracted part. the one of the second and the other of the fourth. and a fifth also is the same multiple of the second that a sixth is of the fourth.

Corollary If any magnitudes are proportional. and if less. Proposition 15 Parts have the same ratio as their equimultiples.Proposition 7 Equal magnitudes have to the same the same ratio. if equal. Proposition 17 If magnitudes are proportional taken jointly. and the same has to equal magnitudes the same ratio. then one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the consequents. then they are also proportional taken separately. Proposition 11 Ratios which are the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another. Proposition 9 Magnitudes which have the same ratio to the same equal one another. Proposition 16 If four magnitudes are proportional. Proposition 8 Of unequal magnitudes. equal. less. the greater has to the same a greater ratio than the less has. Proposition 14 If a first magnitude has to a second the same ratio as a third has to a fourth. then the second is also greater than the fourth. then they are also proportional inversely. and the same has to the less a greater ratio than it has to the greater. Proposition 13 If a first magnitude has to a second the same ratio as a third to a fourth. Proposition 10 Of magnitudes which have a ratio to the same. and the first is greater than the third. Proposition 12 If any number of magnitudes are proportional. then they are also proportional alternately. and magnitudes to which the same has the same ratio are equal. and that to which the same has a greater ratio is less. that which has a greater ratio is greater. Proposition 18 . then the first also has to the second a greater ratio than the fifth to the sixth. and the third has to the fourth a greater ratio than a fifth has to a sixth.

if equal. then they are also proportional in conversion. and if ex aequali the first is greater than the third. and the proportion of them be perturbed. then the fourth is also greater than the sixth. and also a fifth has to the second the same ratio as a sixth to the fourth. then the sum of the greatest and the least is greater than the sum of the remaining two. if ex aequali the first magnitude is greater than the third. Proposition 21 If there are three magnitudes. Proposition 22 If there are any number of magnitudes whatever. then they are also in the same ratio ex aequali. then the fourth is also greater than the sixth. then. Proposition 23 If there are three magnitudes. equal. then the remainder is also to the remainder as the whole is to the whole. which taken two and two together are in the same ratio. A ratio is an indication of the relative size . if equal. which taken two and two together are in the same ratio. If magnitudes are proportional taken jointly. for Book V Background on ratio and proportion Book V covers the abstract theory of ratio and proportion. and the proportion of them is perturbed. and. and others equal to them in multitude. less. Proposition 20 If there are three magnitudes. then they are also in the same ratio ex aequali. Corollary. Proposition 25 If four magnitudes are proportional.If magnitudes are proportional taken separately. Proposition 24 If a first magnitude has to a second the same ratio as a third has to a fourth. then they are also proportional taken jointly. equal. and if less. and others equal to them in multitude. and others equal to them in multitude. Proposition 19 If a whole is to a whole as a part subtracted is to a part subtracted. and others equal to them in multitude. then the sum of the first and fifth has to the second the same ratio as the sum of the third and sixth has to the fourth. which taken two and two are in the same ratio. which taken two and two together are in the same ratio. less. if less.

for instance. Multiplication by numbers distributes over addition of magnitudes. so the theory of ratios needs to be developed first. The difficulty is one of foundations: what is an adequate definition of proportion that includes the incommensurable case? The solution is that in V. One is that there is a shorter line CA = 8C while B = 5C.1. + m xn. (m + n)x = mx + nx.3.. therefore the triangle on that base is also twice the triangle on the other base. and if A:B equals a ratio of numbers that A and B are commensurable. Either interpretation will do if one of the ratios is a ratio of numbers.. that is. If A is the side of a square and B its diagonal. This interpretation is the definition of proportion that appears in Book VII. are attributed to Eudoxus of Cnidus (died. multitudes) while letters near the end of the alphabet refer to magnitudes.E. ca. and 6 only mention multitudes of magnitudes.C.C.my. a hundred years before Euclid's Elements. are not commensurable. This ratio of 2:1 is fairly easy to comprehend.) Summary of the propositions The first group of propositions. any ratio equal to a ratio of two numbers is easy to comprehend.2.Def. They each either state. V. that is to say.E. A:B = 8:5. or depend strongly on.5. The propositions in the following book.. are all geometric and depend on ratios. 3. Multiplication by magnitudes distributes over addition of numbers. one triangle is to another as one base is to the other. That definition. It states that triangles of the same height are proportional to their bases. Many straight lines. perhaps Hippasus of Metapontum.. To get a better understanding of what ratios are in geometry. 355 B. not ratios. Multiplication by numbers distributes over subtraction of magnitudes. m(x1 + x2 + . m and n refer to numbers (that is. Indeed.1. however. both are measured by a common measure. a distributivity or an associativity.y) = mx . 5. An associativity of multiplication. In the following identities. the ratio A:B is not the ratio of numbers. m(nx) = (mn)x. Given a proportion that says a ratio of lines equals a ratio of numbers. 1. Book VI. m(x . 2. then A and B are not commensurable. . consider the first proposition VI. This fact seems to have been discovered by the Pythagoreans. V. some time before 400 B. we have two interpretations. + xn) = m x1 + m x2 + .of two magnitudes. and the whole theory of ratio and proportion in Book V..) A simple example is when one base is twice the other. V. V.5. (A proportion is simply an equality of two ratios. A second interpretation is that 5 A = 8 B.

Uses multiplication by magnitudes distributes over subtraction of numbers. If (w + x):x = (y + z):z.10. then for any numbers m and n. V..nx.18.21 is just a preliminary proposition to V. V. then x = y.) If w:x = y:z.11. V. V.17. mw:mx = ny:nz. V. then x > z. The rest of the propositions develop the theory of ratios and proportions starting with basic properties and progressively becoming more advanced. V. If x < y. then (w + x):x = (y + z):z.Cor. Proportions in conversion. Proportional taken separately implies proportional taken jointly.20 is just a preliminary proposition to V. then w:y = x:z.8.23.12. V.. If w:x = y:z. If u:v = w:x and w:x > y:z. then (u + v):(x + y) = u:x. Proportional taken jointly implies proportional taken separately. If w:x = y:z.. V. V.7. If (w + x):(y + z) = w:y. If w:x = y:z. If x = y. then w:x = y:z.9. V.19. Alternate proportions.6. Inverse proportions. too. then u:v = y:z.13. V. then each of these ratios also equals the ratio (x1 + x2 + .15..16. x:y = nx:ny. Also. Substitution of equal ratios in inequalities of ratios. then x > y V. if z:x = z:y.7. . If (u + v):(x + y) = v:y.8.14.) If x:z < y:z.. (A converse to V. (A converse to V. then x < y. then x:z < y:z but z:x > z:y. (m . then x = y. and V. If u:v = w:x and w:x = y:z. + yn).7. V. then x:z = y:z and z:x = z:y.4. + xn) : (y1 + y2 + . V. then x:w = z:y.n)x = mx .V.) If x:z = y:z. then u:v > y:z. If w:x = y:z and w > y. Substitution of equals in ratios.19..Cor. If x1:y1 = x2:y2 = . then (w + x):(y + z) = x:z. V. V. V. Transitivity of equal ratios.17. But if z:x < z:y. (A converse to V.22. = xn:yn.

The books on number theory. The next group of propositions. 12 11. Logical structure of Book V Book V is on the foundations of ratios and proportions and in no way depends on any of the previous Books. There are moderately long chains of deductions. do not directly depend on Book V since there is a different definition for ratios of numbers. XI through XIII. . If x1:x2 = y1:y2. 15 1. 8*. 19 3. 8* 8*.22.. 13 7. then x1:xn = y1:yn.. VII through IX.Cor. And the last 10 propositions depend on most of the preceeding ones to Dependencies within Book V 2 3 1 8* 7. and xn-1:xn = yn-1:yn. 16*. then u:w = x:z. 21* 7. 8. the law of trichotomy for ratios. x2:x3 = y2:y3. * Some of the propositions in Book V require treating definition V.V. V.23. If u:v = w:x and y:v = z:x. there are some that he didn't notice he used. 11. 15.4 as an axiom of comparison. The first six propositions excepting 4 have to do with arithmetic of magnitudes and build on the Common Notions. 4 and 7 through 15. 21.Cor. and the proofs there frequently depend on the results in Book V.Def. Some of Euclid's proofs of the remaining propositions rely on these propositions. (14). 10. 14*.7. use the earlier propositions and defintions 4 through 7 to develop the more basic properties of ratios. for instance. Book VI contains the propositions on plane geometry that depend on ratios.Def. discuss ratios and depend on Book V. Propositions 1. 7. If u:v = y:z and v:w = x:y. Perturbed ratios ex aequali. Although Euclid is fairly careful to prove the results on ratios that he uses later.4 through V. but not so long as those in Book I. 14*. 20 11.Def. 16. One side of the law of trichotomy for ratios depends on it as well as propositions 8. then (u + y):v = (w + z):x. V. 21* 22 23* 24 25* . 13 4.24. Also Book X on irrational lines and the books on solid geometry. 11. 14. then w + z > x + y. . 17 7. If w:x = y:z and w is the greatest of the four magnitudes while z is the least. 16*. These are described in the Guides to definitions V. Ratios ex aequali. 10. and 13 are proved without invoking other propositions. 9. but alternate proofs that don't depend on an axiom of comparison can be given for them. 22 7. and 25. 17 11. 18. 2 11. 12 9* 10 14* 15 16* 17 18 19 20. 2. 6 4 5. 23. V.25.

Next book: Book VI Previous: Book IV .develop advanced properties.

Similarly a figure is said to be circumscribed about a figure when the respective sides of the circumscribed figure pass through the respective angles of that about which it is circumscribed. A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a rectilinear figure when the respective angles of the inscribed figure lie on the respective sides of that in which it is inscribed. Definition 3. Definition 4. A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a circle when each angle of the inscribed figure lies on the circumference of the circle. . Definition 2.Table of contents q q Definitions (7) Propositions (16) Guide to Book IV Logical structure of Book IV q q Definitions Definition 1.

To fit into a given circle a straight line equal to a given straight line which is not greater than the diameter of the circle. A circle is said to be circumscribed about a figure when the circumference of the circle passes through each angle of the figure about which it is circumscribed. Proposition 7. Propositions Proposition 1.A rectilinear figure is said to be circumscribed about a circle when each side of the circumscribed figure touches the circumference of the circle. Proposition 2. Definition 7. . Proposition 8. Corollary. the triangle is acute-angled. Proposition 6. To inscribe a circle in a given square. When the center of the circle falls within the triangle. Proposition 3. To circumscribe a circle about a given triangle. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle. when the center falls on a side. To inscribe in a given circle a triangle equiangular with a given triangle. To circumscribe about a given circle a triangle equiangular with a given triangle. Proposition 5. Similarly a circle is said to be inscribed in a figure when the circumference of the circle touches each side of the figure in which it is inscribed. Definition 6. the triangle is obtuse-angled. To circumscribe a square about a given circle. and when the center of the circle falls outside the triangle. Proposition 4. A straight line is said to be fitted into a circle when its ends are on the circumference of the circle. the triangle is right-angled. To inscribe a square in a given circle. Definition 5.

Proposition 9. Proposition 13. if through the points of division on the circle we draw tangents to the circle. To construct an isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base double the remaining one. Guide to Book IV . And further by means similar to those explained in the case of the pentagon we can both inscribe a circle in a given hexagon and circumscribe one about it. To inscribe a circle in a given equilateral and equiangular pentagon. And. To circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about a given circle. To circumscribe a circle about a given equilateral and equiangular pentagon. Proposition 14. we can both inscribe a circle in the given fifteen-angled figure and circumscribe one about it. And. Corollary. To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon in a given circle. if through the points of division on the circle we draw tangents to the circle. Corollary. Proposition 16. by proofs similar to those in the case of the pentagon. there will be circumscribed about the circle an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in conformity with what was explained in the case of the pentagon. in like manner as in the case of the pentagon. To circumscribe a circle about a given square. Proposition 15. there will be circumscribed about the circle a fifteen-angled figure which is equilateral and equiangular. The side of the hexagon equals the radius of the circle. Proposition 12. To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in a given circle. in like manner as in the case of the pentagon. To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-angled figure in a given circle. Proposition 10. Proposition 11. And further.

Cor Inscribe circle in figure IV.6 IV. Most of the propositions of Book IV are logically independent of each other.Cor IV.16 Circumscribe figure about circle IV.15.8 IV.2 IV.15 IV. Logical structure of Book IV The proofs of the propositions in Book IV rely heavily on the propositions in Books I and III.3 IV.10 constructs a particular triangle needed in the construction of a regular pentagon. however.Cor IV.1 is a basic construction to fit a line in a circle. 5 2.Cor IV. Only one proposition from Book II is used and that is the construction in II.4 IV. 11 10 11 12 16 .All but two of the propositions in this book are constructions to inscribe or circumscribe figures.16. involving the construction of regular pentagons.9 IV.Cor Triangle Square Regular pentagon Regular hexagon Regular 15gon There are only two other propositions.7 IV. Proposition IV.13 IV.11 IV.15.14 IV. and proposition IV.16.5 IV.Cor Circumscribe circle about figure IV. 10 11 1. Dependencies within Book IV 1.16.15.11 used in proposition IV.12 IV.10 to construct a particular triangle needed in the construction of a regular pentagon. Figure Inscribe figure in circle IV. 2. There is a short chain of deductions.

Next book: Book V Previous: Book III .

Definition 2. Definition 3. meeting the circle and being produced. A straight line is said to touch a circle which.Table of contents q q Definitions (11) Propositions (37) Definitions Definition 1. And that straight line is said to be at a greater distance on which the greater perpendicular falls. Definition 4. does not cut the circle. or whose radii are equal. Straight lines in a circle are said to be equally distant from the center when the perpendiculars drawn to them from the center are equal. Circles are said to touch one another which meet one another but do not cut one another. . Equal circles are those whose diameters are equal. Definition 5.

If in a circle a straight line cuts a straight line into two equal parts and at right angles. . the angle is said to stand upon that circumference. Definition 11. Propositions Proposition 1. then it also cuts it at right angles. and if it cuts it at right angles. If a straight line passing through the center of a circle bisects a straight line not passing through the center. Proposition 4. Definition 10. Definition 7. Proposition 2. A segment of a circle is the figure contained by a straight line and a circumference of a circle. Proposition 3. then they do not bisect one another. or in which the angles equal one another. Corollary. Definition 8. when an angle is constructed at the center of the circle. Definition 9. when a point is taken on the circumference of the segment and straight lines are joined from it to the ends of the straight line which is the base of the segment. then it also bisects it. is contained by the straight lines so joined. To find the center of a given circle. Similar segments of circles are those which admit equal angles. An angle in a segment is the angle which. then the straight line joining the points falls within the circle. If two points are taken at random on the circumference of a circle. If in a circle two straight lines which do not pass through the center cut one another. is contained by the straight lines containing the angle and the circumference cut off by them. when the straight lines containing the angle cut off a circumference. then the center of the circle lies on the cutting straight line.Definition 6. And. A sector of a circle is the figure which. An angle of a segment is that contained by a straight line and a circumference of a circle.

then that is greatest on which passes through the center. If two circles touch one another. Proposition 11. If two circles touch one another internally. A circle does not touch another circle at more than one point whether it touches it internally or externally.Proposition 5. then the straight line joining their centers passes through the point of contact. the remainder of the same diameter is least. while of the rest the nearer to the least is always less than the more remote. being produced. and from the point straight lines fall upon the circle. that through the center is greatest. and their centers are taken.. and those which are equally distant from the center equal one another. Equal straight lines in a circle are equally distant from the center. of the straight lines which fall on the concave circumference. one on each side of the least. and of the rest the nearer to the straight line through the center is always greater than the more remote. then the point taken is the center of the circle. Proposition 8. one on each side of the least straight line. Proposition 10. then they do not have the same center. A circle does not cut a circle at more than two points. If a point is taken within a circle. Proposition 12. If two circles touch one another externally. of the straight lines falling on the convex circumference. Proposition 14. . If on the diameter of a circle a point is taken which is not the center of the circle. and only two equal straight lines fall from the point on the circle. then the straight line joining their centers. and more than two equal straight lines fall from the point on the circle. and only two equal straight lines fall on the circle from the point. Proposition 6. then. falls on the point of contact of the circles. that between the point and the diameter is least. Proposition 13. while of the rest the nearer to that through the center is always greater than the more remote. Proposition 9. If a point is taken outside a circle and from the point straight lines are drawn through to the circle. one of which is through the center and the others are drawn at random. Proposition 7. but. If two circles cut one another. then they do not have the same center.

From this it is manifest that the straight line drawn at right angles to the diameter of a circle from its end touches the circle. If a straight line touches a circle. than any acute rectilinear angle. The sum of the opposite angles of quadrilaterals in circles equals two right angles. Proposition 25. and from the point of contact a straight line is drawn at right angles to the tangent. Proposition 22. In a circle the angles in the same segment equal one another. Proposition 19. Proposition 20. Corollary. further the angle of the semicircle is greater. and of the rest the nearer to the center is always greater than the more remote. On the same straight line there cannot be constructed two similar and unequal segments of circles on the same side. Proposition 21. The straight line drawn at right angles to the diameter of a circle from its end will fall outside the circle. . to describe the complete circle of which it is a segment. and the remaining angle less. In a circle the angle at the center is double the angle at the circumference when the angles have the same circumference as base. Proposition 17. Given a segment of a circle. Proposition 23. Of straight lines in a circle the diameter is greatest. the straight line so joined will be perpendicular to the tangent. Proposition 18. and into the space between the straight line and the circumference another straight line cannot be interposed. If a straight line touches a circle.Proposition 15. the center of the circle will be on the straight line so drawn. Similar segments of circles on equal straight lines equal one another. Proposition 16. Proposition 26. From a given point to draw a straight line touching a given circle. Proposition 24. and a straight line is joined from the center to the point of contact.

In equal circles equal straight lines cut off equal circumferences. In a circle the angle in the semicircle is right. then the rectangle contained by the segments of the one equals the rectangle contained by the segments of the other. If in a circle two straight lines cut one another. then the angles which it makes with the tangent equal the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. Proposition 28. On a given straight line to describe a segment of a circle admitting an angle equal to a given rectilinear angle. a straight line cutting the circle. that in a greater segment less than a right angle. Proposition 37. Proposition 29. further the angle of the greater segment is greater than a right angle. Proposition 32. and if one of them cuts the circle and the other touches it. then the rectangle contained by the whole of the straight line which cuts the circle and the straight line intercepted on it outside between the point and the convex circumference equals the square on the tangent. If a point is taken outside a circle and two straight lines fall from it on the circle. in the circle. In equal circles straight lines that cut off equal circumferences are equal. Proposition 35. Proposition 33. In equal circles angles standing on equal circumferences equal one another whether they stand at the centers or at the circumferences. If a straight line touches a circle.In equal circles equal angles stand on equal circumferences whether they stand at the centers or at the circumferences. To bisect a given circumference. Proposition 30. Proposition 34. and that in a less segment greater than a right angle. . From a given circle to cut off a segment admitting an angle equal to a given rectilinear angle. the greater circumference equals the greater and the less equals the less. Proposition 31. and from the point of contact there is drawn across. Proposition 27. and the angle of the less segment is less than a right angle. Proposition 36.

if one of them cuts the circle. Next book: Book IV Previous: Book II . then the straight line which falls on it touches the circle.If a point is taken outside a circle and from the point there fall on the circle two straight lines. and the other falls on it. and if further the rectangle contained by the whole of the straight line which cuts the circle and the straight line intercepted on it outside between the point and the convex circumference equals the square on the straight line which falls on the circle.

If there are two straight lines. and one of them is cut into any number of segments whatever. Any rectangular parallelogram is said to be contained by the two straight lines containing the right angle. .Table of contents q q Definitions (2) Propositions (14) Guide to Book II Logical structure of Book II q q Definitions Definition 1. Propositions Proposition 1. Definition 2 And in any parallelogrammic area let any one whatever of the parallelograms about its diameter with the two complements be called a gnomon. then the rectangle contained by the two straight lines equals the sum of the rectangles contained by the uncut straight line and each of the segments.

If a straight line is cut at random. Proposition 8. Proposition 6. If a straight line is bisected and a straight line is added to it in a straight line. then the square on the whole with the added straight line and the square on the added straight line both together are double the sum of the square on the half and the square described on the straight line made up of the half and the added straight line as on one straight line. If a straight line is cut at random. then four times the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the segments plus the square on the remaining segment equals the square described on the whole and the aforesaid segment as on one straight line. Proposition 9. If a straight line is cut into equal and unequal segments. Proposition 5. then the rectangle contained by the unequal segments of the whole together with the square on the straight line between the points of section equals the square on the half.Proposition 2. . then the sum of the squares on the unequal segments of the whole is double the sum of the square on the half and the square on the straight line between the points of section. Proposition 10. then the sum of the square on the whole and that on one of the segments equals twice the rectangle contained by the whole and the said segment plus the square on the remaining segment. If a straight line is cut into equal and unequal segments. If a straight line is cut at random. and a straight line is added to it in a straight line. Proposition 4. If a straight line is bisected. Proposition 3. then the sum of the rectangles contained by the whole and each of the segments equals the square on the whole. the square on the whole equals the squares on the segments plus twice the rectangle contained by the segments. If a straight line is cut at random. then the rectangle contained by the whole with the added straight line and the added straight line together with the square on the half equals the square on the straight line made up of the half and the added straight line. then the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the segments equals the sum of the rectangle contained by the segments and the square on the aforesaid segment. If a straight line is cut at random. Proposition 7.

.3. Of course. To construct a square equal to a given rectilinear figure. The equations are all quadratic equations since the geometry is plane geometry. Nonetheless. + x yn. and the straight line cut off outside by the perpendicular towards the obtuse angle. . then xy = yz + y2. + yn. + yn) = x y1 + x y2 + . This can be stated in various ways in an identity of two variables. This can be stated in a single identity as x (y1 + y2 + . In acute-angled triangles the square on the side opposite the acute angle is less than the sum of the squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the rectangle contained by one of the sides about the acute angle. If x = y + z. If y = y1 + y2 + .1.Proposition 11. namely that on which the perpendicular falls." The first ten propositions of Book II can be easily interpreted in modern algebraic notation. and the straight line cut off within by the perpendicular towards the acutc angle. and xy = y(x – y) + y2.2. II. then x2 = xy + xz... II.. in doing so the geometric flavor of the propositions is lost. To cut a given straight line so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the segments equals the square on the remaining segment.. Guide to Book II The subject matter of Book II is usually called "geometric algebra. In obtuse-angled triangles the square on the side opposite the obtuse angle is greater than the sum of the squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the rectangle contained by one of the sides about the obtuse angle. restating them algebraically can aid in understanding them.. Proposition 13. For instance. II. + x yn. Equivalent identities are (y + z)y = yz + y2. or x2 = xy + x (x – y)... Proposition 14. namely that on which the perpendicular falls. then xy = x y1 + x y2 + . Proposition 12. If x = y + z. (y + z)2 = (y + z) y + (y + z) z.

As an identity. Dependencies within Book II 6 4 7 5 11 12 13 14 . if x = y + z.5 and II. would have shortened the exposition a little. II. (y + z)2 = y2 + z2 + 2yz. This is understandable considering Book II is mostly algebra interpreted in the theory of geometry. The remaining four propositions are of a slightly different nature.10.26. II.6.4.12 and II. are not invoked even once. then x2 = y2 + z2 + 2yz. I. x2 + z2 = 2xz + (x – z)2. and I. then 4xy + z2 = (x + y)2. II. the important congruence theorems for triangles.11 cuts a line into two parts which solves the equation a (a – x) = x2 geometrically. As an identity.4. perhaps.7. (y + z)2 + (y – z)2 = 2 (y2 + z2).47. 4xy + (x – y)2 = (x + y)2. If x = y + z.9 and II. For instance. Logical structure of Book II The proofs of the propositions in Book II heavily rely on the propositions in Book I involving right angles and parallel lines. Propositions II. The remaining four propositions each depend on one of the first ten. If x = y + z. As an identity. then x2 + z2 = 2xz + y2. Proposition II. namely I. II. but few others.II. (y + z) (y – z) + z2 = y2. The first ten propositions in Book II were written to be logically independent.14 constructs a square equal to a given rectilinear figure thereby completeing the theory of areas begun in Book I.8. The last propostion II. but they could have easily been written in logical chains which.8.13 are recognizable as geometric forms of the law of cosines which is a generalization of I.

Next book: Book III Previous book: Book I Elements Introduction .

The ends of a line are points. Definition 3. Definition 2. Definition 5. A line is breadthless length. A straight line is a line which lies evenly with the points on itself. Definition 4. . A point is that which has no part.Table of contents q q q q Definitions (23) Postulates (5) Common Notions (5) Propositions (48) Guide to Book I q Definitions Definition 1.

Definition 7. And the point is called the center of the circle. Definition 9. Definition 13. A circle is a plane figure contained by one line such that all the straight lines falling upon it from one point among those lying within the figure equal one another. Definition 12. The edges of a surface are lines. Definition 8. A plane surface is a surface which lies evenly with the straight lines on itself.A surface is that which has length and breadth only. each of the equal angles is right. A figure is that which is contained by any boundary or boundaries. A diameter of the circle is any straight line drawn through the center and terminated in both directions by the circumference of the circle. A boundary is that which is an extremity of anything. When a straight line standing on a straight line makes the adjacent angles equal to one another. the angle is called rectilinear. And . Definition 6. Definition 14. Definition 17. Definition 11. And when the lines containing the angle are straight. A plane angle is the inclination to one another of two lines in a plane which meet one another and do not lie in a straight line. An acute angle is an angle less than a right angle. and such a straight line also bisects the circle. Definition 10. Definition 15. A semicircle is the figure contained by the diameter and the circumference cut off by it. An obtuse angle is an angle greater than a right angle. Definition 18. Definition 16. and the straight line standing on the other is called a perpendicular to that on which it stands.

and a scalene triangle that which has its three sides unequal.the center of the semicircle is the same as that of the circle. Of quadrilateral figures. Definition 23 Parallel straight lines are straight lines which. Of trilateral figures. a square is that which is both equilateral and right-angled. Postulates Let the following be postulated: Postulate 1. Postulate 5. Definition 20. do not meet one another in either direction. And let quadrilaterals other than these be called trapezia. Rectilinear figures are those which are contained by straight lines. Definition 19. Postulate 4. . Definition 21. and a rhomboid that which has its opposite sides and angles equal to one another but is neither equilateral nor right-angled. an isosceles triangle that which has two of its sides alone equal. Further. Postulate 3. a rhombus that which is equilateral but not rightangled. a right-angled triangle is that which has a right angle. That all right angles equal one another. an oblong that which is right-angled but not equilateral. and multilateral those contained by more than four straight lines. being in the same plane and being produced indefinitely in both directions. To draw a straight line from any point to any point. an equilateral triangle is that which has its three sides equal. To produce a finite straight line continuously in a straight line. Definition 22. of trilateral figures. trilateral figures being those contained by three. an obtuseangled triangle that which has an obtuse angle. quadrilateral those contained by four. and an acute-angled triangle that which has its three angles acute. Postulate 2. To describe a circle with any center and radius.

if produced indefinitely. If equals are added to equals. Things which coincide with one another equal one another. then they also have the base equal to the base. if the equal straight lines are produced further. and. then the remainders are equal. Common notion 3. To construct an equilateral triangle on a given finite straight line. Common notion 5. Proposition 3. To place a straight line equal to a given straight line with one end at a given point. Common Notions Common notion 1. Common notion 4. then the sides opposite the equal angles also equal one another. Propositions Proposition 1. the triangle equals the triangle. Common notion 2.That. then the wholes are equal. the two straight lines. To cut off from the greater of two given unequal straight lines a straight line equal to the less. and have the angles contained by the equal straight lines equal. Proposition 5. Proposition 6. If in a triangle two angles equal one another. Proposition 2. Proposition 4. then the angles under the base equal one another. In isosceles triangles the angles at the base equal one another. and the remaining angles equal the remaining angles respectively. meet on that side on which are the angles less than the two right angles. if a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles. The whole is greater than the part. Things which equal the same thing also equal one another. . If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides respectively. If equals are subtracted from equals. namely those opposite the equal sides.

Proposition 14. Proposition 11. and on the same side of it. If a straight line stands on a straight line. Given two straight lines constructed from the ends of a straight line and meeting in a point. Proposition 15.Proposition 7. and at a point on it. Corollary. there cannot be constructed from the ends of the same straight line. Proposition 10. and also have the base equal to the base. Proposition 17. then they also have the angles equal which are contained by the equal straight lines. If with any straight line. Proposition 13. then it makes either two right angles or angles whose sum equals two right angles. then they will make the angles at the point of section equal to four right angles. To bisect a given rectilinear angle. if one of the sides is produced. If two triangles have the two sides equal to two sides respectively. Proposition 8. two straight lines not lying on the same side make the sum of the adjacent angles equal to two right angles. To draw a straight line at right angles to a given straight line from a given point on it. then the two straight lines are in a straight line with one another. Proposition 12. then the exterior angle is greater than either of the interior and opposite angles. namely each equal to that from the same end. To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given infinite straight line from a given point not on it. Proposition 16. two other straight lines meeting in another point and equal to the former two respectively. then they make the vertical angles equal to one another. Proposition 9. . To bisect a given finite straight line. In any triangle. If two straight lines cut one another. If two straight lines cut one another.

but have the base greater than the base. To construct a triangle out of three straight lines which equal three given straight lines: thus it is necessary that the sum of any two of the straight lines should be greater than the remaining one. Proposition 27. In any triangle the side opposite the greater angle is greater. If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the alternate angles equal to one another.In any triangle the sum of any two angles is less than two right angles. Proposition 20. Proposition 26. If from the ends of one of the sides of a triangle two straight lines are constructed meeting within the triangle. If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides respectively. Proposition 24. . then they also have the one of the angles contained by the equal straight lines greater than the other. or that opposite one of the equal angles. either the side adjoining the equal angles. Proposition 22. If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides respectively. but the constructed straight lines contain a greater angle than the angle contained by the remaining two sides. and one side equal to one side. To construct a rectilinear angle equal to a given rectilinear angle on a given straight line and at a point on it. namely. Proposition 21. In any triangle the sum of any two sides is greater than the remaining one. but have one of the angles contained by the equal straight lines greater than the other. If two triangles have two angles equal to two angles respectively. Proposition 18. then the sum of the straight lines so constructed is less than the sum of the remaining two sides of the triangle. then they also have the base greater than the base. Proposition 19. then the remaining sides equal the remaining sides and the remaining angle equals the remaining angle. Proposition 25. then the straight lines are parallel to one another. In any triangle the angle opposite the greater side is greater. Proposition 23.

Proposition 38. Triangles which are on the same base and in the same parallels equal one another. In parallelogrammic areas the opposite sides and angles equal one another. if one of the sides is produced. If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle on the same side. . Proposition 29. and the diameter bisects the areas. Equal triangles which are on the same base and on the same side are also in the same parallels. Triangles which are on equal bases and in the same parallels equal one another. Proposition 32. Proposition 33. and the sum of the three interior angles of the triangle equals two right angles. To draw a straight line through a given point parallel to a given straight line. Proposition 34. A straight line falling on parallel straight lines makes the alternate angles equal to one another. Proposition 31. Parallelograms which are on equal bases and in the same parallels equal one another. then the exterior angle equals the sum of the two interior and opposite angles. Proposition 30. Straight lines parallel to the same straight line are also parallel to one another. Straight lines which join the ends of equal and parallel straight lines in the same directions are themselves equal and parallel. the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle. then the straight lines are parallel to one another. Proposition 36. Proposition 39.Proposition 28. Proposition 37. and the sum of the interior angles on the same side equal to two right angles. Proposition 35. Proposition 40. Parallelograms which are on the same base and in the same parallels equal one another. or the sum of the interior angles on the same side equal to two right angles. In any triangle.

For instance. Def. Proposition 47.I. Some of these indicate little more than certain concepts will be discussed. and Def. Def. For example. Proposition 44.I. line. to apply a parallelogram equal to a given triangle. Proposition 41.5. To a given straight line in a given rectilinear angle. Proposition 48. Proposition 43. (Note that for Euclid. then the angle contained by the remaining two sides of the triangle is right. Def.1. To construct a parallelogram equal to a given triangle in a given rectilinear angle. In any parallelogram the complements of the parallelograms about the diameter equal one another. In right-angled triangles the square on the side opposite the right angle equals the sum of the squares on the sides containing the right angle. To construct a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure in a given rectilinear angle. and surface.10 defines a right angle as one of two equal adjacent angles made when one straight line meets another. the concept of line includes curved lines. Proposition 42. then the parallelogram is double the triangle.4 says . Other definitions look like they're substantial. About the Definitions The Elements begins with a list of definitions. but actually are not. Proposition 45. If a parallelogram has the same base with a triangle and is in the same parallels.I. which introduce the terms point. such as Def. If in a triangle the square on one of the sides equals the sum of the squares on the remaining two sides of the triangle. To describe a square on a given straight line.) Others are substantial definitions which actually describe new concepts in terms of old ones.2.Equal triangles which are on equal bases and on the same side are also in the same parallels.I. Proposition 46.I.

Thus. See the guide on Book V for more information. Euclid does use parallelograms. plane geometry. and rhomboid (parallelogram but not a rhombus). but says that all right angles are equal.1 says a straight line can be drawn between two points. solids are considered. this definition indicates." No where in the Elements is the defining phrase "which lies evenly with the points on itself" applicable. That agrees with Euclid's definition of them in I. while arcs of unequal circles are magnitudes of different kinds. Except for squares. Other important kinds are rectilinear angles and areas (plane figures).I. Most of them are constructions. oblong (a rectangle that are not squares).Def. The kind of magnitude that appears most frequently is that of straight line.I. that is.I. Post. Also. Later books include other kinds. Book V includes the general theory of ratios. Only arcs of equal circles can be compared or added. In Def. arcs. rhombus (equilateral but not a square). It could be considered that numbers form a kind of magnitude as pointed out by Aristotle.22 special kinds of quadrilaterals are defined including square.3 says a circle can be drawn given a specified point to be the center and another point to be on the circumference. Whereas areas of figures are comparable. It has been suggested that the definitions were added to the Elements sometime after Euclid wrote them. Another possibility is that they are actually from a different work. Post. perhaps older.9 and I. Number theory is treated in Books VII through IX. Each postulate is an axiom—which means a statement which is accepted without proof— specific to the subject matter. Also in Book III. that some lines under discussion will be straight lines. the exclusive nature of some of these terms—the part that indicates not a square—is contrary to Euclid's practice of accepting squares and rectangles as kinds of parallelograms. The fourth postulate. About magnitudes and the Common Notions The Common Notions are also axioms. These kinds are all different from straight lines. . different kinds of curves are not. and they form the last kind of magnitude discussed in the Elements.8.16 (but nowhere else) angles with curved sides are compared with rectilinear angles which shows that rectilinear angles are to be considered as a special kind of plane angle. Beginning in Book XI. It may come as a surprise that ratios do not themselves form a kind of magnitude since they can be compared. For instance.Def. these other shapes are not mentioned in the Elements. but they cannot be added. but they're not defined in this definition. so arcs of equal circles comprise a kind of magnitude.I. parts of circumferences of circles.a straight line "is a line which lies evenly with the points on itself.4. and Post. is not a constuction. In proposition III. in this case. but they refer to magnitudes of various kinds. About the Postulates Following the list of definitions is a list of postulates. at most. No particular kind of magnitude is specified in that book. appear as magnitudes.

6 7 9. a sequence of statements that are logically justified and which culminates in the statement of the proposition. 10 11 3. Each of these propositions includes a statement followed by a proof of the statement. 4 5 1. The first part of a proof for a constuctive proposition is how to perform the construction. postulate. 11 10 12 13 16 14. Most of the propositions.5 says that if a triangle has the property that two of its sides are equal.I. ultimately. A construction depends. 3. however. I. 15 27 8 3 . Prop. Logical structure of Book I The various postulates and common notions are frequently used in Book I. The logical chains of propositions in Book I are longer than in the other books. there are 48 propositions. namely. are not constructions. 4. on the constructive postulates about drawing lines and circles.4. 9 8. For example. There are gaps in the logic of some of the proofs. common notion. 4. 10. then it follows that the angles opposite these sides (called the "base angles") are also equal. Some of the propositions are constructions. and these are mentioned in the commenaries after the propositions. But the bulk of the proof is.The propositions Following the definitions. the constructions are displayed in red. Also included in the proof is a diagram illustrating the proof. Only two of the propositions rely solely on the postulates and axioms. 15 2 5. shows that the proposed construction actually satisfies the goal of the proposition. Each statement of the proof is logically justified by a definition. The rest of the proof (usually the longer part). In the list of propositions in each book. there are long sequences of propositions each relying on the previous. as for the constructive propositions. Their statements say that under certain conditions. certain other conditions logically follow.1 and I. Even the propositions that are not constructions may have constructions included in their proofs since auxillary lines or circles may be needed in the explanation. 8 1. and common notions. or an earlier proposition that has already been proven. Dependencies within Book I 1 3. postulates.

16 3. 34 33. 19. 23. 23 4. 22 3. 27. 29 4.13. 15. 27 29 23. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 . 37 10. 34. 29 4. 20 3. 31 4. 38. 26. 18 3. 16 5. 5. 29. 31. 34. 24 3. 36 31. 5. 37 31. 35 31. 41 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28. 4. 5. 19 16. 34. 27 13. 16 13. 29. 38 34. 4. 20 8. 35 31.

31. 29. 11. 42. 14. 11. 34.15. 43 14. 31. 30. 46 3. 8. 34 4. 29. 41. 29. 44 3. 42. 33. 31. 47 44 45 46 47 48 Next book: Book II .

And CE is the rectangle AB by BC.46 Now. VI.1 . therefore CE equals FH. draw the figure in DF. and FH is the square on AC. But the sum of LH and HC is also double CH. Describe the squares AE and DF on AB and DC. I say that the square on CD is five times the square on AD.Def. and let AC be the greater segment. Therefore KC equals the sum of LH and HC. I. VI. then the square on the greater segment added to the half of the whole is five times the square on the half. while BA equals KA. and make AD half of AB.17 And. Let the straight line AB be cut in extreme and mean ratio at the point C.Proposition 1 If a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio.3 VI. But KA is to AH as CK is to CH. since AB is cut in extreme and mean ratio at C. and AD equals AH. Produce the straight line AD in a straight line with CA. therefore KA is also double AH. since BA is double AD. and carry FC through to G. therefore the rectangle AB by BC equals the square on AC. therefore CK is double CH.

And DF is the square on DC. And. therefore the square on CD is five times the square on DA. that is. Next proposition: XIII. But AE equals the gnomon MNO. Q.11. therefore the whole square AE equals the gnomon MNO. then the square on the greater segment added to the half of the whole is five times the square on the half. if a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio.E. AE is quadruple DH.D.But CE was also proved equal to HF. Therefore the whole DF is five times AP.2 Book XIII introduction . Therefore. therefore the square on BA is quadruple the square on AD. therefore the gnomon MNO is also quadruple AP. and AP the square on DP.17.6 and XIII. Those propositions are in turn used to make conclusions about the sides of the icosahedron and dodecahedron constructed in propositions XIII. since BA is double AD. Use of this theorem This proposition is used in the proofs of XIII.16 and XIII.

therefore the gnomon MNO equals CG. And. But the gnomon MNO is also quadruple AH. therefore the square on DC is quadruple the square on CA.46 Now. since DC is double CA. therefore KB is also double BH. when the double of the said segment is cut in extreme and mean ratio. since DC is double CA.1 . And. I say that. therefore AF is five times AH. I. then the greater segment is CB. CG is quadruple AH. and draw BE through.Proposition 2 If the square on a straight line is five times the square on a segment on it. Describe the squares AF and CG on AB and CD respectively. the greater segment is the remaining part of the original straight line. draw the figure in AF. while DC equals CK. Let the square on the straight line AB be five times the square on the segment AC of it. and AC equals CH. Therefore the gnomon MNO is quadruple AH. since the square on BA is five times the square on AC. VI. that is. then. when CD is cut in extreme and mean ratio. and let CD be double AC.

the square on BA is also five times the square on CA Therefore the square on BA equals the sum of the squares on BC and CA. if the square on a straight line is five times the square on a segment on it. Therefore the double AC is greater than CB. let BC be. for CD equals DG.D. and HF is the square on CB. by hypothesis. Similarly we can prove that neither is a straight line less than CB double CA. when the double of the said segment is cut in extreme and mean ratio. then. But DC is greater than CB. But. Apparently.1. for the absurdity is much greater. Therefore. when the straight line CD is cut in extreme and mean ratio. Q. But the whole gnomon MNO was also proved equal to the whole CG. And BG is the rectangle CD by DB. Therefore CB is not double AC. therefore the remainder HF equals BG. Lemma That the double AC is greater than BC is to be proved thus.But the sum of LH and HB is also double HB. CB is the greater segment. Therefore the square on BC is quadruple the square on CA. Q. the greater segment is the remaining part of the original straight line. Therefore DC is to CB as CB is to BD. Therefore the sum of the squares on BC and CA is five times the square on CA. therefore KB equals the sum of LH and HB. II. double CA. it is only included because it is the converse of the previous proposition XIII.D. if possible. therefore the rectangle CD by DB equals the square on CB. Therefore.E. . If not. therefore CB is also greater than BD.4 This proposition is not used in the rest of the Elements. which is impossible.E.

Next proposition: XIII.1 Book XIII introduction .3 Previous: XIII.

Add CN to each. therefore HK also equals KF. Hence the square GF equals the square HL.Proposition 3 If a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio. and draw the figure. therefore CE is also quadruple FG. and CE is the rectangle AB by BC. Therefore GK equals KL. that is MN equals NE. Cut any straight line AB in extreme and mean ratio at the point C. therefore the gnomon OPQ equals CE. therefore the square on AC is quadruple the square on DC. And. and let AC be the greater segment. Again. . since the rectangle AB by BC equals the square on AC. But MF equals CG. therefore CE equals RS. But RS is quadruple FG. RS is quadruple FG. hence MF equals FE. therefore CG equals FE.46 Since AC is double DC. since AD equals DC. Bisect AC at D. I. Describe the square AE on AB. I say that the square on BD is five times the square on DC. then the square on the sum of the lesser segment and the half of the greater segment is five times the square on the half of the greater segment. that is.

Q. Therefore the sum of the gnomon OPQ and the square FG is five times FG.D. But the sum of the gnomon OPQ and the square FG is the square DN.4 Previous: XIII. Use of this proposition This result is needed in proposition XIII. and GF is the square on DC.E.But CE was proved quadruple GF. Therefore. then the square on the sum of the lesser segment and the half of the greater segment is five times the square on the half of the greater segment. if a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio.16 to show the icosahedron is inscribed in the given sphere.2 Book XIII introduction . Therefore the square on DB is five times the square on DC. Next proposition: XIII. therefore the gnomon OPQ is also quadruple the square FG. And DN is the square on DB.

and let AC be the greater segment.Proposition 4 If a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio. which are the squares on AB and BC. then the sum of the squares on the whole and on the lesser segment is triple the square on the greater segment. and AC is the greater segment. further. But the sum of AK and CE is the sum of the gnomon LMN and the square CK. But. add CK to each.Def. VI. Describe the square ADEB on AB. therefore the sum of the gnomon LMN and the square CK is double AK.46 Since. while HG is the square on AC. Therefore the sum of AK and CE is double AK. Therefore the sum of the squares on AB and BC is triple the square on AC.17 And AK is the rectangle AB by BC.3 VI. AB is cut in extreme and mean ratio at C. and draw the figure. therefore the sum of the gnomon LMN and the squares CK and HG is triple the square HG. And. and HG is the square on AC. AK was also proved equal to HG. . therefore AK equals HG. I. Let AB be a straight line cut in extreme and mean ratio at C. I say that the sum of the squares on AB and BC is triple the square on CA. therefore the rectangle AB by BC equals the square on AC. then. since AF equals FE. And the sum of the gnomon LMN and the squares CK and HG is the sum of the whole square AE and CK. therefore the whole AK equals the whole CE.

edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements.5 Previous: XIII. then the sum of the squares on the whole and on the lesser segment is triple the square on the greater segment.E. if a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio.D. Math.clarku.E.Joyce Dept. & Comp. Clark University . Q.Therefore.17. Next proposition: XIII.html D. Sci. Use of this proposition This and the next three propositions are all preparatory to the construction of a dodecahedron in proposition XIII.3 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0.

Therefore DB is to BA as BA is to AD.Def. Therefore DB has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at A. for AD equals DL. and CH is the square on AC. and draw the figure. and AB is the greater segment. if a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio. and the original straight line is the greater segment. therefore CE equals HC. therefore BA is also greater than AD. and a straight line equal to the greater segment is added to it.D. Let the straight line AB be cut in extreme and mean ratio at the point C. I. And DB is greater than BA. Therefore the whole DK is equal to the whole AE. And CE is the rectangle AB by BC.14 . VI. And DK is the rectangle BD by DA. and a straight line equal to the greater segment is added to it.3 C. therefore the rectangle AB by BC equals the VI. then the whole straight line has been cut in extreme and mean ratio. Q. therefore DH also equals HE.46 Since AB is cut in extreme and mean ratio at VI. then the whole straight line has been cut in extreme and mean ratio. Therefore. therefore the rectangle BD by DA equals the square on AB. But HE equals CE.E. and DH equals HC.17 square on AC. and the original straight line is the greater segment. Describe the square AE on AB. and let AD be equal to AC.17 V. and AE is the square on AB. and the original straight line AB is the greater segment. let AC be the greater segment. I say that the straight line DB is cut in extreme and mean ratio at A.Proposition 5 If a straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio.

17 where a dodecahedron is constructed.Use of this proposition This proposition is used XIII.Joyce Dept.clarku.4 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0. Sci.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements.6 Previous: XIII.html D. Math. & Comp.E. Clark University . Next proposition: XIII.

Therefore AC is an apotome. and AC is the greater segment. Again.73 VI.E. But the square on an apotome. Produce BA. therefore the square on CD is also rational.9 X. then each of the segments is the irrational straight line called apotome.1 X. and let AC be the greater segment.Def. And. therefore CD is incommensurable in length with DA. if applied to the rational straight line AB. produces as breadth a first apotome. And CA was also proved to be an apotome. . since AB is cut in extreme and mean ratio. Therefore CD and DA are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. the straight line AB is cut in extreme and mean ratio. and make AD half of BA. if a rational straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio.4 X. Therefore the square on the apotome AC. Since.3 VI. then each of the segments is the irrational straight line called apotome.Def. XIII. Q. Therefore the square on CD has to the square on DA the ratio which a number has to a number.17 X. since the square on CD has not to the square on DA the ratio which a square number has to a square number. I say that each of the straight lines AC and CB is the irrational straight line called apotome. then. and to the greater segment AC is added AD which is half of AB. if applied to a rational straight line. Let AB be a rational straight line cut in extreme and mean ratio at C. for DA is rational being half of AB which is rational.Proposition 6 If a rational straight line is cut in extreme and mean ratio. produces BC as breadth. therefore CB is a first apotome.6 X. therefore the square on CD is commensurable with the square on DA But the square on DA is rational. Therefore CD is also rational.D. therefore the rectangle AB by BC equals the square on AC.97 Therefore. therefore the square on CD is five times the square on DA.

17 to show that the side of a pentagonal face is the irrational straight line called apotome. Use of this proposition This proposition is used after the construction of a dodecahedron in XIII.html D. & Comp.5 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0. Clark University .Joyce Dept.Heath argues that this proposition was interpolated.7 Previous: XIII. Math. Sci.clarku.E.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements. Next proposition: XIII.

Next. let the given equal angles not be angles taken in order. the triangle ABC equals the triangle ABE. the angle BCA equals the angle BEA. B. and C. then the pentagon is equiangular. but let the angles at the points A. therefore the whole angle BCD equals the whole angle AED. Join BD. therefore the angle AED also equals the angles at A and B. Now. But the angle BCA was also proved equal to the angle AEB. and D be equal. Therefore the two sides FC and CD equal the two sides FE and ED. I say that in this case too the pentagon ABCDE is equiangular. that is. Hence the side AF also equals the side BF. and the angle CBA equals the angle BAE. C. and the base FD is common to them. I. and C taken in order in the equilateral pentagon ABCDE be equal to one another. Therefore the pentagon ABCDE is equiangular. since the two sides CB and BA equal the two sides BA and AE respectively. therefore the angle FCD equals the angle FED. by hypothesis. Join AC. therefore the remainder FC equals the remainder FE.Proposition 7 If three angles of an equilateral pentagon. the angle BCD equals the angles at A and B.4 remaining angles equal the remaining angles. Similarly we can prove that the angle CDE also equals the angles at A. And. B.6 I. But CD also equals DE. therefore the base AC equals the base BE. But the whole AC equals the whole BE. and the angle ABE equals the angle CAB. taken either in order or not in order.8 . let three angles A. First. and FD. I say that the pentagon ABCDE is equiangular. namely those opposite the equal sides. are equal. BE.and the I.

therefore the angle AED also equals the angles at A and C. Sci. then the pentagon is equiangular. and the remaining angles equal the remaining angles. are equal. Math. since the side BE equals the side BD.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements. Therefore. the triangle ABE equals the triangle BCD. since the two sides BA and AE equal the two sides BC and CD. if three angles of an equilateral pentagon.Then. by hypothesis.8 Previous: XIII.D. I.E. & Comp. For the same reason the angle ABC also equals the angles at A. Therefore the whole angle AED equals the whole angle CDE. Next proposition: XIII.17 to show that the dodecahedron constructed there has equiangular pentagons as faces.E.clarku. therefore the base BE equals the base BD. namely those opposite the equal sides.Joyce Dept.4 I.6 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0. and they contain equal angles. Use of this proposition This proposition is needed in XIII. taken either in order or not in order. and D.5 Q. equal to the angles at A and C. C. But the angle BED also equals the angle BDE. Therefore the angle AEB equals the angle CDB.html D. But the angle CDE is. Therefore the pentagon ABCDE is equiangular. Clark University .

5 And the angle ABE is common to the two triangles ABE and ABH. the angles at A and B. since the straight line BA equals AE. . since the two straight lines EA and AB equal the two lines AB and BC. And. therefore the base BE equals the base AC. therefore the angle ABE also equals the angle AEB. Therefore the angle HAE equals the angle AHE. that is. therefore the remaining angle BAE equals the remaining angle AHB. In the equilateral and equiangular pentagon ABCDE let the straight lines AC and BE.28 VI.32 III. for the circumference EDC is also double the circumference CB. IV.32 the triangle ABH.33 I.14 Then. I.6 I. namely those opposite the equal sides. Therefore the angle AHE is double the angle BAH. Circumscribe the circle ABCDE about the pentagon ABCDE. cutting one another at the point H. then they cut one another in extreme and mean ratio. Therefore the triangle ABE is equiangular with I. therefore the angle BEA also equals the angle BAH. the triangle ABE equals the triangle ABC. and the remaining angles equal the remaining angles respectively. But the angle ABE was proved equal to the angle BAH. Hence the straight line HE also equals EA. subtend two angles taken in order. I say that each of them has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at the point H. I. But the angle EAC is also double the angle BAC.4 Therefore the angle BAC equals the angle ABE. and their greater segments equal the side of the pentagon. and they contain equal angles. AB.Proposition 8 If in an equilateral and equiangular pentagon straight lines subtend two angles are taken in order. and their greater segments equal the side of the pentagon.

Therefore BE has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at H.14 Therefore. proportionally EB is to BA as AB is to BH. if in an equilateral and equiangular pentagon straight lines subtend two angles are taken in order.11 to establish that the side of a regular pentagon inscribed in a circle with rational diameter is the irrational straight line called minor. and its greater segment CH equals the side of the pentagon. and their greater segments equal the side of the pentagon.E. Sci. therefore EH is also greater than HB.clarku. therefore BE is to EH as EH is to HB. Math. and the greater segment HE equals the side of the pentagon.4 VI. And BE is greater than EH. Q. VI.html D.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements. But BA equals EH. Next proposition: XIII. Similarly we can prove that AC has also been cut in extreme and mean ratio at H.E. Clark University . then they cut one another in extreme and mean ratio.Joyce Dept.7 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0. & Comp.D.9 Previous: XIII. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proof of XIII.Therefore.

I. Therefore the angle ECB is double the angle EDC. join EB.Proposition 9 If the side of the hexagon and that of the decagon inscribed in the same circle are added together. therefore the remaining angle BED equals the remaining angle ECB.32 IV.5 I. Therefore the angle CED also equals the angle CDE. But the circumference AC is to CB as the angle AEC is to the angle CEB. Let ABC be a circle. since the straight line EC equals CD. EC. for each of them equals the side of the hexagon inscribed in the circle ABC. Therefore the circumference AC is quadruple CB. and CD is its greater segment. Therefore the triangle EBD is equiangular with the triangle EBC.32 I. and of the figures inscribed in the circle ABC let BC be the side of a decagon. and let them be in a straight line. III. But the angle EBD is common to the two triangles BEC and BED. and its greater segment is the side of the hexagon.32 . therefore the circumference ACB is five times the circumference BC. But the angle AEC was proved double the angle ECB. since the angle EBC equals the angle ECB.33 angle AEC is quadruple the angle CEB.15.Cor. I. and CD that of a hexagon. And. and ED.5 I. I say that the whole straight line BD is cut in extreme and mean ratio. and carry BE through to A. therefore the angle AEC is double the angle ECB. therefore the angle EDC equals the angle BEC. And the angle AEC was also proved quadruple the angle BEC. Take the center E of the circle. then the whole straight line has been cut in extreme and mean ratio.1 Since BC is the side of an equilateral decagon. And. therefore the angle AEC is quadruple the angle EDC. Therefore the VI.

Therefore BD is to DC as DC is to CB.4 Therefore. Q.Therefore.10 Previous: XIII. Therefore the straight line BD is cut in extreme and mean ratio. proportionally DB is to BE as EB is to BC. But EB equals CD.E. Next proposition: XIII. and DC is its greater segment. & Comp.E. if the side of the hexagon and that of the decagon inscribed in the same circle are added together.Joyce Dept. Use of this proposition This result is used in the construction of an icosahedron in propositions XIII.html D. therefore DC is also greater than CB.clarku. Math. Sci. VI. and its greater segment is the side of the hexagon.D.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements.16 and XIII. then the whole straight line has been cut in extreme and mean ratio. Clark University . And BD is greater than DC.18.8 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0.

Since the circumference ABCG equals the circumference AEDG.1 FH from F perpendicular to AB and carry it through to K. I.26 . the circumference CG. and join KN. since FA equals FB. I say that the square on the side of the pentagon ABCDE equals the sum of the squares on the side of the hexagon and on that of the decagon inscribed in the circle ABCDE. and let the equilateral pentagon ABCDE be inscribed in the circle ABCDE.12 join AK and KB. therefore the angle AFK equals the angle KFB. then the square on the side of the pentagon equals the sum of the squares on the sides of the hexagon and the decagon inscribed in the same circle. But CD belongs to a pentagon. carry it through to M. and FH is perpendicular. equals the remainder GD. and join FB. Take the center F of the circle. and in them ABC equals AED. I. Let ABCDE be a circle. therefore CG belongs to a decagon.Proposition 10 If an equilateral pentagon is inscribed in a circle. And.5 I. draw FL from F perpendicular to AK. Draw III. join AF and carry it through to the point G. therefore the remainder.

Therefore the rectangle AB by BN equals the square on BF. therefore the remaining angle AFB equals the remaining angle BNF. and AK of the decagon. while the circumference CD equals the circumference AB. therefore the base KN equals the base AN. Q.32 VI. Therefore the whole circumference GB is also double BM.2 IV. Therefore the remaining angle AKB equals the remaining angle KNA. proportionally the straight line AB is to BF as FB is to BN. But the angle GFB is double the angle FAB. Therefore the angle BFN equals the angle FAB. And the angle at A is common to the two triangles AKB and AKN. for the angle FAB equals the angle ABF.26 VI. since KA is so also. But. Therefore the triangle KBA is equiangular with the triangle KNA. therefore the circumference CD is also double the circumference BK. Therefore. equals the sum of the squares on BF and AK.15. that is.Cor. since the circumference AB is double the circumference BK.E. Therefore the triangle ABF is equiangular with the triangle BFN. Therefore the circumference AB is double the circumference BK. But the angle LAN equals the angle KBN. Therefore the angle LKN also equals the angle LAN. Again. III. if an equilateral pentagon is inscribed in a circle.1 VI.4 I. And BA is a side of the pentagon.17 II. Therefore the straight line AK is a side of a decagon. then the square on the side of the pentagon equals the sum of the squares on the sides of the hexagon and the decagon inscribed in the same circle.4 VI. Hence the angle GFB is double the angle BFM.D. further. But BK is double KM. therefore the angle LKN also equals the angle KBN. the square on BA. the circumference CB is also double the circumference BK. therefore CG is also double KM.17 I.32 VI. But the rectangle AB by BN was also proved equal to the square on BF. . proportionally the straight line BA is to AK as KA is to AN. Therefore the rectangle BA by AN equals the square on AK. while LN is common and at right angles.Hence the circumference AK equals KB. BF of the hexagon. Now. for the circumference CB equals BA. Therefore.33 I. therefore the sum of the rectangle AB by BN and the rectangle BA by AN. But the circumference CD is also double CG. For the same reason AK is double KM. But the angle ABF is common to the two triangles ABF and BFN. since AL equals LK. therefore the circumference CG equals the circumference BK. Therefore.

Use of this proposition This result is used in XIII. & Comp.9 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0.Joyce Dept.html D.18 when an icosahedron is compared to the other four regular polyhedra. Math.clarku.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements.16 for the construction of an icosahedron and later in XIII. Next proposition: XIII.11 Previous: XIII. Sci.E. Clark University .

Proposition 11 If an equilateral pentagon is inscribed in a circle which has its diameter rational. I say that the side of the pentagon is the irrational straight line called minor. For the same reason the angles at M are also right. III. I. therefore the remainder CG equals the remainder GD. if we join AD.9 Now AF is rational. then the side of the pentagon is the irrational straight line called minor. And. and AC is double CM. In the circle ABCDE which has its diameter rational let the equilateral pentagon ABCDE be inscribed. since the circumference ACG equals the circumference ADG. And. and make FK a fourth part of AF. then we conclude that the angles at L are right. therefore FK is also rational. Take the center F of the circle. therefore the whole BK is rational.32 . But BF is also rational. and CD is double CL. Since then the angle ALC equals the angle AMF. join AF and FB and carry them through to the points G and H.1 VI. and in them ABC equals AED. therefore the remaining angle ACL equals the remaining angle MFA. and the angle LAC is common to the two triangles ACL and AMF. join AC.

namely X. if from a rational straight line there is subtracted a rational straight line which is commensurable with the whole in square only. therefore double LC is to CA as double MF to FA. proportionally LC is to CA as MF is to FA. therefore also double LC is to CA as MF is to the half of FA. And since. Therefore BK and KM are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Therefore. And. since BF is quadruple FK. But it was proved that the square on DC and CM taken as one straight line is to the square on CM as the square on MK to the square on KF. But the square on MK is five times the square on KF.73 an apotome. and CM is half of the whole AC.9 .8 XIII. therefore DC is to CM as MF to FK. V. therefore the square on MK is also rational. when the straight line opposite two sides of the pentagon AC is cut in extreme and mean ratio. and FK is a fourth part of FA. But double MF is to FA as MF is to the half of FA. And each of them is rational. Therefore BK is incommensurable in length with KM. I say next that MB is also a fourth apotome. Taken together.18 XIII. therefore the square on BK is five times the square on KM. Therefore the square on BK is greater than the square on KM by the square on N. while the square on the greater segment added to the half of the whole is five times the square on the half of the whole. the sum of DC and CM is to CM as MK to KF. therefore BK is five times KF. DC. Therefore the square on the sum of DC and CM is to the square on CM as the square on MK is to the square on KF.Therefore the triangle ACL is equiangular with the triangle AMF. But the square on KF is rational.1 X. the greater segment equals the side of the pentagon. therefore MB is an apotome and MK the annex to it. therefore the square on MK is five times the square on KF. Therefore MK is rational. CM is half of CA. then the remainder is irrational. that is. Therefore the square on BK has not to the square on KM the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore the square on BK is twenty-five times the square on KF. But. therefore the square on DC and CM taken as one straight line is five times the square on CM. for the diameter is rational. Let the square on N be equal to that by which the square on BK is greater than the square on KM. Taking the doubles of the antecedents. And DC is double LC. Taking the halves of the consequents. therefore double LC is to the half of CA as MF to the fourth of FA.

and is called minor. But the square on AB equals the rectangle HB by BM.15 X. taken together. And.E. and its square root is irrational. the square on BK has to the square on N the ratio which 5 has to 4.Def. Therefore the square on BK is greater than the square on KM by the square on a straight line incommensurable with BK. when AH is joined.Cor.4 X.12 Previous: XIII. and HB is to BA as AB is to BM. Therefore the side AB of the pentagon is the irrational straight line called minor. then the side of the pentagon is the irrational straight line called minor. and this is not the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Since then the square on the whole BK is greater than the square on the annex KM by the square on a straight line incommensurable with BK.16 after the construction of a dodecahedron to show the side of a pentagonal face is the irrational straight line called minor. KB is commensurable with FB. Q. But the rectangle contained by a rational straight line and a fourth apotome is irrational. in conversion. Next proposition: XIII. the triangle ABH is equiangular with the triangle ABM.12 V. since the square on BK is five times the square on KM.D. X. Use of this proposition This proposition is needed in XIII. X.19. because.10 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic .94 Therefore.And. therefore BK is also commensurable with BH. therefore the square on BK has to the square on KM the ratio which 5 has to 1. and the whole BK is commensurable with the rational straight line.III. set out. Therefore BK is incommensurable with N. since KF is commensurable with FB. But BF is commensurable with BH. therefore MB is a fourth apotome. Therefore.9 X. if an equilateral pentagon is inscribed in a circle which has its diameter rational. BH.

& Comp.Joyce Dept. Sci.© 1997 http://aleph0.E. Clark University .edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements.html D.clarku. Math.

I say that the square on one side of the triangle ABC is triple the square on the radius of the circle. Therefore.E. Take the center D of the circle ABC. taken separately. III. therefore the square on AE is quadruple the square on ED.47 III. since AE is double DE. Therefore.15. since the triangle ABC is equilateral. join AD and carry it through to E. the square on AB is triple the square on BE.Proposition 12 If an equilateral triangle is inscribed in a circle.Cor. Therefore the straight line BE belongs to a hexagon. and join BE. Therefore the square on the side of the triangle is triple the square on the radius.1 IV. then the square on the side of the triangle is triple the square on the radius of the circle.31 I. and let the equilateral triangle ABC be inscribed in it. Then. Let ABC be a circle. if an equilateral triangle is inscribed in a circle. therefore the square on AB is triple the square on DE. Therefore it equals the radius DE.D. Use of this proposition . But the square on AE equals the sum of the squares on AB and BE. that is. Q. But BE equals DE. therefore the circumference BEC is a third part of the circumference of the circle ABC. Therefore the sum of the squares on AB and BE is quadruple the square on BE. of the square on BE. Therefore the circumference BE is a sixth part of the circumference of the circle. And. then the square on the side of the triangle is triple the square on the radius of the circle.

clarku.Joyce Dept.13 coming next to show that the construction given there produces a regular tetrahedron.13 Previous: XIII.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements.This result is needed in proposition XIII. Next proposition: XIII.html D.11 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0. & Comp. Clark University .E. Math. Sci.

and HG meets it. since KH is at right angles to the plane of the circle EFG.Proposition 13 To construct a pyramid. and join EH. inscribe the equilateral triangle EFG in the circle EFG. and join DA. Set out the circle EFG with radius equal to DC. HF.11 I. therefore it makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane of the circle EFG.2 XI. and CD equals HE. therefore HK is at right angles to each of the straight lines HE. HF. and KG equal one another.3 Now.1 IV. and they contain right angles.4 . Set out the diameter AB of the given sphere.12 I. KF. But each of the straight lines HE.9 I. since AC equals HK. For the same reason each of the straight lines KF and KG also equals DA. take the center H of the circle. and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid. and HG.3 I. draw CD from the point C at right angles to AB. VI. cut it at the point C so that AC is double CB. and join KE. HF. XI. Set HK up from the point H at right angles to the plane of the circle EFG. and KG. therefore the base DA equals the base KE.Def. describe the semicircle ADB on AB. and HG. And. cut off HK equal to the straight line AC from HK. Therefore the three straight lines KE. KF. to comprehend it in a given sphere.

FG. Therefore the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid. then it also passes through the points F and G. therefore AB is triple BC.And.F. Therefore the four triangles EFG. and GE also equals each of the straight lines KE. while AC equals KH. EHL is right. KL remaining fixed. But the square on FE is also triple the square on EH. cf. KFG. the triangle EFG being its base and the point K its vertex. in conversion. the diameter of the sphere. Therefore a pyramid has been constructed out of four equilateral triangles. therefore the semicircle described on KL passes through E also. since KH was made equal to AC. It is next required to comprehend it in the given sphere and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid. and KG.12 Now. and KG. CD equals HE. But BA is to AC as the square on BA is to the square on AD. Therefore the square on BA is also one and a half times the square on AD. KF. and VI. and KEG are equilateral. KF. since. therefore AB is triple BC. if FL and LG are joined. Produce the straight line HL in a straight line with KH. Therefore the rectangle KH by VI. therefore each of the straight lines EF. and make HL equal to CB. Since AC is double CB. the semicircle is carried round and restored to the same position from which it began to be moved. And each of the angles KHE. And BA is the diameter of the given sphere. and AD equals the side of the pyramid.31 . therefore DA also equals EF. But that AB is to BC as the square on AD is to the square on DC will be proved afterwards.8. and DC equals EH. For KL.17 HL equals the square on EH. and HL to CB. therefore KH is to HE as EH is to HL. I.E. Q.Cor. BA is one and a half times AC. since AC is to CD as CD is to CB. CB equals HL.8 III. and. I say next that the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid. then the angles at F and G similarly become right angles. equals the diameter AB of the given sphere. KEF. since AC is double CB. Therefore the square on AD is triple the square on DC.3 XIII. VI. and the pyramid is comprehended in the given sphere. But DA was proved equal to each of the straight lines KE. If then.

VI. A similar ambiguity occured in ancient Greek when the word "tetragon" was used. therefore AB is to BC as the rectangle BA by AC is to the rectangle AC by CB. but a regular tetrahedron. and the rectangle AC by CB equals the square on DC.D." . Therefore AB is to BC as the square on AD is to the square on DC. This line AD will end up being the length of the side of the tetrahedron. for the perpendicular DC is a mean proportional between the VI. I.Lemma It is to be proved that AB is to BC as the square on AD is to the square on DC. Then cut AB at C so that AC = 4/3 and BC = 2/3. Note that it has the correct value so that "the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid.46 Since the triangle DAB is equiangular with the triangle DAC. for EA equals AC. and EB is the rectangle BA by AC. segments AC and CB of the base. VI. depending on the context.4 VI.E. It meant either any four-angled figure or specifically a square. therefore BA is to AD as DA is to AC. Therefore the rectangle BA by AC equals the square on AD.Cor.17 And since AB is to BC as EB is to BF. and BF is the rectangle AC by CB. Then AD = (2/3) 6. that is. join DB. This figure is usually called a regular tetrahedron. because the angle ADB is right.1 And the rectangle BA by AC equals the square on AD. Let DC be their mean proportional (2/3) 2. Euclid simply calls it "a pyramid" with the understanding that by that he means not just any pyramid. Summary of the construction Standardize the radius of the sphere at 1 unit. a solid figure contained by four equal and equilateral triangles. Set out the figure of the semicircle.8 VI. and complete the parallelogram FB.8. Q. so that AB = 2. describe the square EC on AC.

all eight combinations of –1 and 1 in all three coordinates. Make HK of length 4/3 and perpendicular to the plane of the triangle.–1) (1.–1) (–1.–1) (–1.–1) (–1. and KG. KF.1.–1.–1) (–1. an obvious coordinate system will make eight vertices of a cube have the coordinates (1.1.–1. Next proposition: XIII. Coordinates for the vertices of the tetrahedron A cube can be easily constructed from a tetrahedron since the four vertices of a tetrahedron are four of the eight vertices of a cube.1. Use of this construction Constructing this regular tetrahedron is an end in itself. There is another tetrahedron which has as its vertices the remaining four points which have an even number of positive coordinates.–1. See proposition XIII. Then each side of the triangle will be (2/3) 6.1) (1.12). The radius for such a cube is so if a unit sphere is desired.1. That being the case. Likewise KF and KG have the same length. then all the coordinates would have to be divided by 3. Then K lies on the surface of the sphere. The tetrahedron has only half of these eight vertices.1) that is. And since the triangle HKE is a right triangle.–1. and this construction is needed there as well as constructions of the other four regular polyhedra.–1.Set out the circle EFG of radius EH = (2/3) 2. the same as AD (XIII. the points which have an odd number of positive coordinates. the five regular polyhedra are compared.14 Previous: XIII.1) (–1. therefore its hypotenuse KE = (2/3) 6. and inscribe in that circle an equilateral triangle.1) (1. and they can be chosen to be (1. 3. and connect KE. the same as AD.1.1) (–1. In the last proposition of the Elements XIII. That constructs the tetrahedron in the sphere.–1.1.–1) that is.12 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic .1) (1.15.18.

Math.E.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements.html D. Clark University . Sci.© 1997. 2002 http://aleph0. & Comp.clarku.Joyce Dept.

Set out the diameter AB of the given sphere.12 Cut off KL and KM from the straight lines KL and KM respectively equal to one of the straight lines EK. having each of its sides equal to DB.Proposition 14 To construct an octahedron and comprehend it in a sphere. I. therefore the square on EL is double the square on EK. MG. LH. LF. or HK. bisect it at C. and join LE. Set out the square EFGH. Again. and the angle EKH is right.3 I. join HF and EG. MF. set up the straight line KL from the point K at right angles to the plane of the square EFGH. GK.47 . describe the semicircle ADB on AB. and carry it through to the other side of the plane KM. and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is double the square on the side of the octahedron.46 XI. I. LG. and the angle LKE is right. as in the preceding case. since LK equals KE. therefore the square on HE is double the square on EK. and MH. FK. Then. draw CD from C at right angles to AB.11 I. ME. since KE equals KH. and join DB.

III. But the square on LM was also proved double the square on LE. therefore I. But AB is to BC as the square on AB is to the square on BD. Q. And AB is the diameter of the given sphere.26 Of the five regular polyhedra to be constructed in a sphere. Therefore the square on AB equals the square on LM. therefore the square on AB is double the square on BD. therefore the square on LE equals the square on EH. is equilateral. Therefore the octahedron has been comprehended in the given sphere. KM.But the square on HE was also proved double the square on EK. the semicircle be carried round and restored to the same position from which it began to be moved.47 XI. I say next that it is also comprehended in the given sphere. since AC equals CB. for it is in a semicircle. For the same reason LH also equals HE. the octahedron has the easiest . therefore AB is double BC.31 I. Therefore LE equals EH. then it also passes through the points F. And for the same reason. while KE is common.E. therefore LM equals the diameter of the given sphere. and it has been demonstrated at the same time that the square on the diameter of the sphere is double the square on the side of the octahedron. For. and the octahedron will be comprehended in a sphere. and they contain right angles. since the angle LEM is right. and H. LM remaining fixed. and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is double the square on the side of the octahedron. It is next required to comprehend it in the given sphere. And.Def. if. therefore the semicircle described on LM passes through E. therefore an octahedron has been constructed which is contained by eight equilateral triangles. Similarly we can prove that each of the remaining triangles of which the sides of the square EFGH are the bases and the points L and M are the vertices. therefore the square on LM is double the square on LE. Since the three straight lines LK. Therefore AB equals LM. for EH was made equal to DB. Again. since LK equals KM. and KE equal one another. And the square on DB equals the square on LE. Therefore the triangle LEH is equilateral. G.4 the base LE equals the base EM.F.

One pair is the octahedron and cube. each group forming the vertices of a square—EFGH. (1. and vertices. namely. Coordinates for the vertices of the octahedron If the sphere circumscribing the octahedron is the unit sphere. Then the points a unit distance from the origin are the six vertices of the octahedron. of course. the square on the diameter of the sphere is twice the square on the side of the octahedron. EMGL.1. the other is the icosahedron and dodecahedron. except. therefore two sides. .0) (0. Since the center of each square is the center of the sphere. These are the pairs of "duals. the lines to the six verices KE. and KM form three mutually perpendicular diameters. then a natural coordinate system to impose would have the three coordinate axes be the three perpendicular diameters.0) (–1. the cube. KH.0. the 12 sides group into three groups of four lines. Polyhedron tetrahedron octahedron cube icosahedron dodecahedron Faces 4 8 6 20 12 Edges Vertices 6 12 12 30 30 4 6 8 12 20 Note that there are two pairs of polyhedra in this table where the numbers are related. EF and FG. KL. Thus. For these pairs the number of faces of one of the pair equals the number of vertices of the other. and FMHL. there are exactly five regular polyhedra.0) (0.construction. and both of the pair have the same number of edges. along with the one diameter EG of the octahedron form a 45°-45°-90° triangle. Also. KG.1) (0. KF.–1) Duals of the regular polyhedra As will be shown in proposition XIII. which otherwise would be called a hexahedron.–1.0) (0. edges.0.0. Their names are taken from the number of their faces. Relative to the center of the sphere K.18.0." The numbers for the tetrahedron indicate that it dual to itself. The accompanying table lists these five polyhedra along with the numbers of the their faces.

java applet or image An analogous construction for the cube yields an octahedron. Use of this construction Constructing this octahedron is an end in itself.We can see the correspondence between the parts of one of these polyhedra and the parts of its dual. What results is a cube with six vertices. Clark University . Sci. Math. 2002 http://aleph0. For each of the six vertices of the octahedron.E.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements. connect the four circumcenters of the adjacent faces to make a square.clarku. 12 edges. Next proposition: XIII.13 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997. The construction is also used in proposition XIII. and eight faces. Place a point in the circumcenter of each of the eight faces.Joyce Dept.html D.18 where the five regular polyhedra are compared. Likewise the constructions for the icosahedron and dodecahedron yield each other. & Comp. Consider the octahedron.15 Previous: XIII. and the construction for a tetrahedron yields another tetrahedron. Connect two of these points if the faces that contain them share an edge.

F. Set out the square EFGH having its side equal to DB.Def. and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is triple the square on the side of the cube. XI. Describe the semicircle ADB on AB.11 I. and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is triple the square on the side of the cube. and join DB. since the angle KEG is right. draw EK.9 I.Proposition 15 To construct a cube and comprehend it in a sphere. and H at right angles to the plane of the square EFGH.25 XI. It is then required to comprehend it in the given sphere. Join KG and EG. LM. Join KL.12 I. VI. for KE is also at right angles to the plane EG and of course to the straight line EG also. Set out the diameter AB of the given sphere. GH. FL. and cut it at C so that AC is double CB. FG. and HN from E.3 Therefore the cube FN has been constructed which is contained by six equal squares. and cut EK. therefore the semicircle described on KG passes through the point E. or HE. G. FL. and HN respectively equal to one of the straight lines EF.3 . like the pyramid. and HN off from EK. GM.Def. MN. GM. and NK. draw CD from C at right angles to AB.46 XI. Then. GM. FL.

G. is triple the square on EK. Therefore the cube has been comprehended in the given sphere. therefore KG also equals AB. But EF equals EK. you will see that four of the eight vertices of the cube are the four vertices of the tetrahedron. Hence the sum of the squares on GE and EK.Again. since AB is triple BC. and it has been demonstrated at the same time that the square on the diameter of the sphere is triple the square on the side of the cube.E. Following through the construction. namely. For this reason the semicircle described on GK also passes through F. KG remaining fixed. that is the square on GK. then the cube is comprehended in a sphere. therefore KG also equals the diameter of the given sphere. Hence also. and the angle at F is right. And KE was made equal to DB. And AB is the diameter of the given sphere. I say next that it is also comprehended in the given sphere. If then. Similarly it also passes through the remaining angular points of the cube. the semicircle is carried round and restored to the same position from which it began to be moved. Using the labelling of this proposition. And. I.47 Special relationships between regular tetrahedra and cubes Note that the beginning of this construction of a cube is the same as that for the tetrahedron in proposition XIII. since GF is at right angles to each of the straight lines FL and FE. therefore the square on EG is double the square on EF. they may be taken as E. . since GF equals FE. then GF will be at right angles to FK.13. But the square on GK was also proved triple the square on KE. while AB is to BC as the square on AB is to the square on BD. For. and N. if we join FK. The difference is that the line AD is the edge of a tetrahedron while the line BD is the edge of a cube. L. therefore the square on AB is triple the square on BD. therefore the square on EG is double the square on EK. the points C and D are the same. therefore GF is also at right angles to the plane FK. Q.F.

which in turn is half of the cube. for instance. 1998 http://aleph0.Joyce Dept. Finally. EGHN is one-third of the triangular prism EFKHGN.14 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997. Sci.13 for more on this connection which involves placing coordinates on the vertices of the cube and tetrahedron.clarku.html D. & Comp. and M. H. F.17. When the tetrahedron is removed from the cube. Use of this construction Constructing a cube is an end in itself. but Euclid also starts with a cube to construct a dodecahedron in proposition XIII.18 where the five regular polyhedra are compared. Math.16 Previous: XIII. Since the four pyramids together make four-sixths of the cube.E. the other four vertices of the cube.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements. there are four remaining pyramids. form the vertices of a regular tetrahedron. this construction is used in XIII. Next proposition: XIII. The volumes of the tetrahedron and cube are easily compared. Clark University . See the Guide to XIII. EGHN is one of them. K. By proposition XII.9 the volume of each pyramid is one-third of the volume of a prism.Alternatively. that leaves one-third of the cube for the regular tetrahedron EGLN. Therefore each pyramid is one-sixth of the cube.

and P. VI. and EP. and cut it at C so that AC is quadruple CB. Join QR. HK. ST. FG. TO. Set out the diameter AB of the given sphere. UQ. PL. FR.11 IV. M. and join DB. draw the straight line CD from C at right angles to AB. LR. RS. NT. and join LM. N. QL.11 I. O. MS.9 Therefore the pentagon LMNOP is also equilateral. HT. and PQ. F. SN. and let its radius be equal to DB.12 I. bisect the circumferences EF. Inscribe the equilateral and equiangular pentagon EFGHK in the circle EFGHK. H. TU. GS. like the aforesaid figures. RM. UP. describe the semicircle ADB on AB.Proposition 16 To construct an icosahedron and comprehend it in a sphere.9 I. and KU at right angles to the plane of the circle. NO. Set out the circle EFGHK. and make them equal to the radius of the circle EFGHK.3 . OP. XI. and K set up the straight lines EQ. and to prove that the square on the side of the icosahedron is the irrational straight line called minor. MN. Now from the points E. OU. and KE at the points L. G. GH. and the straight line EP belongs to a decagon.

and the angle QWZ is right. NTO. set VZ up from V at right angles to the plane of III. But it is also equal to it. and the angle QEP is right. RMS. since QW belongs to a hexagon. therefore UZ belongs to a pentagon. But QU also belongs to a pentagon. since QE belongs to a hexagon. since each of the straight lines EQ and KU is at right angles to the same plane. therefore EV and QW are also equal and parallel. LV.1 the circle. But EV belongs to a hexagon. for the square on the side of the pentagon equals the sum of the square on the side of the hexagon and the square on the side of the decagon inscribed in the same circle. Join QZ. therefore QW also belongs to a hexagon. belongs to a hexagon.15.Cor. and the angle UWZ is right.12 and each of the straight lines VX and WZ. For the same reason PU is also a side of a pentagon. and WZ to a decagon. Take the center V of the circle EFGHK.33 XIII. therefore QZ belongs to a pentagon. LX. RS. SNT. since each of the straight lines QL and QP was proved to belong to a pentagon. since each of the straight lines VW and QE is at right angles to the plane of the circle.6 I. and the straight lines joining those ends of equal and parallel straight lines which are in the same direction are equal and parallel. and produce it in the other direction VX.33 I. For the same reason each of the straight lines QR. QW. for if we join VK and WU. and TU also belongs to the equilateral pentagon inscribed in the circle EFGHK. UZ. ST.Now. But they are also equal. For the same reason each of the triangles QLR. XIII. But WZ belongs to a decagon. XI. therefore WU also belongs to a hexagon.10 XIII. Now. therefore the triangle QPU is equilateral.10 IV. therefore VW is parallel to QE. being a radius. and LP also belongs to a pentagon. sides of a decagon. then they will be equal and opposite. and VK. the side of a hexagon. And. therefore QU also belongs to the equilateral pentagon inscribed in the circle EFGHK. therefore the triangle QLP is equilateral. and EP to a decagon. For the same reason each of the triangles LRM. XI. and TOU is also equilateral. Therefore the pentagon QRSTU is equilateral. But EK belongs to an equilateral pentagon. For the same reason UZ also belongs to a pentagon. EV. MSN. And. Cut off VW. And. Therefore QU is equal and parallel to EK. and OUP is also equilateral.10 . therefore QP belongs to a pentagon. therefore EQ is parallel to KU. and XM.

And the angles ZVE and EVX are right.31 XIII. is also equilateral. RS. and the icosahedron will have been comprehended in a sphere.10 . is also equilateral. and ZV equals XW. Again. It is next required to comprehend it in the given sphere. and the angle LVX is right. But LM also belongs to a pentagon. then the angle XEZ will be right since the triangles XEZ and VEZ are similar. For the same reason. therefore ZV is to VE as EV is to VX. which belongs to a hexagon. if we join QX. MX is also inferred to belong to a pentagon. I say next that it is also comprehended in the given sphere. and to prove that the side of the icosahedron is the irrational straight line called minor. Therefore an icosahedron has been constructed which is contained by twenty equilateral triangles. NO. Similarly it can be proved that each of the remaining triangles of which MN. if we join the straight line EZ. therefore the triangle LMX is equilateral. since ZV is to VW as VW is to WZ. and VW equals WQ. therefore the triangle QUZ is equilateral. And for this reason again. since VL belongs to a hexagon. if we join MV. and VX to a decagon. therefore XW is to WQ as QW is to WZ. For the same reason each of the remaining triangles of which the straight lines QR. and PL are the bases and the point X the vertex. therefore VZ is cut in extreme and mean ratio at W. and TU are the bases. then the angle at Q will be right. and WZ equals VX. the semicircle is carried round and restored to the same position from which it began to be moved. therefore LX belongs to a pentagon. and VW is its greater segment.9 XI. OP. then it will pass through Q and the remaining angular points of the icosahedron. and the point Z the vertex.27 XIII. Since VW belongs to a hexagon. I. Therefore as ZV is to VW as VW is to WZ.9 VI.8 III. But VW equals VE. therefore.Def. For the same reason. and WZ to a decagon. ST. And if. XZ remaining fixed. Bisect VW at A'.But QU also belongs to a pentagon. therefore the semicircle described on XZ will also pass through Q.

and there are 30 edges. therefore AB is five times BC. But the square on ZX was also proved to be five times the square on VW. therefore the square on ZW added to the half of the greater segment. therefore the square on AB is five times the square on BD. therefore AB also equals XZ.Def. There are 12 vertices. And DB equals VW. Q. and the square on it is five times the square on the radius of the circle EFGHK. But.9 XIII. And. each face an equilateral triangle.11 Corollary.8 V. Since the diameter of the sphere is rational. then the side of the pentagon is the irrational straight line called minor. But AB is to BC as the square on AB is to the square on BD. is five times the square on the half of the greater segment. I say next that the side of the icosahedron is the irrational straight line called minor. therefore the radius of the circle EFGHK is also rational. and that the diameter of the sphere is composed of the side of the hexagon and two of the sides of the decagon inscribed in the same circle. with five triangles meeting at each vertex. And the side of the pentagon EFGHK is the side of the icosahedron. Therefore the square on ZA' is five times the square on A'W.F. therefore the square on ZX is five times the square on WV. and VW is double A'W. since the straight line VZ is cut in extreme and mean ratio at W. And ZX is double ZA'. if an equilateral pentagon is inscribed in a circle which has its diameter rational. XIII. Therefore the icosahedron has been comprehended in the given sphere.Then. and ZW is its lesser segment. for each of them equals the radius of the circle EFGHK. since AC is quadruple CB. Therefore the side of the icosahedron is the irrational straight line called minor. The icosahedron The regular icosahedron is composed of 20 faces.3 VI. that is WA'. And AB is the diameter of the given sphere. hence its diameter is also rational. therefore XZ also equals the diameter of the given sphere. .E. From this it is clear that the square on the diameter of the sphere is five times the square on the radius of the circle from which the icosahedron has been described.

Clark University .18 where the five regular polyhedra are compared. it is not intended to be an accurate projection of the icosahedron.17 Previous: XIII. & Comp. Of course. it could be that the diagram changed over the centuries of copying.html D. Next proposition: XIII. The figure shown in the proof above is a standard orthogonal projection of the icosahedron.Unlike most of the Euclid's illustrations.E. Sci. but his diagram has the advantage of spreading out the vertices to be readable. Use of this construction Constructing a icosahedron is an end in itself. This construction and the corollary are also used in XIII.clarku. Math. Directly below the same icosahedron is shown without all the auxiliary lines.Joyce Dept.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements.15 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0. the diagram he used for this proposition is highly schematic.

SB.11 I. and equiangular. Cut the straight lines NP. H. Join UB. and T at right angles to the planes of the cube towards the outside of the cube. S. and to prove that the square on the side of the dodecahedron is the irrational straight line called apotome. M.10 II. be set out. SV. HL. XIII. and join GK. and O respectively. BC. and TQ be their greater segments. Set up RU. and make them equal to RP. Bisect the sides AB. two planes of the aforesaid cube at right angles to one another. EF.30 XI. PO. CD. and T respectively. K. and TQ. BW. and HQ in extreme and mean ratio at the points R. CV. and FC at G. and VB. and let RP. N. .11/VI.Proposition 17 To construct a dodecahedron and comprehend it in a sphere.15 I. like the aforesaid figures.3 Join RB. L. PS. I say that the pentagon UBWCV is equilateral. and VU. Let ABCD and CBEF. and NO. and TW from the points R. MH. DA. in one plane. PS. EB. S. WC.

But HQ equals HP. and NB is quadruple the square on NB.31 XI. for each of them is at right angles to the plane BD. I say next that it is also equiangular.32 remaining straight lines are in a straight line. therefore NS is also cut in extreme and mean ratio at P.4 XI. But VU is also double UR. while PR equals PS. Therefore BU is double RU. Therefore the pentagon BUVCW is equilateral. SN.47 I. therefore HP is to PX as WT is to TH. for each of them is at right angles to the plane BF. therefore the pentagon UBWCV is in one plane. for SR is also double PR. But every straight line is in one plane. But the square on BU equals the sum of the squares on BR and RU. I say that XHW is a straight line. then the VI. But PN equals NB.4 I. XIII. and QT is its greater segment. and PS equals SV. Hence the sum of the squares on VS.Then. I say next that it is also in one plane. therefore the sum of the squares on PN and NR is triple the square on RP. XIII. Hence the sum of the squares on BR and RU is quadruple the square on RU. and join XH and HW. and PR equals RU. and NP is the greater segment. WC. Similarly it can be proved that each of the straight lines BW. Therefore the sum of the squares on NS and SP is triple the square on NP. therefore the square on BU is quadruple the square on RU. therefore HQ is to QT as QT is to TH.5 XIII. and RP is the greater segment. Draw PX from P parallel to each of the straight lines RU and SV and toward the outside of the cube. since the straight line NP is cut in extreme and mean ratio at R. and QT equals each of the straight lines TW and PX.1 . and CV also equals each of the straight lines BU and UV. and TH is parallel to PX. But the square on BR equals the sum of the squares on BN and NR. And HP is parallel to TW.6 But if two triangles XPH and HTW. therefore XH is in a straight line with HW. therefore the squares on NS and SV is triple the square on NB. But NP equals NB. therefore the square on BR is triple the square on RU. which have two sides proportional to two sides are placed together at one angle so that their corresponding sides are also parallel. therefore BU equals UV. that is. Since HQ is cut in extreme and mean ratio at T. therefore the sum of the squares on BN and NR is triple the square on RU. of RU. and PR is the greater segment. Since the straight line NP is cut in extreme and mean ratio at R.

It is now required to comprehend it in the given sphere. therefore the pentagon BUVCW is equiangular.28 XIII.But the square on SB equals the sum of the squares on SN and NB.7 I.4 XI. for the angle VSB is right. Let them cut at Z. for this has been proved in the last theorem but one of the eleventh book. therefore the square on UZ is triple the square on NP. and NP is its greater segment. Therefore VB is double BN. Therefore the three angles BWC. And. Join UZ.Def. since the straight line NS is cut in extreme and mean ratio at P. and which is called a dodecahedron. Therefore Z is the center of the sphere which comprehends the cube. that is. XIII. a solid figure will be constructed which is contained by twelve equilateral and equiangular pentagons. And it was also proved equilateral. Therefore PZ meets the diameter of the cube. if we make the same construction in the case of each of the twelve sides of the cube. But BC is also double BN. But if in an equilateral pentagon three angles equal one another. since it also equals RP. and the base BV equals the base BC. and let the produced straight line be XZ.8 .38 XI. then the pentagon is equiangular. is quadruple the square on NB. therefore the sum of the squares on NS and SP is triple the square on NP. since the two sides BU and UV equal the two sides BW and WC. therefore the angle BUV equals the angle BWC. But PS also equals XU. and ZP is half of the side of the cube. and XP equals PS. But NS equals XZ. therefore the sum of the squares on BS and SV. BUV. Now. and they bisect one another. Therefore. and to prove that the side of the dodecahedron is the irrational straight line called apotome. Produce XP. Similarly we can prove that the angle UVC also equals the angle BWC. and it is on one side BC of the cube. for NP also equals PZ. the square on BV. But the square on UZ equals the sum of the squares on ZX and XU. and UVC equal one another. therefore BV equals BC. therefore the pentagon BUVCW is equilateral and equiangular. Therefore the sum of the squares on ZX and XU is triple the square on NP.

the greater segment is the side of the dodecahedron. Therefore UV. RS is the great er segment. therefore. therefore NO is cut in extreme and mean ratio. if the whole is so related to the whole as the half to the half also. and the square on it is triple the square on the side of the cube. . therefore the dodecahedron has been comprehended in the given sphere. therefore UZ equals the radius of the sphere which comprehends the cube. therefore RS is also greater than the sum of NR and SO. RP is the greater segment. PS is the greater segment. XIII. UV is the greater segment.E.But the square on the radius of the sphere which comprehends the cube is also triple the square on the half of the side of the cube. when PO is cut in extreme and mean ratio. therefore NO is to RS as RS is to the sum of NR and SO.15 V. Similarly we can prove that each of the remaining angles of the dodecahedron is also on the surface of the sphere. is an irrational apotome.D. when the whole NO is cut in extreme and mean ratio. And Z is the center of the sphere which comprehends the cube. I say next that the side of the dodecahedron is the irrational straight line called apotome. being a side of the cube. therefore the point U is on the surface of the sphere.F.E. Q. therefore NO. therefore.6 Corollary. the same is true of the doubles also. Since. But RS equals UV. each of the segments is an irrational apotome. for it has previously been shown how to construct a cube and comprehend it in a sphere. and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is triple the square on the side of the cube. when NP is cut in extreme and mean ratio.15 XIII. and NP is half of the side of the cube. is rational. and RS is its greater segment. for parts have the same ratio as their equimultiples. But NO is greater than RS. and. And. But. since the diameter of the sphere is rational. Q. when NO is cut in extreme and mean ratio. being a side of the dodecahedron. But if a rational line is cut in extreme and mean ratio. Thus. since NP is to PR as PR is to RN. From this it is clear that when the side of the cube is cut in extreme and mean ratio.

1).0.–1) (1. P = (0.–1). M = (0. and T cut the lines they're on into extreme and mean ratios. Also.1). B = (–1.Cubes and regular dodecahedra Euclid's construction of a dodecahedron is particularly easy because he circumscribed his dodecahedron about a cube. A = (–1.–1).0.–1.–1). W = (0. S.1.1.–1).–1). F = (1.–1) (–1. K = (1. E = (–1.–1).0). and also ten tetrahedra. and a regular dodecahedron circumscribes five cubes. H = (0. V. two regular dodecahedra.1. Coordinates for the vertices of the dodecahedron We can specify a coordinate system so that the center of the sphere is located at the origin and the eight vertices of the cube are located at (1. Use of this construction Constructing a dodecahedron is an end in itself. O = (1.1.–1). C = (1. indeed.1) (1.–1).1) (–1. so they have these coordinates: R = (–x.x.1+x.0). T = (0.0).–1.1.–1.–1). the points G through Q receive the following coordinates.0).1.1).1.–1.0).x.1.1.–1. Q = (0. and W are outside the original cube with the coordinates U = (–x. a cube can be circumscribed by a regular dodecahedron. N = (–1.0).1+x.1. Just as a regular tetrahedron can be circumscribed by a cube.1. G = (–1.1) (1. Finally.1.–1.–1. This construction and the corollary are also used in . D = (1.1. L = (0. points U.0.–1) The points A a through F in Euclid's construction may be assigned six of these coordinates.1.1. After bisecting the sides.–1–x). The points R.0).1) (–1. S = (x.–1) (–1. V = (x. each cube circumscribes two regular tetrahedra.–1). where x equals ( 5 – 1)/2.

edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements. Next proposition: XIII.18 where the five regular polyhedra are compared.clarku.html D.16 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997 http://aleph0. Sci.XIII.18 Previous: XIII. Clark University . & Comp. Math.E.Joyce Dept.

and at D so that AD is double DB. Then. In conversion. BA is one and a half times AD.13 And AB is the diameter of the sphere.15 cube. and join AF. FB. therefore AB is double BC.8 AFD. therefore BF is the side of the cube. since AC equals CB.9 VI. and EB. Describe the semicircle AEB on AB. since AD is double DB. therefore AF equals the side of the pyramid.14 . But AB is to BD as the square on AB to the square on BF. therefore BE is the side of the octahedron. therefore the square on AB is triple the square on BF. Again. But the square on the diameter of the sphere is also double the square on the side of the octahedron. XIII. And AB is the diameter of the sphere. XIII.Def. therefore AB is triple BD. V.9 AFB is equiangular with the triangle VI.11 But the square on the diameter of the sphere is also one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid. and cut it at C so that AC equals CB. draw CE and DF from C and D at right angles to AB. But BA is to AD as the square on BA is to the square on AF. therefore.Def. Therefore the square on BA is one and a half times the square on AF.8 But the square on the diameter of the sphere is also triple the square on the side of the XIII. And AB is the diameter of the given sphere. But AB is to BC as the square on AB to the square on BE. therefore AB is triple BD.Proposition 18 To set out the sides of the five figures and compare them with one another. for the triangle V. since AD is double DB. Set out AB the diameter of the given sphere. I. And. therefore the square on AB is double the square on BE.

therefore the square on AB is five times the square on KL.11 I. IV. join GC. therefore MB belongs to a pentagon. therefore each of the straight lines AK and LB is a side of the decagon inscribed in the circle from which the icosahedron has been described. But HC equals CB. since GA is double AC.16 XIII. . therefore the remainder BD is double the remainder DC.Cor. and AB is the diameter of the sphere.15. since the square on BC is five times the square on CK.Cor. therefore the square on BC is five times the square on CK. for ML equals KL. Therefore KL is a side of the hexagon in the said circle.16. and KL is double CK.16. therefore KL is the radius of the circle from which the icosahedron has been described. I. And. make AG equal to AB. and AB is double BC. while KL is a side of the hexagon. since LB belongs to a decagon. But the square on the diameter of the sphere is also five times the square on the radius of the circle from which the icosahedron has been described. AD is double DB. Therefore BC is triple CD. Therefore NB is a side of the dodecahedron. Therefore the square on HK is quadruple the square on KC.3 I.Next. draw LM from L at right angles to AB. Now. is five times the square on KC. But the side of the pentagon is the side of the icosahedron. and AK equals LB. that is. since AB is double CB. XIII.10 HK and KL is double KC. and ML to a hexagon. and draw HK from H perpendicular to AB. and join MB. therefore the sum of the squares on HK and KC. therefore MB belongs to the icosahedron. since FB is a side of the cube.3 I. Then. in them. since it also equals HK being the same distance from the center and each of the straight lines XIII. cut it in extreme and mean ratio at N. since the diameter of the sphere is made up of the side of the hexagon and two of the sides of the decagon inscribed in the same circle. Now. But the square on BC is five times the square on CK. Make CL equal to CK.Cor.12 I.11 XIII. the square on HC. Therefore CK is greater than CD. And AB is the diameter of the sphere. for GA equals AB and GA is to AC as HK is to KC. draw AG from the point A at right angles to the straight line AB.Cor. XIII. And. and let NB be the greater segment. And.17. and. therefore the square on CK is greater than the square on CD. therefore HK is also double KC. therefore the square on BC is nine times the square on CD.

therefore KL is greater than NB. inversely AB is to BD as the square on FB is VI. when FB is cut in extreme and mean XIII. Q. therefore LM is greater than NB. And. to the square on BD. of parts of which the square on the diameter of the sphere contains six. Therefore AD is greater than FB.8 VI. are not in rational ratios either to one another or to the aforesaid sides. The said sides. and the square on the side of the cube two. But the square on AD is also quadruple the square on DB. the octahedron and the cube. VI.17 And. since the square on the diameter of the sphere was proved to be one and a half times the square on the side AF of the pyramid. the square on the side of the octahedron three. are to one another in rational ratios. since the three straight lines are proportional.9 ratio. KL is the greater segment. which is a side of the icosahedron. Therefore AL is by far greater than FB.20. of the three figures. I mean the side of the icosahedron and the side of the dodecahedron. for they are irrational. NB is the greater segment. and double the square on the side of the cube.16 XIII. the square on the side of the pyramid contains four. But the remaining two. I mean the pyramid.And.F. and the square on the side of the octahedron is one and a half times the square on the side of the cube. for LK belongs to a hexagon. .9 on DB is to the square on BF.Cor. and. when AL is cut in extreme and mean ratio. But KL equals LM. double the square on the side BE of the octahedron and triple the side FB of the cube. therefore the square on AD is greater than the square on FB. proportionally DB is to BF as BF is to BA. therefore. Since the triangle FDB is equiangular with the triangle FAB.E. Therefore. therefore. the first is to the third as the square on the first is to the square on the second. the one being minor and the other an apotome. Therefore MB.4 XIII. and KA to a decagon. That the side MB of the icosahedron is greater than the side NB of the dodecahedron we can prove thus. But AB is triple BD. therefore DB is to BA as the square V. for AD is double DB. Therefore the square on the side of the pyramid is four-thirds of the square on the side of the octahedron. is by far greater than NB which is a side of the dodecahedron. therefore the square on FB is triple the square on BD.Def.

By three squares the angle of the cube is contained. Let ABCDE be an equilateral and equiangular pentagon. which is impossible. FC. And. therefore the whole angle ABC of the pentagon consists of one right angle and a fifth.D. IV. can be constructed which is contained by equilateral and equiangular figures equal to one another. XI. since the angles at F equal four right angles and are equal. and with five the angle of the icosahedron. or indeed planes. FD. which is impossible. for any solid angle is contained by angles less than four right angles. for. By three equilateral and equiangular pentagons the angle of the dodecahedron is contained. take its center F. Neither again will a solid angle be contained by other polygonal figures by reason of the same absurdity. B.14 . neither can a solid angle be constructed by more than six plane angles.21 Lemma But that the angle of the equilateral and equiangular pentagon is a right angle and a fifth we must prove thus. the angle of the equilateral pentagon being a right angle and a fifth. For the same reason. therefore one of them. and join FA. But the angle FAB equals the angle FBC.Remark I say next that no other figure. besides the said five figures. but a solid angle cannot be formed by six equilateral and equiangular triangles placed together at one point. the angle of the equilateral triangle being two-thirds of a right angle. D. but by four it is impossible for a solid angle to be contained.E. the six would be equal to four right angles. for. with four the angle of the octahedron. for they would again be four right angles. Circumscribe the circle ABCDE about it. is one right angle less a fifth. C. Therefore the remaining angles FAB and ABF consist of one right angle and a fifth. but by four such it is impossible for any solid angle to be contained. FB. and E. For a solid angle cannot be constructed with two triangles. Q. Therefore they bisect the angles of the pentagon at A. the four angles would be greater than four right angles. and FE. as the angle AFB. With three triangles the angle of the pyramid is constructed.

13 XIII. Summary of the regular polyhedra In the following table. & Comp.Q. Then d2/s2 is the ratio of the square of the diameter to the square of the side. 2002 http://aleph0.html D. Clark University . Math.16 XIII.E.D. d is the diameter of the sphere in which each regular polygon is inscribed while s is the side of the polygon.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements.17 d2/s2 3/2 2 3 (2 5)/( 5–1) (3– 5)/6 Previous: XIII.17 Book XIII introduction Select from Book XIII Select book Select topic © 1997. Sci.clarku.14 XIII.E. Polyhedron tetrahedron octahedron cube icosahedron dodecahedron construction XIII.Joyce Dept.15 XIII.

The Elements have been studied 24 centuries in many languages starting. Sci. I'm creating this version of Euclid's Elements for a couple of reasons. The text of all 13 Books is complete. The main one is to rekindle an interest in the Elements. then you'll be able to dynamically change the diagrams.clarku. even those in the last three books on solid geometry that are three-dimensional.Joyce Dept. and all of the figures are illustrated using the Geometry Applet. In order to see how.euclides. Euclid's Elements form one of the most beautiful and influential works of science in the history of humankind.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/elements. That also helps to bring the Elements alive. 1997. This edition of Euclid's Elements uses a Java applet called the Geometry Applet to illustrate the diagrams. of course. & Comp. and many modern languages.org/. http://aleph0. If you enable Java on your browser. in the original Greek. Latin. Its beauty lies in its logical development of geometry and other branches of mathematics. please read Using the Geometry Applet before moving on to the Table of Contents. Clark University Select book Select topic . and the web is a great way to do that. then in Arabic.E.html D. Another reason is to show how Java applets can be used to illustrate geometry.Introduction New: Jaume Domenech Larraz has translated the Elements into Catalan at http://www. Math. 1998. I still have a lot to write in the guide sections and that will keep me busy for quite a while. It has influenced all branches of science but none so much as mathematics and the exact sciences. Copyright © 1996.

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edu within the folder ~djoyce/java/elements or its subfolders.Copyright information 1996. Sci. Euclid's Elements Introduction D. 1997.clarku. Clark University Select book Select topic .E. however. Web links. Basic Permissions Currently. & Comp. Math.edu/~djoyce/ja va/elements/elements.Joyce Dept. Mirror sites I am formulating a policy on mirroring Euclid's Elements.clarku.html. may be freely made to Euclid's Elements with a reference to the introduction at http://aleph0. all rights are reserved. 2002 Documents and files covered This copyright notice covers all documents and files served by the web server aleph0.

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Now. therefore the remaining angle equals the remaining angle. Join BE. But the right angle BAM also equals the right angle GFN. and BA is to AE as GF is to FL. namely the angle BAE equal to the angle GFL. Therefore the triangle ABM is equiangular with the triangle FGN. for they stand on the same circumference. therefore the angle AMB also equals the angle FNG. and let BM and GN be diameters of the circles.Proposition 1 Similar polygons inscribed in circles are to one another as the squares on their diameters. VI.1 Thus BAE and GFL are two triangles which have one angle equal to one angle. Therefore the angle AEB equals the angle FLG. I say that the square on BM is to the square on GN as the polygon ABCDE is to the polygon FGHKL.Def. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. But the angle AEB equals the angle AMB.32 . Let ABC and FGH be circles.6 therefore the triangle ABE is equiangular with the triangle FGL. since the polygon ABCDE is similar to the polygon FGHKL.31 I. therefore the angle BAE equals the angle GFL. AM. and FN. and the angle FLG equals the angle FNG. III. let ABCDE and FGHKL be similar polygons inscribed in them. GL. VI.27 III.

D. so that if the polygons are proportional to the squares. Proposition VI. VI. a result that constitutes the bulk of the straightforward proof. proportionally BM is to GN as BA is to GF. then so will the circles be proportional to the squares. similar polygons inscribed in circles are to one another as the squares on their diameters. Therefore. and the ratio of the polygon ABCDE to the polygon FGHKL is duplicate of the ratio VI. This proposition is in preparation for the next in which it is shown that circles are proportional to the squares on their diameters. The difficulty in that proof coming up is to make that argument rigorous. Next proposition: XII. so all that is needed is that the corresponding sides are proportional to the diameters of the circumscribed circles.Therefore. The connection is that the circles can be arbitrarily closely approximated by polygons.Joyce Clark University .20 of BA to GF. Therefore the square on BM is to the square on GN as the polygon ABCDE is to the polygon FGHKL.20 states that the ratio of similar polygons is duplicate the ratio of their corresponding sides. Q.E.4 But the ratio of the square on BM to the square on GN is duplicate of the ratio of BM to GN.2 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D.E.

for if through the points E. L. and the III. Therefore each of the triangles EKF. and NE. Join EK. GMH. and HNE is half of the parallelogram about it. the circle ABCD is either to some less area than the circle EFGH. and N we draw tangents to the circle and complete the parallelograms on the straight lines EF. hence each of the triangles EKF. and HE at the points K. let it be in that ratio to a less area S. GMH. then the square EFGH is half the square circumscribed about the circle. FL. F. Inscribe the square EFGH in the circle EFGH. FLG. GMH. GM. First. and HNE is also greater than the half of the segment of the circle about it. G. or to a greater area. HN.17 circle is less than the circumscribed square. then as the square on BD is to the square on FH. FLG. and H we draw tangents to IV. Then the inscribed square is greater than the half of the circle EFGH. and let BD and FH be their diameters. and N. III. while the segment about it is less than the parallelogram.6 the circle. and HNE is greater than the half of the segment of the circle about it. FLG. if the square on BD is not to the square on FH as the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH. Bisect the circumferences EF. Let ABCD and EFGH be circles. . KF. L. M. GH. MH. FG. M. then each of the triangles EKF. For.17 and HE. for if through the points K.Proposition 2 Circles are to one another as the squares on their diameters. LG. FG. I say that the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH as the square on BD is to the square on FH. hence the inscribed square EFGH is greater than the half of the circle EFGH. GH.

inversely the square on FH is to the square on DB as the area S is to the circle ABCD. HN. But the area S is to the circle ABCD as the circle EFGH is to some area less than the circle ABCD. and from that which is left a greater than the half. alternately the circle ABCD is to the polygon inscribed in it as the area S is to the polygon EKFLGMHN. GM. therefore the square on BD is to the square on FH as the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH. which was proved impossible. FL.1 X. and let the segments of the circle EFGH on EK. is greater than the area S. But it is also less.11 . therefore the area S is also greater than the polygon EKFLGMHN. Therefore the remainder. and if from the greater there is subtracted a magnitude greater than the half. and if this is done repeatedly. Therefore. Now inscribe in the circle ABCD the polygon AOBPCQDR similar to the polygon EKFLGMHN.Thus. therefore the circle ABCD is to the area S as the polygon AOBPCQDR is to the polygon EKFLGMHN. the polygon EKFLGMHN. For it was proved in the first theorem of the tenth book that if two unequal magnitudes are set out. Therefore the square on BD is to the square on FH as the polygon AOBPCQDR is to the polygon EKFLGMHN. by bisecting the remaining circumferences and joining straight lines. Therefore the square on BD is to the square on FH not as the circle ABCD is to any area less than the circle EFGH. LG. and NE be less than the excess by which the circle EFGH exceeds the area S. let it be in that ratio to a greater area S. which is impossible. if possible. For. XII. Therefore the square on BD is to the square on FH not as the circle ABCD to any area greater than the circle EFGH.11 V. KF. Let segments be left such as described. But the square on BD is to the square on FH as the circle ABCD to the area S. we shall leave some segments of the circle which will be less than the excess by which the circle EFGH exceeds the area S. And it was proved that neither is it in that ratio to any area less than the circle EFGH. then there will be left some magnitude which is less than the lesser magnitude set out. Similarly we can prove that the circle EFGH is to any area less than the circle ABCD not as the square on FH is to the square on BD. I say next that neither is the circle ABCD to any area greater than the circle EFGH as the square on BD is to the square on FH. and by doing this repeatedly. MH. therefore the square on FH is to the square on BD as the circle EFGH is to some area less than the circle ABCD. But the circle ABCD is greater than the polygon inscribed in it. Therefore.1 V.16 Lemma V.

For let it be contrived that the area S is to the circle ABCD as the circle EFGH to the area T. the area S being greater than the circle EFGH the area S is to the circle ABCD as the circle EFGH is to some area less than the circle ABCD. there is a gap in the proof at this last step. therefore the circle ABCD is also greater than the area T. Q.E. alternately the area S is to the circle EFGH as the circle ABCD is to the area T. The second case is that the ratio of the squares BD:FH equals ABCD:S where this time S is some area greater than circle EFGH. or equal to the ratio of the circles. Lemma I say that. less. circles are to one another as the squares on their diameters. The form of the proof is a double proof by contradiction. That leaves only the third case that the ratio of the squares BD:FH equals the ratio of the circles ABCD:EFGH. the proportion is carried over to the circles. Therefore. Hence the area S is to the circle ABCD as the circle EFGH is to some area less than the circle ABCD. but the three cases of in the proof are one step removed from these three cases.D.D. But the area S is greater than the circle EFGH. It may be true that there are three cases. (Actually. V. and it is shown that the remainder is less than half the . which is the first case already already shown not to occur. I say that the area T is less than the circle ABCD. Most of the proof is spent refuting this case.) Approximation by polygons The first case is disposed of by approximating the circles by very close polygons. therefore.Q. To begin with a square EFGH is inscribed in the circle EFGH. it was never shown that these are the only three cases. that the ratio of the squares is greater.16 In the last proposition it was shown that similar polygons inscribed in circles are proportional to the squares on the diameters of the circles. One case is that the ratio of the squares BD:FH equals ABCD:S where S is some area less than circle EFGH. By approximating circles closely by similar polygons. Since the area S is to the circle ABCD as the circle EFGH is to the area T. There are three cases when comparing the ratio of the squares BD:FH to the ratio of the circles ABCD:EFGH. This is inverted to a statement that the ratio of the squares FH:BD equals EFGH to some area less than circle ABCD.E.

Pyramids inscribed in cones are similarly used in XII. at some stage mentioned above. and the remainder of the circle is shown to be less than half the old remainder.1 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic . contradicting the statement above that the area S is less than the polygon. that is. etc.18 to show spheres are to one another in triplicate ratio of their diameters. and by the principle of proposition X. circle ABCD : polygon AOBPCQDR = area S : polygon EKFLGMHN. But circle ABCD > polygon AOBPCQDR. The pyramids are approximated by a union of similar triangular prisms. Alternately. 64. Principle of exhaustion The approximation of a figure by a sequence of figures inside it is sometimes called the "principle of exhaustion. There the spheres are exhausted by inscribed polyhedra.circle. Finally.10 uses the principle of exhaustion to show that a cone inscribed in a cylinder is one-third of the cylinder. The similar polygon AOBPCQDR is inscribed in the other circle ABCD.12.3 Previous: XII. polygons of 16. Proposition XII. Then circle ABCD : area S = BC2 : FH2 = polygon AOBPCQDR : polygon EKFLGMHN. This principle is used in several later propositions in this book. and so area S < polygon EKFLGMHN. Next the circumferences are bisected to construct an octagon EKFLGMHN.5 uses it to show that pyramids of the same height with triangular bases are proportional to their bases. Continuing. For the rest of the proof. Proposition XII. that stage is taken as that of the polygon EKFLGMHN. Now the circle EFGH exceeds the area S by some finite amount. the remainder will be less than the excess of circle EFGH over S. circle EFGH – polygon EKFLGMHN < circle EFGH – area S. 32. sides are constructed and each one leaves a remainder less than half the previous remainder.1.. Next proposition: XII. so area S > polygon EKFLGMHN." The important point of this principle is that the sequence of approximations can be made so that the difference between the original figure and the inscribed figure decreases by at least half at each step of the sequence. The cone is approximated by inscribed pyramids while the cylinder is approximated by inscribed prisms. the principle of exhaustion is used in proposition XII.11 and XII.

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therefore the two sides EA and AH equal the two sides KH. Join HE. KL. Now. Since AE equals EB. therefore EH is parallel to DB.4 . Therefore HEBK is a parallelogram. K. G. and the two prisms are greater than the half of the whole pyramid. I say that the pyramid ABCD is divided into two pyramids equal to one another. EG.2 I. For the same reason the triangle AHG also equals and is similar to the triangle HLD. therefore AE also equals HK. But AH also equals HD. since two straight lines EH and HG meeting one another are parallel to two straight lines KD and DL meeting one another and are not in the same plane. For the same reason HK is also parallel to AB. and having triangular bases. XI. KF. F. and into two equal prisms. therefore they contain equal angles. AD. similar to the whole. Let there be a pyramid of with the triangular base ABC and vertex D. Therefore the angle EHG equals the angle KDL. and the two prisms are greater than half of the whole pyramid.10 I. HD respectively. and AH equals DH. LH. CA. therefore the base EH equals the base KD. H. BC. Therefore the triangle AEH equals and is similar to the triangle HKD. VI. and L. and DC at the points E. HK. and into two equal prisms. Bisect AB. Therefore HK equals EB. DB. GH.Proposition 3 Any pyramid with a triangular base is divided into two pyramids equal and similar to one another.34 But EB equals EA. and the angle EAH equals the angle KHD. having triangular bases and similar to the whole pyramid. and FG be joined.

For the same reason the triangle DBC is also similar to the triangle DKL. therefore they contain equal angles. therefore the parallelogram EBFG is double the triangle GFC. namely that with the parallelogram EBFG the base and the straight line HK its opposite. And it is clear that each of the prisms. one of the sides of the triangle ADB. Therefore each of the pyramids AEGH and HKLD is similar to the whole pyramid ABCD. therefore the triangle ABC is similar to the triangle HKL. and one has a parallelogram as base and the other a triangle. But the pyramid with the triangular base EBF and vertex A equals the pyramid with the triangular base AE and the vertex H. LCGH.10 Next. and HKFG. for. Therefore the pyramid with the triangular base ABC and vertex D is similar to the pyramid with the triangular base HKL and vertex D.And. the triangle ADB is equiangular to the triangle DHK. and if the parallelogram is double the triangle. Hence the prism with the parallelogram EBF the base and the straight line HK opposite is greater than the pyramid with the triangular base AE and vertex H. and that with the triangle GFC the base and the triangle HKL its opposite. XI. therefore the triangle ADB is similar to the triangle DHK. And since. and the pyramid with the triangular base AEG and vertex H equals the pyramid with the triangular base HKL and vertex D. For the same reason the triangle AEG also equals and is similar to the triangle HKL. and they have their sides proportional. Therefore the prism contained by the two triangles BKF and EHG. and the three parallelograms EBFG. EBKH. since the two straight lines BA and AC meeting one another are parallel to the two straight lines KH and HL meeting one another not in the same plane. if we join the straight lines EF and EK. since HK is parallel to AB.Def. for they are contained by equal and similar planes. Therefore the triangle EHG equals and is similar to the triangle KDL. And BA is to AC as KH is to HL. And. the prism with the parallelogram EBFG the base and the straight line HK opposite is greater than the pyramid with the triangular base EBF and vertex K. if there are two prisms of equal height. I. and HKFG equals the prism contained by the two triangles GFC and HKL and the three parallelograms KFCL. since the two straight lines EH and HG equal the two KD and DL respectively. therefore the base EG equals the base KL. Therefore the pyramid with triangular base AEG and vertex H equals and is similar to the pyramid with triangular base HKL and the vertex D. is greater than each of the pyramids with the triangular bases AEG and HKL and vertices H and D. then the prisms are equal.39 .29 VI.10 I. But the pyramid with the triangular base HKL and vertex D was proved similar to the pyramid with the triangular base AEG and the vertex H. But the prism with the parallelogram EBF the base and the straight line HK opposite equals the prism with the triangle GFC the base and the triangle HKL opposite. Therefore the angle BAC equals the angle KHL.4 XI.Def. and the angle EHG equals the angle KDL. Now.1 XI. since BF equals FC. and the triangle ADC is similar to the triangle DLH.

Since the desired proportionality holds for prisms.4 Previous: XII. Therefore. In the last book it was shown in XI.Therefore the said two prisms are greater than the said two pyramids with the triangular bases AEG and HKL and vertices H and D. and the two prisms are greater than half of the whole pyramid. any pyramid with a triangular base is divided into two pyramids equal and similar to one another.28 (a triangular prism is half a parallelepiped) implies that this proportionality can be carried over to prisms with triangular bases. This process is used and clarified in XII. and the two prisms are greater than the half of the whole pyramid. Therefore the whole pyramid with the triangular base ABC and vertex D has been divided into two pyramids equal to one another and into two equal prisms.Joyce . The basic observation is in this proposition: most of a triangular based pyramid can be filled up by two congruent prisms leaving less than half to two smaller similar pyramids. then the four even smaller pyramids that remain are less then 1/4 of the original pyramid.5 (pyramids are proportional to their bases). Partitioning those four again yields eight with a total volume less then 1/8 of the original pyramid. and XI.5. if each of these two smaller pyramids are filled up by two smaller prisms leaving two even smaller pyramids in each. and having triangular bases. therefore the desired proportionality will hold for pyramids.3 through XII.E. Next proposition: XII.E.32 that parallelepipeds of the same height are proportional to their bases. It is not so easy to carry the proportionality over to pyramids with triangular bases.5. The intermediate proposition XII. The first two of these lay the foundations for XII. and pyramids can be partitioned nearly all into prisms.5. This and the next six propositions deal with volumes of pyramids. and into two equal prisms. similar to the whole. But that is what is done in XII.D.2 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D.4 supplies a important technical result needed in XII. Q. Next. And so on.

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3 Since BO equals OC. and let each of them be divided into two pyramids equal to one another and similar to the whole and into two equal prisms. in the pyramid DEFH. . since BC is double CO. and EF double FV. and the triangle ABC is similar to the triangle LOC.Proposition 4 If there are two pyramids of the same height with triangular bases. And. and each of them is divided into two pyramids equal and similar to one another and similar to the whole. therefore LO is parallel to AB. then the base of the one pyramid is to the base of the other pyramid as all the prisms in the one pyramid are to all the prisms. XII. being equal in multitude. Let there be two pyramids of the same height with triangular bases ABC and DEF the points G and H the vertices. and into two equal prisms. in the other pyramid. being equal in multitude. I say that the base ABC is to the base DEF as all the prisms in the pyramid ABCG to all the prisms. For the same reason the triangle DEF is also similar to the triangle RVF. and AL equals LC. therefore BC is to CO as EF is to FV.

16 Lemma below XI. and on EF and FV the similar and similarly situated figures DEF and RVF. if the pyramids PMNG and STUH are divided into two prisms and two pyramids. therefore they are cut in the same ratios. alternately the triangle ABC is to the triangle DEF as the triangle LOC is to the triangle RVF. are to the prisms with QEVR the base and the straight line ST opposite and with the triangle RVF the base and STU opposite in the same ratio. VI.17 . then the base PMN is to the base STU as the two prisms in the pyramid PMNG are to the two prisms in the pyramid STUH. These are. in the pyramid DEFH. And similarly. But the said prisms are to one another as the prism with the parallelogram KBOL the base and the straight line PM opposite is to the prism with the parallelogram QEVR the base and the straight line ST opposite.11 XI. Therefore the triangle ABC is to the triangle DEF as the prism with the triangle LOC the base and PMN opposite is to the prism with the triangle RVF the base and STU opposite. of course. being equal in multitude. But the triangle LOC is to the triangle RVF as the prism with the triangle LOC the base and PMN opposite is to the prism with the triangle RVF the base and STU opposite.22 V. that with the parallelogram KBOL the base and PM opposite.And on BC and CO are described the similar and similarly situated rectilinear figures ABC and LOC. XI. therefore the triangle ABC is to the triangle LOC as the triangle DEF is to the triangle RVF. for the triangles PMN and STU equal the triangles LOC and RVF respectively. Therefore the base ABC is to the base DEF as the four prisms are to the four prisms. then the base ABC is to base the DEF as all the prisms in the pyramid ABCG are to all the prisms. Therefore. Therefore the two prisms. Now. and that with the triangle LOC the base and PMN opposite. Therefore the base ABC is to the base DEF as the said two prisms are to the said two prisms. we must prove as follows. since the two straight lines GC and the perpendicular from G are cut by the parallel planes ABC and PMN. In the same figure draw perpendiculars from G and H to the planes ABC and DEF.39 V. And similarly. equal since the pyramids are of equal height by hypothesis. if we divide the remaining pyramids into two pyramids and into two prisms. But the base PMN is to the base STU as the base ABC is to the base DEF.12 Lemma But that the triangle LOC is to the triangle RVF as the prism with the triangle LOC the base and PMN opposite is to the prism with the triangle RVF the base and STU opposite.

are of equal height. and PMN and STU opposite. and each of them is divided into two pyramids equal and similar to one another and similar to the whole. in which two pyramids with triangular bases and the same height are shown to be proportional to their bases.E. Its proof proceeds by partitioning each of the two original pyramids into the two. being equal in multitude. XII. Therefore their halves. therefore the perpendicular from G to the plane ABC is also bisected by the plane PMN.5 Previous: XII. namely the said prisms. at least in the last paragraph. are to one another as the base LOC is to the base RVF.D. until a sufficiently small part of each original pyramid remains in whatever tiny pyramids there are while a sufficiently large part of each is composed of various sized prisms. in the other pyramid. Next proposition: XII. considers that situation and concludes that the base of the first pyramid is to the second as the union of the various sized prisms in the first pyramid is to the union of the various sized prisms in the second pyramid. This is the crucial step in the proof of XII. This proposition. then to the four even smaller pyramids.And GC is bisected by the plane PMN at N.3 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic . therefore the perpendiculars from the triangles PMN and STU to the planes ABC and DEF are also equal.28 Therefore. For the same reason the perpendicular from H to the plane DEF is also bisected by the plane STU. XI.5. then the base of the one pyramid is to the base of the other pyramid as all the prisms in the one pyramid are to all the prisms. Therefore the prisms with the triangles LOC and RVF the bases.32 XI. This proposition is subordinate to the next. Hence also the parallelepipedal solids described from the said prisms are of equal height and are to one another as their bases.5. And the perpendiculars from G and H to the planes ABC and DEF are equal. if there are two pyramids of the same height with triangular bases.pyramid-two-prism division of the previous proposition. and into two equal prisms. then doing the same partition to the two smaller pyramids. Q.

Joyce Clark University .E.© 1997 D.

1 . Let it. For.Proposition 5 Pyramids of the same height with triangular bases are to one another as their bases. Then the two prisms are greater than the half of the whole pyramid. be in that ratio to a less solid W. Let there be pyramids of the same height with triangular bases ABC and DEF and vertices G and H. first. and let this be done repeatedly until there are left over from the pyramid DEFH some pyramids which are less than the excess by which the pyramid DEFH exceeds the solid W.3 X. Again. divide the pyramids arising from the division similarly. Divide the pyramid DEFH into two pyramids equal to one another and similar to the whole and into two equal prisms. then the base ABC is to the base DEF as the pyramid ABCG is either to some solid less than the pyramid DEFH or to a greater solid. if the pyramid ABCG is not to the pyramid DEFH as the base ABC is to the base DEF. I say that the base ABC is to the base DEF as the pyramid ABCG is to the pyramid DEFH. XII.

Let such be left. But the pyramid ABCG is greater than the prisms in it. with the pyramid DEFH.E. the prisms in the pyramid DEFH. which was V. and a same number of times. let it be in that ratio to a greater solid W.11 V.D. Therefore. and let them be.16 . pyramids of the same height with triangular bases are to one another as their bases. therefore the solid W is also greater than the prisms in the pyramid DEFH. But it is also less. Therefore the base ABC is to the base DEF as the pyramid ABCG is to the pyramid DEFH. Similarly it can be proved that neither is the pyramid DEFH to any solid less than the pyramid ABCG as the base DEF is to the base ABC. which is impossible.4 V. Therefore the prism ABCG is not to any solid less than the pyramid DEFH as the base ABC is to the base DEF. alternately the pyramid ABCG is to the prisms in it as the solid W is to the prisms in the pyramid DEFH.Lemma ABC as the pyramid DEFH is to some solid less than the pyramid ABCG. But the base ABC is to the base DEF as the pyramid ABCG is to the solid W.2. inversely the base DEF is to the base ABC as the solid W is to the pyramid ABCG. Therefore the pyramid ABCG is not to any solid greater than the pyramid DEFH as the base ABC is to the base DEF.11 proved absurd. XII. for the sake of argument. Therefore. Therefore the base ABC is to the base DEF as the prisms in the pyramid ABCG are to the prisms in the pyramid DEFH. Q. But it was proved before that the solid W is to the solid ABCG as the pyramid DEFH is to some solid less than the pyramid ABCG. are greater than the solid W. DQRS and STUH. Therefore. I say next that neither is the pyramid ABCG to any solid greater than the pyramid DEFH as the base ABC is to the base DEF. For. Divide the pyramid ABCG similarly. Therefore the base DEF is to the base XII. therefore the pyramid ABCG is to the solid W as the prisms in the pyramid ABCG are to the prisms in the pyramid DEFH. if possible. But it was proved that neither is it in that ratio to a less solid. Therefore the remainders.

this proposition is used to show that a prism can be dissected into three equal (but not congruent) prisms.4 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D.Joyce Clark University . In the following proposition. not just triangles. Next proposition: XII.Use of this theorem The next proposition generalizes this one so that the bases of the pyramids may be any polygons.6 Previous: XII.E.

5 V. Let there be pyramids of the same height with the polygonal bases ABCDE and FGHKL and vertices M and N. And again. taken together. Therefore. the base ABCD is to the base ACD as the pyramid ABCDM is to the pyramid ACDM. And. ex aequali. the base ABCD is to the base ADE as the pyramid ABCDM is to the pyramid ADEM. XII. the base ABCDE is to the base ADE as the pyramid ABCDEM is to the pyramid ADEM. But the base ACD is to the base ADE as the pyramid ACDM is to the pyramid ADEM.18 XII. FH.Proposition 6 Pyramids of the same height with polygonal bases are to one another as their bases. Since then ABCM and ACDM are two pyramids with triangular bases and equal height. and FK. therefore they are to one another as their bases. Similarly also it can be proved that the base FGHKL is to the base FGH as the pyramid FGHKLN is to the pyramid FGHN. Therefore the base ABC is to the base ACD as the pyramid ABCM is to the pyramid ACDM.5 V.18 . AD.22 V. I say that the base ABCDE is to the base FGHKL as the pyramid ABCDEM is to the pyramid FGHKLN. Join AC. taken together.

XII.22 Therefore. ex aequali.D. therefore the base ADE is to the base FGH as the pyramid ADEM is to the pyramid FGHN. V. But further the base FGH is to the base FGHKL as the pyramid FGHN is to the pyramid FGHKLN.10 and XII. pyramids of the same height with polygonal bases are to one another as their bases.7 Previous: XII.And.5 But the base ADE is to the base ABCDE as the pyramid ADEM is to the pyramid ABCDEM. It is important to notice that the bases of the pyramids under consideration need not be similar. indeed they may have different numbers of sides.Joyce Clark University .E.22 Therefore. Next proposition: XII.11 which concern the volumes of cones and cylinders. Q. ex aequali. since ADEM and FGHN are two pyramids with triangular bases and equal heights.E. Therefore also. the base ABCDE is to the base FGHKL as the pyramid ABCDEM is to the pyramid FGHKLN V. the base ABCDE is to the base FGH as the pyramid ABCDEM is to the pyramid FGHN.5 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D. Use of this proposition This proposition will be used in XII.

EC. and BD is its diameter.34 XII. I. and CD.Proposition 7 Any prism with a triangular base is divided into three pyramids equal to one another with triangular bases.34 XII. Therefore the pyramid with triangular base ABD and vertex C equals the pyramid with triangular base DEB and vertex C. therefore the triangle ABD equals the triangle EBD. Again. which have triangular bases. I say that the prism ABCDEF is divided into three pyramids equal to one another. Let there be a prism with the triangular base ABC and DEF opposite. Since ABED is a parallelogram. for they are contained by the same planes. Therefore the pyramid with triangular base ABD vertex C is also equal to the pyramid with triangular base EBC and vertex D. I. and CE is its diameter.5 But the pyramid with triangular base DEB and vertex C is identical with the pyramid with triangular base EBD and vertex D.5 . therefore the triangle CEF equals the triangle CBE. since FCBE is a parallelogram. Therefore the pyramid with triangular base BCE and vertex D equals the pyramid with triangular base ECF and vertex D. Join BD.

The triangles ABD and EBD are equal.6 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 . since the pyramid with triangular base ABD and vertex C is identical with the pyramid with triangular base CAB and vertex D. they are equal pyramids. Q. Therefore the prism ABCDEF is divided into three pyramids equal to one another which have triangular bases.D. Corollary. Now since the pyramids ABDC and DEBC have equal bases and the same altitude. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next two propositions about volumes of pyramids and in XII. by XII. But DEBC and BCED are the same pyramid named differently.E. therefore the pyramid with triangular base CEF and vertex D equals the pyramid with triangular base ABD and vertex C. So the prism is divided into three equal pyramids. therefore the pyramid with triangular base ABC and vertex D is a third of the prism with the same base ABC. and DEF opposite. The proof of this proposition is easier than it looks. while the pyramid with triangular base ABD vertex C was proved to be a third of the prism with triangular base ABC and DEF opposite. And. for they are contained by the same planes.5. any prism with a triangular base is divided into three pyramids equal to one another with triangular bases. Next proposition: XII.10 following them about volumes of cones and cylinders.But the pyramid with triangular base BCE and vertex D was proved equal to the pyramid with triangular base ABD and vertex C.8 Previous: XII. A similar argument shows pyramids BCEDand ECFD are equal. Therefore. From this it is clear that any pyramid is a third part of the prism with the same base and equal height.

Joyce Clark University .E.D.

But the three parallelograms MB. and the sides are proportional about equal angles. EO. and BN are similar to the three EQ. the angle ABG equals the angle DEH. and BR similar to EO. I say that the pyramid ABCG has to the pyramid DEFH the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. Complete the parallelepipedal solids BGML and EHQP.Proposition 8 Similar pyramids with triangular bases are in triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. Therefore the three parallelograms MB. and BN are equal and similar to their three opposites. For the same reason BN is also similar to ER. and as BG is to EH. and ER are equal and similar to their three opposites. and AB is to DE as BC is to EF. therefore the angle ABC equals the angle DEF. therefore the parallelogram BM is similar to the parallelogram EQ.24 . BK. EO. And since AB is to DE as BC is to EF. Now. BK. and ER. and the three EQ. XI. since the pyramid ABCG is similar to the pyramid DEFH. Let there be similar and similarly situated pyramids with triangular bases AB and DEF vertices G and H. the angle GBC equals the angle HEF.

the pyramid itself with a polygonal base. because the prism which is half of the parallelepipedal solid is also triple the pyramid. . Also. similar pyramids with triangular bases are in triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides.20 V.E.D. to the pyramid with a polygonal base. But the solid BGML is to the solid EHQP as the pyramid ABCG is to the pyramid DEFH. But similar parallelepipedal solids are in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. Therefore the solid BGML has to the solid EHQP the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side BC has to the corresponding side EF.7 Q. for the pyramid is a sixth part of the solid. Therefore. Use of this propostion This proposition is used to show similar cones are in triplicate ratio of the diameters of their bases in proposition XII.28 XII. Therefore the solid BGML is similar to the solid EHQP.12 Heath gives a good argument that the corollary was added later.Therefore the solids BGML and EHQP are contained by similar planes equal in multitude. Corollary. Therefore the pyramid ABCG has to the pyramid DEFH the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. that is.12. the corollary justifies a statement in the corollary of XII. therefore also the pyramid with a polygonal base has to the pyramid with a similar base the ratio triplicate of that which the side has to the side. From this it is clear that similar pyramids with polygonal bases are also to one another in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides.17 concerning similar solids. VI. XI. But the pyramid with a triangular base is to the pyramid with a triangular base in the triplicate ratio of the corresponding sides. if they are divided into the pyramids contained in them which have triangular bases. by virtue of the fact that the similar polygons forming their bases are also divided into similar triangles equal in multitude and corresponding to the wholes.33 XI. For. then the one pyramid with a triangular base in the one complete pyramid is to the one pyramid with a triangular base in the other complete pyramid as all the pyramids with triangular bases contained in the one pyramid is to all the pyramids with triangular bases contained in the other pyramid.

E.7 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D.9 Previous: XII.Next proposition: XII.Joyce Clark University .

and those pyramids are equal in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. therefore the solid BGML equals the solid EHQP.7. that is the base ABC is to the base DEF as the height of the pyramid DEFH is to the height of the pyramid ABCG. and the solid EHQP six times the pyramid DEFH. But in equal parallelepipedal solids the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. Let there be equal pyramids with triangular bases ABC and DEF and vertices G and H.Cor XI. Now.Proposition 9 In equal pyramids with triangular bases the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights.34 I. Therefore the triangle ABC is to the triangle DEF as the height of the solid EHQP is to the height of the solid BGML. But the base BM is to EQ as the triangle ABC is to the triangle DEF. since the pyramid ABCG equals the pyramid DEFH. Complete the parallelepipedal solids BGML and EHQP. XII. therefore the base BM is to the base EQ as the height of the solid EHQP is to the height of the solid BGML. and the solid BGML is six times the pyramid ABCG. I say that in the pyramids ABCG and DEFH the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights.34 V.11 .

as the base ABC is to the base DEF. therefore the pyramid ABCG equals the pyramid DEFH. I say that the pyramid ABCG equals the pyramid DEFH. therefore the base ABC is to the base DEF as the height of the pyramid DEFH is to the height of the pyramid ABCG. in equal pyramids with triangular bases the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. therefore the parallelogram BM is to the parallelogram EQ as the height of the pyramid DEFH is to the height of the pyramid ABCG. With the same construction. Therefore in the pyramids ABCG and DEFH the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. therefore the parallelepipedal solid BGML equals the parallelepipedal solid EHQP.34 holds for parallelepipeds.But the height of the solid EHQP is identical with the height of the pyramid DEFH. since the base ABC is to the base DEF as the height of the pyramid DEFH is to the height of the pyramid ABCG. which aren't drawn.E. so let the height of the pyramid DEFH be to the height of the pyramid ABCG. Therefore. Since the analogous proposition XI. in the pyramids ABCG and DEFH let the bases be reciprocally proportional to the heights. while the base ABC is to the base V. and the height of the solid BGML is identical with the height of the pyramid ABCG. XI. Next. Q. and those pyramids are equal in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. When a similar situation appears later where cones are one-third of cylinders. therefore the base BM is to the base EQ as the height of the parallelepiped EHQP is to the height of the parallelepiped BGML.D. Euclid simply says the .34 The pyramids with triangular bases are one-third of the prisms with triangular bases. this proposition holds for pyramids. and the height of the pyramid ABCG is identical with the height of the parallelepiped BGML. that is.11 DEF as the parallelogram BM is to the parallelogram EQ. And the pyramid ABCG is a sixth part of BGML. and the pyramid DEFH a sixth part of the parallelepiped EHQP. But the height of the pyramid DEFH is identical with the height of the parallelepiped EHQP. But those parallelepipedal solids in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights are equal. and the prisms are half of the parallelepipeds.

This proposition completes the theory of volumes for pyramids.E.8 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D. Next proposition: XII.10 Previous: XII.Joyce Clark University . too. The next few propositions treat the theory of volumes of cones and cylinders.same holds for cones. with no details whatsoever.

F. and the solids set up from them are parallelepipedal prisms of equal height. IV. then the cylinder will be either greater than triple or less than triple the cone.Proposition 10 Any cone is a third part of the cylinder with the same base and equal height. FC. Then each of the triangles AEB. and DA at the points E. Then the prism so set up is greater than the half of the cylinder. G. BFC. Let a cone have the same base. I say that the cone is a third part of the cylinder. as we proved before.32 XI.6 and XII. with a cylinder and equal height. Inscribe the square ABCD in the circle ABCD. therefore also the prism set up on the square ABCD is half of the prism set up from the square circumscribed about the circle ABCD. From the square ABCD set up a prism of equal height with the cylinder. while parallelepipedal solids of the same height are to one another as their bases.Cor XII.2 . namely the circle ABCD. CD. Bisect the circumferences AB. BC.28 or XII. that the cylinder is triple the cone. DH. EB. the square inscribed in the circle ABCD is half of that circumscribed about it. Then the square ABCD is greater than half of the circle ABCD. First let it be greater than triple. and the cylinder is less than the prism set up from the square circumscribed about the circle ABCD. therefore the prism set up from the square ABCD and of equal height with the cylinder is greater than the half of the cylinder. BF. for if we also circumscribe a square about the circle ABCD. and DHA is greater than the half of that segment of the circle ABCD about it. and join AE. and H.6 IV. CGD.7 XI. For if the cylinder is not triple the cone. that is. CG. GD. and HA.7.

G. Let such segments be left. BFC. Therefore the remainder. complete the parallelograms on AB. Inscribe the square ABCD in the circle ABCD.31 X. EB. IV. FC. Therefore the pyramid with the polygonal base AEBFCGDH and the same vertex as that of the cone is greater than the cone with circular base ABCD.7. For.Cor AEBFCGDH and the same vertex as that of the cone. and set up from them parallelepipedal solids of equal height with the cylinder. CD. and HA. BC. I. inversely. CGD. and doing this repeatedly. BF. for if we draw through the points E. BC. Thus. which is impossible. hence also the prisms on the triangles AEB. the cone is greater than a third part of the cylinder. Therefore the cylinder is not greater than triple the cone. joining straight lines. F. and DHA are greater than half of the segments of the cylinder about them.1 But the prism with polygonal base AEBFCGDH and the same height as that of the cylinder is triple the pyramid with polygonal base XII. and DA. CGD. the prism with polygonal base AEBFCGDH and the same height as that of the cylinder.6 . and DHA set prisms up of equal height with the cylinder. is greater than triple the cone. and DA. I say next that neither is the cylinder less than triple the cone. Then each of the prisms so set up is greater than the half part of that segment of the cylinder about it. let the cylinder be less than triple the cone.On each of the triangles AEB. then the prisms on the triangles AEB. setting up on each of the triangles prisms of equal height with the cylinder. Therefore the square ABCD is greater than the half of the circle ABCD. BFC. and the segments of the cylinder are less than the parallelepipedal solids set up. CGD. Therefore. bisecting the circumferences that are left. we shall leave some segments of the cylinder which are less than the excess by which the cylinder exceeds the triple the cone. DH. and H parallels to AB. But it is also less. if possible. CD. for it is enclosed by it. and DHA are halves of the several solids set up. BFC. and let them be AE. CG. GD.

and DHA set pyramids up with the same vertex as the cone. in the same manner. for they are to one another as their bases. the pyramid with the polygonal base AEBFCGDH and the same vertex as that of the cone. EB. Therefore the remainder. BF. Therefore the pyramid with the square base ABCD and the same vertex as that of the cone is greater than the half of the cone. BFC. and H. we shall leave some segments of X. F. setting up pyramids on each of the triangles with the same vertex as the cone.32 Thus. GD. . BC. Therefore the pyramid with the square base ABCD is half of the pyramid set up from the square circumscribed about the circle. Let such be left. BF. therefore the prism with the polygonal base AEBFCGDH and the same height as that of the cylinder is greater than the cylinder with the circular base ABCD. and let them be the segments on AE. and if we set up from the squares parallelepipedal solids of equal height with the cone. as we proved before. FC. But the pyramid with the polygonal AEBFCGDH base and the same vertex as that of the cone is a third part of the prism with the polygonal base AEBFCGDH and the same height as that of the cylinder. and join AE. DH. then the square ABCD is half of the square circumscribed about the circle. which are also called prisms. CG. and HA. CGD. and DHA is greater than the half part of that segment of the circle ABCD about it.1 the cone which will be less than the excess by which the cone exceeds the third part of the cylinder. then the solid set up from the square ABCD is half of that set up from the square circumscribed about the circle. Bisect the circumferences AB. for. Now. Therefore each of the pyramids so set up is. is greater than a third part of the cylinder. And the pyramid set up from the square about the circle is greater than the cone. GD. joining straight lines. CD. XI. and DA at the points E.Now set up from the square ABCD a pyramid with the same vertex as the cone. for it encloses it. and doing this repeatedly. EB. Then each of the triangles AEB. Therefore the pyramid so set up is greater than half of the cone. if we circumscribe a square about the circle. DH. CGD. CG. by bisecting the circumferences that are left. greater than the half part of that segment of the cone about it. FC. on each of the triangles AEB. and HA be joined. Hence the thirds of them are also in that ratio. G. BFC.

Q.12 similar cones are shown to be in the triplicate ratio of the diameters of their bases.9 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D. and therefore cylinders of the same height are proportional to their bases. This proposition is fundamental in that it relates the volume of a cone to that of the circumscribed cylinder so that whatever is said about the volumes cylinder can be converted into a statement about volumes of cones and vice versa. therefore the analogous statement holds for cylinders. therefore the analogous statement holds for cones. And in XII.E.11.14 cylinders on equal bases are shown to be proportional to their heights. Therefore the cylinder is triple the cone. "the same it true for the cones also. hence the cone is a third part of the cylinder.But it is also less. Therefore the cylinder is not less than triple the cone.Joyce Clark University . But it was proved that neither is it greater than triple. any cone is a third part of the cylinder with the same base and equal height." Next proposition: XII.E. for it is enclosed by it. In XII. cones of the same height are shown to be proportional to their bases.11 Previous: XII. In XII.15 it is shown that equal cylinders are those whose bases are reciprocally proportional to their heights.D. and as Euclid says. Therefore. which is impossible. the next proposition. In XII. This and the next five propositions deal with the volumes of cones and cylinders.

Therefore the cone EN equals the sum of the solids O and X. Set up from the square EFGH a pyramid of equal height with the cone. for if we circumscribe a square about XII. let it be in that ratio to a less solid O. I say that the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH as the cone AL is to the cone EN. Therefore the square is greater than the half IV. KL and MN their axes. and AC and EG the diameters of their bases.6 of the circle. Inscribe the square EFGH in the circle EFGH. Let there be cones and cylinders of the same height. . then the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH as the cone AL is either to some solid less than the cone EN or to a greater. and let the solid X be equal to that by which the solid O is less than the cone EN. while the cone is less than the circumscribed pyramid. First. and set up from it a pyramid of equal height with the cone. Therefore the pyramid so set up is greater than the half of the cone. if not. For.Proposition 11 Cones and cylinders of the same height are to one another as their bases. then the inscribed pyramid is half of the circumscribed pyramid.6 the circle. for they are to one another as their bases. let the circles ABCD and EFGH be their bases.

GS. But it is also less.Bisect the circumferences EF. and let them be the segments on HP.6 V. Therefore each of the triangles HPE. therefore the solid O is also greater than the pyramid in the cone EN. Therefore the cone AL is to the solid O as the pyramid with the polygonal base DTAUBVCW and vertex L is to the pyramid with the polygonal base HPEQFRGS and vertex N. R. But the cone AL is greater than the pyramid in it. which is absurd. FRG. Thus. Let such be left. QF. EQ. EQF. Now inscribe in the circle ABCD the polygon DTAUBVCW similar and similarly situated to the polygon HPEQFRGS. Therefore the remainder. alternately the cone AL is to the pyramid in it as the solid O is to the pyramid in the cone EN. I say next that neither is the cone AL to any solid greater than the cone EN as the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH.11 V. therefore the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH as the polygon DTAUBVCW is to the polygon HPEQFRGS. and SH. RG. is greater than the solid O. EQ. joining straight lines. FRG. and GSH is greater than the half of that segment of the circle about it. and the polygon DTAUBVCW is to the polygon HPEQFRGS as the pyramid with the polygonal base DTAUBVCW and the vertex L is to the pyramid with the polygonal base HPEQFRGS and the vertex N.16 .1 XII. and S. RG. setting up on each of the triangles pyramids of equal height with the cone. and doing this repeatedly. and join HP. bisecting the circumferences which are left. and HE at the points P. But the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH as the cone AL is to the solid 0. while the square on AC is to the square on EG as the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH.2 XII. and on it set up a pyramid of equal height with the cone AL. FG. PE. GS. and SH. Therefore each of the pyramids so set up is also greater than the half of that segment of the cone about it. and GSH a pyramid of equal height with the cone. Therefore the cone AL is not to any solid less than the cone EN as the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH. FR. FR. XII. the pyramid with the polygonal base HPEQFRGS and the same height as that of the cone. Q. Therefore. Since then the square on AC is to the square on EG as the polygon DTAUBVCW is to the polygon HPEQFRGS. EQF. Similarly we can prove that neither is the cone EN to any solid less than the cone AL as the circle EFGH is to the circle ABCD.1 leave some segments of the cone which are less than the solid X. Set up on each of the triangles HPE. QF. we shall X. PE. GH.

XII. let it be in that ratio to a greater solid O.D. But the solid O is to the cone AL as the cone EN to some solid less than the cone AL. inversely the circle EFGH is to the circle ABCD as the solid O is to the cone AL. Therefore.12 Previous: XII. Therefore the cone AL is not to any solid greater than the cone EN as the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH. which was proved impossible. for each is triple each.For. Therefore.15 for cylinders of different heights.10 Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proofs of XII. therefore the circle EFGH is to the circle ABCD as the cone EN is to some solid less than the cone AL. cones and cylinders of the same height are to one another as their bases. But the cone is to the cone as the cylinder is to the cylinder. Therefore the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH as are the cylinders on them of equal height.Joyce Clark University . if possible.13 and XII.14 when the cylinders under question have the same height and equal bases.E. But it was proved that neither is it in this ratio to a less solid.E. therefore the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH as the cone AL is to the cone EN. Next proposition: XII. Q.10 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D. and in the proof of XII.

R. Let there be similar cones and cylinders. RH. Therefore each of the triangles EPF. GH. GRH. GR. HS. if the cone ABCDL does not have to the cone EFGHN the ratio triplicate of that which BD has to FH.Bisect the circumferences EF. FG. then the cone ABCDL has that triplicate ratio either to some solid less than the cone EFGHN or to a greater. and join EP. QG. and S. Therefore the pyramid so set up is greater than the half part of the cone. let the circles ABCD and EFGH be their bases.Proposition 12 Similar cones and cylinders are to one another in triplicate ratio of the diameters of their bases. Q. FQ. and KL and MN the axes of the cones and cylinders. IV. First. and SE. I say that the cone with circular base ABCD and vertex L has to the cone with circular base EFGH and vertex N the ratio triplicate of that which BD has to FH. Therefore the square EFGH is greater than the half of the circle EFGH. For. and HSE is also greater than the half part of that segment of the circle EFGH about it.6 . FQG. BD and FH the diameters of the bases. Inscribe the square EFGH in the circle EFGH. let it have that triplicate ratio to a less solid O. Now set up on the square EFGH a pyramid with the same vertex as the cone. PF. and HE at the points P.

Again. But BD is to FH as BK is to FM. joining straight lines. therefore LB is to BK as NF is to FM. we X.6 PF. GRH. FQ. is greater than the solid O. namely the angles BKL and FMN. Then. Therefore. Therefore. namely the angles BKT and FMP. Therefore the remainder. therefore LT is to TK as NP is to PM. Thus. XI. setting up on each of the triangles pyramids with the same vertex as the cone.6 VI. ex aequali. and FM equals PM. for they are right.6 VI. Therefore each of the pyramids so set up is also greater than the half part of that segment of the cone about it. LB is to BT as NF is to FP. Again. Join KT and MP. alternately BK is to KL as FM is to MN. ex aequali. and HSE a pyramid with the same vertex as the cone.6 VI. therefore BD is to FH as the axis KL is to the axis MN. since the cone ABCDL is similar to the cone EFGHN. therefore KT is to TB as MP is to VI. and let NFP be one of the triangles containing the pyramid with polygonal base EPFQGRHS and vertex N. and let them be the segments on EP. And.6 Again. HS. since the sides are proportional about equal angles. therefore the triangle BKT is similar to the triangle FMP. RH.24 V. Let LBT be one off the triangles containing the pyramid with polygonal base ATBUCVDW and vertex L.Now set up on each of the triangles EPF. therefore the triangle LKT is similar to the triangle NMP. And since the triangles BKT and FMP are similar. And the sides are proportional about equal angles. namely the angles TKL and PMN. LT is to TB as NP is to PF. since the triangles LTK and NPM are similar. FQG. PF. therefore the triangle BKL is similar to the triangle FMN. QG. Now. and doing this repeatedly. therefore TK is to KL as PM is to MN. and they are about equal angles. And since the triangles LKB and NMF are similar. bisecting the circumferences so left. while BK equals KT. . the pyramid with the polygonal base EPFQGRHS and vertex N. Let such be left. And the sides are proportional about equal angles. and since the triangles TKB and PMF are similar. Now inscribe in the circle ABCD the polygon ATBUCVDW similar and similarly situated to the polygon EPFQGRHS. since it was proved that BK is to KL as FM is to MN. it is the same part as the angle FMP of the four right angles at the center M. for whatever part the angle BKT is of the four right angles at the center K. and set up on the polygon ATBUCVDW a pyramid with the same vertex as the cone. therefore BK is to FM as KL to MN.1 shall leave some segments of the cone which are less than the excess by which the cone EFGHN exceeds the solid O. therefore KB is to BT as MF is to FP. since BK is to KT as FM is to MP.16 VI. and SE.Def. GR.

the cone with circular base ABCD and vertex L also has to the solid O the ratio triplicate of that which BD has to FH.Def.But it was also proved that TB is to BL as PF is to FN. for they are contained by similar planes equal in multitude. V. TL is to LB as PN is to NF. hence the pyramid with base ATBUCVDW and vertex L has to the pyramid with polygonal base EPFQGRHS and vertex N the ratio triplicate of that which BD has to FH. C. But. Therefore in the triangles LTB and NPF the sides are proportional.1 XI. we can prove that each of the similarly arranged pyramids also has to each similarly arranged pyramid the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side BK has to the corresponding side FM. Therefore. S. V. and from E.9 XII. by hypothesis. ex aequali.8 V. Similarly. But similar pyramids with triangular bases are to one another in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. Therefore the pyramid with triangular base BKT and vertex L is similar to the pyramid with triangular base FMP and vertex N.Def.22 VI.16 . H. Therefore the cone with circular base ABCD and vertex L does not have to any solid less than the cone of with circular base EFGH and vertex N the ratio triplicate of that which BD has to FH. and Q to M. Therefore the triangles LTB and NPF are equiangular. and U to K. Similarly we can prove that neither has the cone EFGHN to any solid less than the cone ABCDL the ratio triplicate of that which FH has to BD. which is impossible. which BD has to FH. R. But it is also less. and setting up on each of the triangles pyramids with the same vertex as the cones. Therefore the solid O is also greater than the pyramid with polygonal base EPFQGRHS and vertex N.12 V. for it encloses it. hence they are also similar. therefore the cone with circular base ABCD and vertex L is to the solid 0 as the pyramid with polygonal base ATBUCVDW and vertex L is to the pyramid with polygonal base EPFQGRHS and vertex N. And one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as all the antecedents are to all the consequents. Therefore the pyramid BKTL has to the pyramid FMPN the ratio triplicate of that which BK has to FM. alternately the cone with circular base ABCD and vertex L is to the pyramid contained in it with polygonal base ATBUCVDW and vertex L as the solid O is to the pyramid with the polygonal base EPFQGRHS and vertex N. that is. by joining straight lines from A. therefore the pyramid BKTL is to the pyramid FMPN as the whole pyramid with polygonal base ATBUCVDW and vertex L is to the whole pyramid with polygonal base EPFQGRHS and vertex N. D. I say next that neither has the cone ABCDL to any solid greater than the cone EFGHN the ratio triplicate of that which BD has to FH. Therefore. G. W. But the said cone is greater than the pyramid in it.5 VI.

For. which doesn't depend on this one. Therefore the cone ABCDL has to the cone EFGHN the ratio triplicate of that which BD has to FH.E. Therefore the cone EFGHN also has to some solid less than the cone ABCDL the ratio triplicate of that which FH has to BD. XII. But it was proved that neither has it this ratio to a less solid than the cone EFGHN. But the solid O is to the cone ABCDL as the cone EFGHN is to some solid less than the cone ABCDL. if possible.Joyce . the solid O has to the cone ABCDL the ratio triplicate of that which FH has to BD. similar cones and cylinders are to one another in triplicate ratio of the diameters of their bases. let it have that ratio to a greater solidO.10 Therefore. Instead Euclid proves this proposition afresh in a manner like that of the previous proposition but necessarily more complicated. for the cylinder with the same base as the cone and of equal height with it is triple the cone.11 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D. Q. inversely. An alternate proof would use the previous proposition (cylinders of the same height are proportional to their bases) and XII. But the cone is to the cone as the cylinder is to the cylinder. which was proved impossible. Therefore the cylinder also has to the cylinder the ratio triplicate of that which BD has to FH. This proposition is not used in later ones. Next proposition: XII.14 (cylinders on equal bases are proportional to their heights).D. Therefore the cone ABCDL does not have to any solid greater than the cone EFGHN the ratio triplicate of that which BD has to FH. Therefore.13 Previous: XII.E.

Clark University .

RB. O. But the bases are equal. Construct the cylinder PW on the axis LM with the circles PQ and VW as bases.Proposition 13 If a cylinder is cut by a plane parallel to its opposite planes. NE. and let them produce the circles RS and TU about the centers N. the multiple the axis MK is of the axis KF is the same multiple the cylinder WG is of the cylinder GD. and the cylinders QR. therefore.11 . XII. since the axes LN. and BG also equal one another. then the cylinder is to the cylinder as the axis is to the axis. Produce the axis EF in both directions to the points L and M. RB. and BG are to one another as their bases. RB. I say that the cylinder BG is to the cylinder GD as the axis EK is to the axis KF. and any number whatever FO and OM equal to FK. therefore the cylinders QR. Let the cylinder AD be cut by the plane GH parallel to the opposite planes AB and CD. and BG also equal one another. and EK equal one another. For the same reason. the multiple the axis KL is of the axis EK is the same multiple the cylinder QG is of the cylinder GB. Then. Let the plane GH meet the axis at the point K. Since then the axes LN. NE. and the multitude of the former equals the multitude of the latter. Set out any number whatever of axes EN and NL equal to the axis EK. therefore the cylinders QR. Carry the planes through the points N and O parallel to AB and CD and to the bases of the cylinder PW. and EK equal one another.

Next proposition: XII. Therefore. Use of this proposition This proposition is preliminary to the next in which it is shown that cylinders on equal bases are proportional to their heights. and if less. It is also used in the proposition following that.E. namely the axis KM and the cylinder GW. if the axis KL is in excess of the axis KM. if the axis is greater than the axis.And.14 Previous: XII. and equimultiples of the axis KF and of the cylinder GD. Therefore the axis EK is to the axis KF as the cylinder BG is to the cylinder GD.E. if a cylinder is cut by a plane parallel to its opposite planes.D. less.12 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D. less.Joyce Clark University . if the axis KL equals the axis KM. namely the axis LK and the cylinder QG. the axes EK and KF and the cylinders BG and GD. then the cylinder is to the cylinder as the axis is to the axis. Q. there being four magnitudes. there have been taken equimultiples of the axis EK and of the V. equal.5 cylinder BG. then the cylinder is also greater than the cylinder.Def. the cylinder QG is also in excess of the cylinder GW. then the cylinder QG also equals the cylinder GW. Thus. if equal. and if less. and it has been proved that.

therefore they are to one another as their bases. therefore the cylinder CM is to the cylinder FD as the axis LN is to the axis KL. XII. cones and cylinders on equal bases are to one another as their heights.11 But the bases equal one another. And. I. Therefore. But the cylinder CM equals the cylinder EB.Proposition 14 Cones and cylinders on equal bases are to one another as their heights.D. therefore the cylinder EB is to the cylinder FD as the axis GH is to the axis KL. XII. Q. since the cylinders EB and CM are of the same height. Therefore the axis GH is to the axis KL as the cone ABG is to the cone CDK and as the cylinder EB is to the cylinder FD. But the cylinder EB is to the cylinder FD as the cone ABG is to the cone CDK.13 . make LN equal to the axis GH.3 Then.E. Let EB and FD be cylinders on equal bases.10 XII. since the cylinder FM has been cut by the plane CD parallel to its opposite planes. therefore the cylinders EB and CM are also equal. Produce the axis KL to the point N. I say that the cylinder EB is to the cylinder FD as the axis GH is to the axis KL. the circles AB and CD. and the axis LN equals the axis GH. and construct the cylinder CM about LN as the axis.

15 Previous: XII. and this proposition shows that they are proportional to their heights.Back in proposition XII.13 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D. Next proposition: XII.E. The next proposition relates the volume to the base and height in a different way by fixing the volume so that the base and height are reciprocally proportional.Joyce Clark University .11 cones and cylinders were shown to be proportional to their bases.

Let AC and EG be the diameters of the bases. Hence. and KL and MN the axes. the base ABCD is to the base EFGH as the height MN is to the height KL. therefore the base ABCD equals the base EFGH. Cut QN off the height MN equal to KL. and let MN be greater. let it be equal. Let there be equal cones and cylinders with the circular bases ABCD and EFGH.Proposition 15 In equal cones and cylinders the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. which are also the heights of the cones or cylinders Complete the cylinders AO and EP. For the height LK is either equal to the height MN or unequal.11 . that is. reciprocally. But cones and cylinders of the same height are to one another as their bases. First. and those cones and cylinders in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights are equal. XII. the base ABCD is to the base EFGH as the height MN is to the height KL. Erect the cylinder ES from the circle EFGH as base and with height NQ. let the height LK be unequal to MN. Now the cylinder AO also equals the cylinder EP. I say that in the cylinders AO and EP the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. Next. Through the point Q let the cylinder EP be cut by the plane TUS parallel to the planes of the circles EFGH and RP.

With the same construction. in equal cones and cylinders the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. since the cylinder AO equals the cylinder EP. Therefore the base ABCD is to the base EFGH as the height MN is to the height QN. and the height KL equals the height QN. V.13 V. V.D. Whenever a magnitude x is proportional to two other magnitudes y and z. it follows that when x is fixed then y and z are reciprocally proportional. for the cylinder EP is cut by a plane parallel to its opposite planes.13 V. And the height MN is to QN as the cylinder EP is to the cylinder ES. The remaining three .11 have the same height.11 XII.11 therefore the cylinder AO is to the cylinder ES as the cylinder EP is to the cylinder ES. Therefore the cylinder AO equals the cylinder EP. Therefore in the cylinders AO and EP the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. This proof of this proposition applies to a more general situation than cones and cylinders. for they XII. XII. so let the height MN be to the height KL. that is.10 Therefore. I say that the cylinder AO equals the cylinder EP. This proposition completes the theory of the volumes of cones and cylinders.E.9 XII. and those cones and cylinders in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights are equal. therefore the base ABCD is to the base EFGH as the height MN is to the height KL. But the cylinder AO is to the cylinder ES as the base ABCD is to the base EFGH. since the base ABCD is to the base EFGH as the height MN is to the height KL.Now. therefore the base ABCD is to the base EFGH as the height MN is to the height QN.11 Next. And the same is true for the cones also. But the height QN equals the height KL. as the base ABCD is to the base EFGH. that is to say when y is fixed then x is proportional to z and when x is fixed then y is proportional to z. Q.7 XII. in the cylinders AO and EP let the bases be reciprocally proportional to the heights. therefore the cylinder AO is to the cylinder ES as the cylinder EP is to the cylinder ES. for the cylinders AO and ES are of the same height. And the cylinder EP is to the cylinder ES as the height MN is to the height QN. But the base ABCD is to the base EFGH as the cylinder AO is to the cylinder ES.

14 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D.Joyce Clark University . Next proposition: XII.E.propositions in this book concern the volume of spheres.16 Previous: XII.

Draw the straight line BKD through the center K. since LN is parallel to AC. then. Therefore LD and DN are far from touching the circle EFGH. Therefore AC touches the circle EFGH. we fit into the circle ABCD straight lines equal to the straight line LD and placed repeatedly.Cor X. Now. Draw LM from L perpendicular to BD. to inscribe in the greater circle an equilateral polygon with an even number of sides which does not touch the lesser circle. Let ABCD and EFGH be the two given circles about the same center K. and carry it through to N.3 I.F. therefore LN does not touch the circle EFGH. bisecting the circumference BAD.11 III. and draw GA from the point G at right angles to the straight line BD. Join LD and DN. I. Therefore LD equals DN. and carry it through to C. then there is inscribed in the circle ABCD an equilateral polygon with an even number of sides which does not touch the lesser circle EFGH. and let it be LD. Let such be left. and doing this repeatedly. If. we shall leave a circumference less than AD.12 III.1 .E. and AC touches the circle EFGH.Proposition 16 Given two circles about the same center.4 I. bisecting the half of it. Then. Q.16. It is required to inscribe in the greater circle ABCD an equilateral polygon with an even number of sides which does not touch the circle EFGH.

16.17 Previous: XII. which again this construction satisfies.Joyce Clark University . Next proposition: XII. Furthermore.The purpose of this construction is to separate the two concentric circles by a polygon so that a threedimensional construction can be made in the next proposition to separate two concentric spheres. the next proposition requires not just that the polygon not touch the inner circle. which conveniently this construction generates. This construction will actually generate a polygon whose number of sides is a power of 2 such as 8. but a multiple of 4.15 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D.E. The next proposition requires a polygon where the number of sides is not just even. but the chords joining alternate vertices also not touch the inner circle. etc. 32.

for as a sphere is produced by the diameter remaining fixed and the semicircle being carried XI. It is required to inscribe in the greater sphere a polyhedral solid which does not touch the lesser sphere at its surface.Proposition 17 Given two spheres about the same center. is greater than all the straight lines drawn across in the circle or the sphere. to inscribe in the greater sphere a polyhedral solid which does not touch the lesser sphere at its surface.14 round it. the plane carried through it produces a circle on the circumference of the sphere.Def. in whatever position we conceive the semicircle to be. which is of course the diameter both of the semicircle and of the circle. for the diameter of the sphere. hence. Then the sections are circles. Cut the spheres by any plane through the center. Let there be two spheres about the same center A. And it is clear that this circle is the greatest possible. .

12 XI. therefore all the planes through OA are also at right angles to the plane of the circle BCDE. And.11 cf.11 XII. PQ. therefore PV is parallel to SW. at right angles to one another.Def. and WV is parallel to KB.33 XI. since the semicircles BED. equal straight lines BP and KS have been cut off. and join WV. and KO equal one another. BD and CE.2 XI. ST. given the two circles BCDE and FGH about the same center. and ME be its sides in the quadrant BE. therefore WV and SP are equal and parallel.4 III. and ME as there are sides of the polygon in the quadrant BE. and the perpendiculars PV and SW have been drawn. KL. inscribe in the greater circle BCDE an equilateral polygon with an even number of sides which does not touch the lesser circle FGH.26 VI.1 XI. And. and KON are equal. therefore PV equals SW. therefore SP is also parallel to KB. But it was also proved equal to it. LM. Carry planes through AO and each of the straight lines BD and KN. since each of the straight lines PV and SW is at right angles to the plane of the circle BCDE. Let them so fall as PV and SW. Set AO up from the point A at right angles to the plane of the circle BCDE.16 XI. Therefore WV is parallel to KB. Therefore there are as many straight lines in the quadrants BO and KO equal to the straight lines BK. and UO. and in them let BOD and KON be the semicircles on BD and KN. Now. Then. for they are on equal diameters BD and KN. They make the greatest circles on the surface of the sphere for the reason stated. Now since.XI. Let BK. Hence the semicircles BOD and KON are also at right angles to the plane of the circle BCDE.18 IV. These will fall on BD and KN.Let then BCDE be the circle in the greater sphere. UR. Therefore BV is to VA as KW is to WA. And. and BV equals KW. and FGH the circle in the lesser sphere. LM. therefore the remainder VA also equals the remainder WA. and draw perpendiculars from P and S to the plane of the circle BCDE. TU. Join KA and carry it through to N. and let it meet the surface of the sphere atO.6 I. Let them make such. therefore the quadrants BE.9 . for the planes of BOD and KON are also at right angles to the plane of the circle BCDE. TQ. BO. I. Inscribe them as BP. QR. BOD. the common sections of the planes.27 I. and RO and as KS. since WV is parallel to SP. in the equal semicircles BOD and KON. since OA is at right angles to the plane of the circle BCDE. But the whole BA also equals the whole KA. Join SP. Draw two diameters in them. KL.

and the others corresponding to them.7 XI. since AX is at right angles to the plane of the quadrilateral KBPS. and BX is the radius of the circle. Therefore the sum of the squares on AX and XB equals the sum of the squares on AX and XK. and KS are equal. then the straight line joining the points is in the same plane with the parallels. in the case of the remaining three quadrants. XI. S.11 XI. T. If then we join straight lines from the points P. But the triangle URO is also in one plane. R.2 XI. if we make the same construction in the case of each of the sides KL. therefore it is also at right angles to all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane of the quadrilateral. Subtract the square on AX from each. for if two straight lines are parallel. and KBPS is a quadrilateral in a circle. the square on BX. therefore the square on AB equals the square on AK. equals the remainder. since AB equals AK. Draw AX from the point A perpendicular to the plane of the quadrilateral KBPS. But KB equals each of the straight lines KS and BP. therefore the remainder. since KB is greater than WV. Therefore AX is at right angles to each of the straight lines BX and XK. Q. and ME as in the case of BK. BP. therefore each of the straight lines KS and BP is greater than SP. and U to A. SPQT. Join XB and XK. Therefore the circle with center X and radius on of the straight lines XB or XK passes through P and S also. Therefore BX equals XK. LM. and KB. since KBPS is a quadrilateral in a circle.And BP and KS join their ends. the square on XK. and TQRU and the triangle URO are the bases and the point A is the vertex. Now.Def.3 I. and WV equals SP. And. And. I say that the said polyhedron does not touch the lesser sphere at the surface on which the circle FGH is. Similarly we can prove that the straight lines joined from X to P and S are equal to each of the straight lines BX and XK. of which the said quadrilaterals and the triangle URO. and PS less. and points are taken at random on each of them. And the sum of the squares on AX and XB equals the square on AB. for the angle at X is right. are the bases and the point A is the vertex. Then. And. therefore the quadrilateral KBPS is in one plane. and the sum of the squares on AX and XK equals the square on AK. therefore KB is greater than SP. For the same reason each of the quadrilaterals SPQT and TQRU is also in one plane. then there will be constructed a certain polyhedral solid figure between the circumferences BO and KO consisting of pyramids of which the quadrilaterals KBPS. and let it meet the plane at the point X. then there will be constructed a certain polyhedral figure inscribed in the sphere and contained by pyramids. and further.47 . therefore the square on KB is greater than double the square on BX.

a polyhedral solid has been inscribed in the greater sphere which does not touch the lesser sphere at its surface. the solids being divided into their pyramids similar in multitude and arrangement. therefore the square on BA equals the square on AK. and AG on the surface of the lesser sphere. But similar pyramids are to one another in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. and the sum of the squares on KZ and ZA equals the square on KA. I. given two spheres about the same center. since BD is less than double DZ.46 III. Therefore the square on KB is less than double the square on KZ. then the rectangle DB by BZ equals the square on BK.Draw KZ from K perpendicular to BV. and of these the square on KZ I. then the polyhedral solid in the sphere BCDE has to the polyhedral solid in the other sphere the ratio triplicate of that which the diameter of the sphere BCDE has to the diameter of the other sphere.18. Therefore. Therefore AX is greater than AZ. is less than the square on XA. hence the polyhedron does not touch the lesser sphere on its surface. the pyramids will be similar. And AX is the perpendicular on one base of the polyhedron. and the rectangle DZ by ZB equals the square on KZ. therefore the pyramid with the quadrilateral base KBPS and the vertex A has to the similarly arranged pyramid in the other sphere the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. therefore the square on KZ is greater than the square on BX. Therefore AX is much greater than AG. Then. and BD is to DZ as the rectangle DB by BZ is to the rectangle DZ by ZB. since BA equals KA.47 is greater than the square on BX. of that which the radius AB of the sphere about A as center has to the radius of the other sphere.Cor And the sum of the squares on BX and XA equals the square on BA. And. XII. . And.31 VI. Similarly each pyramid of those in the sphere about A as center has to each similarly arranged pyramid of those in the other sphere the ratio triplicate of that which AB has to the radius of the other sphere. But the square on KB is greater than double the square on BX. then the rectangle DB by BZ is also less than double the rectangle DZ by ZB. if KD is joined. But if in another sphere a polyhedral solid is inscribed similar to the solid in the sphere BCDE. the square on ZA. that is. therefore if a square is described on BZ and the parallelogram on ZD is completed. Corollary.18. therefore the remainder. For.12 I.Cor. therefore the sum of the squares on BX and XA equals the sum of the squares on KZ and ZA.

And one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as all the antecedents are to all the consequents.E. The argument that the intersection of a sphere and a plane through its center is a circle is weak.E. Q.F. of that which the diameter BD has to the diameter of the other sphere. Even the very concept of rotation about an axis has not been formalized. hence the whole polyhedral solid in the sphere about A as center has to the whole polyhedral solid in the other sphere the ratio triplicate of that which AB has to the radius of the other sphere.18 Previous: XII. V. Next proposition: XII.18 that spheres are to each other in triplicate ratios of their diameters.12 The purpose of this proposition and its corollary is to separate concentric spheres so that it can be proved in the next proposition XII.Joyce Clark University . It has not been shown that the sphere is generated by taking any of its diameters and rotating a semicircle on that diameter about the diameter.16 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D. that is.

then the sphere ABC has either to some less sphere than the sphere DEF.17 Also inscribe in the sphere ABC a polyhedral solid similar to the polyhedral solid in the sphere DEF. For. First. if the sphere ABC has not to the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF.17. Let DEF be about the same center with GHK. XII. and let BC and EF be their diameters. let it have that ratio to a less sphere GHK. Therefore the polyhedral solid in ABC has to the polyhedral solid in XII. DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. I say that the sphere ABC has to the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF.Cor.Proposition 18 Spheres are to one another in triplicate ratio of their respective diameters. . Inscribe in the greater sphere DEF a polyhedral solid which does not touch the lesser sphere GHK at its surface. or to a greater. Let the ABC and DEF be spheres.

alternately the sphere ABC is to the polyhedron in it as the sphere GHK is to the polyhedral solid in the sphere DEF. But the sphere ABC is greater than the polyhedron in it.Lemma as the sphere DEF is to some less sphere than the sphere ABC. Therefore. therefore the sphere GHK is also greater than the polyhedron in the sphere DEF. LMN. which was proved impossible.14 But. For. let it have that ratio to a greater. But it was proved that neither has it that ratio to a less sphere. for it is enclosed by it. Similarly we can prove that neither has the sphere DEF to a less sphere than the sphere ABC the ratio triplicate of that which EF has to BC. as was before proved. Therefore the sphere ABC has not to a less sphere than the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which the diameter BC has to EF. Therefore the sphere ABC has not to any sphere greater than the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. Therefore. therefore the sphere LMN is to the sphere ABC XII.E. therefore the sphere ABC is to the sphere GHK as the polyhedral solid in the sphere ABC is to the polyhedral solid in the sphere DEF. V. Therefore the sphere DEF also has to some less sphere than the sphere ABC the ratio triplicate of that which EF has to BC. inversely. The arguments given in this proof are fairly convincing that any two similar solids are to each other . Although this is an important proposition. Therefore the sphere ABC has to the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF.But the sphere ABC also has to the sphere GHK the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. and. if possible. it is just the beginning of the study of volumes of spheres. the sphere LMN has to the sphere ABC the ratio triplicate of that which the diameter EF has to the diameter BC. I say next that neither has the sphere ABC to any greater sphere than the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. since LMN is greater than DEF. But it is also less. Q.2. spheres are to one another in triplicate ratio of their respective diameters.D.16 V. This proposition completes Book XII.

In the century after Euclid. then the volume of a cylinder of radius r and height h is pi r2h. Next book: Book XIII Previous: XII.17 Book XII introduction Select from Book XII Select book Select topic © 1997 D.in triplicate ratio of their linear parts. cylinders. One difficulty is defining just what similar solids are. if we let pi stand for the ratio of a circle to the square on its radius.Joyce Clark University . He showed that the ratio of the sphere to the cylinder is 4:3. the volume of an inscribed cone is pi r2h/3. Since the volume of the cylinder is proportional to its base and its height. In algebraic terms.E. and cones can be found in terms of areas of circles. and the volume of a sphere of radius r is 4 pi r3/3. The volume of a sphere Euclid proved in proposition XII. it follows that the volumes of spheres.10 that the cone with the same base and height as a cylinder was one third of the cylinder. Archimedes solved this problem as well as the much more difficult problem of the surface area of a sphere. but he could not find the ratio of a sphere to the circumscribed cylinder.

and definitions I.Def.16). icosahedra (XI.Def.3 for a line and its ends.24 and the following propositions).6 for a surface and its edges.Def. A solid is that which has length.Def.17 and XII. XIII.17.Def. XII.Def.18).24.Def.Def. prisms (XI.15).17).Def.Def. pyramids (XI.10 and the following propositions).5 and I. XIII. cubes (XI.Joyce Clark University .26. 2.12. octahedra (XI. breadth.14).25.39). The 28 definitions at the beginning of Book XI serve Books XII and XIII as well. XII. Def. XIII. A face of a solid is a surface. 1.E.3-5 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1998 D.14 through XI.18 through XI. spheres (XI. The first two definitions correspond to definitions I.3 and the following propositions).Def.Def. XIII.Def.Def.Definitions 1 and 2 Def. Next definition: XI. Some examples of solids that appear in Books XI through XII are parallelepipedal solids (see proposition XI.Def.27. cones and cylinders (XI. and dodecahedra (XI.2 and I.28. and propositions XII.13 and proposition XI. and depth.

This requires that there is a line at right angles .2. Def. and a straight line joined from the point thus arising to the end of the straight line which is in the plane.4 states that it is only necessary that a straight line be at right angles to two lines in the plane in order that it be at right angles to all the rest. a statement that is supposedly verified in proposition XI. 3. a statement that is supposedly verified in proposition XI. A plane is at right angles to a plane when the straight lines drawn in one of the planes at right angles to the intersection of the planes are at right angles to the remaining plane. that two intersecting lines lie in a plane. It is developed and used in many propositions in Book XI. There is also an implicit assumption in definition 4.18 which states that if one straight line drawn in one of the planes is at right angles to the other plane. the angle contained by the straight line so drawn and the straight line standing up. Although definition 3 states that a line needs to be at right angles with all of the straight lines which meet it and lie in the plane.4. proposition XI.3. then the two planes are at perpendicular. Def. assuming a perpendicular drawn from the end of the straight line which is elevated above the plane to the plane. The concept of a line being perpendicular to a plane is central to solid geometry. namely that the intersection of the two planes is a straight line. The concept of two lines making a right angle assumes that the two sides of the angles lie in one plane. Definition 5 is meant to define the inclination (angle) between a line and a plane as the angle between that line and the projection of it in the plane. A straight line is at right angles to a plane when it makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane. 5. There is an implicit assumption in definition 3 as it speaks of a straight line making right angles with straight lines which meet it and are in the plane.Definitions 3 through 5 Def. starting with XI. The inclination of a straight line to a plane is. The concept of planes perpendicular to planes first appears inproposition XI. 4. that is.

E. Next defintion: XI.Def.11.Def.1-2 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1998.to a plane from a point not on the plane which is assured by proposition XI. 2002 D. It also requires that the angle constructed in the definition is independent of the construction.6-8 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University .

so does definition 6. by this definition. 8.9-10 Previous: XI. The first appearance of parallel planes is in proposition XI. 7.3 proclaims that this intersection is a straight line.3-5 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic . Def. There is no proposition in Book XI which states that parallelism of planes is a transitive relation. Proposition XI.Def.23 for parallel lines in a plane. It assumes that any two such acute angles are equal.14.Def. but that would be when they don't meet. but that is not difficult to prove given the rest of the propositions in the book.Definitions 6 through 8 Def. Def. Parallel planes are those which do not meet. 6. A plane is said to be similarly inclined to a plane as another is to another when the said angles of the inclinations equal one another. When two planes are not parallel. then. Next defintion: XI. something Euclid does not prove but could have in the course of Book XI. The inclination of a plane to a plane is the acute angle contained by the straight lines drawn at right angles to the intersection at the same point. one in each of the planes. Definition 8 is analogous to definition I. Note that it is not defined when a line is parallel to a plane. As the previous definition requires certain assumptions. they intersect.

E. 2002 D.Joyce Clark University .© 1998.

equal in number and magnitude. 9. The resulting solids both have four remaining square faces and eight new triangular faces. . Different solid figures can sometimes be constructed with the same faces but with different adjacencies. there are two distinct ways to attach two pyramids to two of the square faces of a cube. 10.Def. "those which are contained by equal and similarly situated planes.Definitions 9 and 10 Def. Similar solid figures are those contained by similar planes equal in multitude. Def.1 for similar rectilinear figures. but that could not be done for plane figures before Book VI where similarity of plane figures was defined. This notion of similar solid figures assumes a correspondence of of adjacent edges and faces. definition 10 describes what is commonly called "congruent" solid figures. They could be attached to opposite faces of the cube or to adjacent faces of the cube. For example. Equal and similar solid figures are those contained by similar planes equal in multitude and magnitude." is a bit more explicit than Euclid's. While definition 9 defines similar solid figures. but the positioning of the squares and triangles is different. Euclid uses "equal and similar" plane figures for "congruent" plane figures in these later books. These definitions are incomplete as was VI. Heron's definition of similar solid figures. The notion of similarity for plane figures implicitly assumed a correspondence of consecutive vertices and sides.

6-8 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1998 D. Next defintion: XI.Joyce Clark University . or conditions on distances between all corresponding pairs of vertices. To eliminate this problem. The resulting two solids both have five square faces and four triangular faces. and the adjacencies are the same. further conditions must be made on the definition of similar solids.11 Previous: XI. For instance. problems that Simson noticed.Def. and second subtract the same pyramid from the inside of a square face. but they are very different solids.It is also apparent that Euclid did not consider the possibility of concave solids and the problems they cause his definition.E. Take a cube and first add a pyramid on the outside of one square face.Def. conditions on dihedral angles between faces.

and the surfaces are not specified as being planes. ACD. may well be an oversight.Definition 11 A solid angle is the inclination constituted by more than two lines which meet one another and are not in the same surface.12-13 Previous: XI0. The difference. The solid angle at A is bounded by the three planes ABC. In the second the surfaces are specified as being planes. towards all the lines. Pyramids are defined in definition XI. and ADB. In the first the lines mentioned are not specified as being straight.9-10 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic . The two definitions given here for solid angle are not strictly equivalent.Def. a solid angle is that which is contained by more than two plane angles which are not in the same plane and are constructed to one point. A solid angle is intended to be bounded by three or more planes meeting at a point.3). however. the lines must be straight.12 coming next. that is.Def. The figure ABCD is a triangular pyramid. Next definition: XI.Def. and since planes meet in straight lines (XI.

E.© 1998 D.Joyce Clark University .

Since it's a tetrahedron. but the intention is clear.39.3 through XII. In the diagram below. EFGHKL is a prism with opposite triangular sides EFG and HKL. are equal. Also. Pyramids are treated in propositions XII. ABCD is a pyramid with vertex D and triangular base ABC. Note that in definition 13 the term "equal and similar" is used for congruence of plane figures. similar. 13. Prisms. A prism is a solid figure contained by planes two of which.9 in Book XII. namely those which are opposite. by that name. are first discussed in proposition XI. Def.Definitions12 and 13 Def. Definition 12 for pyramids is rather abbreviated. A pyramid is a solid figure contained by planes which is constructed from one plane to one point. 12. it's still a triangular pyramid when any of the other three sides is considered the base. . and parallel. while the rest are parallelograms.

Next definition: XI.Def.Joyce Clark University .14-17 Previous: XI.11 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1998 D.E.Def.

(Any point on the surface of the sphere is a point on the circumference of one of the rotated semicircles.18 and cylinder in XI. was not his goal. to be analogous to the definitions of cone in XI.Definitions 14 through 17 Def. When a semicircle with fixed diameter is carried round and restored again to the same position from which it began to be moved. the figure so comprehended is a sphere. The axis of the sphere is the straight line which remains fixed and about which the semicircle is turned. but that. 14. that is. 16.Def. apparently. and all the points on any of these semicircles are equidistant from the center of the semicircles. perhaps. There are alternative definitions for a sphere. Another book would probably be required to develop the theory of spheres to the degree that Euclid developed the theory of circles in Book III. 15. Def. The lack of propositions is so severe that it is not even shown that any two points on the surface of a sphere are equidistant from the center.Def. solids generated by rotating a plane figure around a straight line called the axis of revolution. These are all defined as solids of revolution. A diameter of the sphere is any straight line drawn through the center and terminated in both directions by the surface of the sphere. but Euclid chose this one.22. The center of the sphere is the same as that of the semicircle. Def. Def.) . 17.

For instance.Joyce Clark University . Proposition XII.E. Next definition: XI.18 on the ratio of volumes of spheres. but a justification is lacking. There are very few propositions about spheres in the Elements.Def. then the line EF is a diameter of the sphere.17 it is claimed that the the intersection of a plane and a sphere is a circle.In the illustration at the right there is a semicircle ADB with center C and diameter AB in a plane.Def. regular polyhedra are inscribed in spheres in Book XIII With so few propositions there are gaps in the proofs. 2002 D.17 allows a kind of approximation of spheres by polyhedra preliminary to proposition XII. a sphere results. The sphere's axis is AB.18-20 Previous: XI. and its center is C.12-13 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1998. in XII. If E is any point on the sphere and F the antipodal point. Also. When the semicircle is revolved around AB.

The right triangle ABC with right angle at A is rotated about the side AC to produce a cone. The axis of the cone is AC. The axis of the cone is the straight line which remains fixed and about which the triangle is turned. and when obtuse-angle. so. And the base is the circle described by the straight line which is carried round. but they were important in the theory of conic sections until Apollonius' work Conics." It was Apollonius who named them ellipse. the cone will be right-angled. And. obtuseangled. if the straight line which remains fixed equals the remaining side about the right angle which is carried round.Definitions 18 through 20 Def. a parabola. for instance. if less. Def. a hyperbola. 19. When a right triangle with one side of those about the right angle remains fixed is carried round and restored again to the same position from which it began to be moved. parabola. and its base is the circle with center at A and radius AB. . Def. 20. Euclid knew a parabola as a "section of a rightangled cone. When the cone is acute-angled. The three different kinds of cone are not used by Euclid in the Elements. the section is an ellipse. 18. the figure so comprehended is a cone. and hyperbola. acute-angled. when right-angled. Even the names of these three curves were given by the kind of angle. In Euclid's time conic sections were taken as the intersections of a plane at right angles to an edge (straight line from the vertex) of a cone. and if greater.

Next definition: XI.21-23 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University .Def.E.14-17 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1998 D.Def.

circular cylinders since their axes are at right angles to their bases and their bases are circles.24 Previous: XI. Def.18-20 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic . And the bases are the circles described by the two sides opposite to one another which are carried round. When a rectangular parallelogram with one side of those about the right angle remains fixed is carried round and restored again to the same position from which it began to be moved. Def. Next definition: XI. the figure so comprehended is a cylinder.Def. Rectangle ABEC is rotated around the side AC to produce a cylinder. The axis of the cylinder is the straight line which remains fixed and about which the parallelogram is turned. The concept of cylinder has been generalized since Euclid's time as have so many ancient mathematical concepts. Its axis is AC and it has two circles for bases.Def. 21. Euclid's cylinders are right. 23. 22.Definitions 21 through 23 Def.

© 1998 D.Joyce Clark University .E.

Joyce . Likewise. Two cones are similar if the axis of the first is to the axis of the second as the base diameter of the first is to the base diameter of the second.E. It can be shown that an equivalent condition is that the vertex angles of the cones are equal. all right-angled cones are similar.25-28 Previous: XI.Def. two cylinders are similar if the axis of the first is to the axis of the second as the base diameter of the first is to the base diameter of the second.21-23 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1998 D. Thus.Def. Next defintion: XI.Definition 24 Similar cones and cylinders are those in which the axes and the diameters of the bases are proportional.

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27. The tetrahedron is not mentioned here since it is a certain triangular pyramid. An octahedron is a solid figure contained by eight equal and equilateral triangles. 26. equilateral and equiangular pentagons. the octahedron in XIII.13.Definitions 25 through 28 Def. A dodecahedron is a solid figure contained by twelve equal.15. Def. the cube in XIII. the . The regular tetrahedron is constructed in proposition XIII. 25. 28. Def. A cube is a solid figure contained by six equal squares. These are four of the five regular solids.14. It's called simply the "pyramid" in Book XIII. An icosahedron is a solid figure contained by twenty equal and equilateral triangles. Def.

Joyce Clark University .17.24 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1998 D.16.E.Def. These five are shown to be the only regular solids in proposition XIII.18. Next proposition: XI.icosahedron in XIII.1 Previous: XI. and the dodecahedron in XIII.

Use of this proposition .Proposition 1 A part of a straight line cannot be in the plane of reference and a part in plane more elevated. The last statement about unequal circumferences is incomprehensible. and a part BC be in a plane more elevated. the same radius AB. since. if possible. In space there are infinitely many circles that have the same center B. "to describe a circle with any center and radius. Then there is in the plane of reference some straight line continuous with AB in a straight line. which is impossible. this possibility of many circles with with same diameter was used to define a sphere in definition XI. Without any postulates for nonplanar geometry it is impossible for solid geometry to get off the ground. so is the statement of it. Let it be BD.3. The postulates in Book I apparently refer to an ambient plane. and even contain the point A. a part of a straight line cannot be in the plane of reference and a part in plane more elevated. Therefore. The proof of this proposition is unclear for more than one reason. Not only is the proof of this proposition unclear. a plane has to be specified in which to describe the circle. let a part AB of the straight line ABC be in the plane of reference. D." and Post.14.5 (which refers to interior angles when one line crosses two others) do. Q.Def. then all of it does? At least that would be a meaningful statement. Indeed. Therefore AB is a common segment of the two straight lines ABC and ABD. The meaning of the "plane of reference" and the role it is to play in solid geometry are unclear. Before a circle with center B and radius AB can be described. For. Certainly Post. then the diameters cut off unequal circumferences of the circle. The problem is that there are no postulates for solid geometry. E. Is the intent of the statement that if part of a line lies in a plane. if we describe a circle with center B and radius AB.

E.2 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University . Next proposition: XI.Def. 2002 D.25-28 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997.This proposition is used in the proof of the next one as well as others in the last three books of the Elements.

then a part also of one of the straight lines EC or EB is in the plane of reference. D. But. which was proved absurd. and in whatever plane each of the straight lines EC and EB lies. and the rest in another. For let the two straight lines AB and CD cut one another at the point E. and draw FH and GK across. in whatever plane the triangle ECB lies.1 Therefore. if the part FCBG of the triangle ECB is in the plane of reference. I say that AB and CD lie in one plane. For. and every triangle lies in one plane. Q. and every triangle lies in one plane. But. AB and CD also lie. then a part also of both the straight lines EC and EB is in the plane of reference and a part in another. Therefore the triangle ECB lies in one plane. then they lie in one plane. either FHC or GBK. if part of the triangle ECB. I say first that the triangle ECB lies in one plane.1 XI.Proposition 2 If two straight lines cut one another. each of the straight lines EC and EB also lies. and the rest in another. if two straight lines cut one another. then they lie in one plane. join CB and FG. Take the points F and G at random on EC and EB. and every triangle lies in one plane. is in the plane of reference. and that every triangle lies in one plane. E. and a part in another. . Therefore the straight lines AB and CD lie in one plane. XI.

any previously conceived plane would be irrelevant to them. Yet the proof fails to produce any plane at all. XI. One could state that three noncollinear points determine a plane.E.The goal of the proof in this proposition is to produce a plane for the two lines AB and CD to lie in. Postulates of some sort are needed to justify the existance of planes. but there is no reference as no planes have been mentioned.4. Next proposition: XI.Joyce Clark University .6. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proofs of propositions XI.17.3 Previous: XI. 2002 D. and XII. As the two lines AB and CD could be placed anywhere in space.1 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997. Near the beginning is the phrase "the plane of reference" occurs. Another might be that there are four noncoplanar points.

Postulate I (from Book I) states that a straight line can be drawn from any point to any point. E. the statement that two straight lines cannot enclose an area did not appear in the original elements. At most it shows that if two planes intersect at more than one point. For. Therefore DEB and DFB are not straight lines.Proposition 3 If two planes cut one another. and let the line DB be their intersection. I say that the line DB is a straight line. It seems to be interpreted as saying that for any plane from any point in that plane to any point in that plane a straight line in that plane can be drawn. so it is unclear that they enclose an area. and the straight line DFB in the plane BC. Then the two straight lines DEB and DFB have the same ends and clearly enclose an area. The proof of this proposition has some flaws. Next it is stated that the lines in those two planes "clearly enclose an area. if not. Let two planes AB and BC cut one another. Q. although it was later appended to Post. Similarly we can prove that neither is there any other straight line joined from D to B except DB. then their intersection is a straight line. which is absurd. which is absurd.1. then the line that joins them also lies in . if two planes cut one another. the intersection of the planes AB and BC. Furthermore. Therefore. D. join the straight line DEB from D to B in the plane AB." But the two lines do not lie in the same plane. A more serious criticism of the proof is that it fails to prove the statement of the proposition. then their intersection is a straight line.

Joyce Clark University . But the possibility that their intersection consists of only one point is ignored.4 Previous: XI.their intersection. For instance. Next proposition: XI. There are alternative postulates to limit the geometry to three dimensions. Neither Euclid nor anyone else before the nineteenth century recognized the possibility of higher dimensional geometry. Use of this proposition This proposition is used frequently. first in the proof of XI. In four or or more dimensions two planes may intersect in only one point.5. a line of intersection is generated. one is based on the idea that a plane divides space into two sides.E.2 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997. The real problem is that there is no postulate limiting space to three dimensions.5 from two planes known to intersect at one point. but the flaws in this proof are apparent nonetheless. This is important as this proposition is used in XI. 1998 D.

FD. But the angle AEG also equals the angle BEH. . Cut off AE. that is. FC equals FD. FG.15 I.4 equals the base FB. and FB from a point F taken at random on EF. then it is also at right angles to the plane passing through them. since AE equals EB. and AG equals BH. since the two straight lines AE and ED equal the two straight lines CE and EB and contain equal angles. For let a straight line EF be set up at right angles to the two straight lines AB and CD at E. therefore AGE and BEH are two triangles which have two angles equal to two angles respectively.2 I. and the triangle AED equals the triangle CEB. and ED equal to one another.26 And. AE equals EB. namely that adjacent to the equal angles. therefore the base AD equals the base CB. therefore the base FA I. I. so that the angle DAE equals the angle EBC. and one side equal to one side. while FE is common and at right angles.Proposition 4 If a straight line is set up at right angles to two straight lines which cut one another at their common point of section. CE. Therefore they also have the remaining sides equals to the remaining sides. XI. FH. EB. Draw any straight line GEH across through E at random. the point at which the lines cut one another. FC. For the same reason. I say that EF is also at right angles to the plane passing through AB and CD.4 I.15 I. that is to say. and join FA. GE equals EH.3 Now. Join AD and CB.

since AD equals CB. Then. After the preceding three dubious proofs. D.2 again.8 This proposition says that if a line passing through a point is perpendicular to two other lines passing through that point. and further. since GE was proved equal to EH. the lines AD and BC lie in this plane. XI. Similarly we can prove that FE also makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane of reference. the two sides FA and AG equal the two sides FB and BH. E. and the base FG equals the base FH. therefore FE is at right angles to the plane of reference.3 I. and EF is common. . Therefore FE is at right angles to the plane through AB and CD. And since. Therefore if a straight line is set up at right angles to two straight lines which cut one another at their common point of section. the two sides FA and AD equal the two sides FB and BC respectively. Therefore FE is at right angles to GH drawn at random through E. But a straight line is at right angles to a plane when it makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and are in that same plane. and the base FD was proved equal to the the base FC. Therefore each of the angles GEF and HEF is right. and the angle FAG was proved equal to the angle FBH. this one is a relief. It is a little long.4 I.8 therefore the angle FAD also equals the angle FBC. I.2 is needed to conclude that the two lines AB and CD determine a plane. Again. therefore the base FG equals the base FH. but it is clear. Q. and FA also equals FB. then it is perpendicular to all the lines which pass through that point and which lie in the plane of those two other lines.Def. proposition XI. then it is also at right angles to the plane passing through them. Near the beginning of the proof. Use of this proposition This proposition is used frequently starting with the proof of the next proposition. But the plane of reference is the plane through the straight lines AB and CD. The line GH is to be any line that passes through E and lies in that plane. the two sides GE and EF equal the two sides HE and EF. again. by XI. therefore the angle GEF equals the angle HEF. AG was proved equal to BH.And. FA also equal to FB.

5 Previous: XI.E.Joyce Clark University .3 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997. 2002 D.Next proposition: XI.

if possible. For suppose that they do not. Therefore the three straight lines AB.3 in one more elevated. meets it. But the plane through BD and BE is the plane of reference. and BE lie in one plane. since AB is at right angles to each of the straight lines BD and BE. Therefore the three straight lines BC. I say that BC. BC. therefore the angle ABF is right. therefore AB is also at right angles to the plane through BD and BE. BD. which is impossible. BD. Let a straight line AB be set up at right angles to the three straight lines BC. Therefore. Produce the plane through AB and BC. therefore the angle ABF equals the angle ABC. It intersects the plane of reference in a straight line. BC. Thus AB also makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and lie in the plane of reference. if a straight line is set up at right angles to three straight lines which meet one another at their common point of section. XI. But BF. Now. but. and BE lie in one plane. by hypothesis. therefore AB is at right angles to the plane of reference. namely that drawn through AB and BC. and BE at their intersection B. Q. which is the plane of reference. And.3 XI.4 . Let the intersection be BF. and BF lie in one plane. then the three straight lines lie in one plane. E. let BD and BE lie in the plane of reference and BC XI. D. and they lie in one plane. then the three straight lines lie in one plane.Proposition 5 If a straight line is set up at right angles to three straight lines which meet one another at their common point of section.Def. Therefore the straight line BC is not in a more elevated plane. the angle ABC is also right.

Joyce Clark University . Next proposition: XI.This proposition is used in the proof of the next.6 Previous: XI.E.4 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.

Draw DE in the plane of reference at right angles to BD. Therefore ED is at right angles to DA. since AB is at right angles to the plane of reference. the two sides AB and BE equal the two sides ED and DA. Therefore the three straight lines BD.5 I.8 . it also makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and lie in the plane of reference.Def. I.Proposition 6 If two straight lines are at right angles to the same plane. and DC lie in one plane. And they include right angles. and make DE equal to AB. But the angle ABE is right.11 I. Let them meet the plane of reference at the points B and D. For the same reason each of the angles CDB and CDE is also right. therefore the angle EDA is also right. DA. I say that AB is parallel to CD.3 Now. therefore ED is set up at right angles to the three straight lines BD. Let the two straight lines AB and CD be at right angles to the plane of reference. therefore the base AD equals the base BE And.4 I. and AE is their common base. therefore the two sides AB and BD equal the two sides ED and DB. therefore the angle ABE equals the angle EDA. But it is also at right angles to each of the straight lines BD and DC. therefore each of the angles ABD and ABE is right. DA. And since AB equals DE. then the straight lines are parallel. XI. and DC at their intersection.3 But each of the straight lines BD and BE lies in the plane of reference and meets AB. and BD is common. Join the straight line BD. XI. since AB equals DE while AD equals BE.

17. for every triangle lies in one plane.D. should preceed this one. and DC lie in one plane. A converse of this proposition is XI. Next proposition: XI. XIII. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proofs of propositions XII.16.But in whatever plane DB and DA lie. and XIII.2 I.Joyce Clark University . AB also lies.5 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. And each of the angles ABD and BDC is right. XI. Indeed.17.E. therefore. then the straight lines are parallel.E. Euclid does not consider the possibility that the two lines meet the plane at one point. Q.28 Therefore.8. BD.7 Previous: XI.13 which. Therefore the straight lines AB. if two straight lines are at right angles to the same plane. that is the statement of proposition XI. therefore AB is parallel to CD. but that possibility can easily be eliminated.

7 of a plane (it lies evenly with the straight lines on itself) does not mean that if two points lie in a plane. If it did. then the straight line joining the points is in the same plane with the parallel straight lines. if possible. Q. Therefore. which is impossible. then this proposition would be true by definition. then the line joining them also lies in the plane.Proposition 7 If two straight lines are parallel and points are taken at random on each of them.3 Therefore the two straight lines EGF and EF enclose an area. D. let it be in a more elevated plane as EGF. Let it be EF. Draw a plane through EGF. Therefore the straight line joined from E to F lies in the plane through the parallel straight lines AB and CD. Therefore the straight line joined from E to F is not in a plane more elevated. but. and no proof would be required at all. then the straight line joining the points is in the same plane with the parallel straight lines. E. The existence of this proposition is a good argument that Euclid's definition I. and let points E and F be taken at random on them respectively. a conclusion that has not been justified. I say that the straight line joining the points E and F lies in the same plane with the parallel straight lines. Its intersection with the plane of reference is a straight line. XI. Note that this proof assumes that every line lies in a plane. if two straight lines are parallel and points are taken at random on each of them. Let AB and CD be two parallel straight lines. For suppose it is not.Def. .

6 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.E.8 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University . Next proposition: XI.17.Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proof of the next as well as proposition XII.

be at right angles to the plane of reference. and join BE.3 And. And since AB equals DE. since AB is at right angles to the plane of reference.8 . and one of them is at right angles to any plane. CD.4 I. and the angle ABD equals the angle EDB. therefore the base AD equals the base BE. Then AB. for each is right. the two sides AB and BE equal the two sides ED and DA respectively. therefore the sum of the I. therefore AB is also at right angles to all the straight lines which meet it and lie in the plane of reference. and BD is common. I. AB. Therefore CD is at right angles to BC. the two sides AB and BD equal the two sides ED and DB. AE. But the angle ABD is right.7 Draw DE in the plane of reference at right angles to BD.29 angles ABD and CDB equals two right angles. Let AB and CD be two parallel straight lines. therefore the angle ABE equals the angle EDA.3 Now. CD. XI. and AD I. Let AB and CD meet the plane of reference at the points B and D. since the straight line BD falls on the parallels AB and CD. and BD lie in one plane. is also at right angles to the same plane. XI. make DE equal to AB. therefore the angle CDB is also right. then the remaining one is also at right angles to the same plane.Def.11 I.Proposition 8 If two straight lines are parallel. and AE is their common base. Therefore each of the angles ABD and ABE is right. Join BD. And since AB equals DE. I say that the remaining one. and let one of them. and BE equals AD.

and one of them is at right angles to any plane. and DC also lies in the plane in which AB and BD lie. But DC lies in the plane through BD and DA inasmuch as AB and BD lie in the plane through BD and DA. therefore CD is at right angles to the plane of reference. XI.6. Therefore ED also makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and lie in the plane through BD and DA. Therefore CD is set up at right angles to the two straight lines DE and DB so that CD is also at right angles to the plane through DE and DB.7 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. Therefore ED is also at right angles to the plane through BD and DA. Next proposition: XI.E. then the remaining one is also at right angles to the same plane.But the angle ABE is right. therefore the angle EDA is also right.4 XI. if two straight lines are parallel. Therefore ED is at right angles to DC. But the plane through DE and DB is the plane of reference. This is a converse of proposition XI. so that CD is also at right angles to DE.D.E. Q. Therefore ED is at right angles to AD.9 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University .4 Therefore. But it is also at right angles to DB. This proposition is used in the proof of the next one as well as several others in this book. But CD is also at right angles to BD.

4 XI. and GK in the plane through EF and CD again at right angles to EF. therefore AB is also at right angles to the plane through HG and GK.6 I.8 Note that this proposition is the three-dimensional analogue to proposition I. Therefore each of the straight lines AB and CD is at right angles to the plane through HG and GK. and from it draw GH in the plane through EF and AB at right angles to EF. And EF is parallel to AB. since EF is at right angles to each of the straight lines GH and GK. Let each of the straight lines AB and CD be parallel to EF. I say that AB is parallel to CD. But if two straight lines are at right angles to the same plane. E.Proposition 9 Straight lines which are parallel to the same straight line but do not lie in the same plane with it are also parallel to each other. then the straight lines are parallel. XI. The Varignon parallelogram of space quadrilaterals . but not in the same plane with it. Q. therefore EF is also at right angles to the plane through GH and GK. For the same reason CD is also at right angles to the plane through HG and GK. D.30. Let a point G be taken at random on EF. Now. straight lines which are parallel to the same straight line but do not lie in the same plane with it are also parallel to each other. Therefore.11 XI. Therefore AB is parallel to CD.

9 to show the sides are parallel. (These are the lines EG and FH which are not drawn in the diagram. 1999 D.Consider a quadrilateral ABCD whose four vertices may or may not lie in a plane. Then the quadrilateral EFGH lies in a plane and is a parallelogram. called the Varignon parallelogram. Next proposition: XI. and DA.8 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997. Varignon (1654-1722) showed the area of a planar quadrilateral is twice the area of this parallelogram. and H be the midpoints of the sides AB. respectively.10 Previous: XI. and both FG and EH are parallel to the line BD. even if the four sides of the quadrilateral do not lie in a plane. Let E. G. it follows that the lines joining the midpoints of an arbitrary quadrilateral are concurrent and bisect each other. since it is readily shown that both EF and HG are parallel to the line AC. F. As a corollary.Joyce Clark University . The proof that EFGH is a parallelogram relies on this proposition XI.E. CD. BC.) Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proof of the next proposition as well as others in this and the next book.

33 Therefore each of the straight lines AD and CF equals and is parallel to BE. therefore the angle ABC equals the angle DEF. And AC and DF join them. AC. I say that the angle ABC equals the angle DEF. and join AD.9 I. For the same reason CF also equals and is parallel to BE. therefore AD also equals and is parallel to BE. . then they contain equal angles. Cut BA. D.33 Now. XI.8 the base DF. since the two sides AB and BC equal the two sides DE and EF. BC. But straight lines which are parallel to the same straight line and are not in the same plane with it are parallel to one another. if two straight lines meeting one another are parallel to two straight lines meeting one another not in the same plane.Proposition 10 If two straight lines meeting one another are parallel to two straight lines meeting one another not in the same plane. ED. I. then they contain equal angles. Therefore. BE. since BA equals and is parallel to ED. E. and EF off equal to one another. I. therefore AD is parallel and equal to CF.3 Now. Let the two straight lines AB and BC meeting one another be parallel to the two straight lines DE and EF meeting one another not in the same plane. CF. and DF. Q. therefore AC also equals and is parallel to DF. and the base AC equals I.

Next proposition: XI.Of course it is necessary to be careful about in which directions the lines head.11 Previous: XI. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proofs of propositions XI.3.9 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. If one is changed to head into the opposite direction.E. then the angles won't be equal but supplementary instead.Joyce Clark University .24 and XII.

11 I. And GH is parallel to it.4 XI. but if two straight lines are parallel. since BC is at right angles to each of the straight lines DA and DE. then the remaining one is also at right angles to the same plane. I. then that which was proposed is done. then the remaining one is also at right angles to the same plane. but if two straight lines are parallel. therefore BC is also at right angles to the plane through ED and DA. Draw any straight line BC at random in the I.8 XI.Proposition 11 To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given plane from a given elevated point. and draw GH through the point F parallel to BC. But if not. And GH is parallel to it. and draw AD from the point A perpendicular to BC. therefore GH is also at right angles to the plane through ED and DA. It is required to draw from the point A a straight line perpendicular to the plane of reference. Let A be the given elevated point. and the plane of reference the given plane. therefore GH is also at right angles to the plane through ED and DA. Now. and one of them is at right angles to any plane.12 plane of reference. Then if AD is also perpendicular to the plane of reference. Therefore GH is also at right angles to all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane through ED and DA.Def.31 XI. draw DE from the point D at right angles to BC and in the plane of reference. and one of them is at right angles to any plane.3 .12 I.8 XI. draw AF from A perpendicular to DE.

therefore AF is at right angles to each of the straight lines GH and DE. F.2). Next proposition: XI. But if a straight is set up at right angles to two straight lines which cut one another at their intersection point. then it also is at right angles to the plane through them.E. E. therefore GH is at right angles to FA. Such a plane can be specified by taking the line BC and a line from A to any point on BC since two intersecting lines determine a plane (XI. But AF is also at right angles to DE. Q. so that FA is also at right angles to GH.12 Previous: XI. before the line AD can be drawn from the point A perpendicular to the line BC. Therefore FA is at right angles to the plane through ED and GH.Joyce Clark University .But AF meets it and lies in the plane through ED and DA. XI. it is necesary to know that the point and line belong to the same plane. Therefore from the given elevated point A the straight line AF has been drawn perpendicular to the plane of reference. Use of this proposition The construction in this proposition is used frequently in the last three books of the Elements.4 In the proof. therefore AF is at right angles to the plane of reference.10 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. But the plane through ED and GH is the plane of reference.

11 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic . Therefore AD is set up at right angles to the given plane from the point A in it. It is required to set up from the point A a straight line at right angles to the plane of reference. is also at right angles to the plane of reference. Next proposition: XI.8 This proposition. and one of them. Q. XI. XI. therefore the remaining one. is used frequently in the rest of the Elements to construct lines perpendicular to planes.13 Previous: XI. BC. Let the plane of reference be the given plane and A the point in it. is at right angles to the plane of reference. like the last. F. From an elevated point B draw BC perpendicular to the plane of reference.31 Then since AD and BC are two parallel straight lines.Proposition 12 To set up a straight line at right angles to a given plane from a given point in it.11 I. AD. and draw AD parallel to to BC through the point A. E.

Joyce Clark University .© 1997 D.E.

Q. and DAE lie in one plane. Let the line be DAE. It intersects the plane of reference in a straight line through A. And. . from the same point A let the two straight lines AB and AC be set up at right angles to the plane of reference and on the same side. since CA is at right angles to the plane of reference. it also makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and lie in the plane of reference.6.3 Therefore.Proposition 13 From the same point two straight lines cannot be set up at right angles to the same plane on the same side. E. This proposition is used in the proof of proposition XI. Therefore the angle CAE equals the angle BAE. the result of this proposition is implicitly used in the proof of XI.19. Also. which is impossible. XI. But DAE meets it and lies in the plane of reference. D.3 Therefore the straight lines AB. And they lie in one plane. from the same point two straight lines cannot be set up at right angles to the same plane on the same side. AC. For the same reason the angle BAE is also right. Draw a plane through BA and AC. if possible.Def. XI. therefore the angle CAE is right. For.

14 Previous: XI.E.Next proposition: XI.Joyce Clark University .12 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.

so the point K might just as well be taken as a point where they meet. If the two points meet.Def. and join AK and BK. which is impossible. B.Proposition 14 Planes at right angles to the same straight line are parallel. XI. however. Thus. XI. D. Then they intersect as a straight line. Q. include another case. therefore AB is also at right angle to BK which is a straight line in the plane EF produced.8 Part of this proof is unnecessary.8 For. Therefore.3 Take a point K at random on GH.Def.17 XI. E. I say that the planes are parallel. The line GH is irrelevant. then they meet at some point. so that the three points A. Therefore the planes CD and EF do not meet when produced. then they meet when produced. Therefore the angle ABK is right. XI. Let it be GH. in the triangle ABK the sum of the two angles ABK and BAK equals two right angles. The proof should. Let them meet. planes at right angles to the same straight line are parallel. and that is where the given line meets both given planes at a point common to both planes. For the same reason the angle BAK is also right.3 I. since AB is at right angles to the plane EF. and K are all the same point. if not. Now.Def. Let any straight line AB be at right angles to each of the planes CD and EF. Therefore the planes CD and EF are parallel. Use of this proposition .

Joyce Clark University .15 Previous: XI.E. Next proposition: XI.13 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.This proposition is used in the proof of the next one.

and GK parallel to EF. For the same reason GB is also at right angles to BC. since BG is at right angles to the plane through DE and EF. therefore each of the angles BGH and BGK is right.9 I. Let the two straight lines AB and BC meeting one another be parallel to the two straight lines DE and EF meeting one another not in the same plane. Since then the straight line GB is set up at right angles to the two straight lines BA and BC which cut one another. XI. But the angle BGH is right.11 Draw GH through G parallel to ED. then the planes through them are parallel.Proposition 15 If two straight lines meeting one another are parallel to two straight lines meeting one another not in the same plane. XI. therefore GB is also at right angles to the plane through BA and BC. since BA is parallel to GH. therefore it makes right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and lie in the plane through DE and EF. Draw BG from the point B perpendicular to the plane through DE and EF to where it meets the plane at the point G. I say that the plane produced through AB and BC and the plane produced through DE and EF do not meet one another.4 XI. And. Therefore GB is at right angles to BA. therefore the angle GBA is also right.31 Now. I.Def.29 . XI. therefore the sum of the angles GBA and BGH equals two right angles.3 But each of the straight lines GH and GK meets it and lies in the plane through DE and EF.

14 Therefore. E.E. This proposition is not used in the rest of the Elements. XI. therefore the plane through AB and BC is parallel to the plane through DE and EF. Next proposition: XI. then the planes through them are parallel.But planes to which the same straight line is at right angles are parallel. D.Joyce Clark University .16 Previous: XI. Q.14 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. if two straight lines meeting one another are parallel to two straight lines meeting one another not in the same plane.

E. Therefore the straight lines EF and GH do not meet when produced in the direction of F and H. . Let the two parallel planes AB and CD be cut by the plane EFGH. let them meet when produced in the direction of F and H at K. because.Proposition 16 If two parallel planes are cut by any plane. Therefore EF is parallel to GH. Now. XI. First. But straight lines which do not meet in either direction are parallel. For the same reason K also lies in the plane CD. then their intersections are parallel. meet either in the direction of F and H or in the direction of E and G. Therefore.3 If not. then EF and GH will. I say that EF is parallel to GH. since EFK lies in the plane AB. Therefore the planes AB and CD will meet when produced. then their intersections are parallel. when produced.24. if two parallel planes are cut by any plane. therefore all the points on EFK also lie in the plane AB. Similarly we can prove that neither do the straight lines EF and GH meet when produced in the direction of E and G. This proposition is used in the proof of the next proposition as well as proposition XI. therefore K lies in the plane AB. they are parallel. and let EF and GH be their intersections. But K is one of the points on the straight line EFK. XI.1 Q. But they do not meet. by hypothesis. D.

Next proposition: XI.E.17 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University .15 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.

F. E.2 V. therefore their intersections EO and BD are parallel. Join AC. if two straight lines are cut by parallel planes. And. and MN at the points A. Let the two straight lines AB and CD be cut by the parallel planes GH. . I say that the straight line AE is to EB as CF is to FD.16 reason. since the two parallel planes KL and MN are cut by the plane EBDO. one of the sides of the triangle ADC. E. BD.Proposition 17 If two straight lines are cut by parallel planes. therefore proportionally AO is to OD as CF is to FD. and B. and at the points C. and D. Q. since the two parallel planes GH and KL are cut by the plane AOFC. since the straight line EO is parallel to BC. D. therefore proportionally AE is to EB as AO is to OD. Join EO and FO. since the straight line FO is parallel to CA. and AD. But it was prove that AO is to OD as AE is to EB. respectively. Let AD meet the plane KL at the point O. their intersections AC and OF are parallel. For the same XI. then they are cut in the same ratios.11 Therefore. one of the sides of the triangle ABD. Now. VI. KL. Again. therefore AE is to EB as CF is to FD. then they are cut in the same ratios.

This proposition is used in the proof of proposition XII.E.Joyce Clark University .18 Previous: XI.16 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. Next proposition: XI.4.

drawn in one of the planes DE at right angles to CE.8 Now a plane is at right angles to a plane when the straight lines drawn in one of the planes at right angles to the intersection of the planes are at right angles to the remaining XI. But the angle GFB is also right. was proved to be at right angles to the plane of reference. and draw FG from F at right angles to CE in the plane DE. the intersection of the planes. Therefore. since AB is at right angles to the plane of reference.Def. Q. then all the planes through it are also at right angles to the same plane. . Therefore the angle ABF is right. Let CE be the intersection of the plane DE and the plane of reference. so that it is also at right angles to CE.4 plane.28 XI. D.Def. But AB is at right angles to the plane of reference. I. Now. Therefore the plane DE is at right angles to the plane of reference.Proposition 18 If a straight line is at right angles to any plane. therefore FG is also at right angles to the plane of reference. therefore AB is also at right angles to all the straight lines which meet it and lie in the plane of reference. Take a point F at random on CE. then all the planes through it are also at right angles to the same plane. Let the plane DE be drawn through AB. Similarly it can also be proved that all the planes through AB are at right angles to the plane of reference. And FG.11 XI. Let any straight line AB be at right angles to the plane of reference.3 I. I say that all the planes through AB are also at right angles to the plane of reference. therefore AB is parallel to FG. E. if a straight line is at right angles to any plane.

Next proposition: XI.17.17 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.E.19 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University .This proposition is used in the proof of proposition XII.

and let BC be their intersection.11 Now. since the plane AB is at right angles to the plane of reference. . if two planes which cut one another are at right angles to any plane. XI. and DE is at right XI.4 angles in the plane AB to AD. and draw DF at right angles to CD in the plane BC.Def. From the point D draw DE at right angles to the straight line AD in the plane AB. Therefore. E. therefore DE is at right angles to the plane of reference. their intersection. Similarly we can prove that DF is also at right angles to the plane of reference. Let the two planes AB and BC be at right angles to the plane of reference. which is impossible.13 Q. then their intersection is also at right angles to the same plane. This proposition is not used in the rest of the Elements. I say that BD is at right angles to the plane of reference. D. then their intersection is also at right angles to the same plane. Therefore from the same point D two straight lines have been set up at right angles to the plane of reference on the same side. Therefore no straight line except the intersection DB of the planes AB and BC can be set up from the point D at right angles to the plane of reference. Suppose it is not.Proposition 19 If two planes which cut one another are at right angles to any plane. I.

18 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.E.20 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University .Next proposition: XI.

CAD. and DAB are equal to one another. and DAB. D. Q. then the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one. if not. and the base DC is greater than the base EC. then the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one. Let the solid angle at A be contained by the three plane angles BAC. But. CAD. And the angle DAB equals the angle BAE. and of these DB was proved equal to BE. I. if a solid angle is contained by three plane angles. Now. therefore two sides are equal to two sides. If the angles BAC.23 I. therefore the remainder DC is greater than the remainder EC. therefore the angle DAC is greater than the angle EAC. Make AE equal to AD. therefore the base DB equals the base BE. I say that the sum of any two of the angles BAC.25 . draw BEC across through the point E cutting the straight lines AB and AC at the points B and C. and AB is common.3 I. then it is clear that the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one. Now. CAD. since the sum of the two sides BD and DC is greater than BC. and join DB and DC.Proposition 20 If a solid angle is contained by three plane angles. But the angle BAE equals the angle DAB. since DA equals AE.4 I. and AC is common. construct the angle BAE equal to the angle DAB at the point A on the straight line AB. and DAB is greater than the remaining one. E. since DA equals AE. And. let BAC be greater. Therefore. In the plane through BA and AC. therefore the sum of the angles DAB and DAC is greater than the angle BAC. Similarly we can prove that the sum of any two of the remaining angles is greater than the remaining one.20 I.

Then the other cases are declared to be similarly provable. Still. takes place in only one plane. the details should be verified before applying the results as done in the proof of this proposition.Joyce Clark University . The construction in I. strictly speaking. takes place in two different planes.23 to construct one angle equal to a given angle. Once that's done. the rest of the constructions in Book I also apply when their components lie in different planes. then the sum of the second and third is greater than the first.19 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997. but all require minor changes to clarify the stucture. Next proposition: XI. each construction in Book XI takes place within a plane.23. About the proof The structure of the proof is not entirely clear. although different constructions in the same proposition may occur in different planes. Tracing that construction back through Book I leads through proposition I. Proposition I. Then.3 cuts one line off equal to another line. however. then the goal is clearly satisfied. Various interpretations have been made of the intent of the form of proof. Notice is make that if they are all equal. The goal is to show that the sum of any two of the angles is greater than the third. and the two conditions together are shown to be sufficient in XI. About three-dimensional analogues of two-dimensional constructions Up until this proposition.E. 2002 D. The next necessary condition is stated in the next proposition.This is one of two necessary conditions for constructing a solid angle out of three plane angles.22 to I. The angle BAE is constructed in one plane to equal a given angle BAE in a different plane. One of the constructions here. That basic construction can easily be modified so that the two lines are in different planes.21 Previous: XI. under the assumption that if one is greater than a second.3.

Q. therefore the sum of the six angles CBA. since the each sum of the three angles of the triangles ABC. therefore the sum of the angles CBA and ABD is greater than the angle CBD. and DB. BAC. therefore the sum of the nine angles of the three triangles. BCA.D. ADB. CD. And. since the solid angle at B is contained by the three plane angles CBA. BCA. and DAB containing the solid angle is less than four right angles. Let the angle at A be a solid angle contained by the plane angles BAC. and DAB. CAD. Therefore the sum of the six angles CBA. therefore the sum of the remaining three angles BAC. and ADB is greater than the sum of the three angles CBD. the angles CBA. any solid angle is contained by plane angles whose sum is less than four right angles. Therefore. I say that the sum of the angles BAC. ACD. and DAB is less than four right angles. CDA. and the sum of the angles CDA and ADB is greater than the angle CDB. For the same reason the sum of the angles BCA and ACD is greater than the angle BCD. DBA. ABD. BDC. Of them the sum of the six angles ABC. CDA.E. BCD. and join BC. I. CAD. Take points B. CAD. CDA. ABD. Now. ACD. CAD. and BCD equals two right angles.32 XI. CDA. AC. ACD. and ADB is greater than two right angles. ACB. and ADB equals two right angles. But the sum of the three angles CBD. ADB. and the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one. and CBD.20 . and CDB. ACD. and AD respectively. BCA. ACD. ABD.Proposition 21 Any solid angle is contained by plane angles whose sum is less than four right angles. and BAD equals six right angles. and D at random on the straight lines AB. and DBA are greater than two right angles. C.

the proof is analogous. but it is necessary to invoke Proclus' first corollary to I.Joyce Clark University . Next proposition: XI.E.20 (the sum of any two plane angles is less than the third) together are shown to be sufficient to construct a solid angle.23 the condition stated here and the condition in XI.22 Previous: XI. 2002 D.18 to show that the five regular polyhedra constructed in Book XIII are the only five possible.In proposition XI.20 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997." Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proof of remark after proposition XIII. When there are four ore more plane angles. About the proof The proof only shows that the sum of the plane angles in all cases is less than four right angles when there are three plane angles.32. less four. not when there are more than three. which states that "the sum of the interior angles of a convex rectilinear figure equals twice as many angles as the figure has sides.

then it is possible to construct a triangle out of the straight lines joining the ends of the equal straight lines. if not. DF. BC. And. and GK is greater than the remaining one. Make HL equal to any one of the straight lines AB. since the two sides AB and BC equal the two sides KH and HL. And. while the angle ABC equals the angle KHL. the sum of the angles DEF and GHK is greater than the angle ABC. that the sum of any two of the straight lines AC. Join KL and GL. it is possible to construct a triangle out of straight lines equal to AC. that is.24 . I say that it is possible to construct a triangle out of straight lines equal to AC. DF. if the angles ABC. AC. GH. But. DE. and GK also being equal. and GK. DF. DEF.23 I. Now. the sum of the angles GHK and ABC is greater than the angle DEF. Construct the angle KHL equal to the angle ABC at the point H on the straight line HK. DEF. let them be unequal.3 I. so that the sum of the angles ABC and DEF is greater than the angle GHK. and the angle GHL is greater than the angle DEF. EF. Let there be three plane angles ABC.Proposition 22 If there are three plane angles such that the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one. Also let the straight lines AB. since the sum of the angles ABC and GHK is greater than the angle DEF.4 I. DE. therefore the angle GHL is greater than the angle DEF. and the angle at B equals the angle KHL. therefore the base AC equals the base KL. and GHK equal one another. and GK. DF. BC. GH. and GHK. DF. EF. since the two sides GH and HL equal the two sides DE and EF. then it is clear that. Join AC. Now. and. of which the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one. or HK. and HK be equal. further. and GK.4 I.1 I. I. therefore the base GL is greater than the base DF. and they are contained by equal straight lines.

and DK is less than the sum of the other two. Q. if there are three plane angles such that the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one. But KL equals AC.20.Joyce Clark University .E. D. The proof succeeds in showing that if each of the three plane angles is less than the sum of the other two. then it is possible to construct a triangle out of the straight lines joining the ends of the equal straight lines. and they are contained by equal straight lines.22. DF.23 Previous: XI.22) Therefore.21 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997. The latter is a necessary condition for a triangle to be made with its three sides equal to those three lines according to I. and GK. and further. Similarly we can prove that the sum of AC and DF is greater than GK. Thus. the sum of DF and GK is greater than AC. (I. then each of the three lines AC. But it was never shown to be sufficient to make such a triangle in I. therefore the sum of AC and GK is greater than the remaining straight line DF. Next proposition: XI.But the sum of GK and KL is greater than GL. there is a serious flaw in the proof. 2002 D. This construction is the first stage of the construction in the next proposition to make a solid angle given three plane angles. and it is that sufficiency which is being invoked in this proof. Therefore the sum of GK and KL is much greater than DF. Therefore it is possible to construct a triangle out of straight lines equal to AC. DF. E.

and join AC. DF. First. let the sum of all three be less than four right angles. DF. It is required to construct a solid angle out of angles equal to the angles ABC. I.21 Describe the circle LMN about the triangle LMN. the base AC equals the base LM. BC. Then. I say that AB is greater than LO. Join LO. DEF. and GHK be the three given plane angles. and GHK. It is therefore possible to construct a triangle out of straight lines equal to AC. and NO. DF equals MN. therefore the two sides AB and BC equal the two sides LO and OM respectively.20 XI.5 III. if not. and GK. And. IV. MO.8 . DEF. and further. For.3 XI. and GK equals NL. and take its center O. by hypothesis. AB either equals LO. and LO equals OM. DE.Proposition 23 To construct a solid angles out of three plane angles such that the sum of any two is greater than the remaining one: thus the sum of the three angles must be less than four right angles. let it be equal. while AB equals BC. or is less. and HK equal to one another. therefore the angle ABC equals the angle LOM. Cut off AB. since AB equals LO. and let the sum of any two of them be greater than the remaining one. GH. and GK.22 XI.1 I. Construct LMN so that AC equals LM. Let the angles ABC. EF.

Therefore. I say next that neither is AB less than LO. MON. and RN. then. by hypothesis. therefore the sum of the angles LOM. But LO is greater than OP. therefore LM is greater than PQ. And LM equals AC. Therefore LM is parallel to PQ. so that the remainder LP equals QM. Therefore AB is not less than LO. XI.4 V. less than four right angles. Join RL.25 VI. therefore the sum of the three angles ABC. Therefore the sum of the three angles ABC. which is absurd. and GHK is greater than the sum of the three angles LOM. MON. Since. and the angle GHK equals the angle NOL. and GHK equals four right angles. and the angle GHK is greater than the angle NOL. OL is to LM as OP is to PQ. But. therefore the angle ABC is greater than the angle POQ. and NOL. and OQ equal to BC. But the sum is also. therefore OP also equals OQ. Then. and NOL is much less than four right angles. But the sum also equals four right angles. and NOL equals four right angles. DEF. the sum of the angles ABC. therefore AB is greater than LO. For. And it was proved that neither is it equal. and alternately.29 VI. if possible. But the sum of the three angles LOM. Make OP equal to AB. and join PQ. the two sides AB and BC equal the two sides PO and OQ. by hypothesis. Therefore AB is not equal to LO. and the base AC is greater than the base PQ.3 . and NOL.12 Lemma below I. since AB equals BC.16 I.For the same reason the angle DEF also equals the angle MON. Next set up OR from the point O at right angles to the plane of the circle LMN so that the square on OR equals the square on AB minus the square on LO. and LMO is equiangular with PQO. Similarly we can prove that the angle DEF is also greater than the angle MON. and GHK equals the sum of the three angles LOM. MON. DEF. let it be so. LO is to OP as LM is to PQ.2 I. RM. MON. therefore AC is greater than PQ. DEF. Therefore the sum of the three angles ABC. DEF. and GHK is less than four right angles. which is absurd.

But the square on LR equals the sum of the squares on LO and OR. the base LM equals the base AC. therefore the square on AB equals the sum of the squares on LO and OR. since RO is at right angles to the plane of the circle LMN.E. not being greater than the diameter AB. IV. since by hypothesis the square on OR equals equals the square on AB minus the square on LO. Join CB. and RN. MRN. and RN equal one another. MO. DE. Therefore. For the same I. and. and HK equals AB. For the same reason RN also equals each of the straight lines RL and RM. MRN. Describe the semicircle ABC on AB. EF. out of the three plane angles LRM. since LO equals OM. and I. RM. Q. therefore the square on AB equals the square on RL. for the angle LOR is right. the solid angle at R has been constructed. therefore the base RL equals the base RM. DEF.4 OR is common and at right angles.F. I. therefore each of the straight lines AB. Therefore AB equals RL. therefore the angle LRM equals the angle ABC. and let AB be the greater. Since the two sides LR and RM equal the two sides AB and BC. by hypothesis.Def. BC. Set out the straight lines AB and LO. And. GH.47 Lemma But how it is possible to take the square on OR equal to the square on AB minus the square on LO we can show as follows. DE. and LRN. and NO.8 reason the angle MRN equals the angle DEF. and the angle LRN equals the angle GHK. while each of the straight lines RM and RN equals RL. But each of the straight lines BC. which is contained by the angles LRM. and LRN. therefore RO is also at right angles to each of the straight lines LO.3 Then. Fit AC into the semicircle ABC equal to the straight line LO.XI. GH. Next. and HK equals each of the straight lines RL. and GHK.1 . which equal the three given angles ABC. Therefore the three straight lines RL. RM. EF.

That part of the demonstration takes some time. that the edges can't be less than the radius. it is shown that the proposed edges for the solid angle. E. E. This lemma is the same as the lemma for proposition X.14 in Book X. Hence the square on AB equals the square on AC minus the square on CB.47 This proposition shows that the necessary conditions for constructing a solid angle found in XI. Q. in fact.21 (the sum of the three angles must be less than four right angles) are. III. and H grow so that these conditions fail. therefore the angle ACB is right. second. I. But AC equals LO. After the circumcircle for this base is constructed. then the square on AB will equal the square on LO minus the square on OR. This first stage has been set off as the provious proposition XI. Most of the remainder deals with parallelepipedal solids and their properties. and. first. Therefore the square on AB equals the square on LO minus the square on CB. The remainder of the proof is the verification that the proposed solid angle satisfies the requirements of the construction. This proposition completes the introductory portion of Book XI. About the proof This is a rather long proof that has several stages. First. that the edges can't equal the radius. are greater than the radius of the circle.24. and it is separated into two parts to show.Since the angle ACB is an angle in the semicircle ACB.20 (the sum any two angles must be less than the third) and XI.31 Therefore the square on AB equals the sum of the squares on AC and CB. It is placed above the center O of the circumcircle so that OR2 is the difference of the square of the edge and the square of the radius. the base LMN for the proposed solid angle is constructed. which are all equal. The next stage is to place the proposed vertex R for the solid angle. sufficient. Therefore if we cut off OR equal to BC. It is interesting to see how parts of the construction disappear as the angles B. . A separate lemma appears after the proposition to construct a line of this particular length. F.

The proof only covers the case when the circumcenter O of the triangle LMN lies within that triangle. the proof doesn't have to be split into three cases for the other stages of the proof. Next proposition: XI.24 Previous: XI.E.Joyce Clark University .22 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997. The three different cases need only be considered in the stage which shows that the proposed edges are greater than the radius of the circumcircle. 2002 D. Two other cases need to be considered as well—when O lies outside the triangle and when O lies on the boundary of the triangle.

XI. I say that the opposite planes in it are equal and parallelogrammic. GB. since the two parallel planes BF and AE are cut by the plane AC. DF. not in the same plane. which meet one another. FG. And. therefore the base AH equals the base DF. Again. Similarly we can prove that each of the planes DF. if a solid is contained by parallel planes. therefore their common sections are parallel. Since the two parallel planes BG and CE are cut by the plane AC. therefore the parallelogram BG equals the parallelogram CE. And the parallelogram BG is double the triangle ABH. since AB is parallel to DC.34 .4 I. Therefore they contain equal angles. Let the solid CDHG be contained by the parallel planes AC. and AE equals BF. BF. and the parallelogram CE is double the triangle DCF. Therefore AB is parallel to DC. therefore the two straight lines AB and BH.10 I. XI. then the opposite planes in it are equal and parallelogrammic. therefore AC is a parallelogram. GF.Proposition 24 If a solid is contained by parallel planes. AH. since the two sides AB and BH equal the two sides DC and CF. Therefore the angle ABH equals the angle DCF. BF. and AE. and the angle ABH equals the angle DCF. Therefore BC is parallel to AD. and BH is parallel to CF.34 I. and AE is a parallelogram. Join AH and DF. then the opposite planes in it are equal and parallelogrammic. Therefore. therefore their intersections are parallel. and the triangle ABH equals the triangle DCF. which meet one another. Then.16 But AB was proved parallel to DC. Similarly we can prove that AC equals GF. are parallel to the two straight lines DC and CF.

2002 D. This proposition is the analogue of proposition I. and equal corresponding angles. It can be defined as a solid bounded by three pairs of parallel faces. not parallelograms." is used for the solid treated by this proposition.23 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997.Joyce Clark University . That the opposite parallelgrams are not just equal but also similar should stated in the conclusion of the proposition.Def. The statement of the theorem is not sufficiently detailed. but their faces are triangles or pentagons. E.Q. however. Then the intersection of each plane with the other four nonparallel planes can be shown to be sides of a parallelgram. what Euclid would call similar and equal parallelograms. twenty. and dodecahedron (see XI. It is likely that both are the product of Euclid's own research. They do not have six faces. and the parallelograms on opposite planes can be shown to be congruent.34 which introduces parallelograms just as this proposition introduces parallelepipeds. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next as well as others in this book and the next.25 Previous: XI.E. Then this proposition shows that a parallelepiped has the further properties that each face is a parallelogram. Parallelepipeds are to solid geometry what parallelograms are to plane geometry. but eight. D. or twelve. All three of the octahedron. Parallelepipeds The term "parallelepipedal solid. The correct hypothesis for this proposition is that the solid is contained by three pairs of parallel planes.26-28) are contained by parallel planes. and opposite parallelograms have parallel and equal corresponding sides. icosahedron. Next proposition: XI." abbreviated as "parallelepiped.

and. and AF equal one another. and any number HM and MN equal to EH. HI.31 Then.24 XI. MY. DH. HW. KB. Make any number of straight lines AK and KL equal to AE. Complete the parallelograms LP. HG. and IN equal one another. XI. and AU three planes equal three planes.Proposition 25 If a parallelepipedal solid is cut by a plane parallel to the opposite planes. and MT. then the base is to the base as the solid is to the solid.Def. if the base LF exceeds the base NF. and AR equal one another. therefore the three solids LQ. and MS and the solids LQ. since the straight lines LK. KO. Let the parallelepipedal solid ABCD be cut by the plane FG which is parallel to the opposite planes RA and DH. Produce AH in each direction. DM. the solid LU is the same multiple of the solid AU that the base LF is of the base AF. and MS are equal one another. therefore the parallelograms LP.10 . then the solid LU also equals the solid NU. if one falls short. then the solid LU also exceeds the solid NU. For the same reason. For the same reason the parallelograms EC. HW. and further LX.3 I. and further. NT and equal one another. KV. and MT also equal one another. if the base LF equals the base NF. Therefore in the solids LQ. I. DM. for they are opposite. KR. For the same reason the three solids ED. But the three planes equal the three opposite. then the other falls short. and AE equal one another. the solid NU is the same multiple of the solid HU that the base NF is of the base FH. KR. KQ. and AU equal one another. Therefore. KR. KA. KV. and AG equal one another. And. I say that the base AEFV is to the base FHCF as the solid ABFU is to the solid EGCD.

D. then the solids are equal.10 for details. namely the base NF and the solid NU. Now m AU equals the parallelepiped LU. n HU equals the parallelepiped NU. V. and n HF equals the parallelogram NF. The parallelpiped AU has the parallelogram AF as its base.5 Therefore If a parallelepipedal solid is cut by a plane parallel to the opposite planes. prisms. the dimensions are 2 and 3. if the base LF exceeds the base FN. Q. then the solids are equal. Thus. V. then the solid LU also exceeds the solid NU.Def. the two bases AF and FH. and equimultiples of the base HF and the solid HU. and if the base falls short. equimultiples have been taken of the base AF and the solid AU. the goal is to derive the proportion AU:HU = AF:HF.Def. This is the first of the propositions on volumes of solids. and Book XII develops the theory of volumes for pyramids. cylinders. m AF equals the parallelogram LF. then the base is to the base as the solid is to the solid. if the bases are equal.Def. just as he did in VI. Note that Euclid takes both m and n to be 3 in his proof. there being four magnitudes. while in VI. Outline of the proof The analogous proposition for two dimensions is proposition VI. that means for any number m and any number n that m AF >=< n HF when m AU >=< n HU.5.1. In both propositions the ratio of two figures in one dimension is shown to be equal to the ratio of two figures in another dimension. and spheres. See the comments on XI. cones. and the two solids AU and UH. the dimensions are 1 and 2.10 which says that if two solid figures have congruent faces. then the solid falls short.Therefore. while the parallelepiped HU has the parallelogram HF as its base. namely the base LF and the solid LU.1. Euclid's foundations for volume are (1) his definition XI. By the definition of proportion. Most of the rest of this book deals with volumes of parallelepipeds. V.5. Therefore.Def. the base AF is to the base FH as the solid AU is to the solid UH. E. and (2) solids are magnitudes for which cut and paste principles hold. Eudoxus' definition of proportion. So what has to be shown is that . In this proposition.1. The goal of this proof is to show that the ratio of the bases of the the two parallelepipeds is the same as the ratio of the two parallelepipeds themselves.Def. allows these ratios of different kinds to be compared. and it has been proved that.

he just states it as fact: And. which is the defintion of the solids being equal.26 Previous: XI. if the base LFexceeds the base NF. Next proposition: XI.10. The two cases when one base exceeds or falls short of the other implicitly depend on finding a part of one solid equal to the whole of the other solid. and. then all the planes bounding the solids are equal.5). then the other falls short. XI. for if the bases are equal.N.32. and XI.Def. if one falls short. 2002 D. then concluding that one whole solid is greater than the other whole solid (C. Euclid makes no attempt to show that. if the base LFequals the base NF.31.E.Joyce Clark University .then the solid LUalso exceeds the solid NU. The case of equality is based directly on defintion XI.10. equality again using XI.Def.then the solid LUalso equals the solid NU.34.24 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997.LF >=< NF when LU >=< NU. Use of this proposition This proposition is used for the proofs of propositions XI.

and GE.3 . Cut AB and DE off equal to one another. Join DG. Let A be the given point on the given straight line AB. For the same reason each of the angles HKA and HKB is also right. and construct the angle BAK equal to the angle EDG.Def. KB. Make KH equal to GF. I. and FDC. and let the angle at D be the given solid angle contained by the angles EDC. EDF. BAH. Therefore each of the angles FGD and FGE is right. XI. and let it meet the plane at G. and FDC. therefore it is also at right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane of reference. and join HB. and join HA.11 At the point A on the straight line AB construct the angle BAL equal to the angle EDC. and HAL equals the solid angle at D contained by the angles EDC. FE. I say that the solid angle at A contained by the angles BAL.23 XI. draw FG from F perpendicular to the plane through ED and DC. Then. Take a point F at random on DF. since FG is at right angles to the plane of reference. Set KH up from the point K at right angles to the plane through BA and AL.12 XI.Proposition 26 To construct a solid angle equal to a given solid angle on a given straight line at a given point on it. EDF. Make AK equal to DG. It is required to construct at the point A on the straight line AB a solid angle equal to the solid angle at D.

Again. And the angle BAL also equals the angle EDC. therefore HB also equals FE. therefore the two sides HA and AB are equal to the two sides DF I.Joyce Clark University . and they contain equal angles. and they contain right angles.E.25 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. therefore the angle BAH equals the angle EDF.8 and DE.27 Previous: XI. E. But KH also equals GF. therefore the base KB equals the base GE. This construction is used in the next one to construct similar parallelepipeds. and they contain right angles. since the two sides AK and KH equal the two sides DG and GF. Q. F.And. I. For the same reason the angle HAL also equals the angle FDC. therefore the base AH equals the base FD. Next proposition: XI. And the base HB is equal to the base FE. since the two sides KA and AB equal the two sides GD and DE respectively. Therefore at the point A on the straight line AB a solid angle has been constructed equal to the given solid angle at D.4 But AB also equals DE.

22 XI. ex aequali. For the same reason the parallelogram KH is similar to the parallelogram GF. Construct the solid angle contained by the angles BAH. It is required to describe on the given straight line AB a parallelepipedal solid similar and similarly situated to the given parallelepipedal solid CD. and the angle KAH equals the angle GCF. therefore the parallelogram GE is similar to the parallelogram KB.Proposition 27 To describe a parallelepipedal solid similar and similarly situated to a given parallelepipedal solid on a given straight line. HAK. Let AB be the given straight line and CD the given parallelepipedal solid. Therefore three parallelograms of the solid CD are similar to three parallelograms of the solid AL.26 VI. Q. and also FE is similar to HB. Therefore. therefore the whole solid CD is similar to the whole solid AL.so that EC is to CG as BA is to AK. Now since EC is to CG as BA is to AK. EC is to CF as BA is to AH. E. and the latter three are both equal and similar to the three opposite parallelograms. But the former three are both equal and similar to the three opposite parallelograms. the angle BAK equals the angle ECG.12 V.Def. and the sides about the equal angles ECG and BAK are thus proportional. and GC is to CF as KA is to AH. F. Complete the parallelogram HB and the solid AL.9 . XI. Therefore on the given straight line AB there has been described AL similar and similarly situated to the given parallelepipedal solid CD. and KAB at the point A on the straight line AB equal to the solid angle C so that the angle BAH equals the angle ECF.

Joyce Clark University .18 which constructs a similar plane figure on a line.E.This proposition is analogous to proposition VI. It is not used later in the Elements.26 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. but it is not as general since it applies only to parallelepipeds and not all polyhedra. Next proposition: XI.28 Previous: XI.

then the solid is bisected by the plane. and GE equals CH. if a parallelepipedal solid is cut by a plane through the diagonals of the opposite planes. but it is easy to show that they lie in the lines CD and EF are parallel. therefore the prism contained by the two triangles CGF and ADE and the three parallelograms GE. AC. by XI. BE.Proposition 28 If a parallelepipedal solid is cut by a plane through the diagonals of the opposite planes. and CE equals the prism contained by the two triangles CFB and DEH and the three parallelograms CH. A minor point missing from the beginning of the proof of is that the two diagonals CF and DE lie in one plane. I. Hence the whole solid AB is bisected by the plane CDEF. Let the parallelepipedal solid AB be cut by the plane CDEF through the diagonals CF and DE of opposite planes.34 XI. Q. and CE. and therefore. This is the second proposition concerning volumes.) The final conclusion of . while the parallelogram CA equals the parallelogram EB.Def.25. for they are contained by planes equal both in multitude and in magnitude. Since the triangle CGF equals the triangle CFB. for they are opposite. I say that the solid AB is bisected by the plane CDEF.7. and ADE equals DEH. CF and DE lie in the plane spanned by CD and EF. E.10 Therefore. (The first was XI. D. then the solid is bisected by the plane.

depending on the style of geometry.27 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. But the method of superposition is subject to even greater criticism.the proof here is justified by XI. superposition is either eliminated entirely or else completely formalized using the theory of group transformations. In modern geometry.10: since the faces of the two prisms are congruent. Next proposition: XI.29 Previous: XI.Def. therefore the prisms are equal and similar (that is. Several authors have criticized this conclusion because the two prisms are mirror images of each other and cannot be applied to each other in the sense of moving one in space to coincide with the other. congruent). From some points of view this criticism is valid.E. Use of this proposition Although this proposition is not used in the rest of this book.Joyce Clark University . it is used for several propositions in the next book that deal with triangular prisms.

Let CM and CN be parallelepipedal solids on the same base AB and of the same height. for they are opposite. LN. I. CD. Since each of the figures CH and CK is a parallelogram.4 I. Add to each the solid of which the parallelogram AB is the base and GEHM its opposite. and CG equals the prism contained by the two triangles MLN and HBK and the three parallelograms BM. I say that the solid CM equals the solid CN. therefore the remainder DE equals the remainder HK. . therefore CB equals each of the straight lines DH and EK.10 three parallelograms AD. namely AG.34 Subtract EH from each.36 But the parallelogram CF equals the parallelogram BM. DG.8 I. equal one another. and in which the ends of their edges which stand up are on the same straight lines. Therefore. AF. I.Def. therefore the whole parallelepipedal solid CM equals the whole parallelepipedal solid CN. be on the same straight lines FN and DK. LM. and BK. parallelepipedal solids which are on the same base and of the same height. equal one another. Therefore the triangle DCE also equals the triangle HBK. CE. Therefore DH also equals EK. BH. therefore the prism contained by the two triangles AFG and DCE and the XI. HN. and CG equals BN. and in which the ends of their edges which stand up are on the same straight lines. and let the ends of their edges which stand up. and the parallelogram DG equals the parallelogram HN. and BN.Proposition 29 Parallelepipedal solids which are on the same base and of the same height. For the same reason the triangle AFG equals the triangle MLN.

Next proposition: XI. E.E.28 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.Joyce Clark University .30 Previous: XI. D. It is used in the proof of three of the next five propositions.Q. This proposition is the first step in the theory of volume for parallelepipeds.

of which the parallelogram ACBL is the base and FDHM its opposite. LM. equals the solid CN. LP. and BR.29 XI. are on the same straight lines FP and DR. I say that the solid CM equals the solid CN. of which the parallelogram ACBL is the base and OQRP its opposite. BH. and BR. and BK. namely AF. AO. and produce FM and GE to P and Q. LN. CQ. Join AO. for they are on the same base ACBL and of the same height. But the solid CP. equals the solid CP. CD. Then the solid CM. and in which the ends of their edges which stand up are not on the same straight lines. CQ. and BR.29 . XI. not be on the same straight lines. Let CM and CN be parallelepipedal solids on the same base AB and of the same height. namely AF. and the ends of their edges which stand up. LP. namely AG. BH. and let the ends of their edges which stand up. of which the parallelogram ACBL is the base and GEKN its opposite. CQ. CE. LP. equal one another. LM. AO. CD. of which the parallelogram ACBL is the base and OQRP its opposite. CE. LN. are on the same straight lines GQ and NR. and the ends of their edges which stand up. for they are again on the same base ACBL and of the same height. BK.Proposition 30 Parallelepipedal solids which are on the same base and of the same height. AG. Produce NK and DH to meet one another at R. Hence the solid CM also equals the solid CN.

Q. equal one another. Next proposition: XI. It is generalized one step further in the next proposition.E. Two applications of the previous proposition allow its generalization to the present proposition. and in which the ends of their edges which stand up are not on the same straight lines. D.31 Previous: XI.29 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.Joyce Clark University . E.Therefore. parallelepipedal solids which are on the same base and of the same height.

AG. Since again AL equals RT.23 to the bases AB and CD.24 XI. Now. therefore the whole parallelepipedal solid AE equals the whole parallelepipedal solid XU. Produce the straight line RT in a straight line with CR. But the former three equal and are similar to the three opposite. HK. and complete the solids YX and RI. draw aTb through T parallel to DY. PQ. Let the parallelepipedal solids AE and CF of the same height be on equal bases AB and CD. Construct the I. and the latter three equal and are similar the three opposite. First. I. For the same reason LE also equals and is similar to SU. Complete the base RW and the solid XU. be at right angles I.Proposition 31 Parallelepipedal solids which are on equal bases and of the same height equal one another. therefore the parallelogram RX equals and is similar to the parallelogram AM. and they contain equal angles. and RS. CO. Therefore three parallelograms of the solid AE equal and are similar to three parallelograms of the solid XU. DF.3 angle TRU equal to the angle ALB at the point R on the straight line RT. I say that the solid AE equals the solid CF. let the sides which stand up.Def. since the two sides TR and RU equal the two sides AL and LB. XI. LM. I.31 produce PD to a. and they contain right angles. .31 and RU equal to LB. Make RT equal to A. BE. therefore the parallelogram RW equals and is similar to the parallelogram HL. and LM equals RS.10 Draw DR and WU through to meet one another at Y.

XI. Sd. since the parallelepipedal solid YI is cut by the plane RX which XI. Se. W. QW.25 is parallel to opposite planes. and S perpendicular to the plane of reference. let the sides standing up. CN. Y. GU. and the ends of their edges which stand up.7 And. BE. LM. But the solid XU equals AE. DF. since the parallelepipedal solid CI is cut by the plane RF which is parallel to opposite planes. FX. Therefore the solid CF V. and RUWT equals CD. therefore the parallelogram YT also equals CD.29 are on the same base RX and of the same height. G. namely RY. since the parallelogram RUWT equals the parallelogram YT. ET. Q. of which the parallelogram RX is the base and Yc its opposite.11 . and let them meet the plane at the points O. U. N. AG. of which the parallelogram RX is the base and UV its opposite. and RS.11 Therefore each of the solids CF and YX has to RI the same ratio. and I.35 V. TW. therefore the base CD is to DT as YT is to DT. Tb. V. therefore the solid XY also equals the solid AE. therefore the base CD is to the base DT as the solid CF is to the solid RI. F. M. for they are on the same base RT and in the same parallels RT and YW. Draw KO.Then the solid XY. Xc. not be at right angles to the bases AB and CD. for they XI. I say again that the solid AE equals the solid CF.9 equals the solid YX. NY and SI from the points K. PQ. RU. therefore AE also equals CF. X. But YX was proved equal to AE. are on the same straight lines YW and eV. therefore the base YT is to the base TD as the solid YX is to the solid RI. V. HK. MV. E. And. and XV. since it also equals AB. But the base CD is to DT as YT is to DT. equals the solid XU. I. But DT is another parallelogram. For the same reason. T. Next. therefore the solid CF is to the solid RI as the solid YX is to RI.

29 has now been generalized two steps.Joyce Clark University . But the solid KV equals the solid AE. The statement that started with XI. while the ends of their edges which stand up are not on the same straight lines. for they are on the equal bases KM and QS and of the same height.E. Therefore the solid AE also equals the solid CF. parallelepipedal solids which are on equal bases and of the same height equal one another.E. Above XI.D. In the next proposition the heights of the two parallelepipeds remain equal.30 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. and their sides which stand up are at right angles to their bases. and QI equals CF. but also in three more of the remaining propositions of Book XI.Then the solid KV equals the solid QI. Q. Next proposition: XI.30 Therefore. The present proposition is used not only in the proof of the next. for they are on the same base and of the same height. but the bases vary.32 Previous: XI.

Euclid does not specifically . This completes the sequence of generalizations of proposition XI. Let AB and CD be parallelepipedal solids of the same height. therefore the solid AB to the solid CD as the base AE is to the base CF.25 Therefore. therefore the solid CD is to the solid DH as the base CF is to the base FH. that the solid AB to the solid CD as the base AE is to the base CF .29. Apply FH equal to AE to FG.D. I.45 I. Complete the parallelepipedal solid GK with the same height as that of CD on FH as base. But the base FH equals the base AE. that is. Q. and the solid GK equals the solid AB. XI.31 Then the solid AB equals the solid GK for they are on equal bases AE and FH and of the same height.E.Proposition 32 Parallelepipedal solids which are of the same height are to one another as their bases.31 XI. I say that the parallelepipedal solids AB and CD are to one another as their bases. since the parallelepipedal solid CK is cut by the plane DG which is parallel to opposite planes. And. parallelepipedal solids which are of the same height are to one another as their bases.

have a corresponding proposition "parallelepipedal solids with equal bases are to one another as their heights. Next proposition: XI. he investigates other aspects of volumes of parallelepipeds.E. which depend on this one.33 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University .31 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D." but in the next two propositions.

I. and let AE be the side corresponding to CF. and the latter three equal and are similar to their opposites. therefore the whole solid KP equals and is similar to the whole solid CD. and EM equal to FR. EL.3 I. Produce EK. therefore the parallelogram KL equals and is similar to the parallelogram CN. Make EK equal to CF.10 . For the same reason the parallelogram KM equals and is similar to CR. while the angle KEL equals the angle CFN. But the former three parallelograms equal and are similar to their opposites. Let AB and CD be similar parallelepipedal solids. for the angle AEG also equals the angle CFN because AB and CD are similar solids. and EP equals and is similar to DF.24 XI. Therefore three parallelograms of the solid KP equal and are similar to three parallelograms of the solid CD. and HE. I say that the solid AB has to the solid CD the ratio triplicate of that which AE has to CF. and EM in a straight line with AE. Complete the parallelogram KL and the solid KP.Proposition 33 Similar parallelepipedal solids are to one another in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. since the two sides KE and EL equal the two sides CF and FN. XI. GE.31 Now.Def. EL equal to FN.

and QE is to KM as the solid QL is to the solid KP.Def. And CF equals EK. Therefore. and as EH is to FR. therefore GE is to EL as GK is to KL. . therefore the solid AB has also to the solid CD the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side of it. Then since the solids AB and CD are similar. and the straight line EK equals CF. and as QE is to KM. Similar parallelepipedal solids are to one another in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides.9 VI. therefore AE is to CF as EG is to FN. But AB is to EO as the parallelogram AG is to GK. in as much as the first has to the fourth the ratio triplicate of that which it has to the second. AE. if four magnitudes are continuously proportional. therefore the solid AB has to KP the ratio triplicate of that which AB has to EO. has to the corresponding side CF. Q. an analogous proposition about similar pyramids. and HE is to EM as QE is to KM. and complete the solids EO and LQ on the parallelograms GK and KL as bases with the same height as that of AB. therefore AE is to EK as GE is to EL. But the solid KP equals the solid CD. then the first is to the fourth as a parallelepipedal solid on the first is to the similar and similarly situated parallelepipedal solid on the second.Def. But AE is to EK as AG is to the parallelogram GK. I. and FR equals EM. This proposition is used in the proof of proposition XI.8. E. V.37 and later in XII.1 But AG is to GK as the solid AB is to the solid EO.Complete the parallelogram GK. and as the straight line AE is to EK.31 XI. then the first has to the fourth the ratio triplicate of that which it has to the second. therefore the solid AB is to EO as EO is to QL.32 solid QL. hence the solid AB also has to KP the ratio triplicate of that which AE has to EK. FN equals EL. D. Therefore the parallelogram AG is to GK as GK to is KL. But. and as QL is to KP. GK is to KL as the solid OE is to the XI. and as HE is to EM.10 VI. If four straight lines are continuously proportional.1 Corollary.

Next proposition: XI.E.32 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.34 Previous: XI.Joyce Clark University .

but let EH be greater. XI. then CM equal AG.Proposition 34 In equal parallelepipedal solids the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. and it is clear that in the parallelepipedal solids AB and CD the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. If now the base EH equals the base NQ. and the base EH is to NQ as CM is to AG. Next. Make CT equal to AG. LB. that is the base EH is to the base NQ as the height of the solid CD is to the height of the solid AB. Let AB and CD be equal parallelepipedal solids. and the solid AB equals the solid CD.31 . First. let the sides which stand up. NO. let the base EH not be equal to the base NQ. I say that in the parallelepipedal solids AB and CD the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. HK. Now the solid AB equals the solid CD. CM. For parallelepipedal solids of the same height are to one another as the bases. PD. therefore CM is also greater than AG. be at right angles to their bases. I say that the base EH is to the base NQ as CM is to AG. and those parallelepipedal solids in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights are equal. complete the parallelepipedal solid VC on NQ as base with CT as height.32 I. EF.3 I. and QR. namely AG.

and CV is outside them. FE. X. BL. and AG equals CT. W.1 XI.11 . O. X. V. Therefore each of V.25 VI.3 I. therefore the base EH is to the base NQ as MC is to AG. But parallelepipedal solids on equal bases and of the same height equal one another. not be at right angles to their bases. Draw perpendiculars from the points F. for the solids AB and CV are of equal height. therefore the height of the solid CD also equals the height of the solid AB. B.32 VI. therefore the solid AB equals the solid CD. Therefore the height of the solid CD is also greater than the height of the solid AB. and R to the planes through EH and NQ. Since the base EH is to the base NQ as MC is to AG.7 XI.32 XI. Next. GA. and the solid CD is to the solid CV as the base MQ is to the base TQ and CM is to CT.31 I. and RQ. Now. that is. and complete the solid CV. HK. in the parallelepipedal solids AB and CD let the bases be reciprocally proportional to the heights. Complete the solids FV and Oa. and CM is to CT as the base MQ is to the base QT and as the solid CD is to the solid CV. therefore the base EH is to the base NQ as CM is to CT. let the base EH not be equal to the base NQ. CM is greater than AG. But CT equals AG. V. Y. and the base EH is to the base NQ as the height of the solid CD is to the height of the solid AB.31 XI. G. MC. But the solid AB is to the solid CY as the base EH is to the base NQ. that is the base EH is to the base NQ.1 XI. so let the height of the solid CD be to the height of the solid AB. and equals have to the same the same ratio. Therefore in the parallelepipedal solids AB and CD the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. Make CT equal to AG again. therefore the base EH is to the base NQ as MC is to CT. I say that the solid AB equals the solid CD. and a.Now. U. for the solids AB and CV are of equal height.9 the solids AB and CD has to CV the same ratio. Therefore the solid AB equals the solid CD. But the base EH is to the base NQ as the solid AB is to the solid CV. DP. Let the sides which stand up be at right angles to the bases. if the base EH equals the base NQ. since the solid AB equals the solid CD. M.25 Therefore the solid AB is to the solid CV as the solid CD to the solid CV. ON. therefore the solid AB is to the solid CV as the solid CD is to the solid CV. K. but let EH be greater. D. Again. T. and let them meet the planes at S. Now let the sides which stand up.

therefore the base EH is to the base NQ as the height of the solid DX is to the height of the solid BT. for they are on the same base FK and of the same height. Therefore the base FK is to the base OR as the height of the solid DX is to the height of the solid BT.30 Above Next. then the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. since the base EH is to the base NQ as the height of the solid CD is to the height of the solid AB.29 XI. in the parallelepipedal solids AB and CD let the bases be reciprocally proportional to the heights. that is. . so let the height of the solid CD be to the height of the solid AB. that is. I say that the solid AB equals the solid CD. in this case too. With the same construction. But the base FK equals the base EH. XI. therefore the base EH is to the base NQ as the height of the solid DC is to the height of the solid AB. and AB equals BT. and NQ equals OR. Therefore in the parallelepipedal solids AB and CD the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. and the base OR equals the base NQ. if the solids AB and CD are equal. therefore the base FK is to the base OR as the height of the solid CD is to the height of the solid AB. therefore the solid BT also equals the solid DX. and the solid CD equals DX. But the solids DX and BT and the solids DC and BA have the same heights respectively. Since the solid AB equals the solid CD. as the base EH is to the base NQ. the base EH is to the base NQ as the height of the solid CD to the height of the solid AB. and the base EH equals the base FK.I say that. for they are again on the same base RO and of the same height.

and those parallelepipedal solids in which the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights are equal. is not in Euclid's style. Therefore in the parallelepipedal solids BT and DX the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. and proportional to its height for equal bases (not actually stated by Euclid). But BT equals BA. Such a proof. therefore the base FK is to the base OR as the height of the solid DX is to the height of the solid BT. Therefore the solid AB also equals the solid CD. although simpler. an analogous statement about pyramids.32). Therefore the solid BT equals the solid DX. Next proposition: XI. E. in equal parallelepipedal solids the bases are reciprocally proportional to the heights. The volume of a parallelepiped is proportional to its base for equal heights (XI. Above XI. and the solid DX equals the solid DC. This proposition is used in the proof of proposition XII.35 Previous: XI. for they are on the same base FK and of the same height. therefore the base and height are inversely proportional for equal volumes.Joyce Clark University . A proof of this proposition could be made with very little regard to geometry but almost entirely in terms of abstract proportions.9. D.29 XI.33 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.But the solids AB and CD and the solids BT and DX have the same heights respectively.30 Therefore. Q.E.

Let the angles BAC and EDF be two equal rectilinear angles.Proposition 35 If there are two equal plane angles. MF. therefore HK is also perpendicular to the plane through BA and AC.8 I. I.12 . namely. XI.3 I. then they contain with the elevated straight lines equal angles. and from the points A and D let the elevated straight lines AG and DM be set up containing. Join LA and ND. AB. Since GL is perpendicular to the plane through BA and AC. with the original straight lines. equal angles respectively. if on the elevated straight lines points are taken at random and perpendiculars are drawn from them to the planes in which the original angles are. and let them meet the planes at L and N. the angle MDE equal to the angle GAB and the angle MDF equal to the angle GAC. Draw KC. NF.31 XI. KB and NE from the points K and N perpendicular to the straight lines AC. I say that the angle GAL equals the angle MDN. Draw GL and MN from the points G and M perpendicular to the plane through BA and AC and the plane through ED and DF. and FE. DF. CB. and draw HK through the point H parallel to GL. and on their vertices there are set up elevated straight lines containing equal angles with the original straight lines respectively.11 Make AH equal to DM. and if from the points so arising in the planes straight lines are joined to the vertices of the original angles. Take the points G and M at random on AG and DM. and DE. Join HC.

the two sides CA and AB equal the two sides FD and DE. that is. if there are two equal plane angles.Since the square on HA equals the sum of the squares on HK and KA. Therefore the angle ACH equals the angle DFM. and CA. and one side equal to one side. And. then they contain with the elevated straight lines equal angles.8 Therefore.26 I. Therefore MDF and HAC are two triangles which have two angles equal to two angles respectively. Therefore AC equals DF. and one side equal to one side.47 I. namely. therefore the two sides AC and CK equal the two sides DF and FN. I. that is. therefore the remaining square on KH equals the square on NM.47 I. that adjacent to the equal angles. But the square on HC equals the sum of the squares on HK and KC.4 And. Similarly we can prove that AB also equals DE. But the angle HAC equals the angle MDF. if on the elevated straight lines points are taken at random and perpendiculars are drawn from them to the planes in which the original angles are. Since then AC equals DF. BC equals EF. and the remaining angles to the remaining angles. KC. . therefore the angle HAK equals the angle MDN. Therefore the angle HCA is right. For the same reason the angle CBK also equals the angle FEN. since AH equals DM. therefore the remaining angle BCK equals the remaining angle EFN. that opposite one of the equal angles. Therefore CK equals FN. since the two sides HA and AK equal the two sides MD and DN respectively. Therefore the base AK equals the base DN. therefore the remaining sides equal the remaining sides. therefore the base BC equals the base EF. therefore they also have the remaining sides equal to the remaining sides respectively. therefore the square on HA equals the sum of the squares on HC and CA. the triangle equals the triangle. Therefore BCK and EFN are two triangles which have two angles equal to two angles respectively. I. But the angle CAB also equals the angle FDE. therefore the square on AH equals the square on DM. and the sum of the squares on DN and NM equals the square on DM. namely. for the angle DNM is right. and if from the points so arising in the planes straight lines are joined to the vertices of the original angles. For the same reason the angle DFM is also right. HA equals MD. Therefore the angle ACB equals the angle DPE.47 therefore the sum of the squares on AK and KH equals the sum of the squares on DN and NM. But AC also equals DF. And of these the square on AK equals the square on DN.4 I. and AB equals DE. and the sum of the squares on KC and CA equals the square on KA. and they contain right angles. But the sum of the squares on AK and KH equals the square on AH. for the angle AKH is right. Therefore HK equals MN.26 I. and the base HK equals the base MN. But the right angle ACK equals the right angle DFN. I. and on their vertices there are set up elevated straight lines containing equal angles with the original straight lines respectively.48 I. therefore the square on HA equals the sum of the squares on HK.

Euclid's proof is quite long. and the corollary is used there to show two parallelepipeds have the same height. From this it is clear that. Q. E. and if elevated straight lines set up on them which are equal and contain equal angles with the original straight lines respectively. then the perpendiculars drawn from their ends to the planes in which are the original angles equal one another. Next proposition: XI.Corollary. D.34 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. if there are two equal plane angles. Various authors have substituted shorter ones.E.36 Previous: XI. The situation described here occurs in the next proposition.Joyce Clark University .

Complete the parallelepipedal solid EK. Thus the sides about the equal angles NLM. and MLN. and B equals each of the straight lines LO. Make LO equal to B. Now. Set out the solid angle at E contained by the angles DEG. and FED. namely that contained by NLO. and C to LN. since the angles DEF and NLM are two plane rectilinear angles. VI. therefore LM is to EF as DE is to LN. Let A.Cor .35. and make each of the straight lines DE. OLM.3 LM equal to the solid angle at E. GEF. ED. but equiangular with the aforesaid solid. therefore the perpendiculars drawn from the points G and O to the planes through NL and LM and through DE and EF equal one another.Proposition 36 If three straight lines are proportional. therefore the parallelogram MN equals the parallelogram DF. Construct a solid angle at the point L on the straight line I. since A is to B as B is to C. DEF are reciprocally proportional. and C be three straight lines in proportion. but equiangular with the aforesaid solid. And. while A equals LM. Make LM equal to A. and on them the elevated straight lines LO and EG are set up which equal one an other and contain equal angles with the original straight lines respectively. and LN equal to C. then the parallelepipedal solid formed out of the three equals the parallelepipedal solid on the mean which is equilateral. B. so that A is to B as B is to C. and C equals the solid on B which is equilateral. GE. I say that the solid formed out of A.4 XI. B. therefore the solids LH and EK are of the same height. and EF equal to B.

therefore the parallelepipedal solid formed out of A.37 Previous: XI.D. but equiangular with the aforesaid solid.E. Next proposition: XI. and C equals the solid on B which is equilateral.Joyce Clark University . therefore the solid HL equals the solid EK. if three straight lines are proportional. XI. which they do if the base of the first is taken to be the parallelogram MN and the base of the second the parallelogram DF.But parallelepipedal solids on equal bases and of the same height equal one another. And LH is the solid formed out of A.35 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. but equiangular with the aforesaid solid. This straightforward proof depends on viewing the two parallelepipeds as having the same height. and EK is the solid on B. B. then the parallelepipedal solid formed out of the three equals the parallelepipedal solid on the mean which is equilateral.31 Therefore.E. and C. Q. B.

Next as the solid AK is to the solid LC. therefore KA has to LC the ratio triplicate of that which AB has to CD. so that AB is to CD as EF is to GH. CD. so let the solid ME be to the solid NG. Let AB. For the same reason ME has to NG the ratio triplicate XI. and GH be four straight lines in proportion. I say that KA is to LC as ME is to NG. and let there be described on AB. then the straight lines themselves are also proportional. ME. .Proposition 37 If four straight lines are proportional. EF. and. then parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described are also proportional. And AB is to CD as EF is to GH. CD. EF. Therefore AK is to LC as ME is to NG. and GH the similar and similarly situated parallelepipedal solids KA. LC. if the parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described are proportional.33 of that which EF has to GH. NG. Since the parallelepipedal solid KA is similar to LC.

This proposition completes the theory of volumes of parallelepipeds. E. In the proof of this proposition it is assumed that two ratios are equal if and only if their triplicate ratios are equal.Joyce Clark University . therefore AB is to CD as EF is to GH. then the straight lines themselves are also proportional.E. and KA is to LC as ME is to NG. if four straight lines are proportional. again. then parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described are also proportional. Since. and. D. Next proposition: XI. but not difficult. KA has to LC the ratio triplicate of that which AB has to CD.38 Previous: XI. The required proof is long and detailed.36 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. if the parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described are proportional.33 Therefore. and ME also has to NG the ratio triplicate of that which EF has to GH. Q. XI.I say that the straight line AB is to CD as EF is to GH.

I. Therefore DUE is a straight line. since DO is parallel to PE. For the same reason BSG is also a straight line. Let US be the common section of the planes. then the intersection of the planes and the diameter of the cube bisect one another. N. and DT equals TG. O. P.4 equal the remaining angles. and R. Let the sides of the opposite planes CF and AH of the cube AF be bisected at the points K.14 .29 Since DO equals PE. UE. Therefore the angle OUD equals the angle PUE. the triangle DOU equals the triangle PUE. therefore the alternate angles DOU and UPE equal one another. therefore the base DU equals the base UE. L. and they contain equal angles. and SG. and the planes are carried through the points of section. and BS equals SG. Then. Join DU. and DG the diameter of the cube AF. BS.Proposition 38 If the sides of the opposite planes of a cube are bisected. Q. I say that UT equals TS. and the remaining angles I. I. and through the points of section let the planes KN and OR be carried. and OU equals UP. M.

therefore DB equals and is parallel to EG.17 a dodecahedron is constructed based on a cube. D. and the fact proven here in XI.29 I. and the angle DTU equals the angle GTS.Joyce Clark University . XI. There are a couple of details missing from this proof. Therefore the angle EDT equals the angle BGT. for they are alternate. namely that opposite one of the equal angles. E. and UT equals TS.38 is needed to show that the point T where SU intersects DG is the center of a sphere circumscribing the cube.9 I.E. while CA also equals and is parallel to EG. and that the line SU actually intersects the line DG. DU equals GS. This proposition takes care of a specific situation that occurs in proposition XIII. For instance. if the sides of the opposite planes of a cube are bisected. it is not shown that KL and MN actually lie in one plane. Therefore DT equals TG.26 Q. for they are the halves of DE and BG. And the straight lines DE and BG join their ends. and the planes are carried through the points of section. Therefore DTU and GTS are two triangles which have two angles equal to two angles and one side equal to one side. therefore DE is parallel to BG.39 Previous: XI. since CA equals and is parallel to DB. therefore the remaining sides equal the remaining sides.17. Next proposition: XI. then the intersection of the planes and the diameter of the cube bisect one another.33 I. In XIII. Therefore.Now.37 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.15 I. that is.

let one have the parallelogram AF as base. if there are two prisms of equal height. and if the parallelogram is double the triangle. This proposition is designed specifically to take care of a situation that occurs in propositions XII. therefore the prism ABCDEF equals the prism GMKLMN. E. therefore the solid AO equals the solid GP.34 XI. then the prisms are equal. I say that the prism ABCDEF equals the prism GHKLMN. I. And the prism ABCDEF is half of the solid AO. therefore the parallelogram AF equals the parallelogram HK. and the prism GHKLMN is half of the solid GP. But parallelepipedal solids on equal bases of the same height equal one another.Proposition 39 If there are two prisms of equal height. and let the parallelogram AF be double the triangle GHK. D. Complete the solids AO and GP. and the parallelogram HK is also double the triangle GHK.28 Therefore.31 XI. and one has a parallelogram as base and the other a triangle. Let ABCDEF and GHKLMN be two prisms of equal height. and one has a parallelogram as base and the other a triangle. then the prisms are equal. and the other the triangle GHK.3 . Q. Since the parallelogram AF is double the triangle GHK. and if the parallelogram is double the triangle.

which therefore are equal.E. but the base of the first is taken to be one of the parallelograms ACFE on its side while the base of the second is a triangular end GHK. and so are their halves.38 Book XI introduction Select from Book XI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. To say that they have the height means the distance from the vertex B to the plane of the parallelogram ACEF is the same as the distance from the vertex M to the plane of the triangle GHK.5 concerning the volume of a pyramid. they are doubled to create two parallelepipeds of the same height and equal bases.4 on the way to proving XII. the original prisms. Both of the prisms in this proposition are triangular.and XII.Joyce Clark University . Next book: Book XII introduction Previous proposition: XI. When the solids are completed.

if A:B = m:n." . If the two magnitudes are not commensurable.2 through X. In particular X. For example. that is. And conversely.5 and X. then the ratio of magnitudes A:B is the same as the ratio of numbers m:n. there are numbers m and n such that nC = A and mC = B. and those incommensurable which cannot have any common measure. then the 1/nth part of A equals the 1/mth part of B. Note that this definition only applies to lines. See definition V. that is. see below. but lines can be commensurable in square but not commensurable.8 and several later ones deal with commensurable and incommensurable magnitudes. commensurable lines are also commensurable in square." Certainly. in other words. if nC = A and mC = B.Definitions I Definition 1 Those magnitudes are said to be commensurable which are measured by the same measure. and incommensurable in square when the squares on them cannot possibly have any area as a common measure. Two magnitudes A and B of the same kind are commensurable if there is another magnitude C of the same kind such that both are multiples of C.Def. Ratios of numbers are known to modern mathematicians as rational numbers while other ratios are known as irrational numbers.6 state that two magnitudes are commensurable if and only if their ratio is the ratio of a number to a number. Euclid used the words "rational" and "irrational" in a different way in Definition 3. Definition 2 Straight lines are commensurable in square when the squares on them are measured by the same area. then they're called incommensurable. "commensurable is square only. only lines are ever said to be "commensurable in square.5 for the defintion of equality of ratios (also known as a proportion). Propositions X. Unfortunately.

the sides themselves. Definition 3 With these hypotheses.47. but in case they are any other rectilineal figures. by I. one line is chosen as a standard. so that an area is rational. The usual uses of these words correspond to commensurable and incommensurable. or in square only. the straight lines on which are described squares equal to them. Thus. even though it's incommensurable with the standard line. whether in length and in square. In modern terms we would say that the square root of 2 is not a rational number. but those which are incommensurable with it irrational. Euclid uses the words "rational" and "irrational" differently than mathematicians both before and after him. and lines incommensurable in square. They are commensurable in square since the square on B is twice the square on A. rational. and those straight lines which are commensurable with it. and those areas which are commensurable with it rational. then another line is called rational if it is commensurable in square.10 which finds lines commensurable in square only. But when applied to lines Euclid makes them correspond to commensurable in square and incommensurable in square. Definition 4 And the let the square on the assigned straight line be called rational. according to Euclid. since it's commensurable in square with it. if it's commensurable with the standard square. and irrational if not. respectively. But they are not commensurable lines. and the straight lines which produce them irrational. First. Let then the assigned straight line be called rational. Although Euclid uses "rational" in an unusual way for lines. The proof referred to at the beginning of this definition is that of X. it is proved that there exist straight lines infinite in multitude which are commensurable and incommensurable respectively.The most famous example of this phenomenon consists of the side A and the diagonal B of a square. with an assigned straight line. he uses it in the usual way for areas. some in length only. that is. and . the diagonal on the square on the standard line is rational. and others in square also. but those that are incommensurable with it irrational. in case the areas are squares.

E. Book X Introduction .Proposition X.Joyce Clark University .1. © 1996 D.irrational otherwise.

FG. From AB subtract BH greater than its half. Therefore AK is less than C. and from AH subtract HK greater than its half.Def. if from AB there is subtracted a magnitude greater than its half. then there will be left some magnitude which is less than the magnitude C. But DF equals C. FG. I say that. then there will be left some magnitude less than the lesser magnitude set out. and from that which is left a magnitude greater than its half. since GD is greater than HA. Divide DE into the parts DF. and from HA. if from the greater there is subtracted a magnitude greater than its half. And. and. and from DE there has been subtracted EG less than its half. BH greater than its half. Let. therefore the remainder DF is greater than the remainder AK.Proposition 1 Two unequal magnitudes being set out. and HB be divisions equal in multitude with DF. Now. KH. AK. and from that which is left a magnitude greater than its half. and if this process is repeated continually. Let AB and C be two unequal magnitudes of which AB is the greater. and GE. therefore C is also greater than AK. Therefore there is left of the magnitude AB the magnitude AK which is less cf. Some multiple DE of C is greater than AB. and GE equal to C. therefore the remainder GD is greater than the remainder HA. from AB. and if this process is repeated continually. HK greater than its half. since DE is greater than AB. then.4 . V. and there has been subtracted from GD the half GF. and repeat this process continually until the divisions in AB are equal in multitude with the divisions in DE.

and from that which is left a magnitude greater than its half. It is specifically used in propositions XII. Q. Use of this proposition This proposition is the foundation of the method of exhaustion of Book XII. Euclid himself proved that a horn angle is less than any rectilinear angle in proposition III.Proposition X. then no multiple of C is greater than AB.than the lesser magnitude set out. namely C. And the theorem can similarly be proven even if the parts subtracted are halves.5.E. and the magnitude AB is a rectilinear angle. if from the greater there is subtracted a magnitude greater than its half.2. Therefore.11.16.Def. then there will be left some magnitude less than the lesser magnitude set out. and if this process is repeated continually. It is not used in the rest of Book X and would. XII. Book X Introduction . XII. perhaps. XII. The proof begins with two magnitudes C and AB and claims that some multiple of C is greater then AB.2. Definition V.16 and must have recognized that if the magnitude C is a horn angle.12.10. This method is used in the propositions concerning areas of circles and volumes of solids. Nonetheless.I . © 1996 D. he did not qualify this proposition to say that it only holds for certain kinds of magnitudes.Joyce Clark University . and XII. XII.4 is not a justification for this statement.Definitions X.E. be better placed at the beginning of Book XII.D. two unequal magnitudes being set out.

then some magnitude E measures them. since E measures AB. leave AG less than itself. therefore it also measures the remainder AG. Therefore the magnitudes AB and CD are incommensurable. measuring FD. is again used in this proposition. when the less is continually subtracted in turn from the greater. Q. But CF measures BG. X. and let there be left AG less than E. then the two magnitudes are incommensurable. therefore E also measures BG.Def. let that which is left over never measure the one before it.D. But it measures the whole AB also. leave CF less than itself. while AB measures DF. Therefore no magnitude measures the magnitudes AB and CD. whichever it is. first used in proposition VII. is repeated subtracted . therefore it also measures the remainder CF. when the less of two unequal magnitudes is continually subtracted in turn from the greater that which is left never measures the one before it. Then. But it measures the whole CD also. Let AB.E. There being two unequal magnitudes AB and CD. Suppose this done. then the two magnitudes are incommensurable.1. the smaller. when the less of two unequal magnitudes is continually subtracted in turn from the greater that which is left never measures the one before it. and let this process be repeated continually.Proposition 2 If. Antenaresis (also called the Euclidean algorithm). If they are commensurable. which is impossible. with AB being the less. I say that the magnitudes AB and CD are incommensurable. if.1 Therefore. the greater the less. let CF measuring BG. until there is left some magnitude which is less than E. therefore E also measures FD. Beginning with two magnitudes.

When its base BC is subtracted from a side AC then the remainder CD is the base of a similar triangle BCD. Likewise. but its conclusion is different. so that X. This triangle was used in the following proposition IV. BC.1 . Thus.10. Proposition VII. however. perhaps for an intended logical connection. in particular. and so forth. An example of incommensurable magnitudes Consider the 36°-72°-72° triangle constructed ABC in proposition IV. Thus. Euclid did. It is similar to this proposition." Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next one. Cutting the line AB at C to make this ratio AB:BC is called in VI. and these lines form a never-ending continued a series of triangles proportion.2 works just as well here. And so forth. put X. EF.3 cutting AB into extreme and mean ratio. when the base CD of this new triangle is subtracted from its side BD then the remainder DE is the base of yet another smaller similar triangle CDE. © 1996 D.1 concerns relatively prime numbers. DE.Joyce Clark University ..Proposition X. whatever justification Euclid intended back in proposition VII. according to this proposition.1 just before this proposition.Def.1 might be invoked.3.1 to prove this proposition.Proposition X. there is a missing statement to the effect that GB is greater than half of AB. If so. A more modern name for this ratio is the "golden ratio.from the larger. when we begin with the two lines AB and BC and apply the algorithm of antenaresis to them. AB:BC = BC:CD = CD:DE = DE:EF = . Book X Introduction . Since both magnitudes are multiples of E. and so forth. the two quantities AB and BC are incommensurable. Heath claims that Euclid uses X.. to show that antenaresis eventually leaves some magnitude which is less than E. CD.E. we get a series of lines which never ends AB. It is hard to tell what Euclid thought his justification was.11 to construct regular pentagons.

But it measures CE also. therefore G also measures FB. Let AB. AF measures CE. Therefore AF is a common measure of AB and CD. But CE measures FB. If it measures it. let AB not measure CD. therefore G also measures ED. leave AF less than itself. the greater X. Then. measuring FB. I say next that it is also the greatest. But it measures itself also. Since. and let AF measure CE. let EC. Next. while AB measures ED. therefore AF also measures FB. And it is manifest that it is also the greatest.2 . therefore G measures the remainder CE. But it measures the whole CD also.Proposition 3 To find the greatest common measure of two given commensurable magnitudes. But AB measures DE. leave EC less than itself. and it therefore measures the remainder AF. Since then G measures AB. Now the magnitude AB either measures CD or it does not. then that which is left over will sometime measure the one before it. therefore it also measures the whole CD. for a greater magnitude than the magnitude AB does not measure AB. If not. and it does measures itself. if the less is continually subtracted in turn from the greater. while CE measures FB. then there there is some magnitude G greater than AF which measures AB and CD. therefore AF also measures ED. therefore AF also measures the whole AB. It is required to find the greatest common measure of AB and CD. then AB is a common measure of AB and CD. Let the two given commensurable magnitudes be AB and CD with AB the less. because AB and CD are not incommensurable. measuring ED. then. But it measures the whole AB also.

E. © 1996 D. Therefore the greatest common measure of the two given commensurable magnitudes AB and CD has been found. Therefore no magnitude greater than AF measures AB and CD.the less. Therefore AF is the greatest common measure of AB and CD. This proposition and its corollary are used in the next proposition. which is impossible.4. Book X Introduction .3 with the same diagram and the same corollary. Corollary.Proposition X. then it also measures their greatest common measure.D. only the terminology is slightly different. From this it is manifest that.2 . This is the same proposition as VII. if a magnitude measures two magnitudes.E.Joyce Clark University .Proposition X. Q.

I say next that it is also the greatest. and this of course measures A and B also. therefore E also measures A and B. namely D. and let it measure A. and C be the three given commensurable magnitudes. and C. therefore D is a common measure of A. and C are commensurable. so that it also measures the greatest common measure of A and B. Next. B. therefore E measures A. But it also measures C. and C. X. Therefore E is a common measure of A. Since then D measures C. or it does not measure it. Now take their greatest common measure E. And it is manifest that it is also the greatest. let there be some magnitude F greater than E. some magnitude measures them. and C. Since A. But it measures C also. X.3. B. For. and C. B. Take the greatest common measure D of the two magnitudes A and B. B. B. It is required to find the greatest common measure of A. so that the said magnitude measures C and D. while D measures A and B. while it also measures A and B. First. for a greater magnitude than the magnitude D does not measure A and B. Either D measures C. Since E measures D.3 X. B. let it measure it.3 . Let A. therefore C and D are commensurable. if possible.Cor. B. let D not measure C.Proposition 4 To find the greatest common measure of three given commensurable magnitudes. and C. I say first that C and D are commensurable.

if a magnitude measures three magnitudes.3 . X.3. From this it is manifest that. which is impossible. they bear on the succeeding propositions which use common measures of commensurable magnitudes. Although not explicitly invoked. This is the same proposition as VII. then D is itself the greatest common measure.Cor.Joyce Clark University . and C if D does not measure C. then it also measures their greatest common measure. but if it measures it. This proposition and the last explain how to find the common measure of commensurable magnitudes. therefore F measures C and D.5. B.D. therefore F measures E.Cor. it also measures A and B. since F measures A. Therefore no magnitude greater than the magnitude E measures A. B. Corollary. and therefore measures the greatest common measure of A and B. But the greatest common measure of A and B is D. and the corollary extended.E. Therefore the greatest common measure of the three given commensurable magnitudes has been found. Therefore E is the greatest common measure of A. The greatest common measure can be found similarly for more magnitudes.3. B. and C. the greater the less.3. © 1996 D.Proposition X. X.E. Book X Introduction .Proposition X. therefore F measures D.Now. Therefore F also measures the greatest common measure of C and D. But that is E. and C. Q. But it measures C also.

Proposition 5 Commensurable magnitudes have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number.22 VII. inversely. while the unit also measures D according to the units in it. let so many units be in E. and. then A:B = m:n. Therefore.E. But it was also proved that A is to C as D is to the unit. therefore the unit measures the number D the same number of times as the magnitude C measures A. As many times as C measures A. Therefore. ex aequali. commensurable magnitudes have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number.Cor If A = mC and B = nC. Again.20 V.Def. since C measures B according to the units in E. V.7. while the unit also measures E according to the units in it. Let A and B be commensurable magnitudes. Therefore C is to A as the unit is to D. A is to C as D is to the unit. let so many units be in D. therefore. Therefore C is to B as the unit is to E. some magnitude C measures them. as many times as C measures B. Since A and B are commensurable. Therefore the commensurable magnitudes A and B have to one another the ratio which the number D has to the number E. Q. Since C measures A according to the units in D. A is to B as the number D is to E. I say that A has to B the ratio which a number has to a number.D. therefore the unit measures E the same number of times as C measures B. .

4 .Proposition X. and a few propositions after that.9 instead of being separate. and the contrapositive of this one. the two definitions of proportion V. and the two following that are its contrapositive.6.20 are compatible.The proof here assumes that numbers are magnitudes.Proposition X. © 1996 D. but the following four statements are bundled together into one proposition X.Def.Joyce Clark University . Perhaps originally each group of four was bundled together. but later the first group was separated.8.Def. its contrapositive. It is not clear why these four statements are separated into four propositions. This proposition is used in X.E. The next proposition is the converse of this one. that is to say. Book X Introduction .5 and VII.

and let C equal one of them.Proposition 6 If two magnitudes have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number.20 part is C of A also.Def. Q. But C measures F. Further it measures A also. VII. I say that the magnitudes A and B are commensurable. if two magnitudes have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number. A is to F as D is to E. therefore C also measures A. then the magnitudes are commensurable. Therefore A has the same ratio to each of the magnitudes B and F. therefore it measures B also. therefore C is to F as the unit is to E.11 V.22 V. and let F be made up of as many magnitudes equal to C as there are units in E. Therefore B equals F. therefore A is to B as it is to F also. therefore.E. Therefore. since there are in F as many magnitudes equal to C as there are units in E.Cor. Again. And since C is to A as the unit is to D. V. then the magnitudes are commensurable. Since then there are in A as many magnitudes equal to C as there are units in D. ex aequali.7. therefore C measures A and B. But D is to E as A is to B. A is to C as the number D is to the unit. Therefore A is commensurable with B. inversely. Let the two magnitudes A and B have to one another the ratio which the number D has to the number E. the same VII. But the unit measures the number D. Therefore C is to A as the unit is to D.D.20 V. therefore. Divide A into as many equal parts as there are units in D. whatever part the unit is of D.9 . But it was also proved that A is to C as D is to the unit.Def.

then it is possible to make a straight line F such that the given straight line is to it as the number D is to the number E. It is also used in proposition XIII. a 60° angle cannot be trisected by a Euclidean construction.6. the first is to the third as the figure on the first is to that which is similar and similarly described on the second. however.Cor. If A:B = m:n. V. But A is to F as the number D is to the number E.Joyce Clark University . therefore the number D is to the number E as the figure on the straight line A is to the figure on the straight line B.19. then A is to F as the square on A is to the square on B.5 .Corollary. and a straight line as A. that is.Proposition X.Proposition X. The proof assumes that magnitudes are divisible. Use of this propostion The proposition is used in very frequently in Book X starting with the next proposition.E. For instance. its contrapositive. are constructively divisible. if there are two numbers as D and E. with C equal to A/m. Book X Introduction . © 1996 D. Not all magnitudes.10. it follows that A = mC and B = nC. From this it is manifest that. then. And if a mean proportional is also taken between A and F. as B. The corollary is also used frequently in Book X starting with X. An alternate proof which does not depend on divisibility of magnitudes can be based on antenaresis.7.

6 . X. therefore A does not have to B the ratio which a number has to a number.Proposition 7 Incommensurable magnitudes do not have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number. then A is commensurable with B.Joyce Clark University .E. © 1996 D. If A does have to B the ratio which a number has to a number. Book X Introduction .Proposition X.D. incommensurable magnitudes do not have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number.8. But it is not. I say that A does not have to B the ratio which a number has to a number.E. Let A and B be incommensurable magnitudes. Therefore.11.6 This proposition is the contrapositive of the last one. It is used in X. Q.Proposition X.

11.Proposition X. then the magnitudes are incommensurable. It is used in frequently in X. Let the two magnitudes A and B not have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number. © 1996 D.E.D. then the magnitudes are incommensurable. then A has to B the ratio which a number has to a number.5. I say that the magnitudes A and B are incommensurable.9. For. if they are commensurable.Joyce Clark University . therefore the magnitudes A and B are incommensurable.Proposition 8 If two magnitudes do not have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number.7 .5 This proposition is the contrapositive of X.Proposition X. Book X Introduction . But it does not.E. Therefore. Q. if two magnitudes do not have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number. X.

But the squares on straight lines incommensurable in length do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number.11 . and the square number has to the square number the ratio duplicate of that which the side has to the side.5 which a number has to a number.Proposition 9 The squares on straight lines commensurable in length have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore the square on A is to the square on B as the square on C is to the square on D. while the ratio of the square on A to the square on B is duplicate of the ratio of A to B. Let it have to it the ratio which C has to D.Cor. VI. Let A and B be commensurable in length. for similar figures are in the duplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. and the ratio of the square on C to the square on D is duplicate of the ratio of C to D. VIII. and squares which do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number also do not have their sides commensurable in length either. therefore A has to B the ratio X. for between two square numbers there is one mean proportional number.20. I say that the square on A has to the square on B the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and squares which have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number also have their sides commensurable in length. Since then A is to B as C is to D. Since A is commensurable in length with B.

let A be incommensurable in length with B. Above . I say that the square on A does not have to the square on B the ratio which a square number has to a square number. I say that A is commensurable in length with B. Above Finally. Therefore. the squares on straight lines commensurable in length have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Next. therefore A is not commensurable in length with B. For. But it is not. Therefore A is commensurable in length with B. let the square on A not have to the square on B the ratio which a square number has to a square number. if A is commensurable with B. Since the square on A is to the square on B as the square on C is to the square on D. and the ratio of the square on C to the square on D is duplicate of the ratio of C to D. therefore A is to B as C is to D. and squares which have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number also have their sides commensurable in length.6 Next. If the square on A does have to the square on B the ratio which a square number has to a square number. as the square on A is to the square on B. while the ratio of the square on A to the square on B is duplicate of the ratio of A to B. therefore the square on A does not have to the square on B the ratio which a square number has to a square number. I say that A is incommensurable in length with B. so let the square on C be to the square on D. then the square on A has to the square on B the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and squares which do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number also do not have their sides commensurable in length either. But the squares on straight lines incommensurable in length do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore A has to B the ratio which the number C has to the number D. But it does not. X. then A is commensurable with B.

6 and XIII. which is contrary to the hypothesis. It has been proved in the arithmetical books that similar plane numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. then they are similar plane numbers.8. This proposition has a statement. © 1996. For. It is also used in Book XIII in propositions XIII. that is.10.8 . Book X Introduction . and that. its converse. if they have. VIII. And it is manifest from these propositions that numbers which are not similar plane numbers. And it is manifest from what has been proved that straight lines commensurable in length are always commensurable in square also. For example. Lemma.Proposition X. do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. It says lines are commensurable if and only if the squares on them are in the ratio of a square number to a square number.26 and converse Corollary 2.E. then they are similar plane numbers. Corollary. and 2:1 is not the ratio of a square number to a square number. and its and its converse's contrapositives. if two numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Q. 1998 . but those commensurable in square are not always also commensurable in length. the diagonal of a square and the side of the square are not commensurable since the squares on them are in the ratio 2:1. those which do not have their sides proportional.11. Therefore numbers which are not similar plane numbers do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. The proposition is used repeatedly in Book X starting with the next.D. see the guide to proposition VIII.Proposition X.

E.D.Joyce Clark University .

therefore A is incommensurable in length with D. Therefore the square on A is commensurable with the square on D. It is required to find two straight lines incommensurable. Q. and E in square and of course in length also.D. X.6 And. the one in length only. For . D in length only. X.Cor. therefore neither has the square on A to X. with an assigned straight line. with the assigned straight line A.Def.9 the square on D the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and let it be contrived that B is to C as the square on A is to the square on D. Therefore A is incommensurable in square with E. since B does not have to C the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore the square on A is also incommensurable with the square on E. X. with A. But A is incommensurable in length with D. the one in length only. and the other in square also. for we have learned how to do this. and the other in square also.9 square on E. Take a mean proportional E between A and D.E. that is.Proposition 10 To find two straight lines incommensurable. which are not similar plane numbers.6. Then A is to D as the square on A is to the V. Let A be the assigned straight line.11 This proposition exhibits the lines promised in X. Just take a line D so that the square on A to the square on D is the ratio of two numbers which are not a square number to a square number.I.Def. Therefore two straight lines D and E have been found incommensurable. Set out two numbers B and C which do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number.3.

instance, if A is the side of a square and D the diagonal of that square, then the square on A to the square on D is in the ratio 1:2, which is not the ratio of square number to a square number. Therefore D is commensurable in square only with A. (The ratio D:A is the square root of 2.) Next, if E is the mean proportional between A and D, then E is incommensurable in square with A. (The ratio E:A is the fourth root of 2.) It is certain that this proposition is not genuine. For one thing, its proof uses the next proposition. Also, the phrase "for we have learned how to do this" is the sort of thing a student would write. Finally, in the manuscript P (the primary one used by Peyrard and Heiberg) this proposition is not numbered and the next one is numbered 10. Although not genuine, this proposition ought to be, since it is used in proposition X.27 and others.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.9 - Proposition X.11.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 11
If four magnitudes are proportional, and the first is commensurable with the second, then the third also is commensurable with the fourth; but, if the first is incommensurable with the second, then the third also is incommensurable with the fourth.
Let A, B, C, and D be four magnitudes in proportion, so that A is to B as C is to D, and let A be commensurable with B. I say that C is also commensurable with D. Since A is commensurable with B, therefore A has to B the ratio which a number has to a number. And A is to B as C is to D, therefore C also has to D the ratio which a number has to a number. Therefore C is commensurable with D. Next, let A be incommensurable with B. I say that C is also incommensurable with D. Since A is incommensurable with B, therefore A does not have to B the ratio which a number has to a number. And A is to B as C is to D, therefore neither has C to D the ratio which a number has to a number. Therefore C is incommensurable with D.
X.7 V.11 X.8

X.5

V.11 X.6

Therefore, if four magnitudes are proportional, and the first is commensurable with the second, then the third also is commensurable with the fourth; but, if the first is incommensurable with the second, then the third also is incommensurable with the fourth.
Q.E.D.

The proof if very direct. If A:B = C:D, and the first ratio equals a numeric ratio, then the second equals that, too, but if the first is not a numeric ratio, then neither is the second.

This proposition is used in repeatedly in Book X starting with X.14. It is also used in the previous proposition which was, no doubt, not in the original Elements.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.10 - Proposition X.12.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 12
Magnitudes commensurable with the same magnitude are also commensurable with one another.
Let each of the magnitudes A and B be commensurable with C. I say that A is also commensurable with B. Since A is commensurable with C, therefore A has to C the ratio which a number has to a number. Let it have the ratio which D has to E. Again, since C is commensurable with B, therefore C has to B the ratio which a number has to a number. Let it have the ratio which F has to G. And, given any number of ratios we please, namely the ratio which D has to E and that which F has to G, take the numbers H, K, and L continuously in the given ratios, so that D is to E as H is to K, and F is to G as K is to L. Since A is to C as D is to E, while D is to E as H is to K, therefore A is to C as H is to K. Again, since C is to B as F is to G, while F is to G as K is to L, therefore C is to B as K is to L. But A is to C as H is to K, therefore, ex aequali, A is to B as H is to L. Therefore A has to B the ratio which a number has to a number. Therefore A is commensurable with B.

X.5

VIII.4

V.11

V.22 X.6

Therefore, magnitudes commensurable with the same magnitude are also commensurable with one another.
Q.E.D.

The proof is primarily an application of VIII.4.

This proposition is used in frequently in Book X starting with the next proposition. It is also used in XIII.11.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.11 - Proposition X.13.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 13
If two magnitudes are commensurable, and one of them is incommensurable with any magnitude, then the remaining one is also incommensurable with the same.
Let A and B be two commensurable magnitudes, and let one of them, A, be incommensurable with some other magnitude C. I say that the remaining one, B, is also incommensurable with C. If B is commensurable with C, while A is also commensurable with B, then A is also commensurable with C. But it is also incommensurable with it, which is impossible. Therefore B is not commensurable with C. Therefore it is incommensurable with it. Therefore, if two magnitudes are commensurable, and one of them is incommensurable with any magnitude, then the remaining one is also incommensurable with the same.
Q.E.D. X.12

The proposition is a logical variant of the previous. It is used in very frequently in Book X starting with X.18.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.12 - Proposition X.14.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 14
Lemma.
Given two unequal straight lines, to find by what square the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less. Let AB and C be the given two unequal straight lines, and let AB be the greater of them. It is required to find by what square the square on AB is greater than the square on C. Describe the semicircle ADK on AB, fit AD into it equal to C, and join DB.
IV.1

It is then manifest that the angle ADB is right, and III.31 that the square on AB is greater than the square on I.47 AD, that is, C, by the square on DB. Similarly also, if two straight lines are given, then the straight line the square on which equals the sum of the squares on them is found in this manner. Let AD and DB be the given two straight lines, and let it be required to find the straight line the square on which equals the sum of the squares on them. Place them so as to contain a right angle ADB, and join AB. It is again manifest that the straight line the square on which equals the sum of the squares on AD and DB is AB.
I.47

Proposition 14 If four straight lines are proportional, and the square on the first is greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line commensurable with the first, then the square on the third is also greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a third line commensurable with the third. And, if the square on the first is greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the first, then the square on the third is also greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a third line incommensurable with the third.

Let A, B, C, and D be four straight lines in proportion, so that A is to B as C is to D, and let the square on A be greater than the square on B by the square on E, and let the square on C be greater than the square on D by the square on F. I say that, if A is commensurable with E, then C is also commensurable with F, and, if A is incommensurable with E, then C is also incommensurable with F. Since A is to B as C is to D, therefore the square on A is to the square on B as the square on C is to the square on D.

Lemma

VI.22

But the sum of the squares on E and B equals the square on A, and the sum of the squares on D and F equals the square on C. Therefore the sum of the squares on E and B is to the square on B as the sum of the squares on D and F is to the square on D. Therefore, taken separately, the square on E is to the square on B as the square on F is to V.17 the square on D. Therefore E is to B as F is to D. Therefore, inversely, B is to E as D is to VI.22 V.7.Cor F. But A is to B as C is to D, therefore, ex aequali, A is to E as C is to F. Therefore, if A is commensurable with E, then C is also commensurable with F, but if A is incommensurable with E, then C is also incommensurable with F.
V.22 X.11

Therefore, if four straight lines are proportional, and the square on the first is greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line commensurable with the first, then the square on the third is also greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a third line commensurable with the third. And, if the square on the first is greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the first, then the square on the third is also greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a third line incommensurable with the third.
Q.E.D.

A little modern algebra clarifies the situation. We assume A:B = C:D. Then if (A2 - B2) : A is a numeric ratio, then so is (C2 - D2) : C. It's simply because (A2 - B2) : A = (C2 - D2) : C. The lemma is the same as the lemma for proposition XI.23.

The proposition is used in several propositions in Book X starting with X.31.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.13 - Proposition X.15.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 15
If two commensurable magnitudes are added together, then the whole is also commensurable with each of them; and, if the whole is commensurable with one of them, then the original magnitudes are also commensurable.
Let the two commensurable magnitudes AB and BC be added together. I say that the whole AC is also commensurable with each of the magnitudes AB and BC. Since AB and BC are commensurable, some magnitude D measures them. Since then D measures AB and BC, therefore it also measures the whole AC. But it measures AB and BC also, therefore D measures AB, BC, and AC. Therefore X.Def.1 AC is commensurable with each of the magnitudes AB and BC. Next, let AC be commensurable with AB. I say that AB and BC are also commensurable. Since AC and AB are commensurable, some magnitude D measures them. Since then D measures CA and AB, therefore it also measures the remainder BC. But it measures AB also, therefore D measures AB and BC. Therefore AB and BC are commensurable.
X.Def.1

Therefore, if two commensurable magnitudes are added together, then the whole is also commensurable with each of them; and, if the whole is commensurable with one of them, then the original magnitudes are also commensurable.
Q.E.D.

This fundamental proposition on commensurability of sums and differences is used in very frequently in Book X starting with X.17. It is also used in XIII.11.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.14 - Proposition X.16.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 16
If two incommensurable magnitudes are added together, the sum is also incommensurable with each of them; but, if the sum is incommensurable with one of them, then the original magnitudes are also incommensurable.
Let the two incommensurable magnitudes AB and BC be added together. I say that the whole AC is also incommensurable with each of the magnitudes AB and BC. For, if CA and AB are not incommensurable, then some magnitude D measures them. Since then D measures CA and AB, therefore it also measures the remainder BC. But it also measures AB, therefore D measures AB and BC. Therefore AB and BC are commensurable, but they were also, by hypothesis, incommensurable, which is impossible. Therefore no magnitude measures CA and AB. Therefore CA and AB are incommensurable. Similarly we can prove that AC and CB are also incommensurable. Therefore AC is incommensurable with each of the magnitudes AB and BC.

X.Def.1

Next, let AC be incommensurable with one of the magnitudes AB or BC. First, let it be incommensurable with AB. I say that AB and BC are also incommensurable. For, if they are commensurable, then some magnitude D measures them. Since, then, D measures AB and BC, therefore it also measures the whole AC. But it also measures AB, therefore D measures CA and AB. Therefore CA and AB are commensurable, but they were also, by hypothesis, incommensurable, which is impossible.

Therefore no magnitude measures AB and BC. Therefore AB and BC are incommensurable.

X.Def.1

Therefore, if two incommensurable magnitudes are added together, the sum is also incommensurable with each of them; but, if the sum is incommensurable with one of them, then the original magnitudes are also incommensurable.
Q.E.D.

This proposition is a logical variant of the previous one, but it is proved afresh. It is used in several others in Book X starting with X.18.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.15 - Proposition X.17.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 17
Lemma.
If to any straight line there is applied a parallelogram but falling short by a square, then the applied parallelogram equals the rectangle contained by the segments of the straight line resulting from the application. Apply to the straight line AB the parallelogram AD but falling short by the square DB. I say that AD equals the rectangle AC by CB. This is indeed at once manifest, for, since DB is a square, DC equals CB, and AD is the rectangle AC by CD, that is, the rectangle AC by CB.

Proposition 17 If there are two unequal straight lines, and to the greater there is applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less minus a square figure, and if it divides it into parts commensurable in length, then the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater. And if the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater, and if there is applied to the greater a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less minus a square figure, then it divides it into parts commensurable in length.
Let A and BC be two unequal straight lines, of which BC is the greater, and let there be applied to BC a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less, A, that is, equal to the square on the half of A but falling short by a square figure. Let this be the rectangle BD by DC, and let BD be commensurable in length with DC.
Lemma

I say that the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on a straight line commensurable with BC. Bisect BC at the point E, and make EF equal to DE.
I.10 I.3

Therefore the remainder DC equals BF. And, since the straight line BC was cut into equal II.5 parts at E, and into unequal parts at D, therefore the rectangle BD by DC, together with the square on ED, equals the square on EC. And the same is true of their quadruples, therefore four times the rectangle BD by DC, together with four times the square on DE, equals four times the square on EC. But the square on A equals four times the rectangle BD by DC, and the square on DF equals four times the square on DE, for DF is double DE. And the square on BC equals four times the square on EC, for again BC is double CE. Therefore the sum of the squares on A and DF equals the square on BC, so that the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on DF. It is to be proved that BC is also commensurable with DF. Since BD is commensurable in length with DC, therefore BC is also commensurable in length with CD. But CD is commensurable in length with CD and BF, for CD equals BF. Therefore BC is also commensurable in length with BF and CD, so that BC is also commensurable in length with the remainder FD. Therefore the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on a straight line commensurable with BC.
X.15 X.6 X.12

X.15

Next, let the square on BC be greater than the square on A by the square on a straight line commensurable with BC. Apply to BC a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on A but falling short by a square figure, and let it be the rectangle BD by DC. It is to be proved that BD is commensurable in length with DC. With the same construction, we can prove similarly that the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on FD. But the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on a straight line commensurable with BC.
X.15

Therefore BC is commensurable in length with FD, so that BC is also commensurable in length with the remainder, the sum of BF and DC. But the sum of BF and DC is commensurable with DC, so that BC is also commensurable X.6 X.12 in length with CD, and therefore, taken separately, BD is commensurable in length with X.15 DC. Therefore, if there are two unequal straight lines, and to the greater there is applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less minus a square figure, and if it divides it into parts commensurable in length, then the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater. And if the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater, and if there is applied to the greater a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less minus a square figure, then it divides it into parts commensurable in length.
Q.E.D.

Here is an algebraic description. Let b denote BC. Then DC is (b - (b2 - A2))/2. Then the proposition asserts that the ratio b : (b - (b2 - A2))/2 is a numeric ratio if and only if the ratio A2) : A is a numeric ratio.

(b2 -

The lemma is also used in the next proposition. The proposition is used in several times in Book X starting with X.54.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.16 - Proposition X.18.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 18
If there are two unequal straight lines, and to the greater there is applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less but falling short by a square, and if it divides it into incommensurable parts, then the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the greater. And if the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the greater, and if there is applied to the greater a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less but falling short by a square, then it divides it into incommensurable parts.
Let A and BC be two unequal straight lines, of which BC is the greater, and to BC let there be applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less, A, but falling short by a square. Let this be the rectangle BD by DC, and let BD be incommensurable in length with DC. I say that the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on a straight line incommensurable with BC. With the same construction as before, we can prove similarly that the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on FD. It is to be proved that BC is incommensurable in length with DF. Since BD is incommensurable in length with DC, therefore BC is also incommensurable in length with CD. But DC is commensurable with the sum of BF and DC, therefore BC is incommensurable with the sum of BF and DC, so that BC is also incommensurable in length with the remainder FD.
X.16 X.6 X.13 X.16 X.17,Lemma

And the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on FD, therefore the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on a straight line incommensurable with BC.

Next, let the square on BC be greater than the square on A by the square on a straight line incommensurable with BC. Apply to BC a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on A but falling short by a square. Let this be the rectangle BD by DC. It is to be proved that BD is incommensurable in length with DC. With the same construction, we can prove similarly that the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on FD. But the square on BC is greater than the square on A by the square on a straight line incommensurable with BC, therefore BC is incommensurable in length with FD, so that BC is also incommensurable with the remainder, the sum of BF and DC.
X.16

But the sum of BF and DC is commensurable in length with DC, therefore BC is also X.6 X.13 incommensurable in length with DC, so that, taken separately, BD is also X.16 incommensurable in length with DC. Therefore, if there are two unequal straight lines, and to the greater there is applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less but falling short by a square, and if it divides it into incommensurable parts, then the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the greater. And if the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the greater, and if there is applied to the greater a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less but falling short by a square, then it divides it into incommensurable parts.
Q.E.D.

This proposition is a logical variant of the last. It is used in frequently in Book X starting with X.33.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.17 - Proposition X.19.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 19
Lemma.
Since it has been proved that straight lines commensurable in length are always commensurable in square also, while those commensurable in square are not always commensurable in length also, but can of course be either commensurable or incommensurable in length, it is manifest that, if any straight line is commensurable in length with a given rational straight line, it is called rational and commensurable with the other not only in length but in square also, since straight lines commensurable in length are always commensurable in square also. But, if any straight line is commensurable in square with a given rational straight line, then, if it is also commensurable in length with it, in this case it is also called rational and commensurable with it both in length and in square, but, if again any straight line, being commensurable in square with a given rational straight line, is incommensurable in length with it, in this case it is also called rational but commensurable in square only.

Proposition 19 The rectangle contained by rational straight lines commensurable in length is rational.
Let the rectangle AC be contained by the rational straight lines AB and BC commensurable in length. I say that AC is rational. Describe the square AD on AB. Then AD is rational.
I.46 X.Def.4

And, since AB is commensurable in length with BC, while AB equals BD, therefore BD is commensurable in length with BC.

And BD is to BC as DA is to AC.

VI.1

Therefore DA is commensurable with AC.

X.11

But DA is rational, therefore AC is also rational.

X.Def.4

Therefore, the rectangle contained by rational straight lines commensurable in length is rational.
Q.E.D.

This is the first proposition that deals with rational lines and rational squares. As required by definitions X.Def.I.3 and X.Def.I.3, there is some assigned straight line to act as a standard to which other lines and squares are compared for rationality. That line is usually not mentioned in the propositions. In this proposition, it is assumed that both sides of the rectangle AB and BC are rational lines. That means these lines are commensurable in square to the standard line, that is, their squares are commensurable with the standard square. It is also assumed that AB and BC are commensurable with each other. Therefore the rectangle AC is commensurable with the square on AB, but that's commensurable with the standard square, so the rectangle AC is too. The proposition is used several times starting with X.25. The lemma is used in X.23. The next proposition is a converse of this one, but the language obscures that from notice.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.18 - Proposition X.20.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 20
If a rational area is applied to a rational straight line, then it produces as breadth a straight line rational and commensurable in length with the straight line to which it is applied.
Let the rational area AC be applied to AB, a straight line once more rational in any of the aforesaid ways, producing BC as breadth. I say that BC is rational and commensurable in length with BA. Describe the square AD on AB. Then AD is rational.
I.46 X.Def.4

But AC is also rational, therefore DA is commensurable with AC. And DA is to AC as DB is to BC. Therefore DB is also commensurable with BC, and DB equals BA. Therefore AB is also commensurable with BC.

VI.1 X.11

But AB is rational, C therefore BC is also rational and commensurable in length with AB. Therefore, if a rational area is applied to a rational straight line, then it produces as breadth a straight line rational and commensurable in length with the straight line to which it is applied.
Q.E.D.

This proposition is a converse of the last, except that it's preceded by applying an area to a straight line to get the rectangle. That would be more evident if it read "If one side of a rational rectangle is rational, then the other side is rational and commensurable with the first. This proposition is used frequently in Book X starting with X.26.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.19 - Proposition X.21.
© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 21
The rectangle contained by rational straight lines commensurable in square only is irrational, and the side of the square equal to it is irrational. Let the latter be called medial.
Let the rectangle AC be contained by the rational straight lines AB and BC commensurable in square only. I say that AC is irrational, and the side of the square equal to it is irrational, and let the latter be called medial. Describe the square AD on AB. Then AD is rational. And, since AB is incommensurable in length with BC, for by hypothesis they are commensurable in square only, while AB equals BD, therefore DB is also incommensurable in length with BC. And DB is to BC as AD is to AC, therefore DA is incommensurable with AC. But DA is rational, therefore AC is irrational, so that the side of the square AC is also irrational. Let the latter be called medial.
Q.E.D. VI.1 X.11 X.Def.4

X.Def.4

This proposition is used frequently in Book X starting with the next propostition.

Book X Introduction - Proposition X.20 - Proposition X.22.
© 1996

D.E.Joyce Clark University

Proposition 22
Lemma.
If there are two straight lines, then the first is to the second as the square on the first is to the rectangle contained by the two straight lines. Let FE and EG be two straight lines. I say that FE is to EG as the square on FE is to the rectangle FE by EG. Describe the square DF on FE, and complete GD. Since then FE is to EG as FD is to DG, and FD is the square on FE, and DG the rectangle DE by EG, that is, the rectangle FE by EG, therefore FE is to EG as the square on FE is to the rectangle FE by EG. Similarly the rectangle GE by EF is to the square on EF, that is GD is to FD, as GE is to EF.

VI.1

Q.E.D.

Proposition 22 The square on a medial straight line, if applied to a rational straight line, produces as breadth a straight line rational and incommensurable in length with that to which it is applied.
Let A be medial and CB rational, and let a rectangular area BD equal to the square on A be applied to BC, producing CD as breadth. I say that CD is rational and incommensurable in length with CB. Since A is medial, the square on it equals a rectangular area contained by rational straight lines commensurable in square only.
X.21

Let the square on it equal GF. But the square on it also equals BD, therefore BD equals GF.

But it is also equiangular with it, and in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional, therefore, BC is to EG as EF is to CD.

VI.14

Therefore the square on BC is to the square on EG as the square on EF is to the square on VI.22 CD. But the square on CB is commensurable with the square on EG, for each of these straight lines is rational, therefore the square on EF is also commensurable with the square on CD. But the square on EF is rational, therefore the square on CD is also rational. Therefore CD is rational. And since EF is incommensurable in length with EG, for they are commensurable in square only, while EF is to EG as the square on EF is to the rectangle FE by EG, therefore the square on EF is incommensurable with the rectangle FE by EG. But the square on CD is commensurable with the square on EF, for the straight lines are rational in square, and the rectangle DC by CB is commensurable with the rectangle FE by EG, for they equal the square on A, therefore the square on CD is incommensurable with the rectangle DC by CB. But the square on CD is to the rectangle DC by CB as DC is to CB, therefore DC is incommensurable in length with CB. Therefore CD is rational and incommensurable in length with CB. Therefore, the square on a medial straight line, if applied to a rational straight line, produces as breadth a straight line rational and incommensurable in length with that to which it is applied.
Q.E.D. X.11

X.Def.4

Lemma X.11

X.13

Lemma X.11

This proposition is used frequently in Book X starting with the next propostition.

23.Proposition X.Joyce Clark University .Book X Introduction .E.21 .Proposition X. © 1996 D.

X. therefore ED is commensurable in length with DF. Then ED is rational and incommensurable in length with CD. Therefore CD and DF are rational and commensurable in square only. . I say that B is also medial. And EC is to CF as ED is to DF.22 Since A is commensurable with B. and let B be commensurable with A. But ED is rational and incommensurable in length with DC. producing ED as breadth. Therefore.1 X.E. Set out a rational straight line CD. And B is the side of the square equal the rectangle CD by DF. therefore the square on A is also commensurable with the square on B. VI. But EC equals the square on A.21 Q. Apply the rectangular area CE to CD equal to the square on A.3 X. And apply the rectangular area CF to CD equal to the square on B. a straight line commensurable with a medial straight line is medial. producing DF as breadth. therefore B is medial.D. therefore EC is commensurable with CF. Let A be medial. therefore DF is also rational and incommensurable in length with DC. therefore the side of the square equals the rectangle CD by DF is medial.Proposition 23 A straight line commensurable with a medial straight line is medial. But the straight line is medial on which the square equals the rectangle contained by rational straight lines commensurable in square only. and CF equals the square on B.13 X.11 X.Def.

if any straight line is commensurable in square with a medial straight line.Lemma The proposition is used in X. then if it is also commensurable in length with it.27 and a few others. if in square only.67 and X.E. the corollary in X. they are called medial straight lines commensurable in square only. since.18. in this case too.22 . But. but.Proposition X. and the note in X. that a straight line commensurable in length with a medial straight line is called medial and commensurable with it not only in length but in square also. the straight lines are called. Book X Introduction . straight lines commensurable in length are always commensurable in square also.104.Joyce Clark University .Corollary From this it is manifest that an area commensurable with a medial area is medial. Note And in the same way as was explained in the case of rationals it follows regards medials.Proposition X. in general.33 and many others. X.24. © 1996 D. medial and commensurable in length and in square.

I say that AC is medial. © 1996 D. Therefore.E. VI.23 .E. Q.11 But DA is medial.1 X.Joyce Clark University .D.Proposition 24 The rectangle contained by medial straight lines commensurable in length is medial.Proposition X. so that DA is commensurable with AC. And. therefore AC is also medial. Describe the square AD on AB. Let the rectangle AC be contained by the medial straight lines AB and BC which are commensurable in length.Proposition X. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . while AB equals BD. therefore DB is commensurable in length with BC.23. Then AD is medial. since AB is commensurable in length with BC.Cor. the rectangle contained by medial straight lines commensurable in length is medial. X.25.

since AD is commensurable with BE. therefore the rectangle FH by KL is rational. therefore each of the rectangles GH and NL is also medial. therefore DB is to BC as AB is to BO. Since each of the squares AD and BE is medial. and KL are in a straight line. producing KL as breadth. HK. Then each of the squares AD and BE is medial. I say that AC is either rational or medial. Let the rectangle AC be contained by the medial straight lines AB and BC which are commensurable in square only.11 X. therefore GH is commensurable with NL. And GH is to NL as FH is to KL. And. X.Proposition 25 The rectangle contained by medial straight lines commensurable in square only is either rational or medial. therefore each of the straight lines FH and KL is rational and incommensurable in length with FG. And. therefore FH is commensurable in length with KL. And they are applied to the rational straight line FG. Describe the squares AD and BE on AB and BC. producing FH as breadth. Set out a rational straight line FG.22 VI.1 X. since DB equals BA while OB equals BC. and further apply similarly NL to KN equal to BE. apply the rectangular parallelogram MK to HM equal to AC. and AD equals GH while BE equals NL. Then FH. Therefore FH and KL are rational straight lines commensurable in length. producing HK as breadth.19 . Apply the rectangular parallelogram GH to FG equal to AD.

therefore the square on HK is also rational. Therefore FH is to HK as HK is to KL. Therefore HK is rational.1 V.E. © 1996 D.17 X.Proposition X. Therefore the rectangle FH by KL equals the square on HK.1 VI.11 VI. But the rectangle FH by KL is rational. and therefore HN is medial. then KH and HM are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.24 . therefore AC is either rational or medial. and CO equals NL.19 X.26. and AB is to BO as AC is to CO. but. then HN is rational.Joyce Clark University .Proposition X. But HN equals AC. therefore DA is to AC as AC is to CO. VI. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . therefore GH is to MK as MK is to NL. the rectangle contained by medial straight lines commensurable in square only is either rational or medial.21 Q. Therefore.D.But DB is to BC as DA is to AC.E. Therefore HN is either rational or medial. AC equals MK. And. But AD equals GH. if it is incommensurable in length with FG. if it is commensurable in length with FG.

therefore each of the rectangles FH and FG is also medial. They are applied to the rational straight line EF. therefore EG is incommensurable in length with GH.16 X. But EG is also rational. that is. therefore the sum of the squares on EG and GH is incommensurable with twice the rectangle EG by GH. Apply to EF the rectangular parallelogram FH equal to AB producing EH as breadth. But the squares on EG and GH are commensurable with the square on EG. let the medial area AB exceed the medial area AC by the rational area DB. Set out a rational straight line EF. Subtract the rectangle FG equal to AC.13 X. and AB equals FH while AC equals FG. But the squares on EG and GH are rational. And EG is to GH as the square on EG is to the rectangle EG by GH. therefore the square on EH is irrational. Since each of the rectangles AB and AC is medial.4 X. therefore each of the straight lines HE and EG is rational and incommensurable in length with EF.4 .20 X.6 X. therefore KH is rational. Therefore the sum of the squares on EG and GH plus twice the rectangle EG by GH. and is incommensurable in length with EF. Since DB is rational and equals KH.13 II. for both are rational.22 X. therefore the square on EG is incommensurable with the rectangle EG by GH. X. Then the remainder BD equals the remainder KH. and twice the rectangle EG by GH is commensurable with the rectangle EG by GH. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF. therefore KH is also rational. If possible. therefore GH is rational and commensurable in length with EF.Def. for it is double it.11 X. the square on EH is incommensurable with the sum of the squares on EG and GH.Proposition 26 A medial area does not exceed a medial area by a rational area. But DB is rational.

This proposition is used in several others in Book X starting with X.Proposition X. But it is also rational.Proposition X. Therefore.D.E.Therefore EH is irrational. a medial area does not exceed a medial area by a rational area. © 1996 D. Book X Introduction .E. Q.25 .27.Joyce Clark University . which is impossible.42.

And C is medial. V.12 VI. therefore. Since A is to B as C is to D.16 X.10 VI. Therefore the rectangle C by D equals the square on B. Let it be contrived that A is to B as C is to D.11 X. A is to C as B is to D.E. Take a mean proportional C between A and B. Therefore C is medial. Then. Set out two rational straight lines A and B commensurable in square only. therefore C is to B as B is to D. and A and B are commensurable in square only.Note (Forthcoming) . therefore the rectangle A by B. the square on C.Proposition 27 To find medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a rational rectangle. that is. therefore C and D are also commensurable in square only.13 VI. Therefore C and D are medial and commensurable in square only. Q. therefore the rectangle C by D is also rational. But A is to C as C is to B. alternately. is medial. But the square on B is rational.21 X.17 X. therefore D is also medial. since A and B are rational and commensurable in square only. Therefore medial straight lines commensurable in square only have been found which contain a rational rectangle. I say that they also contain a rational rectangle. And since A is to B as C is to D.23.D.

Joyce Clark University .Proposition X.26 .28. © 1996 D.Proposition X.E.Book X Introduction .

therefore E is also medial. therefore. and B is to C as D is to E. X. B.D. X.13 VI. and the proposition itself is used in X. Therefore D is medial. But B is to D as D is to A.Proposition X. Therefore medial straight lines commensurable in square only have been found which contain a medial rectangle. therefore D is to A as C is to E. therefore D and E are also commensurable in square only. I say next that they also contain a medial rectangle.21 Lemma 1 is used in X.Proposition 28 To find medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a medial rectangle. But D is medial.10 VI.23.17 X. . Let it be contrived that B is to C as D is to E. Since A and B are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Therefore D and E are medial straight lines commensurable in square only.75.48.Proposition X. But the rectangle A by C is medial. Since B is to C as D is to E. the square on D.29.E. Set out the rational straight lines A. B is to D as C is to E. Take a mean proportional D between A and B.16 X. therefore the rectangle D by E is also medial.16 VI.27 .21 java applet or image And since B and C are commensurable in square only. Therefore the rectangle A by C equals the rectangle D by E.11 X. Q. and C commensurable in square only. therefore the rectangle A by B. Book X Introduction . alternately. is medial.Note V.12 VI. that is.

© 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .E.

9 .Proposition 30 To find two rational straight lines commensurable in square only such that the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with the greater. therefore neither has the square on AB to the square on BF the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and the square on AB is greater than the square on AF by the square on FB incommensurable in length with AB.47 as the square on AB is to the square on BF. we can prove that BA and AF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Set out a rational straight line AB.6.31 conversion. Let it be contrived that DC is to CE as the square on BA is to X. the square on AF. in III. and two square numbers CE and X.19. And the square on AB is greater than the square on AF by the square on FB incommensurable with AB.29. in a similar manner to the preceding. Therefore AB and AF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Describe the semicircle AFB on AB. Q. Then. But CD does not have to DE the ratio which a square number has to a square number. square on AF.Lemma 2 ED such that their sum CD is not square.D. Since DC is to CE as the square on BA is to the V. therefore.E.Cor. and join FB. X.Cor. CD is to DE I. Therefore AB is incommensurable in length with BF.

29 . Book X Introduction .Proposition X. © 1996 D.Proposition X.E.31.This proposition is used in the next three propositions.Joyce Clark University .

containing a rational rectangle. therefore the square on C is also medial. is greater than the square on B the less by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with A.14 . X.Proposition 31 To find two medial straight lines commensurable in square only.11 D in square only. while the square on C equals the rectangle A by B. Let the square on C equal the rectangle A by B. But A is commensurable with B in square only. therefore A is to B as the square on C is to the rectangle C by D.Note X. therefore the square on C is greater than the square on D by the square on a straight line commensurable with C. such that the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with the greater. therefore D is also medial.21 Let the rectangle C by D equal the square on B. And C is medial. therefore C is also commensurable with X. Therefore C is also medial. Now the square on B is rational. Therefore two medial straight lines C and D. And since A is to B as the rectangle A by B is to the square on B. Since A is to B as C is to D. being the greater. therefore the rectangle C by D is also rational. and the rectangle C by D equals the square on B. commensurable in square only and containing a rational rectangle. Set out two rational straight lines A and B commensurable in square only such that the square on A. X. and the square on C is greater than the square on D by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with C. have been found.23. But the square on C is to the rectangle C by D as C is to D. X. and the square on A is greater than the square on B by the square on a straight line commensurable with A. therefore A is to B as C is to D.29 Now the rectangle A by B is medial.

D.Similarly also it can be proved that the square on C exceeds the square on D by the square on a straight line incommensurable with C.34 and X.Joyce Clark University . Book X Introduction .30 This proposition is used in X.Proposition X.35. © 1996 D.Proposition X.32. Q.E. X. when the square on A is greater than the square on B by the square on a straight line incommensurable with A.E.30 .

X. and C commensurable in square only.Proposition 32 To find two medial straight lines commensurable in square only. X.29 X.11 X. therefore A is to C as the square on D is to the rectangle D by E. Let the square on D equal the rectangle A by B. But D is medial.21 X. Let the rectangle D by E equal the rectangle B by C. therefore D is also commensurable with E in square only. Since the rectangle B by C equals the rectangle D by E. Set out three rational straight lines A. Similarly again it can be proved that the square on D is greater than the square on E by the square on a straight line incommensurable with D when the square on A is greater than the square on C by the square on a straight line incommensurable with A. therefore the square on D is greater than the square on E by the square on a straight line commensurable with D. therefore the rectangle D by E is also medial. containing a medial rectangle.23. and the rectangle D by E equals the rectangle B by C. Therefore D is also medial. And. therefore E is also medial. Then since as the rectangle A by is is to the rectangle B by C as A is to C. while the square on D equals the rectangle A by B. such that the square on A is greater than the square on C by the square on a straight line commensurable with A. I say next that the rectangle D by E is also medial.Note X. and containing a medial rectangle.14 X. have been found such that the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater.30 . while the square on A is greater than the square on C by the square on a straight line commensurable with A. Then the square on D is medial. since A is to C as D is to E. therefore A is to C as D is to E. But A is commensurable with C in square only. Therefore two medial straight lines D and E. while the rectangle B by C is medial. B.21 java applet or image But the square on D is to the rectangle D by E as D is to E. commensurable in square only. such that the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater.

E.D.33.31 .Proposition X.Q.E. © 1996 D. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .Joyce Clark University .Proposition X.

Therefore the rectangle BC by AD equals the rectangle BA by AC. therefore CB is to BA as BA is to BD.16 Q. Proposition 33 .4 Since the triangle ABC is similar to the triangle ABD. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle A right. therefore BC is to CA as BA is to AD. and the rectangle BC by AD equals the rectangle BA by AC.8. Therefore the rectangle BD by DC equals the square on AD. VI. VI. VI. Since in a right-angled triangle AD has been drawn from the right angle perpendicular to the base. then the perpendicular so drawn is a mean proportional between the segments of the base. and let the perpendicular AD be drawn.4 VI. For the same reason the VI. the rectangle BD by DC equals the square on AD.17 rectangle BC by CD also equals the square on AC.8 to one another.Proposition 33 Lemma.E.D. therefore BD is to DA as AD is to DC. ABC is similar to ABD. I say that the rectangle CB by BD equals the square on BA. Since.Cor. if in a right-angled triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the right angle to the base. I say that the rectangle BC by AD also equals the rectangle BA by AC.17 VI. Since we said. therefore the triangles ABD and ADC are similar both to the whole ABC and VI. the rectangle BC by CD equals the square on CA. Therefore the rectangle CB by BD equals the square on AB. and first that the rectangle CB by BD equals the square on BA.

Therefore AF and FB are incommensurable in square. making the rectangle AE by EB. Apply to AB a parallelogram equal to the square on either of the straight lines BD or DC and deficient by a square figure.E. But the rectangle AB by BC is medial. X. But the rectangle AB by EF equals the rectangle AF by FB. by hypothesis. but the rectangle contained by them medial. therefore the rectangle AB by EF is also medial. so that the sum of the squares on AF and FB is also rational. therefore FE equals BD.30 VI. while the rectangle BA by AE equals the square on AF. and the rectangle AB by BE is to the square on BF. draw EF at right angles to AB. Since AB and BC are unequal straight lines. Since. Lemma I.28 X. so that the rectangle AB by BC is also commensurable with the rectangle ABEF. and let it be the rectangle AE by EB. therefore AE is incommensurable with EB. therefore the square on AF is incommensurable with the square on FB.21 X. But it was also proved that the sum of the squares on these straight lines is rational. and. Set out two rational straight lines AB and BC commensurable in square only such that the square on the greater AB is greater than the square on the less BC by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AB. Bisect BC at D. Therefore two straight lines AF and FB incommensurable in square have been found which make the sum of the squares on them rational. the rectangle AE by EB equals the square on EF. therefore the rectangle AF by FB is also medial. again. Describe the semicircle AFB on AB. and the square on AB is greater than the square on BC by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AB. to the square on half of it. the rectangle AE by EB also equals the square on BD.18 . and deficient by a square figure.D. while there was applied to AB a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on BC.Cor. Since AB is rational.To find two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational but the rectangle contained by them medial.47 X. and join AF and FB. Therefore BC is double FE. that is. And AE is to EB as the rectangle BA by AE is to the rectangle AB by BE. therefore the square on AB is also rational. Q.23.

© 1996 D.32 .47.34.Proposition X.The first part of the lemma encompasses proposition I. Book X Introduction . This proposition is used in propositions X.E.47.Joyce Clark University .76.39 and X.Proposition X. unlike Euclid's proof of I. but the proof of it depends on the theory of similar triangles developed in Book VI.

and the rectangle AB by BF equals the square on DB. commensurable in square only. such that the rectangle which they contain is rational and the square on AB is X. and join AD and DB.47 X. since BC is double DF.11 III. therefore the rectangle AB by BC is also double the rectangle AB by FD.6 Lemma . greater than the square on BC by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AB. therefore the rectangle AB by FD is also rational. Then AF is incommensurable in length with FB. Set out two medial straight lines AB and BC. so that the rectangle AD by DB is also rational. Therefore two straight lines AD and DB incommensurable in square have been found which make the sum of the squares on them medial. Since AF is incommensurable in length with FB. but the rectangle contained by them rational. But the rectangle AB by FD equals the rectangle AD by DB. And. Describe the semicircle ADB on AB. therefore the sum of the squares on AD and DB is also medial. namely the rectangle AF by FB. since the square on AB is medial.Proposition 34 To find two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial but the rectangle contained by them rational. VI.31 ad fin. And. therefore the square on AD is also incommensurable with the square on DB.18 Draw FD from F at right angles to AB.31 I. Apply a parallelogram to AB equal to the square on BE and deficient by a square figure.28 X. But the rectangle AB by BC is rational. But the rectangle BA by AF equals the square on AD. therefore the rectangle BA by AF is also incommensurable with the rectangle AB by BF. X.

40.Proposition X.35.Joyce Clark University .33 .E.E. © 1996 D.Q. Book X Introduction . This proposition is used in proposition X.D.Proposition X.

And it equals the rectangle AD by DB. But the sum of the squares on AD and DB equals the square on AB. X.31 ad fin. and the rectangle AB by FD. Describe the semicircle ADB on AK. therefore the sum of the squares on AD and DB is also medial. therefore the rectangle AD by DB is also medial. III.Cor. containing a medial rectangle.47 Since the rectangle AF by FB equals the square on each of the straight lines BE and DF. Set out two medial straight lines AB and BC commensurable in square only. the rectangle AD by DB. X. such that the square on AB is greater than the square on BC by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AB. Since AB is incommensurable in length with BC. and make the rest of the construction as above.32.47 . Therefore BC is double FD.Lemma X. Since AF is incommensurable in length with FB. equals the rectangle AB by BE. BC is also double the rectangle AB by FD. while CB is commensurable with BE. so that the rectangle AB by X. Therefore two straight lines AD and DB incommensurable in square have been found which make the sum of the squares on them medial and the rectangle contained by them medial and moreover incommensurable with the sum of the squares on them. therefore AD is also incommensurable in square with DB. therefore AB is also incommensurable in length with BE.11 I.18 X.11 Since the square on AB is medial.31 I.33.Proposition 35 To find two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial and the rectangle contained by them medial and moreover incommensurable with the sum of the squares on them. that is. therefore BE equals DF.13 X. therefore the rectangle AB by FD is also medial. But the rectangle AB by BC is medial. so that the square on AB is also incommensurable with the rectangle AB by BE. X. therefore the sum of the squares on AD and DB is incommensurable with the rectangle AD by DB.

78.34 .41 and X. © 1996 D.Proposition X. This proposition is used in propositions X.Q.Proposition X.D. Book X Introduction .36.E.Joyce Clark University .E.

And. Let two rational straight lines AB and BC commensurable in square only be added together.E.4 Q. then the whole is irrational.Def. for they are commensurable in square only. X. therefore twice the rectangle AB by BC is incommensurable with the sum of the squares on AB and BC. therefore the square on AC is irrational. This proposition is used very frequently in Book X starting with the next proposition.4 X.15 X.Joyce Clark University . and the sum of the squares on AB and BC is commensurable with the square on BC. that is. taken jointly. Let it be called binomial. Since AB is incommensurable in length with BC.35 . so that AC is also irrational. let it be called binomial.Proposition X.11 X.37. therefore the rectangle AB by BE is incommensurable with the square on BC. © 1996 D. But twice the rectangle AB by BC is commensurable with the rectangle AB by BC. twice the rectangle AB by BC together with the squares on AB and BC. Book X Introduction .16 X. But the sum of the squares on AB and BC is rational. and AB is to BC as the rectangle AB by BC is to the square on BC. the square on AC. for AB and BC are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.D. I say that the whole AC is irrational.E. is incommensurable with the sum of the squares on AB and BC.Proposition X.Proposition 36 If two rational straight lines commensurable in square only are added together.6 X.13 II.

is incommensurable with the rectangle AB by BC.Def. © 1996 D. But the rectangle AB by BC is rational. X. Let two medial straight lines AB and BC commensurable in square only and containing a rational rectangle be added together. AB and BC are straight lines containing a rational rectangle. let it be called the first bimedial straight line.16 X.43 and a few others in Book X. And let it be called a first bimedial straight line.Proposition X. the square on AC.E.36 . the whole is irrational. Since AB is incommensurable in length with BC.36 II. This proposition is used in X. therefore the sum of the squares on AB and BC is also incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB by BC. the sum of the squares on AB and BC together with twice the rectangle AB by BC.38. I say that the whole AC is irrational.E. therefore the square on AC is irrational. that is.4 X.Proposition X.4 Q. taken jointly. for.Joyce Clark University . by hypothesis. Book X Introduction . and.D.Proposition 37 If two medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a rational rectangle are added together. Therefore AC is irrational.

15 X. therefore the squares on AB and BC are also medial. X. and twice the rectangle AB by BC is commensurable with the rectangle AB by BC. therefore the square on AB is incommensurable with the rectangle AB by BC. twice the rectangle AB by BC is also medial. I. Let two medial straight lines AB and BC commensurable in square only and containing a medial rectangle be added together. let it be called the second bimedial straight line. Then the remainder HF equals twice the rectangle AB by BC. And EH equals the sum of the squares on AB and BC.41 Since the square on AC equals the sum of the squares on AB and BC and twice the rectangle AB by BC.6 . Since AB is incommensurable in length with BC. then the whole is irrational.22 X. equal to the sum of the squares on AB and BC. And they are applied to the rational straight line DE. therefore each of the straight lines DH and HG is rational and incommensurable in length with DE.4 Since each of the straight lines AB and BC is medial. therefore each of the rectangles EH and HF is medial. But the sum of the squares on AB and BC is commensurable with the square on AB.11 X. I say that AC is irrational. producing DG as breadth. apply EH. while FH equals twice the rectangle AB by BC. II. But. Set out a rational straight line DE. to DE. and apply parallelogram DF to DE equal to the square on AC.Proposition 38 If two medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a medial rectangle are added together. and AB is to BC as the square on AB is to the rectangle AB by BC. by hypothesis.

X. and the side of the square equal to it is X. Let it be called a second bimedial straight line. Q. But EH equals the sum of the squares on AB and BC.D. Therefore EH is incommensurable with HF. But AC is the side of the square equal to DF.Proposition X.Therefore the sum of the squares on AB and BC is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB by BC. therefore the area DF is irrational.Joyce Clark University . © 1996 D.Proposition X.44 and a few others in Book X.37 .4 irrational.13 VI.Def. and HF equals twice the rectangle AB by BC. Therefore DH and HG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.39.E.11 X. Book X Introduction .1 X.36 But DE is rational.E. therefore AC is irrational. This proposition is used in X. so that DH is also incommensurable in length with HG. so that DG is irrational. X. and the rectangle contained by an irrational and a rational straight line cf.20 is irrational.

33 X.4 Q. Let two straight lines AB and BC incommensurable in square.16 X. therefore twice the rectangle AB by BC is incommensurable with the sum of the squares on AB and BC.E.57 and a few others in Book X. I say that AC is irrational.23.Def.Proposition X. then the whole straight line is irrational.Proposition 39 If two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational but the rectangle contained by them medial are added together. that is.E. the square on AC. This proposition is used in X. is also incommensurable with the sum of the squares on AB and BC. so that AC is also irrational. be added together.40. Let it be called major.38 . Book X Introduction .Cor. Therefore the square on AC is irrational. so that the sum of the squares on AB and BC together with twice the rectangle AB by BC.Proposition X. Since the rectangle AB by BC is medial. © 1996 D. and fulfilling the given conditions. therefore twice the rectangle AB by BC is also medial. let it be called major.D. But the sum of the squares on AB and BC is rational.6 X. X. X.Joyce Clark University .

Def. © 1996 D.41. while twice the rectangle AB by BC is rational.E.D. so that the square on AC is also incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB by BC. let it be called the side of a rational plus a medial area. Book X Introduction . and fulfilling the given conditions. therefore the sum of the squares on AB and BC is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB by BC.Proposition 40 If two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial but the rectangle contained by them rational are added together.46 and a few others in Book X. Let two straight lines AB and BC incommensurable in square. then the whole straight line is irrational. Therefore AC is irrational. be added together. This proposition is used in X.Proposition X. X.E.34 X. I say that AC is irrational.4 Q. Since the sum of the squares on AB and BC is medial.39 .Proposition X.Joyce Clark University .16 X. therefore the square on AC is irrational. But twice the rectangle AB by BC is rational. Let it be called the side of a rational plus a medial area.

1 X. therefore DG and GK are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.22 line DE. then the whole straight line is irrational.36 But DE is rational. therefore AC is irrational. Let it be called the side of the sum two medial areas.4 irrational. Since the sum of the squares on AB and BC is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB by BC.E. DE. and apply to DE the rectangle GH equal to twice the rectangle AB by BC.Def. and equals DF.4 Now. Q. For the same reason GK is also rational and incommensurable in length with GF. that is. And it is applied to the rational straight X.35 II. therefore DF is incommensurable with GH. And they are rational. Let two straight lines AB and BC incommensurable in square and satisfying the given conditions be added together. VI.Proposition 41 If two straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial and the rectangle contained by them medial and also incommensurable with the sum of the squares on them are added together. But AC is the side of the square equal to HD. therefore DF is also medial. X. Therefore DK is irrational and what is called binomial.11 X. I say that AC is irrational. since the sum of the squares on AB and BC is medial. let it be called the side of the sum of two medial areas. Set out a rational straight line DE. .D. therefore DG is rational and incommensurable in length with DE. and the side of the square which equals it is X. so that DG is also incommensurable with GK. therefore DH is irrational. Apply to DE the rectangle DF equal to the sum of the squares on AB and BC. Then the whole DH equals the square on AC.

This proposition is used in X.42.E. I say that the sum of the squares on AC and CB is greater than the sum of the squares on AD and DB. cut the whole into unequal parts at each of the points C and D. And that the aforesaid irrational straight lines are divided only in one way into the straight lines of which they are the sum and which produce the types in question we will now prove after premising the following lemma. But AE equals EB.D. the rectangle AC by CB.E. And of these the square on DE is less than the square on EC. therefore DE is less than EC. is greater than the sum of the squares on AD and DB. © 1996 D. Q. subtract DC from each.Proposition X.5 EB. Set out the straight line AB.Joyce . therefore the remainder AD is greater than the remainder CB. therefore the remainder.40 . and let AC be supposed greater than DB. and. is also less than the rectangle AD by DB so that twice the rectangle AC by CB is also less than twice the rectangle AD by DB. the rectangle AD by DB together with the square on DE equals the square on II.Proposition X.65 and a couple of others in Book X. Therefore the points C and D are not equidistant from the point of bisection. further. the sum of the squares on AC and CB. Bisect AB at E. Book X Introduction .Lemma. Since the rectangle AC by CB together with the square on EC equals the square on EB. Therefore the remainder. Since AC is greater than DB. therefore the rectangle AC by CB together with the square on EC equals the rectangle AD by DB together with the square on DE.

Clark University .

Therefore. If possible.Proposition 42 A binomial straight line is divided into its terms at one point only. Therefore it is divided at one point only. let it be divided at D also. Then AC and CB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. though they are medial. Therefore AC is not the same with DB. Thus AB is divided at D also in the same way as by the division at C. II. let it be so.D. if possible. But the sum of the squares on AC and CB differs from the sum of the squares on AD and DB by a rational area.4 X. which is absurd. Therefore that by which the sum of the squares on AC and CB differs from the sum of the squares on AD and DB is also that by which twice the rectangle AD by DB differs from twice the rectangle AC by CB. which is contrary to the hypothesis. equal the square on AB.E.26 .21 X. a binomial straight line is divided into its terms at one point only. for both are rational. so that AD and DB are also rational straight lines commensurable in square only. It is then manifest that AC is not the same as DB. Therefore a binomial straight line is not divided at different points. I say that AB is not divided at another point into two rational straight lines commensurable in square only. therefore twice the rectangle AD by DB also differs from twice the rectangle AC by CB by a rational area. Let AB be a binomial straight line divided into its terms at C. Then AB is also the same as CB. and AC is to CB as BD is to DA. because both the squares on AC and CB together with twice the rectangle AC by CB. and the squares on AD and DB together with twice the rectangle AD by DB. for a medial area does not exceed a medial by a rational area. For this reason also the points C and D are not equidistant from the point of bisection. For. Q.

E. © 1996 D.This proposition is used in X.41 .43. Book X Introduction .Joyce Clark University .Proposition X.47.Proposition X.

therefore the sum of the squares on AC and CB also differs from the sum of the squares on AD and DB by a rational area. Therefore it is so divided at one point only. that by which twice the rectangle AD by DB differs from twice the rectangle AC by CB is that by which the sum of the squares on AC and CB differs from the sum of the squares on AD and DB.Proposition X. Q. I say that AB is not so divided at another point.Joyce Clark University . though they are medial. Let AB be a first bimedial straight line divided at C. Since.42 .Proposition X. for both are rational. X.44. Therefore.37 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . Therefore a first bimedial straight line is not divided into its terms at different points. then. If possible. © 1996 D. which is absurd. while twice the rectangle AD by DB differs from twice the rectangle X.26 AC by CB by a rational area.E. so that AC and CB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a rational rectangle.D. a first bimedial straight line is divided at one and the same point only. so that AD and DB are also medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a rational rectangle.E.Proposition 43 A first bimedial straight line is divided at one and the same point only. let it also be divided at D.

so that AC is not the same with DB. but AC is supposed greater. I say that AB is not so divided at another point. let it also be divided at D. Then the remainder HK equals twice the rectangle AC by CB. because the segments are not commensurable in length. subtract EL.22 . and subtract EG. apply to EF the rectangular parallelogram EK equal to the square on AB.Proposition 44 A second bimedial straight line is divided at one point only. therefore EH is rational and incommensurable in length with EF. Lemma II. equal to the sum of the squares on AC and CB. so that AC and CB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a medial rectangle. equal to the sum of the squares on AD and DB.4 Lemma X.38 If possible. Again. as we proved above. It is then clear that the sum of the squares on AD and DB is also. Suppose that AD and DB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a medial rectangle. Now. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF. Then the remainder MK also equals twice the rectangle AD by DB. therefore EG is medial. since the squares on AC and CB are medial. Let AB be a second bimedial straight line divided at C. Set out a rational straight line EF. It is then manifest that C is not at the point of bisection. X. less than the sum of the squares on AC and CB. which were proved less than the sum of the squares on AC and CB.

X. Therefore the sum of the squares on AC and CB is also incommensurable with twice the rectangle AC by CB. therefore AC is incommensurable in length with CB. But AC is to CB as the square on AC is to the rectangle AC by CB. MK. and EN is a binomial straight line divided at different points. then the whole is the irrational which is called binomial. therefore EG is incommensurable with HK. that is.1 X.36 X. And twice the rectangle AC by CB is commensurable with the rectangle AC by CB. Therefore. Q.11 (Forthcoming) . so that EH is also greater than MN. for AC and CB are commensurable in square.For the same reason HN is also rational and incommensurable in length with EF. therefore EH and HN are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. for the sum of the squares on AC and CB is greater than the sum of the squares on AD and DB. therefore the sum of the squares on AC and CB. Therefore EH is not the same with MN. is much greater than twice the rectangle AD by DB. But.E. And EH is not the same with MN. In the same way EM and MN is also proved to be rational straight lines commensurable in square only. a second bimedial straight line is divided at one point only. that is.15 X. since AC and CB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only.6 X. But the sum of the squares on AC and CB is commensurable with the square on AC. But the sum of the squares on AD and DB is greater than twice the rectangle AD by DB. But EG equals the sum of the squares on AC and CB.13 VI.11 AC is incommensurable with the rectangle AC by CB. H and M. And they are rational. EG.D. if two rational straight lines commensurable in square only are added together. and HK equals twice the rectangle AC by CB. so that EH is also incommensurable in length with HN. Therefore EN is a binomial straight line divided at H. therefore the square on X. And.

Book X Introduction .Joyce Clark University .43 .Proposition X. © 1996 D.45.Proposition X.E.

so that AD and DB are incommensurable in square and the sum of the squares on AD and DB is rational. Therefore a major straight line is not divided at different points. I say that AB is not so divided at another point. Q. Therefore it is only divided at one and the same point.Joyce Clark University .26 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .E. but the rectangle AC by CB medial. which is impossible. a major straight line is divided at one point only. for both are rational.E.Proposition X. let it also be divided at D. X. and let the sum of the squares on AC and CB be rational. Then.D.Proposition X.46. therefore twice the rectangle AD by DB also exceeds twice the rectangle AC by CB by a rational area. If possible. Therefore. since that by which the sum of the squares on AC and CB differs from the sum of the squares on AD and DB is also that by which twice the rectangle AD by DB differs from twice the rectangle AC by CB. Let AB be a major straight line divided at C.44 . though they are medial.Proposition 45 A major straight line is divided at one point only. but the rectangle contained by them medial. so that AC and CB are incommensurable in square. while the sum of the squares on AC and CB exceeds the sum of the squares on AD and DB by a rational area. © 1996 D.

Therefore the side of a rational plus a medial area is not divided at different points.Joyce Clark University . Since. but twice the rectangle AC by CB rational. though they are medial. If possible. but twice the rectangle AD by DB rational. © 1996 D. the side of a rational plus a medial area is divided at one point only.47. I say that AB is not so divided at another point. while twice the rectangle AC by CB exceeds twice the rectangle X.26 AD by DB by a rational area.40 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . Let AB be the side of a rational plus a medial area divided at C.E. so that AD and DB are also incommensurable in square and the sum of the squares on AD and DB is medial. therefore the sum of the squares on AD and DB also exceeds the sum of the squares on AC and CB by a rational area.45 . Therefore. so that AC and CB are incommensurable in square and let the sum of the squares on AC and CB be medial.E.Proposition 46 The side of a rational plus a medial area is divided at one point only. therefore it is divided at one point only. then.Proposition X. Q. X. that by which twice the rectangle AC by CB differs from twice the rectangle AD by DB is also that by which the sum of the squares on AD and DB differs from the sum of the squares on AC and CB.Proposition X. let it be divided at D also.D. which is impossible.

by hypothesis. to EP apply EL. let it be divided at D. and the rectangle HK equal to twice the rectangle AC by CB. so that again AC is of course not the same as BD. If possible. therefore EG is also incommensurable with GN. twice the rectangle AD by DB. Let AB be divided at C.4 X. and the rectangle AC by CB medial and also incommensurable with the sum of the squares on them. Set out a rational straight line EF. therefore EG is also medial. II. therefore HE is rational and incommensurable in length with EF. And.1 the sum of the squares on AC and CB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AC by X. equals the remainder MK. so that EH is also incommensurable with HN. the sum of the squares on AC and CB is medial. equal to the sum of the squares on AD and DB.Proposition 47 The side of the sum of two medial areas is divided at one point only. I say that AB is not divided at another point so as to fulfill the given conditions. And since. and apply to EF the rectangle EG equal to the sum of the squares on AC and CB. so that AC and CB are incommensurable in square and let the sum of the squares on AC and CB be medial. Then the whole EK equals the square on AB. Then the remainder. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF.11 CB. but AC is supposed greater. Again.22 For the same reason HN is also rational and incommensurable in length with EF. . since VI.

the side of the sum of two medial areas is divided at one point only. Therefore EN is a binomial straight line divided at H. Therefore a side of the sum of two medial areas is not divided at different points.36 X. © 1996 D.E. X.Definitions II of Book X.46 . And EH is not the same with MN.Proposition X. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .42 Q. therefore EH and HN are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Therefore it is divided at one point only. Similarly we can prove that it is also divided at M.E.Joyce Clark University .And they are rational. therefore a binomial has been divided at different points.D. which is absurd. Therefore.

And. divided into its terms. And if neither of the terms is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. Definition 3. if the greater term is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. Again. if the greater term is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. let the whole be called a third binomial. Definition 6. then. If the lesser.Proposition X. such that the square on the greater term is greater than the square on the lesser by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with the greater. Given a rational straight line and a binomial. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .48. a sixth binomial.Definitions II Definition 1. let the whole be called a first binomial straight line. then. Definition 5.Proposition X. Definition 2. Definition 4.Joyce .E. a fifth binomial. if the square on the greater term is greater than the square on the lesser by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with the greater.47 . if neither. © 1996 D. let the whole be called a second binomial. But if the lesser term is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. let the whole be called a fourth binomial.

Clark University .

AB is to BC as the square on EF is to the square on H.9 X.19. X. X. while BA is greater than AC. so that the square on EF is commensurable with the square on FG. I say that it is also a first binomial straight line. has the square on EF to the square on FG the ratio which a square number has to a square number. And EF is rational. in conversion.6 EF also has to the square on FG the ratio which a number has to a number. therefore FG is also rational. X. Therefore EF is also rational.Cor. therefore the square on EF also has to the square on H the ratio which a square number has to a square number. But AB has to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number.36 . Therefore EF and FG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. therefore the square on EF is also greater than the square on FG. but does not have to CA the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore. Set out any rational straight line D. Set out two numbers AC and CB such that the sum of them AB has to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and let EF be commensurable in length with D. And. therefore.6. Now since BA is to AC as the square on EF is to the square on FG.Lemma1 Let it be contrived that the number BA is to AC as the square on EF is to the square on FG. Since the number BA is to AC as the square on EF is to the square on FG. Therefore EG is binomial.28. since BA does not have to AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore the square on X.Proposition 48 To find the first binomial line. Therefore EF is incommensurable in length with FG. V. Let then the sum of the squares on FG and H equal the square on EF. But AB has to AC the ratio which a number has to a number. neither.Cor.

Proposition X. Therefore the square on EF is greater than the square on FG by the square on a straight line commensurable with EF. And EF and FG are rational.D.Therefore EF is commensurable in length with H.Joyce Clark University . Therefore EF is a first binomial straight line. X. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . and EF is commensurable in length with D.Definitions II of Book X .E.9 Q. © 1996 D.49.E.

Set out a rational straight line D. X. therefore the square on EF is commensurable with the square on FG.6. Therefore FG is commensurable in length with H.Proposition 49 To find the second binomial line.7. X.19. Set out two numbers AC and CB such that the sum of them AB has to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Cor. but does not have to AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. But AB has to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore FG is also rational. and let EF be commensurable in length with D. so is the square on EFto the square on FG.9 X. while BA is greater than AC. in conversion. therefore the square on FG also has to the square on H the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Since.36 V. therefore the square on GF is greater than the square on FE. inversely. It is next to be proved that it is also a second binomial straight line.Cor V. Therefore EF is incommensurable in length with FG. X. Then. therefore EF is rational. Let it be contrived then that as the number CA is to AB. X. Let the sum of the squares on EF and H equal the square on GF. Therefore EF and FG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. the number BA is to AC as the square on GF is to the square on FE.9 . since the number CA does not have to AB the ratio which a square number has to a square number. neither does the square on EF have to the square on FG the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Cor. AB is to BC as the square on FG is to the square on H. Therefore EG is binomial. so that the square on FG is greater than the square on FE by the square on a straight line commensurable with FG.6 Now.

50.48 .E. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . and EF. is commensurable in length with the rational straight line D set out.Joyce Clark University .And FG and FE are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.Proposition X. the lesser term.E. Q. Therefore EG is a second binomial straight line.D. © 1996 D.Proposition X.

D is to AC as the square on E is to the square on GH. Since D is to AB as the square on E is to the square on FG. V. since D does not have to AB the ratio which a square number has to a square number.6.Cor.6 on GH. X. X. Set out two numbers AC and CB such that the sum of them AB has to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number.9 Next let it be contrived that the number BA is to AC as the square on FG is to the square X. therefore GH is also rational.36 . And. not square.Cor. X. Set out any rational straight line E. Also set out any other number D. I say next that it is also a third binomial straight line.6. therefore.Proposition 50 To find the third binomial line. Then the square on FG is commensurable with the square on GH. and let it not have to either of the numbers BA and AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore FG is incommensurable in length with GH. and let it be contrived that D is to AB as the square on E is to the square on FG. neither does the square on E have to the square on FG the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore FG and GH are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. And. Then the square on E is commensurable with the square on FG. X.22 X.6 And E is rational. neither does the square on FG X. since BA does not have to AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore FH is binomial. therefore FG is also rational. but does not have to AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore E is incommensurable in length with FG. ex aequali. and BA is to AC as the square on FG is to the square on GH.9 have to the square on HG the ratio which a square number has to a square number. But FG is rational.

Proposition X. Since BA is to AC as the square on FG is to the square on GH.Cor. therefore the square on FG is greater than the square on GH.D.9 V. Then. in conversion. Therefore E is incommensurable in length with GH. and neither of them is commensurable in length with E.Proposition X. But AB has to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. And FG and GH are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . Q. therefore neither does the square on E have to the square on GH the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Let then the sum of the squares on GH and K equal the square on FG.49 . Therefore FH is a third binomial straight line. © 1996 D. AB is to BC as the square on FG is to the square on K.19. therefore the X.51.Joyce Clark University .E. Therefore the square on FG is greater than the square on GH by the square on a straight line commensurable with FG.E.9 square on FG also has to the square on K the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore FG is commensurable in length with K.But D does not have to AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. X.

19. therefore EF is incommensurable in length with FG.9 V. the number AB is to BC as the square on EF is to the square on H. X. Then EF is also rational. Therefore the square on EF is greater than the square on GF by the square on a straight line incommensurable with EF. . Then the square on EF is commensurable with the square on FG. therefore the square on EF is greater than the square on FG.9 Therefore EF and FG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. in conversion. X. since BA does not have to AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Cor. Set out two numbers AC and CB such that AB has neither to BC nor to AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Let then the sum of the squares on FG and H equal the square on EF. I say next that it is also a fourth binomial straight line.Cor. Therefore FG is also rational. But AB does not have to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. neither does the square on EF have to the square on FG the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore EF is incommensurable in length with H. and let EF be commensurable in length with D. Then. so that EG is binomial. Let it be contrived that the number BA is to AC as the square on EF is to the square on FG. Set out a rational straight line D.Proposition 51 To find the fourth binomial straight line.6. X. Since BA is to AC as the square on EF is to the square on FG. therefore neither does the square on EF have to the square on H the ratio which a square number has to a square number.6 Now. X.

Q.Proposition X. Therefore EG is a fourth binomial straight line. © 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .50 . and EF is commensurable in length with D.52. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .E.D.And EF and FG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.E.Proposition X.

Therefore the square on GF is greater than the square on FE. X.Proposition 52 To find the fifth binomial line. Then. and the lesser term EF is commensurable in length with the rational straight line D set out. X. Therefore EF and FG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. therefore neither does the square on FG have to the square on H the ratio which a square number has to a square number.9 Q. Therefore EG is a fifth binomial straight line. X. Therefore FG is incommensurable in length with H. therefore EG is binomial.D.Cor V. But AB does not have to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Cor. therefore. But CA does not have to AB the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Cor. I say next that it is also a fifth binomial straight line. Since CA is to AB as the square on EF is to the square on FG. so that the square on FG is greater than the square on FE by the square on a straight line incommensurable with FG. inversely.6. in conversion. therefore neither does the square on EF have to the square on FG the ratio which a square number has to a square number.36 X. Set out two numbers AC and CB such that AB does not have to either of them the ratio which a square number has to a square number. . And GF and FE are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. and let EF be commensurable with D.7.E. Let it be contrived that CA is to AB as the square on EF is to the square on FG.19.9 V. the number AB is to BC as the square on GF is to the square on H. BA is to AC as the square on FG is to the square on FE. Set out any rational straight line D. Then EF is rational. Let then the sum of the squares on EF and H equal the square on GF.

(Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .Proposition X.51 .Proposition X. © 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University .53.

and let there also be another number D which is not square and which does not have to either of the numbers BA or AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Set out any rational straight line E. since D does not have to AB the ratio which a square number has to a square number. to AB as the square on E is to the square on FG. and also BA is to AC as the square on FG is to the square on GH.6 therefore FG is also rational. ex aequali. neither does the square on FG have to the square on GH the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore FG and GH are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Since D is to AB as the square on E is to the square on FG. Set out two numbers AC and CB such that AB does not have to either of them the ratio which a square number has to a square number.36 V. neither does the square on E have to the square on FG the ratio which a square number has to a square number.22 .6. Now. X.Cor. Then the square on E is commensurable with the square on FG. since BA does not have to AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Cor. Therefore FH is binomial.6. and let it be contrived that D is X. And. Again. let it be contrived that BA is to AC as the square on FG is to the square on GH. D is to AC as the square on E is to the square on GH. therefore E is incommensurable in length with FG. Then the square on FG is commensurable with the square on HG. Therefore the square on HG is rational. It is next to be proved that it is also a sixth binomial straight line. therefore.6 X.9 X. Therefore HG is rational. therefore FG is incommensurable in length with GH. X. X. And E is rational.9 X.Proposition 53 To find the sixth binomial line.

X.Proposition X. X.E.9 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .9 V. therefore E is incommensurable in length with GH. since BA is to AC as the square on FG is to the square on GH. Therefore FH is a sixth binomial straight line.But D does not have to AC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. in conversion.Cor. But it was also proved incommensurable with FG. Therefore FG is incommensurable in length with A. therefore neither does the square on E have to the square on GH the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Joyce Clark University .E.D.19. But AB does not have to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Let then the sum of the squares on GH and K equal the square on FG. And FG and GH are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. And. Therefore the square on FG is greater than the square on GH by the square on a straight line incommensurable with FG. therefore the square on FG is greater than the square on GH. so that neither does the square on FG have to the square on K the ratio which a square number has to a square number. © 1996 D. therefore each of the straight lines FG and GH is incommensurable in length with E. and neither of them is commensurable in length with the rational straight line E set out.54. AB is to BC as the square on FG is to the square on K.52 . Q.Proposition X. Then.

and BE is to BG. that DG is a mean proportional between AB and BC. I.11 V. while FB is to BG as AB is to DG. Then FB is also in a straight line with BG. And it is also rectangular. and AC is to CG as DC is to CB. therefore the whole DE equals the whole FG. Let there be two squares AB and BC. and DB is to BE as DG is to BC. Therefore DC is a mean proportional between AC and CB. and further that DC is a mean proportional between AC and CB.1 VI.11 . therefore AC is a square. while AK is to KD as AC is to CD. Since AD is to DK as KG is to GC.34 VI. Since DB equals BF. therefore AB is to DG as DG is to BC. and FG equals each of the straight lines AK and HC. and let them be placed so that DB is in a straight line with BE. Therefore DG is a mean proportional between AB and BC. But DE equals each of the straight lines AH and KC.1 VI. AK is to KD as KC is to CG.Proposition 54 Lemma. therefore each of the straight lines AH and KC also equals each of the straight lines AK and HC. I say that AC is a square. Therefore the parallelogram AC is equilateral. Since FB is to BG as DB is to BE. Complete the parallelogram AC. therefore AC is to DC as DC is to BC. for they are equal respectively. taken jointly.18 VI. and. I say next that DC is also a mean proportional between AC and CB.

1 . E. Then RN is also in a straight line with NP. Now. Construct the square SN equal to the parallelogram AH. since the square on AE is greater than the square on ED by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE. that is. and let AE be the greater term. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line which is called binomial. Then AG is commensurable in length with EG. Let the area AC be contained by the rational straight line AB and the first binomial AD.1 X.4 Lemma VI.II. Since AD is a first binomial straight line. Therefore EL is a mean proportional between AH and GK. and F parallel to either of the straight lines AB and CD. Then. and deficient by a square figure. therefore.17 II. divide it into its terms at E. Then SQ is a square. It is then manifest that AE and ED are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. and the square NQ equal to GK. if there is applied to the greater AE a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less. and FL from G. the square on AE is greater than the square on ED by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE.Proposition 54 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the first binomial. EK. and place them so that MN is in a straight line with NO. Bisect ED at the point F. X. to the square on EF. I say that the side of the area AC is the irrational straight line which is called binomial. Therefore AH is to EL as EL is to KG. Apply to AE the rectangle AG by GE equal to the square on EF.Def. since the rectangle AG by GE equals the square on EF. therefore AG is to EF as FE is to EG. Draw GH. Complete the parallelogram SQ. then it divides it into commensurable parts.17 VI. and AE is commensurable in length with the rational straight line AB set out.

by hypothesis. therefore AG and GE are also commensurable with AB. And the square on MN is commensurable with the square on NO. X.Proposition X.11. The proposition itself is used in X.60. Therefore each of the rectangles AH and GK is rational.D. Therefore MO is the side of AC. therefore the whole AC equals the whole SQ.1 X. therefore EL equals MR.Proposition X. therefore MN and NO are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. therefore MN is incommensurable with NO. I say next that MO is binomial. so that it also equals PO.1 X. and AH is commensurable with X. therefore each of the straight lines AG and GE is also rational.But AH equals SN. that is. X. so that AH is also incommensurable with EL. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line which is called binomial. But AH and GK also equal SN and NQ. therefore PN is incommensurable with NR. The lemma before the proposition is used in this proposition. and GK equals NQ.11 VI.15 the straight lines AG and GE. therefore the sum of SN and NQ. Therefore MO is binomial and the side of AC. Since AG is commensurable with GE. it equals the square on MO. But AE is also.13 VI.E. . But MR is also a mean proportional between the same SN and NQ. are rational and commensurable. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the first binomial.11 Therefore. and X. But AH equals SN. But SN is to MR as PN is to NR. But PN equals MN. Since AE is incommensurable in length with ED. and NR equals NO. that is the squares on MN and NO. therefore AE is also commensurable with each of X.71.53 . and DE is commensurable with EF. while AE is commensurable with AG.55. therefore EL is a mean proportional between SN Lemma and NQ. X.36 X. therefore AG is also incommensurable with EF. But AH equals SN.12 And AB is rational. commensurable with AB. and GK equals NQ. Book X Introduction . and each is rational. therefore SN is also incommensurable with MR.19 GK. Q. and EL equals MR.

E.© 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .

It is now to be proved that MO is a first bimedial straight line.13 . divide it into its terms at E.Proposition 55 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the second binomial. E. Then AE and ED are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. and the lesser term ED is commensurable in length with AB. EK. and place them so that MN is in a straight line with NO. the square on AE is greater than the square on ED by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE. Then RN is also in a straight line with NP. Construct the square SN equal to the parallelogram AH. so that AE is the greater term. Since AD is a second binomial straight line.Def. Then AG is commensurable in length with GE. and FL through G. X. Draw GH. It is then manifest from what was proved before that MR is a mean proportional between SN and NQ and equals EL.2 Bisect ED at F. Complete the square SQ. I say that the side of the area AC is a first bimedial straight line.II. Since AE is commensurable in length with ED. therefore AE is incommensurable with AB. and F parallel to AB and CD.17 X. and the square NQ equal to GK. and apply to AE the rectangle AG by GE equal to the square on EF and deficient by a square figure. X. and that is the side of the area AC. Let the area ABCD be contained by the rational straight line AB and the second binomial AD. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line which is called a first bimedial. while ED is commensurable with AB.

1 X. Q. This proposition is used in X. the square on MN with the square on NO.37 Therefore. therefore AH is also commensurable with GK.Proposition X.71. Since DE is. Hence. and BA and GE. therefore AE is also commensurable with each of X. that is.15 the straight lines AG and GE. then the whole is irrational and is called a first bimedial straight line. by hypothesis. SN is incommensurable with MR. therefore AG is incommensurable with EF. that is.D.Since AG is commensurable with EG. therefore MN and NO are medial straight lines commensurable in square only. Book X Introduction .E. Therefore MO is a first bimedial straight line. X. each of the squares SN and NQ is medial. are pairs of rational straight lines commensurable in square only. and MR is the rectangle MN by NO. so that each of the rectangles AH and GK is medial. that is.21 X. that is. SN is commensurable with NQ. But AE is incommensurable in length with AB. I say next that they also contain a rational rectangle. . MR is rational. Therefore BA and AG.56. Since AG is commensurable in length with GE. PN with NR. therefore AG and GE are also incommensurable with AB. Since AE is incommensurable in length with ED. and ED is commensurable with EF. commensurable with each of the straight lines AB and EF. therefore EF is also commensurable with EK.13 X. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the second binomial.11 X. And each of them is rational.13 VI. But MN and NO were proved to be both medial and commensurable in square. Therefore MN and NO are also medial. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line which is called a first bimedial.11 X. that is. so that AH is also incommensurable with EL. MN is incommensurable in length with NO. while AE is commensurable with AG. therefore EL.19 X.54 . that is. if two medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a rational rectangle are added together.1 X.Proposition X. But.12 VI.

© 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .E.

Then. Now.II. Make the same construction as before. in manner similar to the foregoing. therefore the rectangle MN by NO is medial.21 square only. It is next to be proved that it is also a second bimedial straight line. And it is contained by MN and NO. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called a second bimedial.3 X. X. so that MO is bimedial. therefore AE and ED are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. since AD is a third binomial straight line.13 And they are rational. and DE is commensurable with EF. therefore EF is incommensurable in length with EK. Since DE is incommensurable in length with AB. Therefore EL.Def. of which terms AE is the greater. MR. we shall prove that MO is the side of the area AC. the square on AE is greater than the square on ED by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE.Proposition 56 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the third binomial. X. therefore FE and EK are rational straight lines commensurable in X. is medial. and neither of the terms AE and ED is commensurable in length with AB. that is. and MN and NO are medial straight lines commensurable in square only. Let the area ABCD be contained by the rational straight line AB and the third binomial AD divided into its terms at E. with EK. I say that the side of the area AC is the irrational straight line called a second bimedial. Therefore MO is a second bimedial straight line. that is.38 .

E.D. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called a second bimedial.72.55 .Therefore. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the third binomial. Book X Introduction .Proposition X. © 1996 D.E.57.Proposition X. Q. This proposition is used in X.Joyce Clark University .

and apply to AE a parallelogram. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called major.4 by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AE. that is.1 X. while DE is commensurable with EF. therefore EF is incommensurable in length with EK.18 VI. and AE is commensurable in length with AB. and FL parallel to AB. Since AE is commensurable with AB. Since DE is incommensurable in length with AB.Def. Let the area AC be contained by the rational straight line AB and the fourth binomial AD divided into its terms at E. the rectangle AG by GE.Proposition 57 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the fourth binomial. Draw GH. the square on AE is greater than the square on ED X. and it equals the sum of the squares on MN and NO. Then AG is incommensurable in length with GE. therefore AH is also incommensurable with GK. therefore AE and ED are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. therefore AK is rational. SN with NQ. of which terms let AE be the greater. and make the rest of the construction as before. X. that is. It is next to be proved that MO is the irrational straight line called major. EK. I say that the side of the area AC is the irrational straight line called major. Since AG is incommensurable with EG.11 X. Therefore MN and NO are incommensurable in square. Therefore the sum of the squares on MN and NO is also rational. equal to the square on EF.19 X. Since AD is a fourth binomial straight line. Bisect DE at F.II. with EK.13 . It is then manifest that MO is the side of the area AC.

© 1996 D. Therefore MO is the irrational straight line called major and is the side of the area AC.E.Therefore EK and EF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. MR.E. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the fourth binomial.Proposition X. is medial. And it is contained by MN and NO. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called major. Q. are added together.D. but the rectangle contained by them medial. and MN and NO are incommensurable in square. Therefore LE.21 But. Therefore.Joyce Clark University .Proposition X. And the sum of the squares on MN and NO is rational. therefore the rectangle MN by NO is medial.58. X.56 . Book X Introduction . if two straight lines incommensurable in square and making the sum of the squares on them rational. then X.70.39 the whole is irrational and is called major. that is. This proposition is used in X.

is medial.19 . that is. therefore ED is commensurable in length with AB. Therefore AK. I say that the side of the area AC is the irrational straight line called the side of a rational plus a medial area.18 VI. Let the area AC be contained by the rational straight line AB and the fifth binomial AD divided into its terms at E. that is. Make the same construction shown before.II.5 X. And EK is rational. is also rational.1 X. X. the rectangle MN by NO. therefore AB is also incommensurable in length with AE. Therefore MN and NO are incommensurable in square. Since AG is incommensurable with GE. MR.13 X. while DE is commensurable with EF. with EK. but the rectangle contained by them rational. Therefore MN and NO are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial.12 X. so that AE is the greater term. Since DE is commensurable in length with AB. But AE is incommensurable with ED. that is. the square on MN with the square on NO.21 X. and ED the lesser segment. It is then manifest that MO is the side of the area AC.11 X. the sum of the squares on MN and NO.Def. Since AD is a fifth binomial straight line. It is then to be proved that MO is the side of a rational plus a medial area. that is. therefore EL. therefore EF is also commensurable with EK. therefore AH is also commensurable with HE. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called the side of a rational plus a medial area. that is.Proposition 58 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the fifth binomial.

59.Proposition X.Joyce Clark University . Q. This proposition is used in X.71.40 Therefore. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the fifth binomial. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called the side of a rational plus a medial area.Therefore MO is the side of a rational plus a medial area and is the side of the area AC.D.E.57 . Book X Introduction .E.Proposition X. X. © 1996 D.

and EL is the rectangle MN by NO. But AK is the sum of the squares on MN and NO. Therefore FE and EK are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. therefore AK is also incommensurable with EL. It is then manifest that MO is the side of AC. therefore EA and AB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.21 MN and NO. divided into its terms at E. that is. X. so that AE is the greater term.1 X.11 . And each of them is medial.Proposition 59 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and the sixth binomial.21 VI. Since AE is incommensurable with EF. and that l! IN is incommensurable in square with NO. I say that the side of AC is the side of the sum of two medial areas. and MN and NO are incommensurable in square.13 X. therefore the sum of the squares on MN and NO is incommensurable with the rectangle MN by NO. and is the side of AC. is medial. Make the same construction as shown before. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called the side of the sum of two medial areas. since ED is incommensurable in length with AB. the rectangle MN by NO. is medial. the sum of the squares on X. therefore AK. therefore FE is also incommensurable with EK. MR. Therefore EL. Let the area ABCD be contained by the rational straight line AB and the sixth binomial AD. that is. Now.41 X. Again. since EA is incommensurable in length with AB. Therefore MO is the side of the sum of two medial areas. that is.

60. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the sixth binomial.E. Book X Introduction . then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called the side of the sum of two medial areas.Joyce Clark University .E. This proposition is used in X.Proposition X.72.Proposition X.D. © 1996 D.Therefore.58 . Q.

Let AB be a binomial straight line divided into its terms at C. But the sum of the squares on AC and CB is double the sum of the squares on AD and DC. If a straight line is cut into unequal parts. and let DEFG equal the square on AB be applied to DE producing DG as its breadth. II. .5 II. let a rational straight line DE be set out.Proposition 60 Lemma. then the sum of the squares on the unequal parts is greater than twice the rectangle contained by the unequal parts. Let AB be a straight line. and let it be cut into unequal parts at C. Therefore twice the rectangle AC by CB is less than double the square on AD. I say that the sum of the squares on AC and CB is greater than twice the rectangle AC by CB.D. Bisect AB at D. Since a straight line is cut into equal parts at D and into unequal parts at C. I say that DG is a first binomial straight line. so that the rectangle AC by CB is less than the square on AD. and let AC be the greater. therefore the sum of the squares on AC and CB is greater than twice the rectangle AC by CB. so that AC is the greater term.E. therefore the rectangle AC by CB together with the square on CD equals the square on AD. Proposition 60 The square on the binomial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the first binomial.9 Q.

And it equals DL. and DK is commensurable with KM. And they are rational. therefore DH is also commensurable with KL.Lemma VI. that is MF. Bisect MG at N. since AC and CB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. therefore AC and CB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. X.1 VI. But MD is also rational and is commensurable in length with DE. X. therefore DL is also greater than MF. Then the remainder. therefore twice the rectangle AC by CB.21 X.17 VI. therefore MO is also a mean proportional between DH and KL. It is next to be proved that it is also a first binomial straight line. twice the rectangle AC by CB.20 X. therefore DM is incommensurable in length with MG.1 Lemma X.15 therefore DL is rational. so that the sum of the squares on AC and CB is also rational. DE. Since the square on AC is commensurable with the square on CB.Apply to DE the rectangle DH equal to the square on AC.54. Therefore DH is to MO as MO is to KL. and draw NO parallel to ML or GF.11 VI.36 Therefore the squares on AC and CB are rational and commensurable with one an other. therefore DM is rational and commensurable in length with DE. to the fourth part of the square on MG.36 . that is. Therefore DG is binomial.22 X. And it is applied to the rational straight line DE. so that DM is also greater than MG. so that DK is also commensurable with KM. since AB is a binomial divided into its terms at C. equals MF. Again. Then each of the rectangles MO and NF equals once the rectangle AC by CB. is medial. Therefore the rectangle DK by KM equals the square on MN. And the rectangle DK by KM equals the square on MN.13 X. and KL equal to the square on BC. X. And it is applied to the rational straight line ML.1 X. that is DK is to MN as MN is to MK. therefore DM and MG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Now. Since the sum of the squares on AC and CB is greater than twice the rectangle AC by CB. therefore MG is also rational and incommensurable in length with ML. that is. Since the rectangle AC by CB is a mean proportional between the squares on AC and CB.

61.But.E.59 .Def.Joyce Clark University . if there are two unequal straight lines. Book X Introduction .Proposition X. and to the greater there is applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less and deficient by a square figure. the square on the binomial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the first binomial.D. and if it divides it into commensurable parts. then the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater.72 and X.111. © 1996 D. is commensurable in length with the rational straight line DE set out. Therefore the square on DM is greater than the square on MG by the square on a straight line commensurable with DM. Therefore DG is a first binomial straight line. Q. And DM and MG are rational.II. which is the greater term.17 X.Proposition X.1 Therefore.E. This proposition is used in X. and DM. X.

Since the square on AC is commensurable with the square on CB. And they are rational. and let there be applied to DE the parallelogram DF equal to the square on AB. Let AB be a first bimedial straight line divided into its medials at C. therefore AC and CB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only. Again. Since the sum of the squares on AC and CB is greater than twice the rectangle AC by CB. therefore MF is also rational. X. producing DG as its breadth. And it was applied to the rational straight line DE.1 X.20 X. Therefore DM is incommensurable in length with MG. so that DK is also commensurable with KM. so that DM is also greater than MG.1 VI.15 X. And it is applied to the rational straight line ML.Cor. It is next to be proved that it is a second binomial straight line. Then. DE.22 X. Let a rational straight line DE be set out. X. that is. since twice the rectangle AC by CB is rational.36 VI.21 Therefore DL is medial. Make the same construction as before. therefore MG is also rational and commensurable in length with ML.13 X. since AB is a first bimedial divided at C. so that the squares on AC and CB are also medial. X. and containing a rational rectangle. therefore DL is also greater than MF. therefore MD is rational and incommensurable in length with DE. Therefore DG is binomial.11 .23. of which medials AC is the greater. therefore DM and MG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.Proposition 61 The square on the first bimedial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the second binomial. I say that DG is a second binomial straight line.37 X. therefore DH is also commensurable with KL.

And the rectangle DK by KM equals the square on MN.2 Q.Joyce Clark University .Proposition X.E. Therefore DG is a second binomial straight line. the square on the first bimedial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the second binomial.E. And MG is commensurable in length with DE.II.Proposition X.72.D.Def.60 . This proposition is used in X. X. therefore the square on DM is greater than the square on MG by the square on a straight line commensurable with DM. © 1996 D. Therefore. Book X Introduction .17 X.62.

13 VI. so that DM is also incommensurable with MG. And it is applied to the rational straight line DE. and to DE let there be applied the parallelogram DF equal to the square on AB and producing DG as its breadth. And they are rational. therefore the square on AC is also incommensurable with the rectangle AC by CB.Proposition 62 The square on the second bimedial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the third binomial.22 X.23.15 X. therefore DG is binomial. Let AB be a second bimedial straight line divided into its medials at C. And it equals DL. DL is incommensurable with MF. so that AC is the greater segment. Since AC is incommensurable in length with CB. and AC is to CB as the square on AC is to the rectangle AC by CB.38 X. Make the same construction as shown before. MG is also rational and incommensurable in length with ML. For the same reason. therefore MD is also rational and incommensurable in length with DE. that is. X.12 X.11 X. so that the sum of the squares on AC and CB is also medial. since AB is a second bimedial divided at C.Cor. therefore DL is also medial. Hence the sum of the squares on AC and CB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AC by CB. let DE be any rational straight line. therefore AC and CB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a medial rectangle.11 X. that is. with DE. therefore each of the straight lines DM and MG is rational and incommensurable in length with DE. Then.1 X. X. I say that DG is a third binomial straight line.36 .

63.3 Therefore.Proposition X. and that DK is commensurable with KM.61 . And the rectangle DK by KM equals the square on MN. X. therefore the square on DM is greater than the square on MG by the square on a straight line commensurable with DM. the square on the second bimedial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the third binomial.D. In manner similar to the foregoing we may conclude that DM is greater than MG. Therefore DG is a third binomial straight line.Def. This proposition is used in X.Proposition X.It is to be proved that it is a third binomial straight line.72. © 1996 D. Q.II.E. Book X Introduction . And neither of the straight lines DM nor MG is commensurable in length with DE.E.Joyce Clark University .

MF.39 Since the sum of the squares on AC and CB is rational. so that AC is greater than CB.36 VI. Therefore DG is binomial.1 X. but the rectangle contained by them medial. Make the same construction as shown before. Since AB is a major straight line divided at C.22 X. and it is applied to the rational straight line ML.11 . therefore AC and CB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational. therefore MG is also rational and incommensurable in length with DE. and that the rectangle DK by KM equals the square on MN. In manner similar to the foregoing we can prove that DM is greater than MG. Therefore DM is also incommensurable in length with MG. therefore DL is rational. Again.20 X.Proposition 63 The square on the major straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the fourth binomial. Let AB be a major straight line divided at C. It is to be proved that it is a fourth binomial straight line.13 X. is medial. let DE be a rational straight line. Therefore DM and MG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. so that DK is also incommensurable with KM. therefore DH is also incommensurable with KL. Therefore DM is also rational and commensurable in length with DE. and to DE let there be applied the parallelogram DF equal to the square on AB and producing DG as its breadth. X. Since the square on AC is incommensurable with the square on CB. since twice the rectangle AC by CB. I say that DG is a fourth binomial straight line. that is. X.

Therefore DG is a fourth binomial straight line. And DM and MG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. and if it divides it into incommensurable parts.72.D.64. then the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with the greater.But. Book X Introduction . and DM is commensurable with the rational straight line DE set out. therefore the square on DM is greater than the square on MG by the square on a straight line incommensurable with DM.62 .II.Joyce Clark University .E. Q.Def.Proposition X.Proposition X. and to the greater there is applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less and deficient by a square figure. This proposition is used in X. if there are two unequal straight lines. © 1996 D.4 Therefore.E.18 X. X. the square on the major straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the fourth binomial.

let a rational straight line DE be set out. the square on the side of a rational plus a medial area applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the fifth binomial. Therefore DM is incommensurable with MG.13 X. the sum of the squares on AC and CB is medial. Make the same construction as before. X. Since AB is the side of a rational plus a medial area. I say next that it is also a fifth binomial straight line.36 X. that is MF. since twice the rectangle AC by CB. . X.22 X. therefore AC and CB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial but the rectangle contained by them rational. I say that DG is a fifth binomial straight line. And DM and MG are commensurable in square only. therefore MG is rational and commensurable with DE. producing DG as its breadth. MG.Proposition 64 The square on the side of a rational plus a medial area applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the fifth binomial. Therefore DG is a fifth binomial. Therefore DG is binomial. For it can be proved similarly that the rectangle DK by KM equals the square on MN.40 Since. is commensurable in length with DE. then. therefore DL is medial. so that DM is rational and incommensurable in length with DE. divided at C.18 Therefore. so that AC is the greater. Therefore the square on DM is greater than the square on MG by the square on a straight line incommensurable with DM. Let AB be the side of a rational plus a medial area. divided into its straight lines at C. Therefore DM and MG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. and that DK is incommensurable in length with KM. is rational. and the less.20 X. and let there be applied to DE the parallelogram DF equal to the square on AB. Again.

Joyce Clark University .E.Q.Proposition X. Book X Introduction .Proposition X. © 1996 D.63 .E.72.65. This proposition is used in X.D.

I say that DG is a sixth binomial straight line. therefore AC and CB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the X.11 X. and let there be applied to DE the parallelogram DF equal to the square on AB. in accordance with what was before proved. Since AB is the side of the sum of two medial areas divided at C. VI. Let AB be the side of the sum of two medial areas.1 X.41 squares on them medial.36 X. Therefore DG is binomial. each of the rectangles DL and MF is medial. Therefore DM and MG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. producing DG as its breadth.Proposition 65 The square on the side of the sum of two medial areas applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the sixth binomial.22 . And they are applied to the rational straight line DE. divided at C. and moreover the sum of the squares on them incommensurable with the rectangle contained by them. Since the sum of the squares on AC and CB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AC by CB. therefore each of the straight lines DM and MG is rational and incommensurable in length with DE. the rectangle contained by them medial. Make the same construction as before. let DE be a rational straight line. So that. therefore DL is incommensurable with MF. Therefore DM is also incommensurable with MG.

And neither of the straight lines DM nor MG is commensurable in length with the rational straight line DE set out.72.64 . Book X Introduction . © 1996 D. Q. the square on DM is greater than the square MG by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with DM.D.E.Joyce Clark University . Similarly again we can prove that the rectangle DK by KM equals the square on MN.Proposition X. Therefore. This proposition is used in X. and that DK is incommensurable in length with KM. and.I say next that it is a sixth binomial straight line. the square on the side of the sum of two medial areas applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the sixth binomial.Proposition X.66. for the same reason.E. Therefore DG is a sixth binomial straight line.

and EB with FD. Therefore. and let CD be commensurable in length with AB.Proposition 66 A straight line commensurable in length with a binomial straight line is itself also binomial and the same in order. therefore AE and EB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. and let AE be the greater term. therefore CF and FD are also rational.12 X. therefore AE is also commensurable with CF. that is. therefore CD is binomial.36 X. Let AB be binomial. I say next that it is the same in order with AB. Then the remainder EB is to the remainder FD as AB is to CD. But AB is commensurable in length with CD.11 X. Since AB is binomial. X. For the square on AE is greater than the square on EB either by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it.14 V.12 V. the same in order. then the square on CF is also greater than the square on FD by the square on a straight line commensurable with CF.16 X. Let it be contrived that AB is to CD as AE is to CF. then CF is also commensurable with it. And AE and EB are rational. If then the square on AE is greater than the square on EB by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE.11 X. And. I say that CD is binomial and the same in order with AB. therefore CF and FD are also commensurable in square only.36 VI.II. if AE is commensurable with the rational straight line set out.19 X. alternately. divide it into its terms at E. But AE and EB are commensurable in square only.1 .Def.11 V. And they are rational. And AE is to CF as EB is to FD. and for this reason each of the straight lines AB and CD is a first binomial. AE is to EB as CF is to FD.

Def.II. and each of the straight lines AB and CD is a fourth binomial. if EB is commensurable with the rational straight line set out. X. And.3 it.5 X. a straight line commensurable in length with a binomial straight line is itself also binomial and the same in order.Proposition X.D. for each of them is a second binomial. if neither of the straight lines AE or EB is so commensurable.Joyce Clark University .65 . then neither of the straight lines CF or FD is commensurable with the rational straight line set out.14 FD by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CF. if the square on AE is greater than the square on EB by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AE.But.4 X. X. Hence a straight line commensurable in length with a binomial straight line is binomial and the same in order.II. then FD is also commensurable with it. But.Def.II.67.2 But. then CF is also commensurable with it. Q.Def.6 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .E.II.Proposition X. But. Therefore. © 1996 D.Def.II. But.13 straight line set out. then the square on CF is also greater than the square on X.12 X. then FD is also. if neither of the straight lines AE nor EB is commensurable with the rational X. and each of the straight lines AB and CD is a sixth binomial. and each of the straight lines AB and CD is a third binomial. if EB is so commensurable. and each of the straight lines AB and CD is a fifth binomial.Def. then neither of the straight lines CF nor FD is commensurable with X. if AE is commensurable with the rational straight line set out. and for this reason again CD is the same in order with AB.E.

and each of the straight lines AB and CD is a second bimedial. Since AE is to EB as CF is to FD.37 X. then the rectangle CF by FD is also rational. I say that CD is bimedial and the same in order with AB. but if medial. therefore CD is bimedial. But AE and EB are medial. But they were also proved medial. Since AB is bimedial. therefore CF and FD are also commensurable in square only. the square on AE is to the square on CF as the rectangle AE by EB is to the rectangle CF by FD. medial. divide it into its medials at E.23. alternately.11 V. X. Then the remainder EB is to the remainder FD as AB is to CD.11 X. But AB is commensurable in length with CD. Let it be contrived that AB is to CD as AE is to CF. X.11 X. therefore the rectangle AE by EB is commensurable with the rectangle CF by FD.19 X.38 .16 X.Cor. Therefore if the rectangle AE by EB is rational. But the square on AE is commensurable with the square on CF. therefore CF and FD are also medial. Therefore.23 V. therefore AE and EB are commensurable with CF and FD respectively.37 X. And for this reason CD is the same in order with AB. and for this reason CD is a first bimedial. and let CD be commensurable in length with AB. therefore the square on AE is to the rectangle AE by EB as the square on CF is to the rectangle CF by FD. I say next that it is also the same in order with AB. Then AE and EB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only.38 V. and AE and EB are commensurable in square only. Let AB be bimedial. Since AE is to EB as CF is to FD.Proposition 67 A straight line commensurable with a bimedial straight line is itself also bimedial and the same in order.

© 1996 D. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . Q.D.Proposition X.66 .E.Proposition X.E.68. a straight line commensurable with a bimedial straight line is itself also bimedial and the same in order.Therefore.Joyce Clark University .

39 V.16 X.11 V. Then AE and EB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational but the rectangle contained by them medial. Similarly we can prove that the square on AB is to the square on AE as the square on CD is to the square on CF. therefore AE and EB are commensurable with CF and FD respectively. alternately.Cor. AB is to BE as CD is to DF. X. And twice the rectangle AE by EB is medial. Therefore the square on AB is to the square on BE as the square on CD is to the square on DF. Since AB is to CD as AE is to CF. Therefore the square on AB is to the squares on AE and EB as the square on CD is to the squares on CF and FD. therefore. and EB is to FD. so are the squares on AE and EB to the squares on CF and FD. And the squares on AE and EB together are rational. But the square on AB is commensurable with the square on CD.Proposition 68 A straight line commensurable with a major straight line is itself also major. Make the same construction as before. therefore twice the rectangle CF by FD is also medial. alternately. therefore. . therefore the squares on CF and FD together are rational.20 V. and let CD be commensurable with AB. Divide AB at E. therefore AE is to CF as EB is to FD. taken jointly.18 VI. also AE is to EB as CF is to FD. But AB is commensurable with CD.16 V. the square on AB is to the square on CD. I say that CD is major. therefore the squares on AE and EB are also commensurable with the squares on CF and FD.23.11 X. Let AB be major. Similarly also twice the rectangle AE by EB is commensurable with twice the rectangle CF by FD. Since AE is to CF as EB is to FD.

therefore the whole CD is the irrational straight line called major. at the same time.39 medial. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . Therefore. © 1996 D. but the rectangle contained by them X. the sum of the squares on them rational.E. Therefore a straight line commensurable with the major straight line is major.Joyce Clark University . a straight line commensurable with a major straight line is itself also major.Proposition X.69.Proposition X.67 .E. Q.D.Therefore CF and FD are straight lines incommensurable in square which make.

(Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . so that the sum of the squares on CF and FD is also medial.68 . It is to be proved that CD is also the side of a rational plus a medial area. and the rectangle AE by EB with the rectangle CF by FD. a straight line commensurable with the side of a rational plus a medial area is itself also the side of a rational plus a medial area. and let CD be commensurable with AB. Make the same construction as before. Let AB be the side of a rational plus a medial area. © 1996 D.E.Proposition X. Q. We can then prove similarly that CF and FD are incommensurable in square.70. Then AE and EB are straight lines incommensurable in X.40 square which make the sum of the squares on them medial but the rectangle contained by them rational. Therefore CD is the side of a rational plus a medial area. Divide AB into its straight lines at E.Proposition 69 A straight line commensurable with the side of a rational plus a medial area is itself also the side of a rational plus a medial area. and the rectangle CF by FD rational. Therefore.Proposition X. and the sum of the squares on AE and EB is commensurable with the sum of the squares on CF and FD.Joyce Clark University .D.E.

Q. the sum of the squares on AE and EB is commensurable with the sum of the squares on CF and FD. and furthermore the sum of the squares on AE and EB incommensurable with the rectangle AE by EB.41 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . and moreover the sum of the squares on CF and FD is incommensurable with the rectangle CF by FD. and CD commensurable with AB. therefore AE and EB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial. divide it into its straight lines at E.D. a straight line commensurable with the side of the sum of two medial areas is the side of the sum of two medial areas. Since AB is the side of the sum of two medial areas.69 .71. and the rectangle AE by EB with the rectangle CF by FD. so that the sum of the squares on CF and FD is also medial. We can then prove similarly that CF and FD are also incommensurable in square. Therefore. Make the same construction as before.Proposition X. It is to be proved that CD is also the side of the sum of two medial areas. © 1996 . Let AB be the side of the sum of two medial areas. Therefore CD is the side of the sum of two medial areas. the rectangle CF by FD is medial.E. the rectangle contained by them medial.Proposition X.Proposition 70 A straight line commensurable with the side of the sum of two medial areas is the side of the sum of two medial areas. X.

E.D.Joyce Clark University .

therefore AB is incommensurable with CD. therefore HK is rational and incommensurable in length with EF. since CD is medial and equals HI. Again.Proposition 71 If a rational and a medial are added together. Set out a rational straight line EF . while AB is rational. First. Let AB be rational. producing EH as breadth.22 VI. therefore EH is rational and commensurable in length with EF. therefore EH is also incommensurable in length with HK. I say that the side of the area AD is a binomial or a first bimedial or a major or a side of a rational plus a medial area. And it is applied to EF. For AB is either greater or less than CD. producing HK as breadth. so that EG is also incommensurable with HI. then four irrational straight lines arise. producing HK as breadth. therefore HI is also medial. therefore EG is also rational.20 X. X. Since CD is medial. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF. Then. equal to DC. and apply to EF HI. But EG is to HI as EH is to HK. since AB is rational and equals EG. let it be greater. producing EH as breadth. namely a binomial or a first bimedial or a major or a side of a rational plus a medial area.1 X. apply to EF the rectangle EG equal to AB. and CD medial.11 .

so that the side of AD is also a first bimedial. Now the lesser straight line EH is commensurable in length with the rational straight line EF set out. Now the greater straight line EH is commensurable in length with the rational straight line EF set out. Next. therefore EG is also greater than HI. Therefore the side of the area EI is major. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the first binomial.36 X.54 X. therefore EH and HK are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. First. while AB equals EG and CD equals HI. But EF is rational. so that EH is also less than HK. let the square on it be greater by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with itself.II. Then EG is also less than HI. The square. Therefore EH is also greater than HK. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the second binomial. Now the greater straight line HE is commensurable in length with the rational straight line EF set out. First. then the side of the square it is a first bimedial. let AB be less than CD. then.And both are rational. on EH is greater than the square on HK either by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with EH or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it. Since AB is greater than CD. so that the side of AD is also binomial. let the square on HK be greater than the square on HE by the square on a straight line incommensurable with HK. let the square on it be greater by the square on a straight line commensurable with itself.Def. and.4 X. and. Next. But EF is rational. But EF is rational.II. therefore EK is a first binomial. Therefore the side of EI is binomial.II.1 X. therefore EK is a fourth binomial. let the square on EH be greater than the square on HK by the square on a straight line incommensurable with EH.Def. Therefore EK is a binomial straight line. if an area be contained by a rational straight line and the fourth binomial. Now the square on HK is greater than the square on EH either by the square on a straight line commensurable with HK or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it. therefore the side of the area EI is a first bimedial. and.55 . then the side of the square equal to the area is binomial. X. then the side of the area is the irrational straight line called major. divided at H.Def. therefore EK is a second binomial.57 Next.2 X. so that the side of the area AD is also major. X.

5 X.Proposition X.Proposition X. Q. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the fifth binomial. therefore EK is a fifth binomial.Def.Joyce Clark University .58 Therefore.72. and.E. so that the side of the area AD is also a side of a rational plus a medial area. then four irrational straight lines arise.70 .D.II.Now the lesser straight line EH is commensurable with the rational straight line EF set out. But EF is rational. © 1996 D. Therefore the side of the area EI is a side of a rational plus a medial area.E. if a rational and a medial are added together. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . namely a binomial or a first bimedial or a major or a side of a rational plus a medial area. X. then the side of the square equal to the area is a side of a rational plus a medial area.

and AB equals EG. I say that the side of the area AD is either a second bimedial or a side of the sum of two medial areas. and apply to EF the rectangle EG equal to AB and producing EH as breadth. then the remaining two irrational straight lines arise. therefore EG is also incommensurable with HI. And they are applied to the rational straight line FE producing EH and HK as breadth. X. Let two medial areas AB and CD incommensurable with one another be added together. since each of the areas AB and CD is medial. For AB is either greater or less than CD. namely either a second bimedial or a side of the sum of two medial areas. Set out the rational straight line EF. and the rectangle HI equal to CD and producing HK as breadth. therefore each of the straight lines EH and HK is rational and incommensurable in length with EF. Now. therefore each of the areas EG and HI is also medial. let AB be greater than CD.22 .Proposition 72 If two medial areas incommensurable with one another are added together. First. Since AB is incommensurable with CD. and CD equals HI.

therefore EK is a sixth binomial. then the remaining two irrational straight lines arise. X. let the square on EH be greater than the square on HK by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with EH. therefore the side of EI.Def. But the square on EH is greater than the square on HK either by the square on a straight line commensurable with EH or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it. produces as breadth the second binomial. The square on the first bimedial.61 .11 X.D. let the square on it be greater by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with itself.6 X. Now each of the straight lines EH and HK is incommensurable in length with EF. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the sixth binomial. But. VI. First. produces as breadth a straight line rational and incommensurable in length with that to which it is applied. namely either a second bimedial or a side of the sum of two medial areas. Proposition The binomial straight line and the irrational straight lines after it are neither the same with the medial nor with one another. therefore EK is binomial.1 X. therefore EH is incommensurable in length with HK.59 Therefore. therefore EK is a third binomial. if applied to a rational straight line. then the side of the area is the side of the sum of two medial areas. if applied to a rational straight line.Def.3 X.II. For the square on a medial. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and the third binomial.56 X.22 X. so that the side of the area AD is also the side of the sum of two medial areas. produces as breadth the first binomial. Q. if two medial areas incommensurable with one another are added together. and. then the side of the area is a second bimedial. But EF is rational.36 X.E. Next.But EG is to HI as EH is to HK. But the square on the binomial. Now neither of the straight lines EH nor HK is commensurable in length with the rational straight line EF set out. Therefore EH and HK are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. of AD. that is.60 X.II. is a second bimedial. if applied to a rational straight line.

Proposition X.71 . produces as breadth the third binomial. from the first because it is rational.E. and from one another because they are not the same in order.64 X. if applied to a rational straight line. if applied to a rational straight line. produces as breadth the sixth binomial. so that the irrational straight lines themselves also differ from one another.Joyce Clark University . The square on the major. The square on the side of the sum of two medial areas. X.Proposition X. © 1996 D.65 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . And the said breadths differ both from the first and from one another.63 X.62 X. if applied to a rational straight line. The square on the side of a rational plus a medial area. produces as breadth the fifth binomial.73. if applied to a rational straight line. produces as breadth the fourth binomial.The square on the second bimedial.

11.74. commensurable with the whole in square only. This proposition is used very frequently in the rest of Book X starting with X. therefore AC is irrational.4 Q.Proposition 73 If from a rational straight line there is subtracted a rational straight line commensurable with the whole in square only.7 X.15 X. and AB is to BC as the square on AB is to the rectangle AB by BC.6 II.Def. But the sum of the squares on AB and BC is rational.16 X. It is also used in propositions XIII. I say that the remainder AC is the irrational straight line called apotome. From the rational straight line AB let the rational straight line BC.75. Let it be called an apotome. Since AB is incommensurable in length with BC. Book X Introduction .Proposition X. But the sum of the squares on AB and BC is commensurable with the square on AB. the square on AC. X.D.72 . let it be called an apotome.Proposition X. inasmuch as the sum of the squares on AB and BC equal twice the rectangle AB by BC together with the square on CA.E.11 X. then the remainder is irrational. And. be subtracted.13 X.6 and XIII. therefore the sum of the squares on AB and BC is also incommensurable with the remainder. and twice the rectangle AB by BC is commensurable with the rectangle AB by BC. therefore the square on AB is incommensurable with the rectangle AB by BC. © 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .E.

Let it be called a first apotome of a medial straight line.Proposition 74 If from a medial straight line there is subtracted a medial straight line which is commensurable with the whole in square only and which contains with the whole a rational rectangle. © 1996 D. But twice the rectangle AB by BC is rational. From the medial straight line AB let there be subtracted the medial straight line BC which is commensurable with AB in square only and with AB makes the rectangle AB by BC rational.75. II. let it be called first apotome of a medial straight line.Def.Joyce Clark University . since. But twice the rectangle AB by BC is rational. Since AB and BC are medial.4 Q.16 X.7 X. Book X Introduction . I say that the remainder AC is irrational.Proposition X. therefore AC is irrational. then the original magnitudes are also incommensurable. then the remainder is irrational. therefore the square on AC is irrational. if the whole is incommensurable with one of the magnitudes.73 .Proposition X. the square on AC.E.E. Therefore twice the rectangle AB by BC is also incommensurable with the remainder.80. cf. the squares on AB and BC are also medial.D. therefore the sum of the squares on AB and BC is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB by BC. This proposition is used for a few later propositions in Book X starting with X. and let it be called an apotome of a medial straight line.

therefore twice the rectangle AB by BC is also medial.Cor. since the squares on AB and BC are medial and commensurable. equal to twice the rectangle AB by BC. Then the remainder FE equals the square on AC. producing DF as breadth. X.28 Set out a rational straight line DI. Apply DE. is medial. let it be called second apotome of a medial straight line. Now. II. then the remainder is irrational.Cor. Again.7 X. therefore DH is also medial. And it equals DH. I say that the remainder AC is irrational. therefore DG X. to DI producing DF as breadth. producing DG as breadth. and which contains with the whole a medial rectangle.23. Apply DH.Proposition 75 If from a medial straight line there is subtracted a medial straight line which is commensurable with the whole in square only. And it is applied to the rational straight line DI. to DI producing DG as breadth. therefore DF is rational and incommensurable in length with DI. . And it is applied to the rational straight line DI. therefore DE is also medial. equal to the sum of the squares on AB and BC.23. X. and let it be called a second apotome of a medial straight line. since the rectangle AB by BC is medial.15 X. From the medial straight line AB let there be subtracted the medial straight line CB which is commensurable with the whole AB in square only such that the rectangle AB by BC which it contains with the whole AB.22 is rational and incommensurable in length with DI.22 X.

and DH equals twice the rectangle VI. Q. © 1996 D. therefore AC is irrational. X. therefore DE is incommensurable with DH.81. and X. Let it be called a second apotome of a medial straight line.E.73 X. Therefore FG is an apotome.20 This proposition is used for a few later propositions in Book X starting with X. But DE is to DH as GD is to X.E.74 .D.15 twice the rectangle AB by BC is commensurable with the rectangle AB by BC.1 AB by BC.11 DF.76. and its side is irrational. Therefore the square on AB is also incommensurable with the rectangle AB by BC. therefore GD and DF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.6 twice the rectangle AB by BC is incommensurable with the sum of the squares on AB X. And both are rational.Proposition X. Book X Introduction . therefore AB is incommensurable in length with BC. therefore X. But DE equals the sum of the squares on AB and BC.11 But the sum of the squares on AB and BC is commensurable with the square on AB. And AC is the side of FE. and the rectangle contained by a rational and an irrational straight line is irrational.13 and BC. X. therefore GD is incommensurable with DF.Proposition X.Since AB and BC are commensurable in square only.Joyce Clark University . But DI is rational.

but the rectangle contained by them medial. therefore the sum of the squares on AB and BC is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB by BC.E.Joyce Clark University .D.Proposition X. From the straight line AB let there be subtracted the straight line BC which is X. © 1996 D. But the sum of the squares on AB and BC is rational.77.33 incommensurable in square with the whole and fulfills the given conditions. the sum of the squares on AB and BC is incommensurable with the remainder.16 This proposition is used for a few later propositions in Book X starting with X.75 . then the remainder is irrational. Book X Introduction . and. in conversion. the square on AC.7 X. I say that the remainder AC is the irrational straight line called minor.E.Proposition 76 If from a straight line there is subtracted a straight line which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which with the whole makes the sum of the squares on them added together rational. Therefore AC is irrational. Q. Let it be called minor. II.Proposition X. Since the sum of the squares on AB and BC is rational.82. while twice the rectangle AB by BC is medial. therefore the square on AC is irrational. let it be called minor.

and which with the whole makes the sum of the squares on them medial but twice the rectangle contained by them rational.76 .E. the square on AC. I say that the remainder AC is the irrational straight line aforesaid. © 1996 D. Let it be called that which produces with a rational area a medial whole.7 X.D. while twice the rectangle AB by BC is rational.Proposition X. From the straight line AB let there be subtracted the straight line BC which is incommensurable in square with AB and fulfills the given conditions. therefore the sum of the squares on AB and BC is incommensurable with twice the II. Since the sum of the squares on AB and BC is medial. This proposition is used for a few later propositions in Book X starting with X.16 rectangle AB by BC.Proposition X.78. then the remainder is irrational.83. Therefore the remainder. Book X Introduction . therefore the square on AC is irrational.Proposition 77 If from a straight line there is subtracted a straight line which is incommensurable in square with the whole. is also incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB by BC. And twice the rectangle AB by BC is rational.E. let it be called that which produces with a rational area a medial whole. Q.Joyce Clark University . Therefore AC is irrational.

7 X. then the remainder is irrational. And it is applied to the rational straight line DI producing DF as breadth. equal to the sum of the squares on AB and BC. therefore DE is also incommensurable with DH.22 X. twice the rectangle contained by them medial. therefore DF is also rational and incommensurable in length with DI. therefore DH is medial. Then the remainder FE equals the square on AC. Again. X. to DI producing DG as breadth.22 .35 Set out a rational straight line DI. Apply DE. Now. therefore DE is medial. From the straight line AB let there be subtracted the straight line BC incommensurable in square with AB and fulfilling the given conditions. Since the sum of the squares on AB and BC is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB by BC. therefore DG is rational and incommensurable in length with DI. since the sum of the squares on AB and BC is medial and equals DE. And it is applied to the rational straight line DI producing DG as breadth. since twice the rectangle AB by BC is medial and equals DH. Subtract DH equal twice the rectangle AB by BC. let it be called that which produces with a medial area a medial whole. so that AC is the side of FE.Proposition 78 If from a straight line there is subtracted a straight line which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which with the whole makes the sum of the squares on them medial. II. and further the sum of the squares on them incommensurable with twice the rectangle contained by them. I say that the remainder AC is the irrational straight line called that which produces with a medial area a medial whole.

Therefore FG is an apotome.Proposition X.79.E.Joyce Clark University . therefore GD and DF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. And FH is rational. therefore DG is incommensurable with DF. X. And AC is the side of FE.84. Book X Introduction . © 1996 D.73 X.Proposition X.But DE is to DH as DG is to DF.77 .11 VI.1 X. therefore AC is irrational.20 Q. And both are rational. but the rectangle contained by a rational straight line and an apotome is irrational.E.D. This proposition is used for a few later propositions in Book X starting with X. Let it be called that which produces with a medial area a medial whole. and its side is irrational.

the excess of the sum of the squares on AD and DB over the sum of the squares on AC and CB is the excess of twice the rectangle AD by DB over twice the rectangle AC by CB. . and a medial area does not exceeded a medial by a rational area. therefore.73 X.E. the square on AB. alternately.84. Then AC and CB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.Proposition 79 To an apotome only one rational straight line can be annexed which is commensurable with the whole in square only. X. since the excess of the sum of the squares on AD and DB over twice the rectangle AD by DB is also the excess of the sum of the squares on AC and CB over twice the rectangle AC by CB. and BC an annex to it. Therefore no other rational straight line can be annexed to AB which is commensurable with the whole in square only. Then AD and DB are also rational straight lines commensurable in square only. therefore twice the rectangle AD by DB also exceeds twice the rectangle AC by CB by a rational area.21 X. for both exceed by the same. Let AB be an apotome. Therefore. If possible. Therefore only one rational straight line can be annexed to an apotome which is commensurable with the whole in square only. Now.D. for both are rational. which is impossible.26 This proposition is used in X. for both are medial. let BD be so annexed. I say that no other rational straight line can be annexed to AB which is commensurable with the whole in square only. to an apotome only one rational straight line can be annexed which is commensurable with the whole in square only.73 II. But the sum of the squares on AD and DB exceeds the sum of the squares on AC and CB by a rational area.7 X.81 and X. Q.

Joyce Clark University .Book X Introduction .E.Proposition X. © 1996 D.Proposition X.78 .80.

I say that no other medial straight line can be annexed to AB which is commensurable with the whole in square only and which contains with the whole a rational area.74 X.74 II. and let KC be an annex to AB. therefore. the square on AB. (Forthcoming) . for they exceed by the same. for both are medial. Let AB be a first apotome of a medial straight line. alternately.23. Q. to a first apotome of a medial straight line only one medial straight line can be annexed which is commensurable with the whole in square only and which contains with the whole a rational rectangle.26 X.E. Now.Proposition 80 To a first apotome of a medial straight line only one medial straight line can be annexed which is commensurable with the whole in square only and which contains with the whole a rational rectangle. Then AD and DB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only such that the rectangle AD by DB which they contain is rational. and a medial area does not exceed a medial by a rational area. the excess of the sum of the squares on AD and DB over the sum of the squares on AC and CB is also the excess of twice the rectangle AD by DB over twice the rectangle AC by CB.Cor. let DB also be so annexed. X. Then AC and CB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only such that the rectangle AC by CB which they contain is rational. If possible. for both are rational. Therefore the sum of the squares on AD and DB also exceeds the sum of the squares on AC and CB by a rational area. But twice the rectangle AD by DB exceeds twice the rectangle AC by CB by a rational area.15 X.D. which is impossible.7 Therefore. X. since the excess of the sum of the squares on AD and DB over twice the rectangle AD by DB is also the excess of the sum of the squares on AC and CB over twice the rectangle AC by CB.

81.Proposition X.Proposition X.Joyce Clark University .79 . © 1996 D.Book X Introduction .E.

Cor. producing HM as breadth. Again. therefore EM is rational and incommensurable in length with EF.75 X. so that AB is the side of EL. Now.Proposition 81 To a second apotome of a medial straight line only one medial straight line can be annexed which is commensurable with the whole in square only and which contains with the whole a medial rectangle. therefore EG is also medial. apply EI. since the rectangle AC by CB is medial. I say that no other medial straight line can be annexed to AB which is commensurable with the whole in square only and which contains with the whole a medial rectangle. Then AC and CB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only such that the rectangle AC by CB which they contain is medial. X.7 X. producing EM as breadth. . Apply EG.Cor. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF. Then AD and DB are also medial straight lines commensurable in square only such that the rectangle AD by DB which they contain is medial. II.22 X. twice the rectangle AC by CB is also medial.23. equal to the sum of the squares on AD and DB. X. therefore the remainder HI equals twice the rectangle AD by DB. equal to the sum of the squares on AC and CB.15 X. And they equal EG.75 Set out a rational straight line EF.23. And it equals HG. equal to twice the rectangle AC by CB.7 Again. But EL also equals the square on AB. let BD also be so annexed. If possible. to EF producing EN as breadth. Subtract HG. II. Then the remainder EL equals the square on AB. therefore the squares on AC and CB are also medial. to EF producing EM as breadth. since AC and CB are medial straight lines. therefore HG is also medial. Let AB be a second apotome of a medial straight line and BC an annex to AB.

X.Proposition X. therefore HM is also rational and incommensurable in length with EF.82. therefore EM and MH are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.E.And it is applied to the rational straight line EF. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . therefore EM is incommensurable in length with MH. Q.11 And both are rational.79 straight lines are annexed which are commensurable with the wholes in square only. X. while twice the rectangle AC by CB is commensurable with the rectangle AC by CB.D. Therefore. Since AC and CB are commensurable in square only.22 X.73 VI. and HM an annex to it. © 1996 D. therefore the sum of the squares on AC and CB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AC by CB.E. therefore AC is incommensurable in length with CB. But AC is to CB as the square on AC is to the rectangle AC by CB. Therefore to an apotome different X. X.1 Similarly we can prove that HN is also an annex to it. But the sum of the squares on AC and CB is commensurable with the square on AC.11 X. producing HM as breadth.Proposition X. therefore EG is incommensurable with HG. therefore the square on AC is incommensurable with the rectangle AC by CB. to a second apotome of a medial straight line only one medial straight line can be annexed which is commensurable with the whole in square only and which contains with the whole a medial rectangle.13 But EG is to HG as EM is to HM. while GH equals twice the rectangle AC by CB.Joyce Clark University .80 . And EG equals the sum of the squares on AC and CB. therefore EH is an apotome. which is impossible.6 X.

with the whole. Then AD and DB are both straight lines incommensurable X. Q. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .Proposition X. which is impossible. If possible. the sum of squares on them rational but twice the rectangle contained by them medial.26 Therefore. while the sum of the squares on AD and DB exceed the sum of the squares on AC and CB by a rational area. I say that no other straight line can be annexed to AB fulfilling the same conditions.D. since the excess of the sum of the squares on AD and DB over the sum of the squares on AC and CB is also the excess of twice the rectangle AD by DB over twice the rectangle AC by CB.76 X.83. Now. X.Proposition 82 To a minor straight line only one straight line can be annexed which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which makes. the sum of squares on them rational but twice the rectangle contained by them medial.76 in square which fulfill the aforesaid conditions.81 . to a minor straight line only one straight line can be annexed which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which makes. with the whole. for both are medial. © 1996 .Proposition X. for both are rational. but twice the rectangle contained by them medial. let BD be so annexed. Then AC and CB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational.E. and let BC be an annex to AB. therefore twice the rectangle AD by DB also exceeds twice the rectangle AC by CB by a rational area. Let AB be the minor straight line.

E.Joyce Clark University .D.

and let BC be an annex to AB. X.E.77 X. the excess of the sum of the squares on AD and DB over the sum of the squares on AC and CB is also the excess of twice the rectangle AD by DB over twice the rectangle AC by CB. which is impossible.82 .77 in square which fulfill the given conditions.Proposition X. Then AD and DB are both straight lines incommensurable X. Let AB be the straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. Q. for both are rational. As in the preceding cases. If possible. for both are medial. therefore only one straight line can be so annexed. while twice the rectangle AD by DB exceeds twice the rectangle AC by CB by a rational area. let BD be so annexed. .84. Then AC and CB are straight lines incommensurable in square which fulfill the given conditions. I say that no other straight line can be annexed to AB which fulfills the same conditions.26 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . therefore the sum of the squares on AD and DB also exceeds the sum of the squares on AC and CB by a rational area.D. Therefore no other straight line can be annexed to AB which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which with the whole fulfills the aforesaid conditions.Proposition 83 To a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole only one straight line can be annexed which is incommensurable in square with the whole straight line and which with the whole straight line makes the sum of squares on them medial but twice the rectangle contained by them rational.Proposition X.

© 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .E.

so that AD and DB are also straight lines incommensurable in square which make the squares on AD and DB added together medial. let BD be so annexed. to EF producing HM as breadth.Proposition 84 To a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole only one straight line can be annexed which is incommensurable in square with the whole straight line and which with the whole straight line makes the sum of squares on them medial and twice the rectangle contained by them both medial and also incommensurable with the sum of the squares on them. Apply HG. apply EI. equals HI. since twice the rectangle AC by CB is medial and equals HG. Let AB be the straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole.7 X.22 X. II. X. therefore EG is also medial. the square on AB.78 Set out a rational straight line EF. But the square on AB also equals EL. equal to the sum of the squares on AC and CB. and BC an annex to it. and also the sum of the squares on AD and DB incommensurable with twice the rectangle AD by DB. therefore the remainder. I say that no other straight line can be annexed to AB which fulfills the aforesaid conditions. Therefore AB is the side of EL.78 X.22 . Now.7 Again. twice the rectangle AD by DB. equals EL. equal to twice the rectangle AC by CB. Then AC and CB are straight lines incommensurable in square which fulfill the aforesaid conditions. If possible. Apply EG. to EF producing EM as breadth. to EF producing EN as breadth. twice the rectangle AD by DB medial. Again. therefore EM is rational and incommensurable in length with EF. Then the remainder. therefore HM is rational and incommensurable in length with EF. therefore HG is also medial. since the sum of the squares on AC and CB is medial and equals EG. II. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF producing EM as breadth. equal to the sum of the squares on AD and DB. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF producing HM as breadth.

Therefore to AB only one straight line can be annexed which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which with the whole makes the squares on them added together medial. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . VI. Therefore to an apotome different rational straight lines are annexed which are commensurable with the wholes in square only.85. and HM an annex to it.E.Joyce Clark University . Therefore EM is also incommensurable in length with MH. which was proved impossible. and also the sum of the squares on them incommensurable with twice the rectangle contained by them.73 X.D.1 X. And both are rational. therefore EM and MH are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.11 X. Therefore EH is an apotome.Since the sum of the squares on AC and CB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AC by CB. therefore EG is also incommensurable with HG. Therefore no other straight line can be so annexed to AB. twice the rectangle contained by them medial.79 Q.E. Similarly we can prove that EH is again an apotome and HN an annex to it.Definitions III of Book X .Proposition X. © 1996 D.

if the square on the whole is greater than the square on the annex by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with the whole. and the square on the whole is greater than that on the annex by the square on a straight line commensurable with the whole. Definition 4. let the apotome be called a fourth apotome. let the apotome be called a first apotome.Joyce . a sixth. Definition 5. a fifth.Proposition X.Definitions III Definition 1. But if the annex is commensurable with the rational straight line set out. Given a rational straight line and an apotome. Definition 2.84 . if neither.E.85. But if neither is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. Definition 3. And. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . and the whole is commensurable in length with the rational line set out. let the apotome be called a third apotome. Definition 6. let the apotome be called a second apotome.Proposition X. © 1996 D. Again. then. if the whole is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. and the square on the whole is greater than the square on the annex by the square on a straight line commensurable with the whole. if the square on the whole is greater than the square on the annex by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the whole. If the annex be so commensurable.

Clark University .

therefore neither has the square on BG to the square on GC the ratio which a square number has to a square number.6 X.Cor. therefore. Therefore GC is also rational. therefore the square on GB also has to the square on H the ratio which a square X.Proposition 85 To find the first apotome. I say next that it is also a first apotome. Since ED does not have to DF the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and let their difference FD not be square. . Then the square on BG is commensurable with the square on GC. V. for each is square.73 But DE has to EF the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore BG and GC are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Therefore BG is incommensurable in length with GC.6. Set out two square numbers DE and EF. Then ED does not have to DF the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and let BG be commensurable in length with A. Therefore BG is commensurable in length with H. X. Let the square on H be that by which the square on BG is greater than the square on GC. Then BG is also rational. Now since ED is to FD as the square on BG is to the square on GC.Cor.19. And both are rational. in conversion. Set out a rational straight line. as DE is to EF as the square on GB is to the square on H. Therefore BC is an apotome. X. Let it be contrived that ED is to DF as the square on BG is to the square on GC.9 X. But the square on BG is rational. therefore the square on GC is also rational.9 number has to a square number.

© 1996 D.And the square on BG is greater than the square on GC by the square on H.Def. And the whole BG is commensurable in length with the rational straight line A set out. Therefore BC is a first apotome.Definitions III of Book X .E.F.86.III. therefore the square on BG is greater than the square on GC by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with BG.Proposition X. Therefore the first apotome BC has been found.E. Q.Joyce Clark University .2 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . X.

Then the square on CG is commensurable with the square on GB. And. Set out two square numbers DE and EF.19. Now let it be contrived that FD is to DE as the square on CG is to the square on GB. is commensurable with the rational straight line A set out. And both are rational. Therefore BG is rational. X. in conversion.Def. therefore the square on BG has to the square on H the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Let the square on H be that by which the square on BG is greater than the square on GC. the square on BG is to the square on H as DE is to EF. therefore CG and GB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. And CG.III. Set out a rational straight line A. therefore BC is a second apotome. the annex.6 But the square on CG is rational.Cor. Therefore BG is commensurable in length with H. And the square on BG is greater than the square on GC by the square on H. Then GC is rational. and let GC be commensurable in length with A.73 X. since the square on GC does not have to the square on GB the X.Proposition 86 To find the second apotome.Cor. I say next that it is also a second apotome.6. therefore. therefore CG is incommensurable in length with GB. Therefore the second apotome BC has been found. And each of the numbers DE and EF is square. therefore the square on GB is also rational. Therefore BC is an apotome.9 . X.2 V. and let their difference DF not be square. Since the square on BG is to the square on GC as the number ED is to the number DF.9 ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore the square on BG is greater than the square on GC by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with BG. X. X.

Proposition X. © 1996 D.85 .F.Joyce Clark University .E. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .Proposition X.E.87.Q.

is to the square on FG. I say next that it is also a third apotome. And both are rational. Therefore FH is an apotome.6 X. But the square on FG is rational. Therefore FG is incommensurable in length with GH. But the square on A is rational. Since E is to BC as the square on A is to the square on FG. therefore the square on FG is commensurable with the square on GH.6 X. Therefore A is incommensurable in length with FG. Set out three numbers E. therefore the square on FG is also rational. therefore GH is rational. since BC is to CD as the square on FG is to the square on GH. therefore the square on GH is also rational. therefore the square on A is commensurable with the square on FG. X.9 X. therefore neither has the square on A to the square on FG the ratio which 3 square number has to a square number. Again. therefore FG and GH are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.9 X. therefore neither has the square on FG to the square on GH the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Since E does not have to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. but let CB have to BD the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and CD which do not have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore FG is rational. Set out a rational straight line A. Let it be contrived that E is to BC as the square on A X.Cor. BC.6.Proposition 87 To find the third apotome.73 . Since BC does not have to CD the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and BC is to CD as the square on FG is to the square on GH.

Therefore the third apotome FH has been found. therefore neither has the square on A to the square on GH the ratio which a square number has to a square number.88.Cor.22 A is to the square on HG.86 . Since BC is to CD as the square on FG is to the square on GH. Q.F. therefore. But BC has to BD the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore A is incommensurable in length with GH.III. BC is to BD as the square on FG is to the square on K. and the square on FG is greater than X.E. But E does not have to CD the ratio which a square number has to a square number. ex aequali.Proposition X.Joyce Clark University . And neither of the straight lines FG nor GH is commensurable in length with the rational straight line A set out. in conversion. Therefore FG is commensurable in length with K.9 the square on GH by the square on a straight line commensurable with FG. and BC is to CD as the square on FG is to the square on HG. Therefore neither of the straight lines FG nor GH is commensurable in length with the rational straight line A set out.Proposition X.Since E is to BC as the square on A is to the square on FG.19.3 V.Def. X.9 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . E is to CD as the square on V. Now let the square on K be that by which the square on FG is greater than the square on GH.E. X. © 1996 D. therefore. therefore the square on FG also has to the square on K the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore FH is a third apotome.

Then the square on BG is commensurable with the square on GC. Set out two numbers DF and FE such that the whole DE has to neither of the numbers DE nor EF the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Now let the square on H be that by which the square on BG is greater than the square on GC. Since DE is to EF as the square on BG is to the square on GC. Set out a rational straight line A. And the square on BG is greater than the square on GC by the square on H. Therefore BC is an apotome. X. since DE does not have to EF the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore BG is incommensurable in length with GC.III. Therefore BC is a fourth apotome. But ED does not have to DF the ratio which a square number has to a square number.Proposition 88 To find the fourth apotome. therefore BG and GC are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. therefore the square on BG is greater than the square on GC by the square on a straight line incommensurable with BG.Def. X. therefore neither has the square on GB to the square on H the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore BG is incommensurable in length with H. And both are rational.9 X. X. Therefore GC is rational.Cor. Now. therefore neither has the square on BG to the square on GC the ratio which a square number has to a square number.4 V. Let it be contrived that DE is to EF as the square on BG is to the square on GC.73 X.6 X. But the square on BG is rational.19. and let BG be commensurable in length with it. therefore the square on GC is also rational. in conversion. And the whole BG is commensurable in length with the rational straight line A set out.6. therefore.9 . ED is to DF as the square on GB is to the square on H. Therefore the fourth apotome has been found.Cor.

E.89. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .F. © 1996 D.Q.E.Proposition X.Joyce Clark University .Proposition X.87 .

Then the square on GB is also rational. Set out two numbers DF and FE such that DE again has to neither of the numbers DF nor FE the ratio which a square number has to a square number. while DE does not have to EF the ratio which a square number has to a square number.19. and let CG be commensurable in length with A.Def. Let the square on H be that by which the square on BG is greater than the square on GC. I say next that it is also a fifth apotome.Cor. therefore BG and GC are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Then CG is rational. Therefore BC is an apotome.III. Set out a rational straight line A.9 X.5 . X. And the square on BG is greater than the square on GC by the square on H. Therefore BG is incommensurable in length with H.9 X. Since the square on BG is to the square on GC as DE is to EF. X. therefore. therefore BC is a fifth apotome. And both are rational. And the annex CG is commensurable in length with the rational straight line A set out. ED is to DF as the square on BG is to the square on H. Therefore BG is incommensurable in length with GC. therefore neither does the square on BG have to the square on GC the ratio which a square number has to a square number.73 V. But ED does not have to DF the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore BG is also rational.6 Now since DE is to EF as the square on BG is to the square on GC.Proposition 89 To find the fifth apotome. therefore the square on GB is greater than the square on GC by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with GB. in conversion. and let it be contrived that FE is to ED as the square on CG is to the square on GB. therefore neither has the square on BG to the square on H the ratio which a square number has to a square number. X.

Joyce Clark University .F. Q.Therefore the fifth apotome BC has been found.E. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .Proposition X.88 .E.90. © 1996 D.Proposition X.

Let it be contrived that E is to BC as the square on A is to the square on FG.73 . therefore the square on A is commensurable with the square on FG. X.9 X. and further let CB also not have to BD the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Again. therefore the square on FG is commensurable with the square on GH. and set out three numbers E.Cor. Therefore GH is also rational. therefore FG and GH are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.6 X. Therefore FG is also rational. X. Therefore FH is an apotome. therefore neither does the square on FG have to the square on GH the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Set out a rational straight line A. Since E does not have to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore FG is incommensurable in length with GH And both are rational. since BC is to CD as the square on FG is to the square on GH. I say next that it is also a sixth apotome.9 X. Now since E is to BC as the square on A is to the square on FG. X. therefore A is incommensurable in length with FG. Since BC does not have to CD the ratio which a square number has to a square number. therefore neither does the square on A have to the square on FG the ratio which a square number has to a square number. But the square on FG is rational. therefore the square on FG is also rational.6 But the square on A is rational. and CD not having to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. BC. therefore the square on GH is also rational.6. and BC is to CD as the square on FG is to the square on GH.Proposition 90 To find the sixth apotome.

Proposition X. But E does not have to CD the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore FH is a sixth apotome. Since BC is to CD as the square on FG is to the square on GH.F. Q.19. therefore FG is incommensurable in length with K. E is to CD as the square on V. therefore. X.9 GH. Therefore the sixth apotome FH has been found. Now let the square on K be that by which the square on FG is greater than the square on GH. V.89 .22 A is to the square on GH. Therefore A is incommensurable in length with X.Joyce Clark University . CB is to BD as the square on FG is to the square on K. And neither of the straight lines FG nor GH is commensurable with the rational straight line A set out.9 X. But CB does not have to BD the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore neither of the straight lines FG nor GH is commensurable in length with the rational straight line A. ex aequali.6 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . therefore neither does the square on FG have to the square on K the ratio which a square number has to a square number. in conversion.Def. therefore neither does the square on A have to the square on GH the ratio which a square number has to a square number. And the square on FG is greater than the square on GH by the square on K. therefore the square on FG is greater than the square on GH by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with FG.Proposition X.E.Since E is to BC as the square on A is to the square on FG.91.E.Cor. © 1996 D.III. and BC is to CD as the square on FG is to the square on GH. therefore.

Since AD is a first apotome. therefore each of the straight lines AF and FG is commensurable in length with AC. But AG is commensurable with AC. Draw EH. and GK through the points E. Bisect DG at E.Proposition 91 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a first apotome. and G parallel to AC. Now. let DG be its annex.2 square on GD by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with AG.15 X.73 straight lines commensurable in square only. Let the area AB be contained by the rational straight line AC and the first apotome AD.17 X.12 . and let it be the rectangle AF by FG. Then AF is commensurable with FG. FI. therefore AG is also commensurable in length with each of the straight lines AF and FG. and the square on AG is greater than the X. Therefore if there is applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on DG and deficient by a square figure. since AF is commensurable in length with FG.Def. F. then it divides it into commensurable parts. apply to AG a parallelogram equal to the square on EG and deficient by a square figure. Also. then the side of the area is an apotome.III. therefore AG and GD are rational X. X. the whole AG is commensurable with the rational straight line AC set out. I say that the side of the area AB is an apotome.

1 X. while NO is rational. since DE is commensurable in length with EG. and subtract the square NO having a common angle with it. and AI equals the square LM. therefore EK is a mean proportional between AI and KF. But it was proved before that MN is also a mean proportional between LM and NO.26 VI. Since.13 X. Again.15 X. and draw the figure. But EK equals DH. I say next that LN is an apotome. therefore AF is to EG as EG is to FG. therefore LO is incommensurable with NO. therefore each of the straight lines DE and EG is also rational and incommensurable in length with AC. therefore each of the straight lines AF and FG is also rational. and KF equals NO. since DH is medial and equals LO.19 X. LO is medial. the angle LPM. and EG is to FG as EK is to KF. therefore LO is also medial. Therefore LN is the side of AB.11 .11 X.And AC is rational. then. therefore each of the squares LM and NO. Therefore each of the rectangles DH and EK is medial. therefore LP is incommensurable in length with PN. But DG is rational and incommensurable in length with AC. therefore the remainder AB equals ST. that is.1 V.54's Lemma VI. X. the squares on LP and PN respectively. so that each of the rectangles AI and FK is also rational. But AF is to EG as AI is to EK. Now make the square LM equal to AI. Since the rectangle AF by FG equals the square on EG. therefore MN also equals EK. and equal to FK. therefore the square on LN equals AB. therefore DK equals the gnomon UVW and NO. But ST is the square on LN. and MN equals LO. But LO is to NO as LP is to PN. is also rational. Since each of the rectangles AI and FK is rational.21 VI. Then the squares LM and NO are about the same diameter. Therefore each of the straight lines LP and PN is also rational. Now. therefore DG is also commensurable in length with each of the straight lines DE and EG.17 VI. Let PR be their diameter. and they equal LM and NO. But AK also equals the sum of the squares LM and NO.

© 1996 D.108. X.90 .D. This proposition is used in X.92.E. And it is the side of the area AB. Therefore LN is an apotome.And both are rational. then the side of the area is an apotome. therefore LP and PN are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.Joyce Clark University .E. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and a first apotome.Proposition X. Q.Proposition X. therefore the side of the area AB is an apotome.73 Therefore. Book X Introduction .

III. Then AF is commensurable in length with FG.15 X. I say that the side of the area AB is a first apotome of a medial straight line. X.Def. Let the area AB be contained by the rational straight line AC and the second apotome AD.13 X. Therefore AG is also commensurable in length with each of the straight lines AF and FG.2 the annex GD by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with AG. if there is applied to AG a parallelogram equal X. apply to AG a parallelogram equal to the square on EG and deficient by a square figure. and let it be the rectangle AF by FG. therefore.17 to the fourth part of the square on GD and deficient by a square figure. Therefore each of the rectangle AI by FK is medial. Then AG and GD are rational straight lines X.21 . Since the square on AG is greater than the square on GD by the square on a straight line commensurable with AG. Bisect.Proposition 92 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a second apotome. therefore each of the straight lines AF and FG is also rational and incommensurable in length with AC. then the side of the area is a first apotome of a medial straight line. DG at E. then. while the square on the whole AG is greater than the square on X. then it divides it into commensurable parts. But AG is rational and incommensurable in length with AC.73 commensurable in square only. Let DG be the annex to AD. and the annex DG is commensurable with the rational straight line AC set out.

then. equal to FK. the whole AK equals LM and NO.Again. about the same angle with LM. Therefore LP and PN are medial straight lines commensurable in square only. I say that LN is a first apotome of a medial straight line. Therefore LN is a first apotome of a medial straight line. Then the squares LM and NO are about the same diameter.74 . But NO was proved medial. But TS is the square on LN. Therefore EK is a mean proportional between AI and FK. Let PR be their diameter. Since EK is rational and equals LO. Since. Construct the square LM equal to AI. and EG is to FG as EK is to FK. And it is the side of the area AB.26 VI.1 X. Therefore the side of the area AB is a first apotome of a medial straight line.11 X. DK equals the gnomon UVW and NO. Therefore LN is the side of the area AB. that is.11 VI. therefore LO. therefore LP and PN are also medial straight lines commensurable in square only. and. Since the rectangle AF by FG equals the square on EG. therefore DG is also commensurable with each of the straight lines DE and EG. Since AI and FK are medial and equal the squares on LP and PN. therefore LO is incommensurable with NO.15 X. which contain a rational rectangle. therefore LP and PN are incommensurable in length. therefore the whole DK equals the gnomon UVW and NO. therefore the square on LN equals the area AB. since DE is commensurable with EG. and subtract NO. therefore AF is to EG as EG is to FG. therefore the remainder AB equals TS. Therefore each of the rectangles DH and EK is rational. therefore MN also equals EK. is rational. X. But DG is commensurable in length with AC. and LO equals MN. But MN is also a mean proportional between the squares LM and NO. But DH equals EK.1 V. the rectangle LP by PN. while AF is to EG as AI is to EK. the squares on LP and PN are also medial. and AI equals LM while FK equals NO. and draw the figure.17 VI. namely the angle LPM.19 VI. in these. But LO is to NO as LP is to PN.

Therefore.Proposition X. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and a second apotome.Proposition X.E.109.93.Joyce Clark University .91 . Q. Book X Introduction .D. then the side of the area is a first apotome of a medial straight line. © 1996 D.E. This proposition is used in X.

and G parallel to AC.III. Let DG be the annex to AD. Since. Bisect DG at E. then.15 . then the side of the area is a second apotome of a medial straight line. FI.Proposition 93 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a third apotome. and neither of the straight lines AG and GD is commensurable in length with the rational straight line AC set out. then it divides it into commensurable parts.1 X.3 X. while the square on the whole AG is greater than the square on the annex DG by the square on a straight line commensurable with AG.17 VI. Let the area AB be contained by the rational straight line AC and the third apotome AD. Therefore AI is also commensurable with FK. and GK through the points E. therefore. I say that the side of the area AB is a second apotome of a medial straight line. F. X. if there is applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on DG and deficient by a square figure. Then AG and GD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. apply to AG a parallelogram equal to the square on EG and deficient by a square figure. Since AF and FG are commensurable in length. the square on AG is greater than the square on GD by the square on a straight line commensurable with AG. and let it be the rectangle AF by FG. Draw EH. Then AF and FG are commensurable. therefore AG is also commensurable in length with each of the straight lines AF and FG.11 X.Def.

Since AG and GD are commensurable in square only. therefore DG is also commensurable in length with each of the straight lines DE and EG. Therefore LN is the side of the area AB. Therefore each of the straight lines LP and PN is medial.1 X.17 VI. therefore AG is incommensurable in length with GD.11 . But MN is also a mean proportional between the squares LM and NO. and draw the figure. But GD is rational and incommensurable in length with AC. Since AI and FK were proved medial. therefore AI is incommensurable with EK.21 X.21 X. Let PR be their diameter. therefore AI is to EK as EK is to FK. therefore the remainder AB equals ST. Again. so that AF and FG are so also. that is. Therefore EK is a mean proportional between AI and FK. But MN equals LO. Therefore each of the rectangles DH and EK is medial.15 X.1 VI. equal to FK. But AF is to EG as AI is to EK. I say that LN is a second apotome of a medial straight line. since the rectangle AF by FG equals the square on EG. therefore AF is incommensurable in length with EG. about the same angle with LM. and subtract NO. Then LM and NO are about the same diameter.1 X. to the square on LN. But AK equals the sum of LM and NO.11 VI. and equal the squares on LP. and FK equals NO. therefore the square on LP is also commensurable with the square on PN. and DG with EG. since DE is commensurable in length with EG. Now construct the square LM equal to AI. therefore each of the straight lines DE and EG is also rational and incommensurable in length with AC. therefore EK also equals MN.But AG is rational and incommensurable in length with AC. and EK equals DH.13 VI. X.13 X. But AF is to EG as AI is to EK. and AI equals LM. and EG is to FG as EK is to FK.13 X. therefore each of the squares on LP and PN is also medial.26 VI. Now.11 VI. Since AI is commensurable with FK. therefore AF is to EG as EG is to FG. But AG is commensurable in length with AF. therefore the whole DK also equals the gnomon UVW and NO. Therefore each of the rectangles AI and FK is medial.

92 . that is.E. Q. Therefore LP and PN are medial straight lines commensurable in square only.75 Therefore.Joyce Clark University . I say next that they also contain a medial rectangle.D. therefore LM is also incommensurable with MN.1 X. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and a third apotome. so that LP is also incommensurable in length with PN. and equals the rectangle LP by PN. then the side of the area is a second apotome of a medial straight line. VI. and it is the side of the area AB.110. Therefore the side of the area AB is a second apotome of a medial straight line.Proposition X. therefore the rectangle LP by PN is also medial.E. Therefore LN is a second apotome of a medial straight line. the square on LP with the rectangle LP by PN. so that LP and PN are medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a medial rectangle.11 X. This proposition is used in X. Book X Introduction . since AI was proved incommensurable with EK.Proposition X. Since EK was proved medial.94. © 1996 D.Again.

21 .4 X.Def. FI. Since AG is rational and commensurable in length with AC. and GK through E. F. and G parallel to AC and BD. therefore. Let DG be the annex to AD.19 X. then it divides it into incommensurable parts. if there is applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on DG and deficient by a square figure. Again.Proposition 94 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a fourth apotome. since DG is incommensurable in length with AC. Then AF is incommensurable in length with FG. X.III. therefore DK is medial. Draw EH. therefore the whole AK is rational.18 X. then the side of the area is minor. Bisect DG at E. AG is commensurable in length with the rational straight line AC set out. Since the square on AG is greater than the square on GD by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with AG. and the square on the whole AG is greater than the square on the annex DG by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with AG. apply to AG a parallelogram equal to the square on EG and deficient by a square figure. therefore AG and GD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Let the area be contained by the rational straight line AC and the fourth apotome AD. I say that the side of the area AB is minor. and both are rational. and let it be the rectangle AF by FG.

and EG is to FG as EK is to FK. Now construct the square LM equal to AI.26 VI. and LO equals MN. the whole AK equals the sum of the squares LM and NO. Q. Since the rectangle AF by FG equals the square on EG. . then the side of the area is minor. therefore the whole DK equals the gnomon UVW and NO.11 X. Since AK is rational and equals the sum of the squares on LP and PN.D.76 Therefore. therefore AI is incommensurable with FK. therefore the sum of the squares on LP and PN is rational. since AF is incommensurable in length with FG. since AI was proved incommensurable with FK. therefore twice the rectangle LP by PN is medial. Therefore LP and PN are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational.Again.1 X. And. equal to FK. Therefore the side of the area AB is minor. DK equals the gnomon UVW and the square NO.E. and. Again. But DH equals EK. but twice the rectangle contained by them medial. and it is the side of the area AB.17 VI. and draw the figure. since DK is medial. and FK equals NO therefore EK also equals MN. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and a fourth apotome. But MN is also a mean proportional between the squares LM and NO. therefore EK is a mean proportional between AI and FK. Let PR be their diameter. then. Since.1 V. and subtract NO. But AF is to EG as AI is to EK. Therefore LN is the irrational straight line called minor. that is. about the same angle. the angle LPM.11 VI. Therefore the squares LM and NO are about the same diameter. VI. to the square on LN. AF is to EG as EG is to FG. therefore. in these. and AI equals LM. Therefore LN is the side of the area AB. therefore the square on LP is also incommensurable with the square on PN. I say that LN is the irrational straight line called minor. and DK equals twice the rectangle LP by PN. therefore the remainder AB equals ST.

Proposition X. Book X Introduction .108.E.This proposition is used in X. It is also used in proposition XIII. © 1996 D.11.Proposition X.93 .95.Joyce Clark University .

Bisect DG at the point E. and the square on the whole AG is greater than the square on the annex DG by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AG. if there is applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on DG and deficient by a square figure.Def. since AG is incommensurable in length with CA. the annex GD is commensurable in length with the rational straight line AC set out. Again.5 X. since DG is rational and commensurable in length with AC. Now. Therefore. therefore DK is rational.21 X. X.19 . apply to AG a parallelogram equal to the square on EG and deficient by a square figure. and let it be the rectangle AF by FG.III. then it divides it into in commensurable parts. Let the area AB be contained by the rational straight line AC and the fifth apotome AD. Then AG and GD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. then the side of the area is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. Then AF is incommensurable in length with FG. therefore AK is medial. and both are rational. Let DG be the annex to AD.Proposition 95 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a fifth apotome. I say that the side of the area AB is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole.18 X.

Book X Introduction .Now construct the square LM equal to AI.26 diameter.109. Again. therefore the sum of the squares on LP and PN is medial.94 . Therefore.E. Q.Joyce Clark University .E.D. Therefore the remainder LN is the irrational straight line called that which produces with a rational area a medial whole. and it is the side of the area AB. and subtract the square NO. I say that LN is the straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. Similarly then we can prove that LN is the side of the area AB. Let PR be their diameter. then the side of the area is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. © 1996 D.77 This proposition is used in X. since DK is rational and equals twice the rectangle LP by PN. equal to FK and about the same angle. and draw the figure. Therefore LP and PN are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial but twice the rectangle contained by them rational. Therefore the side of the area AB is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. therefore the latter is itself also rational. the angle LPM. Then the squares LM and NO are about the same VI. And.96.Proposition X. since AI is incommensurable with FK. therefore the square on LP is also incommensurable with the square on PN. Since AK was proved medial and equals the sum of the squares on LP and PN. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and a fifth apotome. X.Proposition X.

therefore. X. Since AG and AC are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Bisect DG at E. since AC and DG are rational straight lines and incommensurable in length.18 equal to the fourth part of the square on DG and deficient by a square figure.21 . Let the area AB be contained by the rational straight line AC and the sixth apotome AD. Then AF is incommensurable in length with FG. therefore AK is medial. Then AG and GD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. then the side of the area is a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. But AF is to FG as AI is to FK. neither of them is commensurable in length with the rational straight line AC set out.11 X. therefore AI is incommensurable with FK. X. DK is also medial. and let it be the rectangle AF by FG.III. Let DG be the annex to AD. if there is applied to AG a parallelogram X.Proposition 96 If an area is contained by a rational straight line and a sixth apotome. and the square on the whole AG is greater than the square on the annex DG by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with AG. then it divides it into incommensurable parts. apply to AG a parallelogram equal to the square on EG and deficient by a square figure. Again.Def. I say that the side of the area AB is a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole.6 Since the square on AG is greater than the square on GD by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with AG.

© 1996 D. Let PR be their diameter.97.E.Proposition X. since AI is incommensurable with FK. X. since AG and GD are commensurable in square only. about the same angle.11 VI. Again. Then in manner similar to the above we can prove that LN is the side of the area AB. then the side of the area is a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. and further.Now. Q. therefore AK is incommensurable with KD. therefore twice the rectangle LP by PN is also medial. the sum of the squares on them incommensurable with twice the rectangle contained by them. And. But AG is to GD as AK is to KD. Then the squares LM and NO are about the same diameter. since DK was proved medial and equals twice the rectangle LP by PN. This proposition is used in X. therefore the sum of the squares on LP and PN is also incommensurable with twice the rectangle LP by PN. Book X Introduction . and subtract NO. Now construct the square LM equal to AI. if an area is contained by a rational straight line and a sixth apotome.Proposition X. and draw the figure. Since AK was proved incommensurable with DK.D.Joyce Clark University . I say that LN is a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. Therefore the side of the area is a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole.95 . Therefore LP and PN are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial. therefore the square on LP is also incommensurable with the square on PN. and it is the side of the area AB. twice the rectangle contained by them medial. Since AK was proved medial and equals the sum of the squares on LP and PN.26 Therefore.1 X. therefore AG is incommensurable in length with GD.110.E. equal to FK. therefore the sum of the squares on LP and PN is medial.78 VI. Therefore LN is the irrational straight line called that which produces with a medial area a medial whole.

22 . CE equals the square on AB. Again.Proposition 97 The square on an apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a first apotome. Then each of the rectangles FO and LN equals the rectangle AG by GB.73 To CD apply CH. I say that CF is a first apotome. since twice the rectangle AG by GB is medial. and. therefore CM is rational and commensurable in length with CD. therefore the remainder FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB. and draw NO through N parallel to CD. And it is applied to the rational straight line CD producing FM as breadth. Let BG be the annex to AB. therefore FM is rational and incommensurable in length with CD. X. and DM equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. and KL. And it is applied to the rational straight line CD producing CM as breadth. and CD rational. Then the whole CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. equal to the square on AG.20 II. therefore FL is medial. and FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB. Now. Then AG and GB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Bisect FM at the point N. since the sum of the squares on AG and GB is rational. in these. and to CD let there be applied CE equal to the square on AB and producing CF as breadth. equal to the square on BG. X. therefore DM is rational.7 X. Let AB be an apotome.

But CH is to KL as CK is to KM. And CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB.2 Therefore. KL equals the square on BG. while twice the rectangle AG by GB is medial. VI. therefore CM and MF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.17 VI. the square on an apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a first apotome.11 VI. and NL is to KL as NM is to KM. therefore CM is incommensurable in length with FM. Since the square on AG is commensurable with the square on GB. I say next that it is also a first apotome.6. therefore DM is incommensurable with FL. Therefore CF is an apotome. X. therefore the square on CM is greater than the square on MF by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with CM. Since the rectangle AG by GB is a mean proportional between the squares on AG and GB.Since the squares on AG and GB are rational. therefore CF is a first apotome.73 Since CM and MF are two unequal straight lines.1 VI. Q.111. therefore CK is commensurable with KM.1 X. while CK is commensurable with KM.D. the fourth part of the square on FM. It is also used in proposition XIII.17 square figure.Def.III. therefore the sum of the squares on AG and GB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AG by GB. therefore the rectangle CK by KM equals the square on NM. . and to CM there has been applied the rectangle CK by KM equal to the fourth part of the square on FM and deficient by a X. CH equals the square on AG. But CH is to NL as CK is to NM. And CM is commensurable in length with the rational straight line CD set out. Therefore CH is to NL as NL is to KL. But DM is to FL as CM is to FM. and FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB.E. and NL equals the rectangle AG by GB. therefore NL is also a mean proportional between CH and KL.1 X. therefore CH is also commensurable with KL.11 X. This proposition is used in X. And both are rational. that is.

Proposition X.Joyce Clark University .98.Proposition X. © 1996 D.E.Book X Introduction .96 .

twice the rectangle AG by GB. and to CD let there be applied CE equal to the square on AB producing CF as breadth. CL. FL. that is. since the sum of the squares on AG and GB. Now. X.7 .15 X.74 To CD apply CH. producing KM as breadth. and.Proposition 98 The square on a first apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a second apotome. in these. And it is applied to the rational straight line CD producing CM as breadth. while twice the rectangle AG by GB. Therefore the whole CL equals the sum of the squares on AG. producing CK as breadth. and KL.22 II. since CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. therefore FL is rational. Then AG and GB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a rational rectangle. Let AB be a first apotome of a medial straight line and CD a rational straight line. therefore CM is rational and incommensurable in length with CD. therefore the remainder. equals FL. therefore CL is incommensurable with FL. Let BG be the annex to AB.Cor. Therefore CL is also medial. equal to the square on AG. I say that CF is a second apotome.20 X. therefore FM is also rational and commensurable in length with CD. And it is applied to the rational straight line FE producing FM as breadth. is rational. equal to the square on GB. X.23. Now. that is. X. But twice the rectangle AG by GB is rational. the square on AB equals CE. is medial.

has been applied to the greater.73 VI. VI. and the square on BG equals KL. Then each of the rectangles FO and NL equals the rectangle AG by GB.D. therefore CK is to NM as NM is to KM. and divides it into commensurable parts. therefore CF is a second apotome. and NL is to KL as NM is to MK. Therefore the rectangle CK by KM equals the square on NM. This proposition is used in X. Since CM and MF are two unequal straight lines. the square on AG equals CH. And the annex FM is commensurable in length with the rational straight line CD set out.1 X. that is. Therefore CF is an apotome.Joyce Clark University .11 X. therefore CM is incommensurable in length with FM. Now. equal to the fourth part of the square on MF and deficient by a square figure. © 1996 D. And both are rational.Def.17 X.17 X. I say next that it is also a second apotome.11 VI. Book X Introduction . therefore CM and MF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.1 V.E. Therefore CH is to NL as NL is to KL.97 . CM. and draw NO through N parallel to CD. therefore the square on CM is greater than the square on MF by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with CM. Bisect FM at N. the rectangle AG by GB equals NL.99.2 Therefore.III. and the rectangle CK by KM. since the rectangle AG by GB is a mean proportional between the squares on AG and GB.But CL is to FL as CM is to FM. the square on a first apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a second apotome.E. But CH is to NL as CK is to NM.111.Proposition X. the fourth part of the square on FM.Proposition X. therefore NL is also a mean proportional between CH and KL. Q.

Then the whole CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. X. therefore CM is rational and incommensurable in length with CD.Cor. Let AB be a second apotome of a medial straight line.23. and apply KL. to CD producing CK as breadth.7 X. Let BG be the annex to AB. I say that CF is a third apotome.Proposition 99 The square on a second apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a third apotome. and to CD let there be applied CE equal to the square on AB producing CF as breadth. and CD rational.75 Apply CH.22 .22 II. and. therefore AG and GB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contains a medial rectangle.15 X. to KH producing KM as breadth. since the whole CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. CE equals the square on AB. X. equal to the square on BG. and draw NO parallel to CD. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF producing FM as breadth. Therefore CL is also medial. But the rectangle AG by GB is medial. Bisect FM at the point N. equal to the square on AG. Then each of the rectangles FO and NL equals the rectangle AG by GB. Now. therefore FL is also medial. therefore the remainder LF equals twice the rectangle AG by GB. therefore FM is also rational and incommensurable in length with CD. X. in these. And it is applied to the rational straight line CD producing CM as breadth.

therefore the sum of the squares on AG and GB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AG by GB. And neither of the straight lines CM nor MF is commensurable in length with the rational straight line CD set out.E. I say next that it is also a third apotome. the square on a second apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a third apotome. Since.13 VI. CH equals the square on AG. But the sum of the squares on AG and GB is commensurable with the square on AG. and NL is to KL as NM is to KM. Since the square on AG is commensurable with the square on GB.111. to the fourth part of the square on FM.1 X.73 VI.Def. therefore CM and MF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.1 X.17 X. KL equals the square on GB. therefore CL is also incommensurable with FL.3 Therefore. so that CK is also commensurable with KM.III. . But CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. This proposition is used in X. therefore CH is also commensurable with KL. But CH is to NL as CK is to NM. But CL is to FL as CM is to FM. VI. and twice the rectangle AG by GB with the rectangle AG by GB.D.11 X. therefore CM is incommensurable in length with FM.11 VI.Since AG and GB are commensurable in square only. Since the rectangle AG by GB is a mean proportional between the squares on AG and GB. Therefore CH is to NL as NL is to KL. and NL equals the rectangle AG by GB. Therefore the rectangle CK by KM equals the square on MN. therefore the square on CM is greater than the square on MF by the square on a straight line commensurable with CM. therefore CK is to MN as MN is to KM. CM and MF are two unequal straight lines.1 X. and FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB.1 V. Therefore the square on AG is also incommensurable with the rectangle AG by GB. therefore CF is a third apotome. that is. And both are rational. and a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on FM and deficient by a square figure has been applied to CM. Q. therefore NL is also a mean proportional between CH and KL. therefore CF is an apotome. then.11 X. and divides it into commensurable parts. therefore AG is incommensurable in length with GB.

E.Book X Introduction .100.Proposition X. © 1996 D.Proposition X.Joyce Clark University .98 .

and KL.76 X. and draw NO through N parallel to either of the straight lines CD or ML. and. Then AG and GB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on AG and GB rational. Let BG be the annex to AB. And it is applied to the rational straight line CD producing CM as breadth.Proposition 100 The square on a minor straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a fourth apotome. I say that CF is a fourth apotome. therefore CM is also rational and commensurable in length with CD.7 . and to the rational straight line CD let CE be applied equal to the square on AB and producing CF as breadth. And the sum of the squares on AG and GB is rational. equal to the square on AG. And. therefore FL is also medial. Since the whole CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. therefore CL is also rational. Let AB be a minor and CD a rational straight line.20 II. Bisect FM at the point N. producing KM as breadth. X. CE equals the square on AB. producing CK as breadth. Then each of the rectangles FO and NL equals the rectangle AG by GB. therefore the remainder FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB. equal to the square on BG. To CD apply CH. Then the whole CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. but twice the rectangle AG by GB medial. in these. since twice the rectangle AG by GB is medial and equals FL.

Therefore CF is an apotome. and NL is to KL as NM is to KM.4 Therefore. therefore CL is incommensurable with FL. and the rectangle CK by KM. therefore NL is a mean proportional between CH and KL. and FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB.11 VI. therefore CM is incommensurable in length with MF. Therefore CH is to NL as NL is to KL.III. But CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. Q.11 VI. equal to the fourth part of the square on MF and deficient by a square figure. . that is. Since the rectangle AG by GB is a mean proportional between the squares on AG and GB the square on AG equals CH. therefore CH is incommensurable with KL. therefore CM and MF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. And both are rational. X.18 X.E. But CL is to FL as CM is to MF. the square on a minor straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a fourth apotome.D.And it is applied to the rational straight line FE producing FM as breadth. Therefore the rectangle CK by KM equals the square on MN.22 VI. I say that it is also a fourth apotome.1 X. therefore the sum of the squares on AG and GB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AG by GB.17 X. therefore FM is rational and incommensurable in length with CD. therefore the square on AG is also incommensurable with the square on GB.1 V.1 X. And CH equals the square on AG. and the rectangle AG by GB equals NL.11 X.73 VI. Since CM and MF are two unequal straight lines. therefore CK is incommensurable in length with KM.Def. therefore CK is to MN as MN is to KM. Since the sum of the squares on AG and GB is rational. therefore CF is a fourth apotome. has been applied to CM and divides it into incommensurable parts. to the fourth part of the square on FM. Since AG and GB are incommensurable in square. therefore the square on CM is greater than the square on MF by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CM. And the whole CM is commensurable in length with the rational straight line CD set out. But CH is to KL as CK is to KM. and KL equal to the square on GB. the square on GB equals KL. But CH is to NL as CK is to NM. while twice the rectangle AG by GB is medial.

This proposition is used in X.101.Joyce Clark University .111.Proposition X. © 1996 D. Book X Introduction .Proposition X.99 .E.

if applied to a rational straight line. therefore CM is rational and incommensurable with CD. and CD a rational straight line. therefore the remainder FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB.22 II. And it is applied to the rational straight line CD producing CM as breadth. I say that CF is a fifth apotome. and to CD let CE be applied equal to the square on AB and producing CF as breadth. X. and. But the sum of the squares on AG and GB together is medial. Then the whole CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. Let AB be the straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. Let BG be the annex to AB.Proposition 101 The square on the straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole.77 To CD apply CH equal to the square on AG. therefore CL is medial. Since the whole CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. and KL equal to the square on GB. Then AG and GB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial but twice the rectangle contained by them rational.7 . produces as breadth a fifth apotome. CE equals the square on AB. in these. X.

and a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on FM and deficient by a square figure has been applied to CM. Now.D.11 VI. that is. Then each of the rectangles FO and NL equals the rectangle AG by GB. produces as breadth a fifth apotome. therefore the square on CM is greater than the square on MF by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CM. Therefore CF is an apotome. therefore CF is a fifth apotome. And the annex FM is commensurable with the rational straight line CD set out. Since CM and MF are two unequal straight lines.1 X. And both are rational.III. Q.18 X.E.Bisect FM at N. since twice the rectangle AG by GB is rational and equal to FL.11 X. therefore FM is rational and commensurable in length with CD. therefore CK is incommensurable in length with KM.73 X. But CH is to KL as CK is to KM. We can prove similarly that the rectangle CK by KM equals the square on NM. and FL rational. I say next that it is also a fifth apotome.1 X. VI. therefore FL is rational. the fourth part of the square on FM. and the square on GB equals KL. But CL is to FL as CM is to MF. therefore CL is incommensurable with FL. therefore CH is incommensurable with KL. and divides it into incommensurable parts.5 Therefore. . and draw NO through N parallel to either of the straight lines CD or ML. And. And. therefore CM and MF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. since CL is medial. since the square on AG is incommensurable with the square on GB. if applied to a rational straight line.20 X. This proposition is used in X.111. therefore CM is incommensurable in length with MF. the square on the straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole.Def. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF producing FM as breadth. while the square on AG equals CH.

100 .Proposition X.Proposition X.Book X Introduction . © 1996 D.102.Joyce Clark University .E.

And it is applied to the rational straight line CD producing CM as breadth. and. and CD a rational straight line. if applied to a rational straight line. Then AG and GB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial. Then the whole CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. and to CD let CE be applied equal to the square on AB and producing CF as breadth.78 Now to CD apply CH equal to the square on AG and producing CK as breadth. I say that CF is a sixth apotome. therefore FM is rational and incommensurable in length with CD. X. X. And twice the rectangle AG by GB is medial. and KL equal to the square on BG.22 . Since CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. in these.22 II. produces as breadth a sixth apotome. CE equals the square on AB.7 X. Therefore CL is also medial. Let BG be the annex to AB. And it is applied to the rational straight line FE producing FM as breadth. therefore the remainder FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB. and the sum of the squares on AG and GB incommensurable with twice the rectangle AG by GB.Proposition 102 The square on the straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. therefore CM is rational and incommensurable in length with CD. Let AB be the straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. therefore FL is also medial. twice the rectangle AG by GB medial.

therefore CH is incommensurable with KL. But CH equals the square on AG. and draw NO through N parallel to CD. therefore CL is incommensurable with FL. produces as breadth a sixth apotome.18 VI. therefore CK is incommensurable with KM. CH equals the square on AG. Therefore CH is to NL as NL is to KL. But CH is to KL as CK is to KM.1 X.1 X.103. Q. the square on the straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. CL equals the sum of the squares on AG and GB. I say next that it is also a sixth apotome.Proposition X. Since FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB. bisect FM at N. This proposition is used in X.101 .Def. Since the rectangle AG by GB is a mean proportional between the squares on AG and GB. and KL equals the square on GB.6 Therefore. since AG and GB are incommensurable in square.D. X.73 X.E.III. . if applied to a rational straight line. and NL equals the rectangle AG by GB. therefore CF is an apotome. Therefore CM and MF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.11 VI. therefore NL is also a mean proportional between CH and KL. And both are rational. therefore CM is incommensurable in length with MF.11 X. and FL equals twice the rectangle AG by GB. And for the same reason as before the square on CM is greater than the square on MF by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CM.111. therefore each of the rectangles FO and NL equals the rectangle AG by GB.Since the sum of the squares on AG and GB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AG by GB.Proposition X. Book X Introduction . And. But CL is to FL as CM is to MF. therefore the square on AG is incommensurable with the square on GB. And neither of them is commensurable with the rational straight line CD set out. therefore CF is a sixth apotome. KL equals the square on GB.

E.© 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .

and. if AE is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out.Proposition 103 A straight line commensurable in length with an apotome is an apotome and the same in order. then the square on CF is also greater than the square on FD by the square on a straight line commensurable with CF. therefore CF and FD are also rational straight lines commensurable in square only. if BE. if BE. And the square on AE is greater than the square on EB either by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it.12 V. then neither of the straight lines CF nor FD. therefore AE is also commensurable with CF.14 X. X. X. if neither of the straight lines AE nor EB. if the square on AE is greater than the square on EB by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AE. B and let CD be commensurable in length with AB.73 VI.12 X. X. therefore. Then one is to one as are all to all. if neither of the straight lines AE nor EB.13 V. let BE be the annex to it. then DF also. then neither of the straight lines CF nor FD. If then the square on AE is greater than the square on EB by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE.12 X.16 X. therefore AE and EB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.13 .11 and BE with DF. alternately. Let AB be an apotome. And. But. then CF is also. then DF also. Let it be contrived that the ratio of BE to DF is the same as the ratio of AB to CD. and. Therefore CD is an apotome and the same in order with AB.12 But AB is commensurable in length with CD. Therefore the whole AE is to the whole CF as AB is to CD. then the square on CF is also greater than the square on FD by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CF.14 X. I say that CD is also an apotome and the same in order with AB. if AE is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out.13 X. Now since AE is to CF as BE is to DF. then CF is also. Since AB is an apotome. And. AE is to EB as CF is to FD. And AE and EB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.

a straight line commensurable in length with an apotome is an apotome and the same in order.Proposition X. Q.Therefore. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .104.Joyce Clark University .102 . © 1996 D.E.Proposition X.D.E.

16 X.75 . and let CD be commensurable in length with AB. Therefore CD is an apotome of a medial straight line. Then AE and EB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only.11 X. Since AE is to EB as CF is to FD.13 X. But the square on AE is commensurable with the square on CF.12 X. Then AE is also commensurable with CF.74 X.23 X.Def. I say next that it is also the same in order with AB.11 X. therefore CF and FD are also medial straight lines commensurable in square only. if the rectangle AE by EB is rational.74 X.23. Therefore CD is an apotome of a medial straight line and the same in order with AB.12 V. and BE with DF. X.75 Let it be contrived that AB is to CD as BE is to DF. Therefore. therefore the square on AE is to the rectangle AE by EB as the square on CF is to the rectangle CF by FD.75 V. X.Cor. Let AB be an apotome of a medial straight line. then the rectangle CF by FD is also rational. VI. I say that CD is also an apotome of a medial straight line and the same in order with AB. Since AB is an apotome of a medial straight line. But AE and EB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only. let EB be the annex to it.74 X.4 X. the rectangle CF by FD is also medial. therefore the rectangle AE by EB is also commensurable with the rectangle CF by FD. and if the rectangle AE by EB is medial.Proposition 104 A straight line commensurable with an apotome of a medial straight line is an apotome of a medial straight line and the same in order.

103 . (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .Proposition X.E.Therefore.Proposition X.E.D.105. © 1996 D.Joyce Clark University . Q. a straight line commensurable with an apotome of a medial straight line is an apotome of a medial straight line and the same in order.

Therefore.76 X. X. V. Let AB be a minor straight line.22 Therefore.76 X. therefore the sum of the squares on AE and EB is also commensurable with the sum of the squares on CF and FD. Then. therefore the rectangle CF by FD is also medial. Therefore CD is minor. Again.13 Now since AE is to EB as CF is to FD. But the square on BE is commensurable with the square on DF.18 V. VI. I say that CD is also minor. therefore the square on AE is to the square on EB V. a straight line commensurable with a minor straight line is minor. therefore the sum of the squares on CF and FD is also rational. But the rectangle AE by EB is medial.E. since AE and EB are incommensurable in square.4 . the sum of the squares on AE and EB is to the square on EB as the sum of the squares on CF and FD is to the square on FD.76 X23.16 as the square on CF is to the square on FD. Make the same construction as before. therefore the rectangle AE by EB is also commensurable with the rectangle CF by FD.D. X.12 V.16 X.Proposition 105 A straight line commensurable with a minor straight line is minor. while the square on AE is commensurable with the square on CF. Therefore CF and FD are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational. Q. since the square on AE is to the rectangle AE by EB as the square on CF is to the rectangle CF by FD.Def. and CD commensurable with AB.76 X. but the rectangle contained by them medial. taken jointly. But the sum of the squares on AE and EB is rational. therefore CF and FD are also incommensurable in square.Cor.11 X.

Joyce Clark University . © 1996 D.106.E.(Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .Proposition X.104 .Proposition X.

X.105 .107.D.E.77 the sum of the squares on AE and EB medial but the rectangle contained by them rational. and the rectangle AE by EB is commensurable with the rectangle CF by FD. in manner similar to the foregoing. so that CF and FD are also straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on CF and FD medial but the rectangle contained by them rational. Then we can prove. Make the same construction. that CF and FD are in the same ratio as AE and EB. Let BE be the annex to AB. Q.Proposition X. therefore AE and EB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make X. Therefore CD is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole.Proposition X.Proposition 106 A straight line commensurable with that which produces with a rational area a medial whole is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. I say that CD is also a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. Let AB be a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. and CD commensurable with AB. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . the sum of the squares on AE and EB is commensurable with the sum of the squares on CF and FD. a straight line commensurable with that which produces with a rational area a medial whole is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. .77 Therefore.

Joyce Clark University .© 1996 D.E.

the rectangle contained by them medial. the rectangle contained by them medial.Proposition X. the sum of the X. a straight line commensurable with that which produces a medial area and a medial whole is itself also a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. X.78 Therefore. and let CD be commensurable with AB. and further.106 . (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . Now as was proved. the sum of the squares on them incommensurable with the rectangle contained by them. and make the same construction.108. Let AB be a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. .E.Proposition 107 A straight line commensurable with that which produces a medial area and a medial whole is itself also a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. I say that CD is also a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. Then AE and EB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial.Proposition X. therefore CF and FD are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial. and further.78 squares on them incommensurable with the rectangle contained by them. and the rectangle AE by EB with the rectangle CF by FD. Let BE be the annex to AB. AE and EB are commensurable with CF and FD. the sum of the squares on AE and EB with the sum of the squares on CF and FD.D. Therefore CD is a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. Q.

E.© 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .

But the side of the rectangle contained by a rational straight line and a first apotome is an apotome. is an apotome. Therefore FH and FK are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. let the square on it be greater by the square on a straight line commensurable with it.22 X. and BD medial. Since. and BD equals GK. Therefore the side of LH.III. Then the remainder EC equals LH. and subtract GK equal to DB. either an apotome or a minor straight line. therefore FH is rational and commensurable in length with FG. X.Def. Therefore KH is an apotome. either an apotome or a minor straight line. Therefore FH is incommensurable in length with FK. Let the medial area BD be subtracted from the rational area BC.13 X. Now the square on HF is greater than the square on FK by the square on a straight line either commensurable with HF or not commensurable.2 X.20 X. therefore KH is a first apotome.91 . And they are applied to the rational straight line FG. then. of EC.73 X. then the side of the remaining area becomes one of two irrational straight lines. and GK is medial. to FG apply the rectangular parallelogram GH equal to BC. that is. and KF the annex to it. I say that the side of the remainder EC becomes one of two irrational straight lines. First. while FK is rational and incommensurable in length with FG. Set out a rational straight line FG. BC is rational. therefore GH is rational. while BC equals GH. Now the whole HF is commensurable in length with the rational straight line FG set out.Proposition 108 If a medial area is subtracted from a rational area.

Q.Joyce Clark University . if a medial area is subtracted from a rational area. if the square on HF is greater than the square on FK by the square on a straight line incommensurable with HF. X.E.109.Proposition X. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .E. either an apotome or a minor straight line.107 .94 Therefore. © 1996 D. then the side of the remaining area becomes one of two irrational straight lines.D. then KH is a fourth apotome.Proposition X.III. while the whole FH is commensurable in length with the rational straight line FG set out. But the side of the rectangle contained by a rational straight line and a fourth apotome is minor.But.Def.4 X.

I say that the side of the remainder EC becomes one of two irrational straight lines.III. therefore FH and FK are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. while the annex FK is commensurable in length with the rational straight line FG set out. either a first apotome of a medial straight line or a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. either a first apotome of a medial straight line or a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole.Proposition 109 If a rational area is subtracted from a medial area. so that the side of LH. Set out a rational straight line FG. Let the rational area BD be subtracted from the medial area BC. is a first apotome of a medial straight line. and FK the annex to it. Then FH is rational and incommensurable in length with FG. and apply the areas similarly. X.Def. Now the square on HF is greater than the square on FK either by the square on a straight line commensurable with HF or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it.92 . then there arise two other irrational straight lines. that is. But FG is rational. X. of EC. then KH is a second apotome. while KF is rational and commensurable in length with FG.13 Therefore KH is an apotome.2 X. If the square on HF is greater than the square on FK by the square on a straight line commensurable with HF.73 X.

E.95 Therefore.Proposition X.Proposition X.But.III. then KH is a fifth apotome.E. if a rational area is subtracted from a medial area.5 X. so that the side of EC is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. if the square on HF is greater than the square on FK by the square on a straight line incommensurable with HF.Joyce Clark University . Q. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .D.108 . © 1996 D. either a first apotome of a medial straight line or a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. X.110.Def. while the annex FK is commensurable in length with the rational straight line FG set out. then there arise two other irrational straight lines.

then two remaining irrational straight lines arise. Therefore FH and FK are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. so that the side of LH.Def. either a second apotome of a medial straight line or a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. But KL is rational. GH with GK. is a second apotome of a medial straight line. As in the foregoing figures. VI. and is called a second apotome of a medial straight line. that is. If then the square on FH is greater than the square on FK by the square on a straight line commensurable with FH. X. while neither of the straight lines FH nor FK is commensurable in length with the rational straight line FG set out.73 X.22 Since BC is incommensurable with BD. of EC. and the rectangle contained by a rational straight line and a third apotome is irrational.11 X. then KH is a third apotome. let there be subtracted the medial area BD incommensurable with the whole from the medial area BC. and BC is incommensurable with BD.1 X.3 X. therefore HF is also incommensurable with FK. and the side of it is irrational.III. therefore each of the straight lines FH and FK is rational and incommensurable in length with FG. Therefore KH is an apotome.Proposition 110 If a medial area incommensurable with the whole is subtracted from a medial area. Since each of the rectangles BC and BD is medial. I say that the side of EC is one of two irrational straight lines. that is. either a second apotome of a medial straight line or a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole.93 .

that is.96 Therefore. then two remaining irrational straight lines arise.109 .Proposition X.Joyce Clark University . while neither of the straight lines HF nor FK is commensurable in length with FG.Def.But. either a second apotome of a medial straight line or a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. X. then KH is a sixth apotome. of EC. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . if the square on FH is greater than the square on FK by the square on a straight line incommensurable with FH. if a medial area incommensurable with the whole is subtracted from a medial area. is a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. © 1996 D. Therefore the side of LH.6 X.D.E. Q. But the side of the rectangle contained by a rational straight line and a sixth apotome is a straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole.111.Proposition X.E.III.

and let DG be the greater term. But it is also rational: which is impossible.73 Q. and the greater term DG is commensurable in length with the rational straight line DC set out. DE is a first apotome. therefore FG is also incommensurable in length with EF.60 X. Then. since AB is binomial.Proposition 111 The apotome is not the same with the binomial straight line.12 X. Divide it into its terms at G.II. since AB is an apotome. Therefore DF is also commensurable in length with DG.III.Def.2 the square on a straight line commensurable with DF. Therefore GF and FE are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Again. X. therefore EG is an apotome. let it be so. X. the square on DF is greater than the square on FE by X. Therefore the remainder GF is also commensurable in length with DF. the apotome is not the same with the binomial straight line. Set out a rational straight line DC.Def. and DF is commensurable in length with the rational straight line DC set out. therefore DE is a first binomial straight line.15 X. and to CD apply the rectangle CE equal to the square on AB and producing DE as breadth.13 X.97 Let EF be the annex to it. Therefore. If possible. Let AB be an apotome. I say that AB is not the same with the binomial straight line. the square on DG is greater than the square on GE by the square on a straight line commensurable with DG.D. Then DG and GE are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. But DF is incommensurable in length with EF.E. Then DF and FE are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.1 X. .

if applied to a rational straight line. the square on a first apotome of a medial straight line. and those following the binomial straight line are different. according to their order. Since the apotome has been proved not to be the same as the binomial straight line. produces as breadth a straight line rational and incommensurable in length with that to which it is applied. produces as breadth a third apotome. the square on the straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. while the square on an apotome. so that there are. the square on a second apotome of a medial straight line. produces as breadth a fifth apotome. For the square on a medial straight line.111 X. Since the said breadths differ from the first and from one another. but.Remark The apotome and the irrational straight lines following it are neither the same with the medial straight line nor with one another. if applied to a rational straight line. if applied to a rational straight line. in order.98 X.22 X.102 . it is clear that the irrational straight lines themselves also differ from one an other. the square on a minor straight line. produce the binomials as breadths. and from one another since they are not the same in order. therefore those following the apotome are different.97 X.100 X. if applied to a rational straight line. each according to its own order. if applied to a rational straight line. produces as breadth a first apotome. produces as breadth a sixth apotome. if applied to a rational straight line. if applied to a rational straight line.101 X. and the square on the straight line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. from the first because it is rational. produces as breadth a second apotome.99 X. apotomes. and those following the binomial straight line themselves also. the straight lines following the apotome produce breadths. if applied to a rational straight line. produces as breadth a fourth apotome. thirteen irrational straight lines in all: Medial Binomial First bimedial Second bimedial Major X.

112.E.Proposition X.110 . © 1996 D.Side of a rational plus a medial area Side of the sum of two medial areas Apotome First apotome of a medial straight line Second apotome of a medial straight line Minor Producing with a rational area a medial whole Producing with a medial area a medial whole (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction .Proposition X.Joyce Clark University .

Then CB is to BD as HE is to EF.Proposition 112 The square on a rational straight line applied to the binomial straight line produces as breadth an apotome the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the binomial straight line and moreover in the same ratio. and in the same ratio. therefore HK is to KF as CD is to DB. and further the apotome so arising has the same order as the binomial straight line.22 X.9 HK. Then the whole HK is to the whole KF as FK is to KE. KF. . then.11 X.12 V. Again let the rectangle BD by G equal the square on A. let DC be its greater term. Since. since the three straight lines V. Let it be contrived that HF is to FE as FK is to KE. the rectangle BC by EF equals the rectangle BD by G. so X. therefore G is also greater than EF. therefore. VI. CD is to BD as HF is to FE.11 And the square on HK is to the square on KF as HK is to KE. therefore the square on HK is commensurable with the square on KF. let BC be a binomial. But the square on CD is commensurable with the square on DB. Let EH equal G. EF has the same order as BC.17 V.15 that HE is also commensurable in length with EK. Let A be a rational straight line. and let the rectangle BC by EF equal the square on A.16 (V. taken separately. for one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the consequents.Def. I say that EF is an apotome the terms of which are commensurable with CD and DB. But CB is greater than BD. and KE are proportional. But FK is to KE as CD is to DB.36 VI.14) V. Therefore HK is commensurable in length with KE. therefore CB is to BD as G is to EF. and further.

if CD is commensurable with the rational straight line set out. so that EK. And it is applied to the rational straight line BD. Now the square on CD is greater than the square on DB either by the square on a straight line commensurable with CD or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it. therefore FK is also rational. FK and KE are commensurable with the terms CD and DB of the binomial straight line and in the same ratio. but. since the square on A equals the rectangle EH by BD. then the square on FK is also greater than the square on KE by the square on a straight line incommensurable with FK. if neither of the straight lines CD nor DB is so commensurable. then the square on FK is also greater than the square on KE by the square on a straight line commensurable with FK. then KE is also. but an alternate form of it. if BD is so commensurable. therefore EH is rational and commensurable in length with BD. the terms of which. And.11 X. then FK is also. therefore the rectangle EH by BD is also rational. then FK is also. then KE is also. if the square on CD is greater than the square on DB by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CD. while the square on A is rational.20 X. Since. then CD is to DB as FK is to KE. Therefore FK and KE are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.E.73 X.12 X. But KE is rational.14. and further the apotome so arising has the same order as the binomial straight line.11 X.D. But.14 X. but. and it has the same order as BC. If the square on CD is greater than the square on DB by the square on a straight line commensurable with CD. the square on a rational straight line applied to the binomial straight line produces as breadth an apotome the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the binomial straight line and moreover in the same ratio. Q. therefore FK and KE are also commensurable in square only. therefore EF is an apotome. then neither of the straight lines FK nor KE is so.14 Note that it isn't proposition V. And. See the Guide to V. . Therefore. if neither of the straight lines CD nor DB is so commensurable. if BD is so commensurable. if CD is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out.Now. while CD and DB are straight lines commensurable in square only. so that FE is an apotome.14 being invoked near the beginning of the proof. is also rational and commensurable in length with BD. being commensurable with it. then neither of the straight lines FK nor KE is so. X.

E.113.Joyce Clark University .Book X Introduction . © 1996 D.111 .Proposition X.Proposition X.

KH has the same order as BD. Make KE equal to G. and further. therefore the rectangle BC by G is also rational.73 But the square on A is rational. if applied to an apotome. Then KE is commensurable in length with BC.20 VI. and further the binomial so arising has the same order as the apotome. Let DC be the annex to BD. X.16 (V. so that the square on the rational straight line A when applied to the apotome BD produces KH as breadth. therefore KH is also greater than G. Then BC and CD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. X.Proposition 113 But BC is greater than BD .14) . therefore. and let the rectangle BD by KH equal the square on A. produces as breadth the binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the apotome and in the same ratio. The square on a rational straight line. Let A be a rational straight line and BD an apotome. CB is to BD as KH is to G. therefore KH is also greater than G . therefore G is rational and commensurable in length with BC. Since now the rectangle BC by G equals the rectangle BD by KH. Let the rectangle BC by G also equal the square on A. I say that KH is a binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of BD and in the same ratio. And it has been applied to the rational straight line BC. But BC is greater than BD.

19 V. the terms of which KF and FH are commensurable with the terms BC and CD of the apotome and in the same ratio. therefore FH is also commensurable in length with CD.Def.Since CB is to BD as HK is to KE.11 X. therefore KF is also rational and commensurable in length with BC. if the square on BC is greater than the square on CD by the square on a straight line incommensurable with BC.14 FH by the square on a straight line incommensurable with KF. But BC and CD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. then neither of the straight lines KF nor FH. But BC is commensurable with KF.9 X. V. and further. then FH is also.Cor. then neither of the straight lines KF nor FH. so that also the first is to the third as the square on the first to the square on the second. KH has the same order as BD. for KF and FH are commensurable in square.11 V. Therefore KH is a binomial straight line.12 V. Let it be contrived that KH is to HE as HF is to FE. If now the square on BC is greater than the square on CD by the square on a straight line commensurable with BC. if neither of the straight lines BC nor CD. that is BC is to CD. if CD is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. if BC is commensurable with the rational straight line set out. therefore KF and FH are also rational straight lines commensurable in square only. But KE is rational and commensurable in length with BC. then the square on KF is also greater than the square on FH by the square on a straight line commensurable with KF. And. in conversion.16 X. BC is to CD as KH is to HE.15 X.14 But. but. so that KF is also commensurable in length with KE. therefore. But BC and CD are commensurable in square only. therefore KF is to FH as HF is to FE. alternately.11 V. then KF is also. therefore KF and FH are also commensurable in square only. if BC is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out. then the square on KF is also greater than the square on X.11 X. but. then FH is also.Def. Therefore KF is to FE as the square on KF is to the square on FH. if neither of the straight lines BC nor CD. V. therefore KF is also commensurable in length with FE. Since BC is to CD as KF is to FH.3 X.36 X. Since KH is to HE as KF is to FH. But the square on KF is commensurable with the square on FH. then KF is also. And. Then the remainder KF is to FH as KH is to HE. while KH is to HE as HF is to FE. . Therefore KH is binomial. BC is to KF as DC is to FH. if CD is so commensurable.19.

Proposition X.D. the square on a rational straight line.Proposition X. produces as breadth the binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the apotome and in the same ratio.Therefore. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . if applied to an apotome.114. and further the binomial so arising has the same order as the apotome.E. © 1996 D.E.112 .Joyce Clark University . Q.

But CE and ED are also commensurable with AF and FB and in the same ratio. And AB is to KL as the rectangle CD by AB is to the rectangle CD by KL. and to CD apply a rectangle equal to the square on H and producing KL as breadth. therefore the rectangle CD by AB is also commensurable with the rectangle CD by KL. Therefore. But AF is commensurable with KM. the rectangle AB by CD. AF is to KM as BF is to LM.11 . therefore AF is to FB as KM is to ML.11 VI. let the terms CE and ED of the binomial straight line be commensurable with the terms AF and FB of the apotome and in the same ratio. Therefore the remainder AB is to the remainder KL as AF is to KM. I say that G is rational.112 the same ratio. Let its terms be KM and ML commensurable with the terms CE and ED of the binomial straight line and in X. Then KL is an apotome. Set out a rational straight line H. Let an area. be contained by the apotome AB and the binomial straight line CD.Proposition 114 If an area is contained by an apotome and the binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the apotome and in the same ratio. then the side of the area is rational.1 X.19 X. and let the side of the rectangle AB by CD be G. V. and let CE be the greater term of the latter.12 X. alternately. therefore AB is also commensurable with KL.

And it is made manifest to us by this also that it is possible for a rational area to be contained by irrational straight lines.113 . if an area is contained by an apotome and the binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the apotome and in the same ratio.E.D. And it is the side of the rectangle CD by AB. then the side of the area is rational.Joyce Clark University .Proposition X.Proposition X.But the rectangle CD by KL equals the square on H.E.115. But the square on G equals the rectangle CD by AB. But the square on H is rational. therefore the square on G is also rational. © 1996 D. therefore the square on G is commensurable with the square on H. (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . Q. therefore the rectangle CD by AB is commensurable with the square on H. Corollary. Therefore G is rational. Therefore.

will produce C as breadth.114 . if applied to a rational straight line. X. I say that from A there arise irrational straight lines infinite in number. and none of them is the same as any of the preceding. for the square on none of the preceding.Def. .Book XI Introduction. Let A be a medial straight line. and none of them is the same as any preceding. if applied to a rational straight line will produce as breadth a medial straight line. for the square on none of the preceding.Proposition 115 From a medial straight line there arise irrational straight lines infinite in number. X. Set out a rational straight line B. let the square on D equal the rectangle B by C. Q. Again.20 X. for that which is contained by an irrational and a rational straight line is irrational. and let the square on C equal the rectangle B by A.4 (Forthcoming) Book X Introduction . Then the square on D is irrational. and it is not the same with any of the preceding. Therefore D is irrational.E.20 And it is not the same with any of the preceding. if this arrangement proceeds ad infinitum. it is manifest that from the medial straight line there arise irrational straight lines infinite in number.D.Def.Proposition X.4 X. and none is the same with any of the preceding. Similarly. Then C is irrational.

E.Joyce Clark University .© 1996 D.

Proposition 1 If two similar plane numbers multiplied by one another make some number. Since then A multiplied by itself makes D. 12.E. then the product is square. since A and B are similar plane numbers. if two similar plane numbers multiplied by one another make some number. and let A multiplied by B make C. consider the two similar plane numbers a = 18 and b = 8. there is a mean proportional between them.8 VIII. therefore one mean proportional number falls between D and C also. Since as many number fall in continued proportion between those which have the same ratio.D. therefore C is also square. it and the succeeding propositions continue those of Book VIII without break.17 VIII. According to VIII. Q.18 VIII. And. Let A and B be two similar plane numbers. namely. Then D is square. To illustrate this proposition. Although this is the first proposition in Book IX. Multiply A by itself to make D. therefore A is to B as D is to C. And the square of the mean proportional is their product. VII.18. Outline of the proof . therefore one mean proportional number falls between A and B. as illustrated in the Guide to VII. and multiplied by B makes C. And D is square. ab = 144. I say that C is square. then the product is square.21.22 Therefore.Def.

therefore there is also a mean proportional between a2 and ab (VIII. Use of this proposition The next proposition IX.18). since a:b = a2:ab. 2002 D. therefore ab is also a square (VIII. but instead uses slightly more complicated reasoning. Next proposition: IX. the product of the original similar plane numbers is a square. Let a and b be the given similar plane numbers. And. This proposition is used in X. But since a2 is a square.2 is the converse of this one.E.It is not clear why the proof of the proposition does not use the fact that the square of the mean proportional of two numbers equals their product.2 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996.22). Then there is a mean proportional between them (VIII.29.1).Joyce Clark University . Thus.

therefore one mean proportional number falls between A and B also. I say that A and B are similar plane numbers. and let A multiplied by B make the square number C. so by VIII.Proposition 2 If two numbers multiplied by one another make a square number. This proposition is a converse of the previous one. Let A and B be two numbers. But. And D is to C as A is to B. (The actual shapes given by that proposition make 8 to be 2 by 4. VIII. if two numbers multiplied by one another make a square number. since D is square. One such factorization is as a = 50 times b = 8. Then D is square. These two numbers have a mean proportional between them. Now. therefore A and B are similar plane numbers. take any square number.8 VIII.20 VII. since A multiplied by itself makes D. then they are similar plane numbers. Therefore one mean proportional number falls between D and C.20. and 50 to be 5 by 10. and multiplied by B makes C. therefore D and C are similar plane numbers. then they are similar plane numbers. therefore A is to B as D is to C. As an example to illustrate this proposition. if one mean proportional number falls between two numbers.18 VIII.E. and C is so also. they are similar plane numbers. then they are similar plane numbers.17 Therefore. such as 202 = 400. namely. Q.) .D. It can be factored as a product of two numbers in several ways. Multiply A by itself to make D. And. 20.

But a2:ab = a:b.E.8).Outline of the proof Let a and b be two numbers whose product ab is a square. Next proposition: IX. a and b are similar plane figures (VIII. 2002 D. then a mean proportional between a and b is e.1 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996. so there is also a mean proportional between a and b (VIII. this one can be shortened. both a2 and ab are square numbers which means that they're similar plane numbers. By VIII. When the product ab is a square.Joyce Clark University .20). there's a mean proportional between them. As in the last proof.8. Therefore. Now. say e2.3 Previous: IX.

since C multiplied by itself makes D. therefore the unit is to C as C is to D. But the unit is to C as C is to D. therefore the unit is to C as D is to A. . then the product is a cube. then the second is also a cube. But the unit also measures C according to the units in it. Again.20 VII.20 VIII. It is then manifest that C multiplied by D makes A. Let the cubic number A multiplied by itself make B. Take C.Def.E. then the product is a cube. therefore D measures A according to the units in C. therefore two mean proportional numbers also fall between A and B. since C multiplied by D makes A. if a cubic number multiplied by itself makes some number.Def.D. I say that B is cubic. But between the unit and A two mean proportional numbers have fallen. Therefore between the unit and the number A two mean proportional numbers C and D have fallen in continued proportion. Multiply C by itself make D. Now. But the unit also measures A according to the units in it. VII. But further the unit also measures C according to the units in it. therefore B is also a cube.8 VIII. Again. And A is a cube. since A multiplied by itself makes B.23 Therefore. Q. therefore C measures D according to the units in itself. if two mean proportional numbers fall between two numbers. But. and as D is to A. and the first is a cube. therefore the unit is to C as C is to D. the side of A. therefore A measures B according to the units in itself. therefore the unit is to A as A is to B.Proposition 3 If a cubic number multiplied by itself makes some number.

9.2 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.Modern algebra certainly makes short work of this proposition: (c3)2 = (c2)3.Joyce Clark University . Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next two propositions and IX.4 Previous: IX. Next proposition: IX.

Then D is a cube. And D is a cube. therefore C is also a cube. then the product is a cube. then the product is cubic. And.D.5 Previous: IX. I say that C is cubic. Since A multiplied by itself makes D. therefore A and B are similar solid numbers. IX. if a cubic number multiplied by a cubic number makes some number. and multiplied by B makes C. Q. Next proposition: IX. therefore A is to B as D is to C.E. m3n3 = (mn)3.3 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic .19 VIII.17 VIII. Let the cubic number A multiplied by the cubic number B make C.23 Therefore. Multiply A by itself to make D. since A and B are cubic numbers. so that two mean proportional numbers fall between D and C also.3 VII.8 VIII. Therefore two mean proportional numbers fall between A and B.Proposition 4 If a cubic number multiplied by a cubic number makes some number. Of course.

E.Joyce Clark University .© 1996 D.

and a is a cube. And A is a cube. Therefore two mean proportional numbers fall between D and C. Q.E. Let the cubic number A multiplied by any number B make the cubic number C.3 Now. therefore they are similar solid numbers. then the multiplied number is also cubic. This proposition is a converse of the previous one.D. since A multiplied by itself makes D. the previous propsition said that if b is a cube.19 VIII. while this proposition says that if c is a cube. therefore A is to B as D is to C.23 Therefore. too.8 VIII. and multiplied by B makes C. I say that B is cubic. therefore two mean proportional numbers fall between A and B. And since D and C are cubes. And D is to C as A is to B. VII. then c is also. When ab = c. IX. . Multiply A by itself to make D.17 VIII. then b is also. Then D is a cube. if a cubic number multiplied by any number makes a cubic number.Proposition 5 If a cubic number multiplied by any number makes a cubic number. therefore B is also a cube. then the multiplied number is also cubic.

E.Joyce Clark University .4 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Next proposition: IX.6 Previous: IX.

cf. And. then it itself is also cubic. But the unit also measures A according to the units in it. And.D.8 A is to B. And. since A multiplied by B makes C. A multiplied by itself makes B. Let the number A multiplied by itself make the cubic number B. so there are also two mean .E. and multiplied by B makes C.Def.19). Therefore there are two mean proportional numbers between A and B also. therefore they are similar solid numbers. therefore A is to B as B is to C. if a number multiplied by itself makes a cubic number. then it itself is also cubic. therefore A is also a cube. therefore C is a cube.19 VIII. And B is a cube.23 VII.20 Therefore. since B and C are cubes. therefore A measures B according to the units in itself.Def. And B is to C as VIII. Since.20 VII. Multiply A by B to make C. Q. But the unit is to A as A is to B. But we have the proportion a:a2 = a2:a3. Since a3 is also a cube.Proposition 6 If a number multiplied by itself makes a cubic number. Outline of the proof Assume that a2 is a cube. since A multiplied by itself makes B. But the unit also measures A according to the units in it. Therefore the unit is to A as A is to B. therefore B measures C according to the units in A. Therefore there are two mean proportional numbers between B and C. then. therefore there are two mean proportionals between them (VIII. Therefore the unit is to A as B is to C. VIII. I say that A is also cubic.

23).7 Previous: IX. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in IX.8). Next proposition: IX.5 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996.10.proportionals between a and a2 (VIII. 2002 D. And since a2 is a cube.E. therefore a is also a cube (VIII.Joyce Clark University .

Therefore C is solid. then the product is solid. Let there be as many units in E as times that D measures A Since D measures A according to the units in E. and B are its sides. Q. since A multiplied by B makes C. Therefore. I say that C is solid.D. and A is the product of D and E.15 Numbers with at least two factors are plain numbers. Perhaps Euclid takes extra steps that we would miss because he sees "d measures a a number e times" as saying something different from the product of d and e equals a. it is measured by some number D.E.Def. if a composite number multiplied by any number makes some number.13 VII. VII.Proposition 7 If a composite number multiplied by any number makes some number. therefore the product of D and E multiplied by B makes C." . those with at least three are solid numbers. then the product is solid.Def. and D. Since A is composite. therefore E multiplied by D makes A. E. Let the composite number A multiplied by any number B make C. And.

Next proposition: IX.6 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.8 Previous: IX.Joyce Clark University .

then the third from the unit is square as are also those which successively leave out one. B. the third from the unit. therefore B also measures C according to the units in A. C. therefore the unit measures the number A the same number of times that A measures B.22 are in continued proportion. D. therefore A also measures B according to the units in A. Since the unit is to A as A is to B. and multiplied by B makes C. C. A. is square as are all those which leave out one. since B. Let there be as many numbers as we please.Def. C. Similarly we can prove that all those which leave out one are square. is cubic are also all those which leave out two. and D VIII. But the unit measures the number A according to the units in A. and B is square. I say next that C. and the seventh is at once cubic and square are also those which leave out five. therefore the unit measures the number A the same number of times that B measures C. Since the unit is to A as B is to C. VII.Proposition 8 If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. beginning from a unit and in continued proportion. . E.20 Therefore A multiplied by itself makes B. is at once cubic and square as are all those which leave out five. the fourth. Therefore A multiplied by B makes C. Since then A multiplied by itself makes B. For the same reason F is also square. the fourth is cubic as are also all those which leave out two. But the unit measures the number A according to the units in it. the seventh. therefore D is also square. therefore C is cubic. the fourth from the unit. And. is cubic as are all those which leave out two. I say that B. and F. and F. therefore B is square.

And. is a square. a12. a8. a. a3. a6. then the third from the unit is square as are also those which successively leave out one.Joyce Clark University . E.23 Therefore. etc. a4. D. In the continued proportion 1. etc. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in four of the next five propositions. and the seventh is at once cubic and square are also those which leave out five.. VIII. a6. Similarly we can prove that all the numbers which leave out five are also both cubic and square. is both a square and a cube. a18. etc.. a6. a3. a2.a2.. etc.. since C. is a cube.D. therefore F is also cubic. every third. a12. and every sixth.7 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D. But it was also proved square. a9.E. every second. therefore the seventh from the unit is both cubic and square. and C is cubic. Q. a5. a4. if as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. Next proposition: IX. a7. a6. and F are in continued proportion. a24.E. the fourth is cubic as are also all those which leave out two.9 Previous: IX.

IX. B. Now it was proved that C. therefore C is also square. Similarly we can prove that all the rest are also square. A. Again. the fourth from the unit. then the product is also a cube. B. and B is square. B. let A be a cube. and D are in continued proportion. and A is square. if cubic number multiplied by itself makes some number. And. be square. since B. But the unit measures A according to the units in it. since the four numbers A. Since the unit is to A as A is to B. Now it was proved that B. is square as are all those which leave out one. and A is a cube. therefore B is also a cube.3 IX. C. therefore the unit measures A the same number of times as A measures B. is a cube as are all those which leave out two. beginning from a unit and in continued proportion. and D are in continued proportion. Next. But. And A is cubic. and if the number after the unit is cubic. the number after the unit. C. I say that all the rest are also cubic.8 IX. I say that all the rest are also square. D. therefore A also measures B according to the units in itself. C. and C are in continued proportion.22 VIII. E. and F. therefore D is also square. the third from the unit. therefore A multiplied by itself makes B. Let there be as many numbers as we please. then all the rest are also square.Proposition 9 If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. Since A. and the number after the unit is square. then all the rest are also cubic.23 .8 VIII. I say that all the rest are also square. therefore D also is a cube. and let A. I say that all the rest are also cubes.

Next proposition: IX. This proposition says that if a number is a square then all its powers are squares.10 Previous: IX. if as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. too.8 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D. Therefore.E. Likewise for cubes. then all the rest are also cubic.D. Q.E. and if the number after the unit is cubic. and the number after the unit is square.Joyce Clark University .For the same reason E is also a cube. The following theorem is a converse of this one. then all the rest are also square. and similarly all the rest are cubes.

let C be square. I say that neither are any other cubes except the fourth from the unit and those which leave out two. the number after the unit. and. and the number after the unit is not square. therefore B and C have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Next. so that A and B are similar plane numbers. If possible.Proposition 10 If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. which is contrary to the hypothesis. let D be a cube. But B is also square. therefore A and B have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and F. Similarly we can prove that neither is any other of the numbers square except the third from the unit and those which leave out one. then neither is any other square except the third from the unit and all those which leave out one. let A not be a cube.8 VIII. And B is to C as A is to B. And B is square.26 converse . C. D. Let there be as many numbers as we please. beginning from a unit and in continued proportion. I say that neither are any other square except the third from the unit and those which leave out one. If possible. IX. E. and let A. then neither is any other cubic except the fourth from the unit and all those which leave out two. A. if the number after the unit is not cubic. B. therefore A is also square. Therefore C is not square. not be square.

9 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D. if as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. And C is to D as B is to C. if a number multiplied by itself makes cubic number.11 Previous: IX.Joyce Clark University .25 But.D. therefore B has to C the ratio which a cube has to a cube. Therefore A is also a cube. And since the unit is to A as A is to B. This is a converse of the previous theorem. And C is a cube. IX. Next proposition: IX.E. then neither is any other cubic except the fourth from the unit and all those which leave out two.8 VIII. Therefore D is not a cube. for it is fourth from the unit. contrary to the hypothesis. Similarly we can prove that neither is any IX. and.6 other of the numbers a cube except the fourth from the unit and those which leave out two. and the unit measures A according to the units in it. therefore B is also a cube. Therefore A multiplied by itself makes the cubic number B.Now C is also a cube.E. therefore A also measures B according to the units in itself. then neither is any other square except the third from the unit and all those which leave out one. Q. Therefore. and the number after the unit is not square. then it is itself a cube. if the number after the unit is not cubic.

says that ak divides an the number an-k times. C. the least of the numbers B. Let there be as many numbers as we please. reckoned from the number measured. the same place also has the number according to which it measures. Therefore. Q. VII.15 Corollary And it is manifest that. therefore the unit A measures the number B the same number of times as D measures E. measures E according to one of the numbers C or D. therefore B also measures E according to the units in D. in the direction of the number before it. C. if as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. . and E. whatever place the measuring number has. But the unit A measures D according to the units in it. so that B the less measures E the greater according to some number of those which have place among the proportional numbers. reckoned from the unit. alternately. D. B.E. along with the comment make in the corollary.Proposition 11 If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. then the less measures the greater according to some one of the numbers which appear among the proportional numbers. Since the unit A is to B as D is to E. and E. I say that B. the unit A measures D the same number of times as B measures E. beginning from the unit A and in continued proportion. then the less measures the greater according to some one of the numbers which appear among the proportional numbers. D. Therefore. This proposition.D.

Next proposition: IX.Joyce Clark University .Use of this proposition The corollary is used in the next proposition while the proposition itself is used in the one following that.12 Previous: IX.10 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.

VII. Let D be measured by any prime number E. Suppose it does not. But. VII. I say that. since E measures D. IX. by the previous theorem. A is also measured by the same. E multiplied by F makes D. let it measure it according to F.20 Let it measure it according to G. Again. Therefore E multiplied by G makes C. But A and E are relatively prime. therefore the product of A and C equals the product of E and F. Let A. But. therefore E measures C. and D be as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit in continued proportion. therefore E and A are relatively prime. primes are also least. by whatever prime numbers D is measured. the VII. VII. Now E is prime. then by whatever prime numbers the last is measured. therefore A multiplied by C makes D.11 and Cor. since A measures D according to the units in C.11 and Cor.19 and the least measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times. Then E multiplied by H makes B. primes are also least.20 therefore E measures B. Therefore A is to E as G is to B. Let it measure it according to H. therefore E multiplied by F makes D.29 IX. But A and E are relatively prime. the next to the unit is also measured by the same. And. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent.21 number of times. Therefore the product of A and B equals the product of E and G.21 antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. I say that E measures A.Proposition 12 If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. A multiplied by B makes C.19 and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio with them the same VII. C. and any prime number is relatively prime to any which it does not measure. further. VII. Therefore A is to E as F is to C. further. B. . VII.

by whatever prime numbers D is measured. if as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. But it also measures D.But. There are two inelegant parts. Outline of the proof The proof is both elegant and inelegant. Therefore E is to A as A is to H. it also does not measure it. Therefore. Assume that a prime number p divides a power ak of a number a. A multiplied by itself makes B.21). since E is by hypothesis prime. then by whatever prime numbers the last is measured. IX. Similarly we can prove that.20).E. Q.8 VII. Apply this reduction step repeatedly until the conclusion p divides a is reached. But numbers relatively composite are measured by some number. further. Then p is relatively prime to a (VII. One is that the reduction step is applied three times starting with k equal to 4. The other is that three unnecessary statements are tacked on to the end of the proof after the goal is already reached.20 VII. and a prime is not measured by any number other than itself. therefore E measures A and D. Therefore E and A are not relatively prime.14 Therefore.Def. therefore the product of E and H equals the square on A. And. From the proportion (ak/p):ak-1 = a:p. . the next to the unit is also measured by the same. which is impossible. p divides ak-1 (VII. therefore E measures A and E. But. But A and E are relatively prime. therefore E measures A antecedent antecedent. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. A also is measured by the same. we see that the ratio (ak/p):ak-1 reduces to a:p in lowest terms (VII.29). This proposition says that if a prime number p divides a power ak of a number a. again.19 VII. and the least measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times. so that E measures A. then it divides the number a itself. primes are also least. Therefore they are relatively composite. Suppose that p does not divide a.D. The elegant part is the reduction step from p dividing ak to p dividing ak-1.21 VII.

2002 D.Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next one.11 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996. Next proposition: IX.E.Joyce Clark University .13 Previous: IX.

and let A. B. therefore E is also the same with one of the numbers A.11 . B. Let there be as many numbers as we please. then one of the numbers A. or C. C. let it measure it according to F. It is then manifest that E is not prime. which is contrary to the hypothesis. If F is the same with one of the numbers A. B. then it also measures A. and measures D according to E. so that it also measures A. B. and D. therefore E is measured by some prime number. since E measures D. Therefore E is not prime. be prime. or C also measures D according to E. beginning from a unit and in continued proportion. or C measures D according to some one of the numbers A. which is prime. I say next that it is no measured by any other prime except A. then that other measures D. B. B. B. though it is not the same with it. let it be measured by E. is not measured by any other number except A. If E is measured by another. or C. then the greatest is not measured by any except those which have a place among the proportional numbers.Proposition 13 If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. the greatest of them. And. and E measures D. VII. or C. I say that F is not the same with any of the numbers A. I say that D. If possible.12 But any composite number is measured by some prime number. But one of the numbers A. and the number after the unit is prime.31 IX. for if E is prime and measures D. the number after the unit. or C. which is impossible. so it is composite. A. which is prime. IX. which is impossible. B or C. though it is not the same with it.12 IX. or C. B. Therefore [only the prime] A measures E. and let E not be the same with any of the numbers A.

E. Q. B. Similarly we can prove that F is measured by A. But A measures E.12 IX.11 VII. then it also measures A. which is prime. therefore the product of H and G equals the square on A. though it is not the same with it. therefore the product of A and B equals the product of F and G. by proving again that F is not prime. therefore G multiplied by H makes B. Similarly then we can prove that H is not the same with A. and measures D. so it is composite. or C. Therefore. But A measures F. therefore F is measured by some prime number. therefore the product of A and C equals the product of E and F. we can prove that G is not the same with any of the numbers A or B. Similarly. and F measures D. IX. therefore F multiplied by G makes C. Therefore F is not prime. therefore E multiplied by F makes D. therefore F also measures C. which is impossible. Therefore H is to A as A is to G. I say next that it is not measured by any other prime except A. since F measures C according to G. But. B.D. But any composite number is measured by some prime number.31 VII. further. If any other prime number measures F. and that it is measured by A. which is prime. But. Let it measure it according to G.Therefore F is not the same as any one of the numbers A.19 IX. proportionally A is to F as G is to B. and the number after the unit is prime. And.12 VII. which is impossible. And. then that other also measures D. therefore G also measures B. And. or C. which is absurd. then.19 . Therefore D the greatest is not measured by any other number except A. further. Therefore. Therefore.8 IX. though it is not the same with it. so that it also measures A. since E measures D according to F. A multiplied by itself makes B. A multiplied by C makes D. though it is not the same with it.11 VII. If it is. proportionally A is to E as F is to C. further. A multiplied by B makes C. then the greatest is not measured by any except those which have a place among the proportional numbers. since G measures B according to H. if as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion. Therefore [only the prime] A measures F. which is prime. therefore H also measures A.19 IX. But A measures G. But. Let it measure it according to H.

but is not any lower power of p. Let g be e/p.14 Previous: IX. Then some prime number q divides e (VII. Next proposition: IX.12 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996. Thus. Then q also divides pk. the only prime that can divide e is p. Suppose a number e divides a power pk of a prime number p. which it doesn't.Joyce Clark University . First note that e can't be prime itself. Then g divides pk-1.36. Then the same argument can be applied. Continue in this manner until some number divides p but is not 1 or p.32 and IX. Therefore. since then it would divide p (IX. Then e is composite. but e does not equal any lower power of p. it is divisible by p. D. which it implies q divides p. 2002.This proposition says that the only numbers that can divide a power of a prime are smaller powers of that prime.E. the only numbers that can divide a power of a prime are smaller powers of the prime.31). Use of this proposition This proposition is used in IX. Since e is not 1.12). a contradiction. Outline of the proof The proof involves a reduction step like that in the proof of the previous proposition. The rest of the proof is repeated reduction of the power k.

for A is by hypothesis the least number measured by B. if two numbers multiplied by one another make some number. let it measure it according to F. and D. Therefore they measure F. or D. Now they do not measure E. if a number is the least that is measured by prime numbers. The proof is clear. but that isn't mentioned. C. that if a prime divides a product. therefore E multiplied by F makes A. since E measures A. and D measures one of the numbers E or F. If possible. or D.D. then it is not measured by any other prime number except those originally measuring it. Q. and D. And A is measured by the prime numbers B.Proposition 14 If a number is the least that is measured by prime numbers.30. for E is prime and not the same with any one of the numbers B. and D. Now. and D. let it be measured by the prime number E. C. . which is impossible. Therefore no prime number measures A except B. C.E. VII. then it divides one of the factors. and let E not be the same as any one of the numbers B. The least common multiple is actually the product of those primes. and any prime number measures the product. C. C. which is less than A. or D. Therefore. then it also measures one of the original numbers. and it depends on VII. then it is not measured by any other prime number except those originally measuring it. I say that A is not measured by any other prime number except B. C. But.30 This proposition states that the least common multiple of a set of prime numbers is not divisible by any other prime. C. C. therefore each of B. Let the number A be the least that is measured by the prime numbers B.

E.15 Previous: IX.Next proposition: IX.Joyce Clark University .13 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

to VIII. VIII. three numbers in continued proportion. therefore DF is relatively prime to each of the numbers DE and EF. But the product of FD and DE is the square on DE together with the product of DE and EF. B. if two numbers are relatively prime. then their product is also relatively prime to the other. hence the product of FD and DE is also relatively prime to the square on EF. and C. and multiplied by EF makes B. since DE and EF are least. if two numbers are relatively prime to any number. and C is relatively prime to the remaining number. B.3 . But. B plus C is relatively prime to A.28 VII.22 VII. A plus B is relatively prime to C. But. But. then their sum is also relatively prime to each.Proposition 15 If three numbers in continued proportion are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. B. then the sum of any two is relatively prime to the remaining number.24 VII. further. and C. I say that the sum of any two of the numbers A. Take two numbers DE and EF to be the least of those which have the same ratio with A. and that EF multiplied by itself makes C. so that the product of FD and DE is relatively prime to EF. therefore the sum of the square on DE and the product of DE and EF is relatively prime to the square on EF. be the least of those which have the same ratio with them.2 It is then manifest that DE multiplied by itself makes A. therefore DF and DE are relatively prime to EF. therefore they are relatively prime. that is. Let A. Now.25 II. Cor. DE is also relatively prime to EF. and A plus C is relatively prime to B.2 VII.

And the square on DE is A.25 II. Q. the product of DE and EF is B. I say next that the sum of A and C is also relatively prime to B. c = e2. Since DF is relatively prime to each of the numbers DE and EF. Thus. Similarly we can prove that the sum of B and C is relatively prime to A. and therefore to e2 (VII. Taken separately.28). d + e. a + b is relatively prime to c. therefore the square on DF is also relatively prime to the product of DE and EF.E. c be three numbers in continued proportion. and the square on EF is C. the sum of the squares on DE and EF is relatively prime to the product of DE and EF.D.25). they are of the form a = d2. therefore the sum of A and B is prime to C. is relatively prime to both d and e (VII. since both d and d + e are relatively prime to e. the sum of the squares on DE and EF together with the product of DE and EF is relatively prime to the product of DE and EF. Therefore.4 Outline of the proof Let a.2.24). Therefore. Then the sum. Therefore the sum of A and C is relatively prime to B. And the square on DE is A. the product of DE and EF is B. . then the sum of any two is relatively prime to the remaining number. Then according to VIII. therefore the sum of the squares on DE and EF together with twice the product of DE and EF is relatively prime to the product of DE and EF. where d and e are relatively prime. Now. VII. b. But the sum of the squares on DE and EF together with twice the product of DE and EF equals the square on DF. and the square on EF is C. taken separately again. b = de.24 VII. if three numbers in continued proportion are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. so is their product d2 + de relatively prime to e (VII.

Thus. Next. b is relatively prime to a + c.16 Previous: IX.Likewise. 2002 D.25). since d + e is relatively prime to both d and e.24 and VII. b + c is relatively prime to a. Next proposition: IX. Subtract 2de to conclude that d2 + e2 is relatively prime to de. so is its square (d + e)2 relatively prime to the product de (VII.E. That is.14 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996. d2 + e2 + 2de is relatively prime to de.Joyce Clark University .

. then the second is not to any other number as the first is to the second. Then the antecedent of the ratio a:b.D. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. But a cannot divide b since they're relatively prime. Then he ratio a:b is in lowest terms.20 Outline of the proof Let a and b be relatively prime. which is absurd. then the second is not to any other number as the first is to the second. Q. numbers which are relatively prime are also least.21 VII. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in IX. namely b. Therefore. Therefore B is not to C as A is to B. namely a. I say that B is not to any other number as A is to B. let B be to C.Proposition 16 If two numbers are relatively prime. and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times. therefore A measures A and B which are relatively prime. divides the antecedent of the ratio b:c. VII. therefore A measures B as antecedent antecedent. Let the two numbers A and B be relatively prime. But it also measures itself. If possible as A is to B. Suppose that ratio is the same as the ratio b:c. if two numbers are relatively prime. Now A and B are relatively prime.18.E.

Next proposition: IX.17 Previous: IX.15 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996. 2002 D.E.Joyce Clark University .

13 VII. and the extremes of them are relatively prime. Therefore B also measures C. and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times. Therefore D is not to any other number as A is to B. I say that D is not to any other number as A is to B. therefore C also measures D. Therefore A measures B. therefore A measures A and D which are relatively prime.Proposition 17 If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. and the extremes of them are relatively prime. Let there be as many numbers as we please. Outline of the proof . and B measures C. in continued proportion. It says that a continued proportion in lowest terms cannot be extended. But A and D are prime. But A measures C.E. If possible A is to B. so that A also measures D. then the last is not to any other number as the first is to the second. And A is to B as B is to C.20 This proposition generalizes the previous proposition from a ratio of two terms to a continued proportion of arbitrarily many. if there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. C.D. primes are also least. But it also measures itself. which is impossible. A and D. Therefore. so let D be to E. B. And since B is to C as C is to D. then the last is not to any other number as the first is to the second. be relatively prime. therefore. VII. A. and D. Q. so that A also measures C.21 VII. alternately A is to D as B is to E. and let the extremes of them.

Suppose it can be extended to e so that a:b = d:e. Alternately.E. Therefore. hence a divides d. But that's impossible since a and d are relatively prime. therefore a divides b.18 Previous: IX.16 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996. and having the ratio a:b. Next proposition: IX.Joyce Clark University . Then each term of the continued proportion divides the next. 2002 D. a:d = b:e. the continued proportion cannot be extended.Consider a continued proportion in lowest terms with the first term a relatively prime to the last term d. Since the first ratio a:d is in lowest terms.

let A not measure C. Q. Then the product of A and D equals the square on B. which is absurd. therefore the product of A and D equals the square on B. But. let D be such third proportional. to investigate whether it is possible to find a third proportional to them. and let B multiplied by itself make C. And. it was proved that it is impossible to find a third proportional to them. Let A and B be the given two numbers. therefore A measures C according to D. B multiplied by itself makes C. if they are relatively prime.E. further.19 IX. Therefore it is not possible to find a third proportional number to A and B when A does not measure C.D. by hypothesis. It is required to investigate whether it is possible to find a third proportional to them. therefore A multiplied by D makes C. Therefore A is to B as B is to D. But the square on B is C. it also does not measure it. VII. let A and B not be relatively prime. But. therefore the product of A and D equals C. I say that it is impossible to find a third proportional number to A and B.Proposition 18 Given two numbers. therefore a third proportional number D has been found to A and B. Now A and B are either relatively prime or not. If possible. Then A either measures C or does not measure it. let it measure it according to D. First.16 . Hence A multiplied by D makes C. Next. Next.

So the third proportional exists when a divides b2.Joyce Clark University .19 Previous: IX. Next proposition: IX.E. so d would have to be b2/a.Note that a third proportional d to a and b has to satisfy a:b = b:d. This conclusion is just what Euclid discovers in this proposition.17 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

Next proposition: IX. to investigate when it is possible to find a fourth proportional to them. However. so d would have to be bc/a. Note that a fourth proportional d to a. b and c has to satisfy a:b = c:d. No doubt that is what Euclid concludes in the missing part of this proposition. and C be the given three numbers. It is required to investigate when it is possible to find a fourth proportional to them.18 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic . B.20 Previous: IX. Let A. Q.E. and C exists is that A measure the product of B and C.D. B. ] Given three numbers. analogously to Proposition 18 the condition that a fourth proportional to A. So the third proportional exists when a divides bc.Proposition 19 [The Greek text of this Proposition is corrupt.

E.Joyce Clark University . 2002 D.© 1996.

Proposition 20 Prime numbers are more than any assigned multitude of prime numbers. and C. and C be the assigned prime numbers. and EF have been found which are more than A. Therefore it is measured by some prime number. Take the least number DE measured by A. being a number. and C. I say that there are more prime numbers than A. And by hypothesis it is prime. First. the unit DF. let EF not be prime. B. But it also measures EF. Next. B. and C. Let A.31 Outline of the proof Suppose that there are only a finite number of prime numbers. measures the remainder.D. B. and C measure DE. Now A. B. Therefore G is not the same with any one of the numbers A. C. B. B. B. and C. VII. prime numbers are more than any assigned multitude of prime numbers. B. Q. and C. Let m be the least common multiple . and C. Therefore. If possible. Let it be measured by the prime number G. Then the prime numbers A. Then EF is either prime or not. I say that G is not the same with any of the numbers A. Add the unit DF to DE. which is absurd. B. and G have been found which are more than the assigned multitude of A. Therefore the prime numbers A. Therefore G.E. let it be so. C. let it be prime. therefore G also measures DE. B.

(This least common multiple was also considered in proposition IX. Next proposition: IX. It wasn't noted in the proof of that proposition that the least common multiple is the product of the primes.19 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996. there are not a finite number of primes.) Consider the number m + 1. either. Then according to VII.21 Previous: IX.14. Thus. Therefore. since it's larger than all the primes.E. So it is not prime. It cannot be prime. some prime g divides it. since they all divide m and do not divide m + 1.of all of them. the assumption that there are a finite number of primes leads to a contradiction.Joyce Clark University . 2002 D. and it isn't noted in this proof. But g cannot be any of the primes.31.

For example.31 which discusses prime numbers and may have been inserted among these propositions because it involves odd numbers). BC. b = d + d. a = c + c. if as many even numbers as we please are added together.Def.D. therefore a + b = (c + c) + (d + d). be added together. . The statements of these propositions probably constitute the oldest part of the Elements and date back to the Pythagoreans. Commutativity and associativity of addition The proof of this proposition implicitly relies on a principle that the order that numbers are summed is irrelevant. CD. so that the statements together with the proofs may be the oldest part of the Elements. and b is divided into two equal parts. Let as many even numbers as we please. BC.Proposition 21 If as many even numbers as we please are added together. With this proposition. Indeed. Q. therefore each has a half part. then the sum is even. VII. then the sum is even. we need a + b = (c + d) + (c + d). Euclid commences the study of even and odd numbers. I say that the sum AE is even.34.6 Therefore. But an even number is that which is divisible into two equal parts. so that the sum AE also has a half part.E. therefore AE is even. The study continues through proposition IX. when showing that the sum of the two even numbers a and b is even. CD. Since each of the numbers AB. first a is divided into two equal parts. their proofs depend on no other propositions (except IX. and DE is even. AB. But to reach the conclusion that a + b is divisible into two equal parts. and DE.

The same sum should result. associativity. As an equation.E. Addition is commutative since for any two numbers a and b. The other property. The modern way to deal with this question is to recognize two properties of addition of numbers. or you can add b + c first to get e. are enough to guarantee that when you add any number of terms together. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next two and in IX. Next proposition: IX. commutativity and associativity. or else proven from more basic assumptions. Of course the order that the terms are added has no effect on the sum. the order that they're added is irrelvant. Besides these properties of addition. One of them is commutativity. Euclid missed some other basic properties of the arithmetic operations.Joyce Clark University .which adds the terms in a different order.20 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996. When computing the sum a + b + c of three numbers. These two properties. You can either add a + b first to get d. associativity says you can move the parentheses around: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c). These properties should either be taken as postulates about numbers. That is an implicit assumption made by Euclid and most everyone after him until the 19th century.22 Previous: IX. 2002 D. there is still a choice of which numbers to add first. then add a + e to get the sum. a + b = b + a. Commutativity says we can two numbers in any order and get the same result. then add d + c to get the sum.28. is more subtle.

Proposition 22
If as many odd numbers as we please are added together, and their multitude is even, then the sum is even.
Let as many odd numbers as we please, AB, BC, CD, and DE, even in multitude, be added together. I say that the sum AE is even. Since each of the numbers AB, BC, CD, and DE is odd, if a unit is subtracted from each, then each of the remainders is even, so that the sum of them is even. But the multitude of the units is also even. Therefore the sum AE is also even.
(VII.Def.7) IX.21

Therefore, if as many odd numbers as we please are added together, and their multitude is even, then the sum is even.
Q.E.D.

A critical step in the proof is the claim that if 1 is subracted from an odd number, then the remainder is even. This was mentioned in VII.Def.7, but never proved. See the Guide for that defintion for details. Unless that gap is filled, this proposition, along with many that depend upon it, are unjustified. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next one.

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Proposition 23
If as many odd numbers as we please are added together, and their multitude is odd, then the sum is also odd.
Let as many odd numbers as we please, AB, BC, and CD, the multitude of which is odd, be added together. I say that the sum AD is also odd. Subtract the unit DE from CD, therefore the remainder CE is even. But CA is also even, therefore the sum AE is also even. And DE is a unit. Therefore AD is odd.
VII.Def.7 IX.22 IX.21 VII.Def.7

Therefore, if as many odd numbers as we please are added together, and their multitude is odd, then the sum is also odd.
Q.E.D.

This proposition is used in propositions IX.29 and IX.30.

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Proposition 24
If an even number is subtracted from an even number, then the remainder is even.
Let the even number BC be subtracted from the even number AB. I say that the remainder CA is even. Since AB is even, therefore it has a half part. For the same reason BC also has a half part, so that the remainder CA also has a half part, and CA is therefore even.
VII.Def.6

Therefore, if an even number is subtracted from an even number, then the remainder is even.
Q.E.D.

This proposition is used in four of the next five propositions.

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Proposition 25
If an odd number is subtracted from an even number, then the remainder is odd.
Let the odd number BC be subtracted from the even number. I say that the remainder CA is odd. Subtract the unit CD from BC, therefore DB is even. But AB is also even, therefore the remainder AD is also even. And CD is a unit, therefore CA is odd.
VII.Def.7 IX.24 VII.Def.7

Therefore, if an odd number is subtracted from an even number, then the remainder is odd.
Q.E.D.

This is the second of four propositions that examine the result of subtracting even and odd numbers from each other.

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Proposition 26
If an odd number is subtracted from an odd number, then the remainder is even.
Let the odd number BC be subtracted from the odd number AB. I say that the remainder CA is even. Since AB is odd, subtract the unit BD, therefore the remainder AD is even. For the same reason CD is also even, so that the remainder CA is also even.
VII.Def.7 IX.24

Therefore, if an odd number is subtracted from an odd number, then the remainder is even.
Q.E.D.

This proposition is used in IX.29.

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Proposition 27
If an even number is subtracted from an odd number, then the remainder is odd.
Let the even number BC be subtracted from the odd number AB. I say that the remainder CA is odd. Subtract the unit AD, therefore DB is even. But BC is also even, therefore the remainder CD is even. Therefore CA is odd.
VII.Def.7 IX.24 VII.Def.7

Therefore, if an even number is subtracted from an odd number, then the remainder is odd.
Q.E.D.

This is the last of four propositions that examine the result of subtracting even and odd numbers from each other.

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Proposition 28
If an odd number is multiplied by an even number, then the product is even.
Let the odd number A multiplied by the even number B make C. I say that C is even. Since A multiplied by B makes C, therefore C is made up of as many numbers equal to B as there are units in A. And B is even, therefore C is made up of even numbers. But, if as many even numbers as we please be added together, the whole is even. Therefore C is even. Therefore, if an odd number is multiplied by an even number, then the product is even.
Q.E.D.

VII.Def.15

IX.21

This is one of two propositions that examine the result of multiplying even and odd numbers by each other. The third proposition, the product of two even numbers, is omitted. Note that the proof for this theorem makes no use of the assumption that A is an odd number. The statement of this theorem might just as well be "if any number is multiplied by an even number, then the product is even." Use of this proposition The proof of proposition IX.31 concludes at one point that since a number divides a odd number, it must be even. Such a statement follows from this proposition.

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Proposition 29
If an odd number is multiplied by an odd number, then the product is odd.
Let the odd number A multiplied by the odd number B make C. I say that C is odd. Since A multiplied by B makes C, therefore C is made up of as many numbers equal to B as there are units in A. And each of the numbers A and B is odd, therefore C is made up of odd numbers, the multitude of which is odd. Thus C is odd. Therefore, if an odd number is multiplied by an odd number, then the product is odd.
Q.E.D.

VII.Def.15 IX.23

With the completion of this proposition, the study of addition, subtraction, and multiplication of even and odd numbers is also completed. There remain a few more propositions about even and odd numbers.

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Proposition 30
If an odd number measures an even number, then it also measures half of it.
Let the odd number A measure the even number B. I say that it also measures the half of it. Since A measures B, let it measure it according to C. I say that C is not odd. If possible, let it be so. Then, since A measures B according to C, therefore A multiplied by C makes B. Therefore B is made up of odd numbers the multitude of which is odd. Therefore B is odd, which is absurd, for by hypothesis it is even. Therefore C is not odd, therefore C is even. Thus A measures B an even number of times. For this reason then it also measures the half of it. Therefore, if an odd number measures an even number, then it also measures half of it.
Q.E.D.

IX.23

This proposition is used in the next one.

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Proposition 31
If an odd number is relatively prime to any number, then it is also relatively prime to double it.
Let the odd number A be relatively prime to any number B, and let C be double of B. I say that A is relatively prime to C. If they are not relatively prime, then some number will measure them. Let a number D measure them. Now A is odd, therefore D is also odd. And since D which is odd measures C, and C is even, therefore D measures the half of C also. But B is half of C, therefore D measures B. But it also measures A, therefore D measures A and B which are relatively prime, which is impossible. Therefore A cannot but be relatively prime to C. Therefore A and C are relatively prime. Therefore, if an odd number is relatively prime to any number, then it is also relatively prime to double it.
Q.E.D. (IX.28) IX.30

A generalization of this proposition would be "If two numbers (2 and B in this proposition) are relatively prime to to any number (A), then their product (2B) is also relatively prime to it (A)." That is proposition VII.24.

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Proposition 32
Each of the numbers which are continually doubled beginning from a dyad is even-times even only.
Let as many numbers as we please, B, C, and D, be continually doubled beginning from the dyad A. I say that B, C, and D are even-times even only.

Now that each of the numbers B, C, and D is even-times even is manifest, for each is doubled from a dyad. I say that it is also even-times even only.

Set out a unit. Since then as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are in continued proportion, and the number A after the unit is prime, therefore D, the greatest of the numbers A, B, C, and D, is not measured by any other number except A, B, and C. And each of the numbers A, B, and C is even, therefore D is even-times even only. Similarly we can prove that each of the numbers B and C is even-times even only.

IX.13 VII.Def.8

Therefore, each of the numbers which are continually doubled beginning from a dyad is eventimes even only.
Q.E.D.

Numbers which are even-times even only are just the powers of 2: 4, 8, 16, 32, etc. An alternate proof of this proposition uses IX.30 rather than IX.13. If an odd number could divide D, then by IX.30, it would divide half of it, namely C. Then it would divide B, then A, the diad, which is absurd. Note that the reduction step mentioned in this alternate proof is much simpler than the reduction step used in the proof of IX.30.

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Proposition 33
If a number has its half odd, then it is even-times odd only.
Let the number A have its half odd. I say that A is even-times odd only. Now that it is even-times odd is manifest, for the half of it, being odd, measures it an even number of times. I say next that it is also even-times odd only. If A is even-times even also, then it is measured by an even number according to an even number, so that the half of it is also measured by an even number though it is odd, which is absurd. Therefore A is even-times odd only. Therefore, if a number has its half odd, then it is even-times odd only.
Q.E.D. VII.Def.8 VII.Def.9

To say that a number is even-times odd only means that it is even-times odd, but it is not even-times even. As this proposition states, such numbers are the numbers which are twice odd numbers.

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Proposition 34
If an [even] number neither is one of those which is continually doubled from a dyad, nor has its half odd, then it is both even-times even and eventimes odd.
Let the [even] number A neither be one of those doubled from a dyad, nor have its half odd. I say that A is both even-times even and even-times odd. Now that A is even-times even is manifest, for it has not its half odd. I say next that it is also even-times odd. If we bisect A, then bisect its half, and do this continually, we shall come upon some odd number which measures A according to an even number. If not, we shall come upon a dyad, and A will be among those which are doubled from a dyad, which is contrary to the hypothesis. Thus A is even-times odd. But it was also proved even-times even. Therefore A is both even-times even and eventimes odd. Therefore, if an [even] number neither is one of those which is continually doubled from a dyad, nor has its half odd, then it is both even-times even and even-times odd.
Q.E.D. VII.Def.8

This completes the series of propostions on even and odd numbers that started with IX.21.

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Proposition 35
If as many numbers as we please are in continued proportion, and there is subtracted from the second and the last numbers equal to the first, then the excess of the second is to the first as the excess of the last is to the sum of all those before it.
Let there be as many numbers as we please in continued proportion, A, BC, D, and EF, beginning from A as least, and let there be subtracted from BC and EF the numbers BG and FH, each equal to A. I say that GC is to A as EH is to the sum of A, BC, and D.

Make FK equal to BC, and FL equal to D. Then, since FK equals BC, and of these the part FH equals the part BG, therefore the remainder HK equals the remainder GC.

And since EF is to D as D is to BC, and as BC is to A, while D equals FL, BC equals FK, and A equals FH, therefore EF is to FL as LF is to FK, and as FK is to FH. Taken separately EL is to LF as LK is to FK, and as KH is to FH. Since one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the consequents, therefore KH is to FH as the sum of EL, LK, and KH is to the sum of LF, FK, and HF. But KH equals CG, FH equals A, and the sum of LF, FK, and HF equals the sum of D, BC, and A, therefore CG is to A as EH is to the sum of D, BC, and A. Therefore the excess of the second is to the first as the excess of the last is to the sum of those before it.

VII.11 VII.13

VII.12

Therefore, if as many numbers as we please are in continued proportion, and there is subtracted from the second and the last numbers equal to the first, then the excess of the second is to the first as the excess of the last is to the sum of all those before it.
Q.E.D.

This proposition says if a sequence of numbers a1, a2, a3, ..., an, an+1 is in continued proportion a1:a2 = a2:a3 = ... = an:an+1 then (a2 – a1) : a1 = (an+1 – a1) : (a1 + a2 + ... + an). This conclusion gives a way of computing the sum of the terms in the continued proportion as an+1 – a1 a1 + a2 + ... + an = a1 a2 – a1 If we denote the first term by a and the ratio of the terms by r, then this gives the familiar formula rn – 1 a + ar + ar2 + ... + arn-1 = a r–1 Summary of the proof The proof is much more comprehisible when it's translated in to algebraic notation. The correspondence is as follows A = a1 BG = FH = a1 BC = a2 GC = a2 – a1 ... EH = an+1 – a1 a2:a1. D = an EF = an+1 For each proportion, say the first, an+1:an = an:an–1, take it separately according to VII.11 to get (an+1 – an):(an – an–1) = an:an–1, then alternately . .

(an+1 – an):an = (an – an–1):an–1. Stringing the conclusions together, we have (an+1 – an):an = (an – an–1):an–1 = ... = (a2 – a1):a1. Next, using proposition VII.12, the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the consequences equals this same ratio. Therefore (an+1–an + an–an–1 + ... + a2–a1) : (an + an–1 + ... + a2 + a1) = (a2 – a1) : a1. But an+1 – an + an – an–1 + ... + a2 – a1 equals an+1 – a1. That gives us the conclusion of the proposition (an+1 – a1) : (an + an–1 + ... + a2 + a1) = (a2 – a1) : a1. Use of this propostion This proposition is used in the next one.

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Proposition 36
If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are set out continuously in double proportion until the sum of all becomes prime, and if the sum multiplied into the last makes some number, then the product is perfect.
Let as many numbers as we please, A, B, C, and D, beginning from a unit be set out in double proportion, until the sum of all becomes prime, let E equal the sum, and let E multiplied by D make FG. I say that FG is perfect. For, however many A, B, C, and D are in multitude, take so many E, HK, L, and M in double proportion beginning from E.

Therefore, ex aequali A is to D as E is to M. Therefore the product of E and D equals the product of A and M. And the product of E and D is FG, therefore the product of A and M is also FG. Therefore A multiplied by M makes FG. Therefore M measures FG according to the units in A. And A is a dyad, therefore FG is double of M. But M, L, HK, and E are continuously double of each other, therefore E, HK, L, M, and FG are continuously proportional in double proportion.

VII.14 VII.19

Subtract from the second HK and the last FG the numbers HN and FO, each equal to the first E. Therefore the excess of the second is to the first as the excess of the last is to the sum of those before it. Therefore NK is to E as OG is to the sum of M, L, KH, and E. And NK equals E, therefore OG also equals M, L, HK, E. But FO also equals E, and E equals the sum of A, B, C, D and the unit. Therefore the whole FG equals the sum of E, HK, L, M, A, B, C, D, and the unit, and it is measured by them. I say also that FG is not measured by any other number except A, B, C, D, E, HK, L, M, and the unit. If possible, let some number P measure FG, and let P not be the same with any of the numbers A, B, C, D, E, HK, L, or M. And, as many times as P measures FG, so many units let there be in Q, therefore Q multiplied by P makes FG. But, further, E multiplied by D makes FG, therefore E is to Q as P is to D. And, since A, B, C, and D are continuously proportional beginning from a unit, therefore D is not measured by any other number except A, B, or C. And, by hypothesis, P is not the same with any of the numbers A, B, or C, therefore P does not measure D. But P is to D as E is to Q, therefore neither does E measure Q. And E is prime, and any prime number is prime to any number which it does not measure. Therefore E and Q are relatively prime. But primes are also least, and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times, the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent, and E is to Q as P is to D, therefore E measures P the same number of times that Q measures D. But D is not measured by any other number except A, B, or C, therefore Q is the same with one of the numbers A, B, or C. Let it be the same with B. And, however many B, C, and D are in multitude, take so many E, HK, and L beginning from E. Now E, HK, and L are in the same ratio with B, C, and D, therefore, ex aequali B is to D as E is to L. Therefore the product of B and L equals the product of D and E. But the product of D and E equals the product of Q and P, therefore the product of Q and P also equals the product of B and L. Therefore Q is to B as L is to P. And Q is the same with B, therefore L is also the same with P, which is impossible, for by hypothesis P is not the same with any of the numbers set out.

IX.35

VII.19 IX.13

VII.Def.20

VII.29

VII.21 VII.20

VII.14

VII.19

VII.19

Therefore no number measures FG except A, B, C, D, E, HK, L, M, and the unit. And FG was proved equal to the sum of A, B, C, D, E, HK, L, M, and the unit, and a perfect number is that which equals its own parts, therefore FG is perfect.
VII.Def.22

Therefore, if as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit are set out continuously in double proportion until the sum of all becomes prime, and if the sum multiplied into the last makes some number, then the product is perfect.
Q.E.D.

Summary of the proof Euclid begins by assuming that the sum of a number of powers of 2 (the sum beginning with 1) is a prime number. Let p be the number of powers of 2, and let s be their sum which is prime. s = 1 + 2 + 22 + ... + 2p-1 Note that the last power of 2 is 2p-1 since the sum starts with 1, which is 20. In Euclid's proof, A represents 2, B represents 22, C represents 23, and D is supposed to be the last power of 2, so it represents 2p-1. Also, E represents their sum s, and FG is the product of E and D, so it represents s2p-1. Let's denote that last by n. n = s2p-1 The goal is to show that n is a perfect number. In the first part of this proof, Euclid finds some proper divisors of n that sum to n. These come in two sequences: 1, 2, 22, ..., 2p-1 and s, 2s, 22s, ..., 2n-2s In his proof, the latter are represented by E, HK, L, and finally M. It is clear that each of these is a proper divisor of n, and later in the proof Euclid shows that they are the only proper divisors of n. Using the previous proposition, IX.35, Euclid finds the sum of the continued proportion,

s + 2s + 22s + ... + 2n-2s, to be 2n-1s – s. But s was the sum 1 + 2 + 22 + ... + 2p-1, hence, n = 2n-1s = 1 + 2 + 22 + ... + 2p-1 + s + 2s + 22s + ... + 2n-2s Thus, n is a sum of these proper divisors. All that is left to do is to show that they are the only proper divisors of n, for then n will be the sum of all of its proper divisors, whence a perfect number. The remainder of the proof is detailed and difficult to follow. It hinges on IX.13 which implies that the only factors of 2p-1 are powers of 2, so all the factors of 2p-1 have been found. Here's a not-toofaithful version of Euclid's argument. Suppose n factors as ab where a is not a proper divisor of n in the list above. In Euclid's proof, P represents a and Q represents b. Since a divides s 2p-1, but is not a power of 2, and s is prime, therefore s divides a. Then b has to be a power of 2. But then a has to be a power of 2 times s. But all the powers of 2 times s are on the list of known proper divisors. Therefore, the list includes all the proper divisors. Mersenne primes and perfect numbers Note that the sum, s = 1 + 2 + 22 + ... + 2p-1, equals 2p – 1, by IX.35. As this fact is not needed in the proof, Euclid omits to mention it. Thus, we can restate the proposition as follows: If 2p – 1 is a prime number, then (2p – 1) 2p-1is a perfect number. Prime numbers of the form 2p – 1 have come to be called Mersenne primes named in honor of Marin Mersenne (1588-1648), one of many people who have studied these numbers. The four smallest perfect numbers, 6, 28, 496, and 8128, were known to the ancient Greek mathematicians. The Mersenne primes 2p – 1 corresponding to these four perfect numbers are 3, 7, 31, and 127, respectively, where the exponents p are 2, 3, 5, and 7, respectively. The observation that these four exponents are all prime suggests the following two questions: 1. In order for 2p – 1 to be prime, is it sufficient for p to be prime? 2. In order for 2p – 1 to be prime, is it necessary for p to be prime? Naturally, the next number to check for primality is 211 – 1, 2047, which, by a simple search for prime factors is found not to be prime. The number 2047 factors as 23 times 89. Therefore, primality of p is not sufficient. In 1640 Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) wrote to Mersenne with his investigation of these primes.

35 Book IX introduction Select from Book IX Select book Select topic © 1996 D. and S(n+1) = S(n)2 – 2. A fairly practical testing algorithm was constructed by Lucas in 1876. say as ab. There are at least 39 of them.. it is known that odd numbers with fewer then 300 digits are not perfect. One of these conditions answers the second question above— p does have to be prime. Many mathematicians have studied Mersenne primes since then. the largest known (as of 2002) is 2213466917 – 1. It may well be that there are no odd perfect numbers. He showed that the the number 2p – 1 is prime if and only if it divides the number S(p-1). but more continue to be found. It is not known if there are infinitely many or finitely many even perfect numbers. There is a also a question about odd perfect numbers: Are there any? It has been shown that there are no small odd perfect numbers.E. where S(p-1) is defined recursively: S(1) = 4. Mersenne primes are scarce. + 2a). and therefore more perfect numbers.. which is 2ab – 1. then 2p – 1. Here's a quick argument for that.Fermat found three conditions on p that were necessary for 2p – 1 to be prime. continues. Next book: Book X introduction Previous proposition: IX. The search for more Mersenne primes.Joyce Clark University . namely as 2ab – 1 = (2a – 1) (2a(b-1) + 2a(b-2) + . If p did factor. would also factor. but to date there is no proof.

G. F. that is. B. and in the same ratio with them.Proposition 1 If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. B. which is impossible. the greater the less. and H. Let there be as many numbers as we please.E. F. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. if there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. and the multitude of the numbers A.20 Therefore. which are less than A. let E. B. and D are the least of those which have the same ratio with them.21 VII. Q. C. Continued proportions and geometric progressions . and the extremes of them are relatively prime.14 But A and D are relatively prime. and H be less than A. ex aequali A is to D as E is to H. and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times. numbers which are relatively prime are also least. If not. C. VII. F. and D. F. C. and D. B. therefore. B. Therefore E. C. and let the extremes of them. G. B. and D equals the multitude of the numbers E. and H. and D are the least of those which have the same ratio with them.D. VII. be relatively prime. G. and the extremes of them are relatively prime. I say that A. Therefore A. A. and D are in the same ratio with E. C. B. A and D. Therefore A measures E. C. G. since A. are not in the same ratio with them. then the numbers are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. Now. C. the greater the greater and the less the less. then the numbers are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. and H. in continued proportion. and D.

a2.. 1250:750 = 750:450 = 450:270 = 270:162. a ratio.21 when there are only two numbers in continued proportion.21 says if the two numbers are relatively prime. The converse of this proposition is VIII. The sum of a geometric progression is found in proposition IX. About this proposition This proposition says that if the end numbers are relatively prime in a continued proportion with constant ratio. . since all the numbers may be halved to get continued proportion of the same length and same ratio but with smaller numbers. Many of the propositions in Books VIII and IX treat geometric progressions. is not in lowest terms. A modern expression for this situation is to say that the numbers a1. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next one and in VIII.. an-1:an are in a geometric progression or a geometric sequence.. We could say that the continued proportion is in lowest terms. Notice that the example of a continued proportion given above.3. a3. then there is no continued proportion of the same length and same ratio having smaller numbers.35.4 continued proportions that don't have a constant ratio will be considered. proportions of the form a1:a2 = a2:a3 = a3:a4 = . In this proposition we consider only continued proportions with a constant ratio..2 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic . then the ratio is in lowest terms. that is. The ratio of any consecutive pair in a geometric progression is constant. Next proposition: VIII. The proposition generalizes VII.. VII.Euclid doesn't define a continued proportion. In proposition VIII. = an-1:an. An example of continued proportion with constant ratio is 1250:750 = 750:450 = 450:270 = 270:162 since each of the ratios is the same as the ratio 5:3.9.

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VII. and the least that are in a given ratio. But C is to D as A is to B. D. VII. therefore A is to B as F is to G. But A is to B as C is to D.18 VII. Therefore A is to B as D is to E. and H. since A multiplied by itself makes C. since A and B multiplied by E make H and K. as many as may be prescribed. therefore the numbers A and B multiplied by B make the numbers D and E respectively. and by B to make D. Also multiply A by C. Therefore A is to B as G is to H. therefore A is to B as C is to D. Now. But A is to B as F is to G. and as H is to K.Proposition 2 To find as many numbers as are prescribed in continued proportion. since A multiplied by C and D makes F and G. But VII. Multiply A by itself to make C. And. and E to make F. Multiply B by itself to make E. G. And. Let the ratio of A to B be the given ratio in least numbers. Let four be prescribed. therefore A is to B as H is to K. Therefore F is to G as G is to H. since A multiplied by B makes D. therefore C is to D as D is to E. Again. It is required to find numbers in continued proportion. since A multiplied by D and E makes G and H.17 Again. therefore C is to D as F is to G. and as G is to H. the least that are in the ratio of A to B.17 D is to E as A is to B. and multiplied by B makes D. and multiply B by E to make K.17 . therefore D is to E as G is to H. and B multiplied by itself makes E.18 VII.

1. 2 .E. therefore A and B are relatively prime. . if four numbers.27 implies that the end terms an-1 and bn-1 are relatively prime. then the numbers in the continued proportion are an-1. Also. bn-1 For instance. First. a1bn-2. 36. D.1 Q. G.27 VIII.Therefore C. Use of this proposition This proposition and its corollary are used in several propositions in Book VIII starting with the next and in proposition IX. therefore C and E and F and K are relatively prime respectively. 24. that is. then the extremes are squares. since a and b are relatively prime. The proof is not difficult. H.15 in the next book. 3. 23 . and F. and 81. if there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. D. . Corollary. G. and 34. From this it is manifest that. The problem is to construct n numbers in a continued proportion in lowest terms with a given constant ratio. and. If the ratio is a:b in lowest terms. And the numbers A and B multiplied by themselves respectively make the numbers C and E.. an-3b2. 22 . H and K are the least of those which have the same ratio with A and B. 54. the sequence 16.D.22 VII. an-2b. and multiplied by the numbers C and E respectively make the numbers F and K. proposition VII. if three numbers in continued proportion are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. The result then follows from the previous proposition VIII. 33. Therefore C. cubes. and E and F. Since A and B are the least of those which have the same ratio with them.. I say next that they are the least numbers that are so. and the extremes of them are relatively prime. and K are proportional in the ratio of A to B. But. and the least of those which have the same ratio are relatively prime.. VII. the five numbers in a continued proportion in lowest terms with a ratio of 2:3 form the sequence 24. then they are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. 32. and E. adjacent terms do have the correct ratio.

3 Previous: VIII.1 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996.Next proposition: VIII.Joyce Clark University . 2002 D.E.

B. C and D. the least that are in the ratio of A. Therefore A equals L. Take two numbers E and F. M. B. C. if as many numbers as we please in continued proportion are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. and D are the least of those which have the same ratio with them.2 VII. therefore they are relatively prime. C. H and K with the same property. and multiplied by the numbers G and K respectively make the numbers L and O. and O respectively. C. B. And. and others. and D. since A.22 VIII. N. N. and D equals O. are relatively prime. And. and D. then the extremes of them are relatively prime. B. Therefore A and D are also relatively prime. M. A. C. and O. I say that the extremes of them. Let as many numbers as we please. Let them be L. And L and O are relatively prime.Proposition 3 If as many numbers as we please in continued proportion are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. therefore the numbers A. B. and O. A and D. and the multitude of the numbers A. since the numbers E and F multiplied by themselves respectively make the numbers G and K. N. Since E and F are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. M. B. and O are the least that are in the same ratio with A. . B. M. C. therefore both G and K and L and O are relatively prime. VII. then three others G.27 Therefore. and D. until the multitude taken becomes equal to the multitude of the numbers A.Cor VII.33 VIII. more by one continually. N. and D equals the multitude of the numbers L. and D equal the numbers L. C.2. while L. then the extremes of them are relatively prime. in continued proportion be the least of those which have the same ratio with them.

8. says if a continued proportion with constant ratio is in lowest terms.2 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996.Q. the converse of VIII.E.6.2 to construct the continued proportion in lowest terms. and it has relatively prime end numbers. then its end numbers are relatively prime. and VIII.4 Previous: VIII.Joyce Clark University . This proposition. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in propositions VIII.D. The proof begins by using the previous proposition VIII. Next proposition: VIII. which must be the same as the given continued proportion.21.E. 2002 D.1. VIII.

therefore A is to B as H is to G. and let D measure K as many times as C measures G.20 VII. to find numbers in continued proportion which are the least in the given ratios. First. since A measures H the same number of times that B measures G. Let the given ratios in least numbers be that of A to B.13 . that of C to D. VII. Now. the least number measured by B and C. Take G.Proposition 4 Given as many ratios as we please in least numbers. Now E either measures or does not measure K. in the ratio of C to D. It is required to find numbers in continued proportion which are the least that are in the ratio of A to B.Def.34 VII. Let K measure L as many times as E measures K. and that of E to F. and in the ratio of E to F. let it measure it. Let A measure H as many times as B measures G.

and E is to F as K is to L. VII. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. Take M. in the ratio of C to D. and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times.For the same reason C is to D as G is to K. of C to D. and L which are continuously in the ratio of A to B. therefore B measures O. G. VII. the least number measured by E and K. and of E to F. and let F measure P as many times as E measures M.20 .Def. the greater the greater and the less the less. that is. and of E to F. K.13 VII. Let H and G measure N and O as many times as K measures M. Therefore the least number measured by B and C also measures O. For the same reason C is to D as is O is to M.20 VII. let E not measure K. But H is to G as A is to B. which is impossible. I say next that they are also the least that have this property. and L are continuously proportional in the ratio of A to B. Therefore there are no numbers less than H. G. therefore G measures O.35 Since H measures N the same number of times that G measures O. Then since A is to B as N is to O. For the same reason C also measures O. and P. the greater the less. K. while A and B are least. M. If H. of C to D. and L are not the least numbers continuously proportional in the ratios of A to B. O. respectively. K. G. therefore H is to G as N is to O. Therefore H. and in the ratio of E to F. But G is the least number measured by B and C. let them be N. Therefore B and C measure O. Next. therefore A is to B as is N is to O.

O. and F. But G is the least number measured by B and C. and T.E. Therefore N. and of E to F. and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio with them the same number of times. but the continued ratio 5:10:30 does not. C. should be called continued ratios. B. Therefore N. C. therefore M measures S. I say next that they are also the least that are in the ratios A.Def. and F. M. while A and B are least. Take.Again. the continued ratio 5:10:20 has a constant ratio of 1:2. there are numbers less than N. Therefore E and K measure S. For example. does not equal the first term of the second ratio. Therefore the least number measured by E and K also measures S. Q. since E measures M the same number of times that F measures P. therefore K also measures S. the greater the less. In this proposition we consider continued proportions having ratios that aren't necessarily constant. The problem here is to construct the smallest continued ratio having the specified ratios. O.35 VII. and P continuously proportional in the ratios A. the problem of placing the continued ratio 3:7:2:6 in front of the continued ratio 10:4:5 to make a seven-term continued ratio where the first four terms have the ratio 3:7:2:6 and the last three terms have the ratio 10:4:5. E. Note that the continued ratio 5:10:30 is not the least with those given ratios since 1:2:6 is smaller with the same ratios of 1:2 and 1:3. Therefore there are no numbers less than N. O. B. These. M. E. and F.13 to F as M is to P. M. M. VII.20 of A to B. its first ratio is 1:2 while its second ratio is 1:3. O. of C to D. therefore G measures R. Now since Q is to R as A is to B. The resulting seven-term ratio should be least with the given ratios. The solution is to increase . But M is the least number measured by E and K. which is impossible. But E also measures S. therefore B and C measure R. B. and of E to F. For the same reason C also measures R. therefore B measures R.2 to a more general concept of continued proportion. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. E. C. for example. 10. R. therefore E is VII. perhaps. The problem is that the last term of the first ratio. and P continuously proportional in the ratios of A to B. S. If not.20 VII. D. 6. Let them be Q. And G is to R as K is to S. D. D.13 This is a generalization of VIII. of C to D. and P are the least numbers continuously proportional in the ratios A. Therefore the least number measured by B and C also measures R. and P are continuously proportional in the ratios VII.D.35 VII. An examination of the proof shows that Euclid has a general process to attach two continued proportions into one long one with with the same ratios.

and k = (g/c)d. The bulk of the proof consists of showing that the resulting ratio n:o:m:p is the least with the given ratios. These are defined equationally as m = LCM(e. n:o:m:p has the proper ratios. and p = (m/e)f.3 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996. The resulting ratios.12.the numbers in each ratio to match these numbers. c). and m:p = c:d. and e:f. First. 2002 D. o:m = c:d. the two ratios a:b and c:d are merged into a three-term ratio h:g:k so that h:g = a:b and g:k = c:d. c:d.Joyce Clark University . h = (g/b)a. These are defined equationally as g = LCM(b.E. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next one and in proposition X. n = (m/k)h. that can be done by multiplying each of the terms of the first ratio by 5 and each of the terms of the second ratio by 3. and o = (m/k)g. 15:35:10:30 and 30:12:15 can then be merged into the desired ratio 15:35:10:30:12:15. Since 30 = LCM(6. Next.5 Previous: VIII. k). all in lowest terms. Next proposition: VIII. the three-term ratio h:g:k is merged with the ratio e:f to get a four-term ratio n:o:m:p so that n:o = a:b. Then h:g:k has the proper ratios. Outline of the proof We start with three given ratios a:b. 10). Again.

and D is to F as H is to K. Let A and B be plane numbers.14 as A is to B. H. since E multiplied by D makes L. Q. plane numbers have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. therefore H is to K as L is to B.17 Again.4 continuously in the ratios C. therefore A also has to B the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. and let the numbers C and D be the sides of A. and further multiplied by F makes B. so that C is to E as G is to H. D. I say that A has to B the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. therefore.Proposition 5 Plane numbers have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. . and multiplied by E makes L. VII. E. since D multiplied by C makes A. The ratios being given which C has to E and D to F. But G has to K the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. ex aequali.E. H as G is to H as A is to L. Multiply D by E to make L.D. and E and F the sides of B. and K that are VIII. But D is to F as H is to K. Therefore. therefore D is to F as L is to B. But C is to E as G is to H. Now. L as G is to K VII. take the least numbers G. VII.17 But it was also proved that. therefore G is to H as A is to L. therefore C is to E as A is to L. and F.

9-10.2. and they are used in Books VI. XI. From the two proportions g:h = a:de and h:k = de:b therefore. ratio the plane numbers is the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. The application of VIII. Outline of the proof Let the plane number a be the product cd of its sides. The ratio compounded from two given ratios a:b and b:c is just the ratio a:c. To find the ratio compounded from two given ratios a:b and c:d. Since a = cd. an analogous proposition for rectangles and parallelograms. But if the middle term b is not shared by the two given ratios. the third proportional can be constructed by VIII. IX. therefore. then the duplicate ratio of a:b is a:c. Use VIII.11. Since b = ef. therefore c:e = a:de. but for numbers. Thus. the ratio compounded from the ratios a:b and c:d will be the same as the ratio compounded from the ratios e:f and f:g. the ratio compounded from the ratios c:e and d:f of the sides is the ratio of the plane numbers a:b. and let the plane number b be the product ef of its sides. But duplicate and triplicate ratios are also special kinds of compound ratios. . X. f. g:k = a:b. constructing the third proportional c needed to duplicate the ratio a:b is done in proposition VI.4.4 to find the least numbers continuously in the ratios c:d and e:f actually makes the proof more difficult. and d:f = de:ef = de:b. For numbers. Since c:e = cd:de = a:de. They appear here in this proposition. namely e:g. and in VI. and so h:k = de:b. Then. For lines. where they are defined as the ratio of the ends of a continued proportion.23. and XII. Here's a slightly shorter proof. Duplicate and triplicate ratios were defined in general in V.Compounded ratios Compound ratios as such only appear in a few places in the Elements. and so g:h = a:de. ex aequali. then equal ratios must be found that do have a shared middle term. if a:b = b:c. this construction was done in the previous proposition VIII. first find e. VIII. therefore d:f = de:b. and g so that e:f = a:b and f:g = c:d. That is.4 to construct a continued ratio g:h:k so that g:h = c:e and h:k = d:f so that g:k is the ratio compounded of the ratios c:e and d:f of the sides.

2002 D.4 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996.Joyce Clark University .E.6 Previous: VIII.Next proposition: VIII.

I say. C. then. B. and C are. and E do not measure one another in order. Therefore. If possible.14 and C equals the multitude of the numbers F. therefore neither does A measure C. Let there be as many numbers as we please. the least of those which have the same ratio with A. A. B. since F. then neither does any other measure any other. G. And F is to H as A is to C. and H are in the same ratio with A. and H. B. Therefore F is not a unit. let A measure C. take as many numbers F. for A does not even measure B. however many A.3 .E. B. VII. D. in continued proportion. then neither does any other measure any other. therefore neither does F measure G. Now it is manifest that A. and C. and the multitude of the numbers A. Similarly we can prove that neither does any other measure any other. that neither does any other measure any [later] other. and E. and let A not measure B. therefore. G.20 VIII. for the unit measures any number. while A does not measure B. B.Proposition 6 If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. ex aequali A is to C as F is to H. B.33 Now. Q. VII. I say that neither does any other measure any [later] other. and the first does not measure the second.Def. G. D. and H. And since A is to B as F is to G. and the first does not measure the second. and C. C. if there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion.D. VII. Now F and H are relatively prime. And.

.. Since f does not divide g. Since any number in that sequence has to the next number in the sequence the same ratio as the first has to the second. and call the number it divides c. Suppose that some number in the sequence divides a later number. c and.The proposition as stated isn't quite correct. We may call that the former number a since it divides the next number in the sequence. 12. in particular f does not equal 1. Take the continued proportion a. but f and h are relatively prime by VIII.E. therefore f does not divide g. Next proposition: VIII. and 24 does not divide 12. 3 divides 6. Outline of the proof Consider a sequence of numbers in continued proportion where the first number does not divide the second. for instance. therefore f does not divide h. but each of the others does divide others.Joyce Clark University . For example. Since that's in lowest terms. f and h are relatively prime. therefore no number divides the next. and a does not divide b. h in lowest terms. ..33. Since a:b f:g. 6 and 3 are in continued proportion.5 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996. reduce it a continued proportion f.7 Previous: VIII. using VII. since a:c f:h. b. g. the numbers 24. Finally. Use of this proposition This proposition is used as a lemma for the following proposition... But none of the others divide others later in the sequence... therefore a does not divide c either.3. 2002 D.

Therefore A also measures B. neither does any other of the numbers measure any other. Next proposition: VIII. Therefore. I say that A also measures B. Use of this theorem This proposition is used in propositions VIII.6 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic . then it also measures the second. C. and let A measure D. and D. if there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. This proposition is the contrapositive of the previous theorem. B. in continued proportion. VIII.14 and VIII. But A measures D.15.Proposition 7 If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion.E.6 Q. If A does not measure B. then it also measures the second. and the first measures the last. A. and the first measures the last.8 Previous: VIII. Let there be as many numbers as we please.D.

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therefore G is to L as E is to F. But G and L are relatively prime. therefore. B. Now. VII.20 VII. H. and L are in the same ratio with E. then. and L measure E. N. K. Let the numbers C and D fall between the two numbers A and B in continued proportion with them.Proposition 8 If between two numbers there fall numbers in continued proportion with them. since A. Next. so many also fall between E and F in continued proportion. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. let H and K measure M and N. Then the extremes of them G and L are relatively prime.14 (V.3 with A. VII. the least of those which have the same ratio VIII. respectively. Therefore G measures E the same number of times as L measures F. as many numbers as have fallen between A and B in continued proportion. and L. however many numbers fall between them in continued proportion.20 . and make E in the same ratio to F as A is to B. K. C. M. C. K. numbers which are relatively prime are also least. H. D. and B. Therefore G. K. and the multitude of the numbers A.Def. and D are in multitude. But A is to B as E is to F. N. the greater the greater and the less the less. and F the same number of times. and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times.21 VII. and F. I say that. H. and L. and L. H. that is. M. and B are in the same ratio with G. so many also fall in continued proportion between the numbers which have the same ratios with the original numbers. D. K.33 take so many numbers G. H. and B equals the multitude of the numbers G. ex aequali A is to B as G is to L. C.11) VII. D. C. as many times as G measures E. Then G. As many as A.

for if there were. and 4 would form a continued proportion. nk. Next proposition: VIII. D. Since a:b = e:f. then. and B are in continued proportion. and 4 do not form a continued proportion. l. c.21). But A. m.. According to VIII. and therefore g divides e the same number of times. nh. Then the sequence ng.E. . b are in continued proportion.9 Previous: VIII. and 2. the argument simplifies.20).. as many numbers as have fallen between A and B in continued proportion with them. it is used in the first six propositions of Book IX. so the ratio g:l is in lowest terms (VII. N. k. Q. and B are also in the same ratio with E. say n. D. . Therefore.. and B.. and F.3. so many also fall in continued proportion between the numbers which have the same ratios with the original numbers. . This proposition implies. d.9 for implications of this conclusion for imcommensurability of line segments. Use of this proposition Although this proposition is not used in Book VIII. C... therefore A..D. that l divides f (VII.7 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic .33 to reduce that sequence to lowest terms g. Therefore. K. D. Outline of the proof Suppose that a:b = e:f and the sequence a. this conclusion says the square root of 2 is not a rational number. and L are in the same ratio with A. if between two numbers there fall numbers in continued proportion with them. h. but the only number between 2 and 4 is 3. But g is relatively prime to l. M. (If 1 is considered to be a number. N. and F are also in continued proportion. C. M. nl is in continued proportion and starts with e and ends with f as required.. there would be a number m so that 2. 3. See proposition X. H.. we also have g:l = e:f. however many numbers fall between them in continued proportion.But G. therefore E. Use VII. the ends of that sequence g and l are relatively prime.) In modern terminology. among other things. that there is no number which forms a mean proportional between a number n and the number 2n. C. so many numbers have also fallen between E and F in continued proportion.

© 1996.Joyce Clark University . 2002 D.E.

D. and P are the least of those which have the same ratio with F and G. and others more by one continually. and B. And. C. therefore F measures H according to the units in F. and P equals the multitude of the numbers A. and numbers fall between them in continued proportion.Proposition 9 If two numbers are relatively prime. Therefore the unit E is to the number F as F is to H.2. and let C and D fall between them in continued proportion. D. as many numbers fall between A and B in continued proportion as fall between either of the numbers A or B and the unit in continued proportion. O. and let the unit E be set out. so many also fall between each of them and a unit in continued proportion. C. then. D. N. O. I say that.2 their multitude equals the multitude of A. therefore the unit E measures the number F the same number of times as F measures H. N. N. therefore M. Let A and B be two numbers relatively prime. Let them be M. D. since F multiplied by itself makes H. however many numbers fall between them in continued proportion. Take two numbers F and G. K. while the multitude of the numbers M. since M. and B are also the least of those which have the same ratio with F and G. and A.Def. C. while G multiplied by itself makes L and multiplied by L makes P. VII. It is now manifest that F multiplied by itself makes H and multiplied by H makes M.Cor VIII. and L with the same property. Now. O. and P. and P equal A. C. Therefore M equals A. But the unit E also measures F according to the units in it.1 . C. N. until VIII. and B. and B. the least that are in the ratio of A. and B respectively. three numbers H.20 VIII. D. O. and P equals B.

8 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996. Q. Therefore the unit E is to the number F as H is to M.Again. fgn-2.Joyce Clark University . But the unit E also measures the number F according to the units in it.E. then. so by VIII. therefore H measures M according to the units in F. and a is the n–1st power of g. If two numbers are relatively prime. Next proposition: VIII. and as H is to A.. however many numbers fall between them in continued proportion. therefore the unit E is to the number F as F is to H.. fn-3g. therefore the unit E is to the number F as F is to H. 2002 D.2.. Then Euclid shows that a is the n–1st power of f. so many also fall between each of them and a unit in continued proportion. Therefore as many numbers fall between A and B in continued proportion as fall between each of the numbers A and B and the unit E in continued proportion. The argument is that the sequence fn-1. But M equals A. and that f / g is the ratio for the continued proportion in lowest terms. fn-2g. gn-1 is in continued proportion with the correct ratio with relatively prime ends. Therefore.E. therefore the unit E measures the number F the same number of times as H measures M. and as H is to M. But it was also proved that the unit E is to the number F as F is to H.D.1 they're the same sequence. since F multiplied by H makes M.10 Previous: VIII. . and numbers fall between them in continued proportion. Suppose that relatively prime numbers a and b are the ends of a continued proportion with n terms. For the same reason also the unit E is to the number G as G is to L and as L is to B.

so many also fall between the numbers themselves in continued proportion. For the same reason also F multiplied by itself makes G.18 . therefore the unit C measures the number D the same number of times as D measures E. therefore the unit C measures the number D the same number of times as E measures A.Def. And. as many numbers have fallen between each of the numbers A and B and the unit C in continued proportion as fall between A and B in continued proportion.Proposition 10 If numbers fall between two numbers and a unit in continued proportion. For the same reason also D is to F as H is to G. Therefore D multiplied by itself makes E. since C is to the number D as E is to A. VII. then however many numbers fall between each of them and a unit in continued proportion. therefore E also measures A according to the units in D. Therefore D multiplied by E makes A. therefore the number D also measures E according to the units in D. since D multiplied by itself makes E and multiplied by F makes H. therefore D is to F as E is to H. I say that.20 VII. since the unit C is to the number D as D is to E. Multiply D by F to make H. Let the numbers D and E and the numbers F and G respectively fall between the two numbers A and B and the unit C in continued proportion. But the unit C measures the number D according to the units in D. Again. and multiplied by G makes B.17 VII. But the unit C measures the number D according to the units in D. Now. and multiply the numbers D and F by H to make K and L respectively. Therefore E is to H as H is to G.

since F multiplied by the numbers H and G makes L and B respectively. Q. L.2. as many numbers as fall between each of the numbers A and B and the unit C in continued proportion.Joyce Clark University . K. But E is to H as D is to F. Further. therefore E is to H as A is to K. fn-1 is in continued proportion. therefore A is to K as K is to L. dfn-2.Again.11 Previous: VIII. Again. it doesn't require that the generating numbers d and f be relatively prime in order to conclude that the sequence dn-1.. Next proposition: VIII. dn-2f.9 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.17 VII. and B are in continued proportion. But H is to G as D is to F. dn-3f.E. since the numbers D and F multiplied by H make K and L respectively. This is a partial converse to the previous proposition. .18 VII. therefore A is to K as K is to L and as L is to B. therefore D is to F as K is to L. But it was also proved that D is to F as A is to K and as K is to L. But D is to F as A is to K.E.D. VII. therefore D is to F as A is to K. so many also fall between A and B in continued proportion. Therefore A..17 Therefore. Therefore. therefore H is to G as L is to B. so many also fall between the numbers themselves in continued proportion. since D multiplied by the numbers E and H makes A and K respectively. therefore D is to F as L is to B. if numbers fall between two numbers and a unit in continued proportion. then however many numbers fall between each of them and a unit in continued proportion..

between two square numbers there is one mean proportional number.17 VII. and A has to B the ratio duplicate of that which C has to D. Q. I say next that A also has to B the ratio duplicate of that which C has to D. and the ratio c2:d2 is the duplicate ratio of c:d.E. Therefore A is to E as E is to B. Therefore. and the square has to the square the duplicate ratio of that which the side has to the side. For the same reason also C is to D as E is to B. then. since A is a square and C is its side. D multiplied by itself makes B. therefore A has to B the ratio duplicate V. Since. But A is to E as C is to D.9 of that which A has to E.D. E. and D of B. The . and the square has to the square the duplicate ratio of that which the side has to the side. C multiplied by the numbers C and D makes A and E respectively.Def.18 Between c2 and d2 is the mean proportional cd. Therefore between A and B there is one mean proportional number.Proposition 11 Between two square numbers there is one mean proportional number. therefore C is to D as A is to E. I say that between A and B there is one mean proportional number. and B are three numbers in proportion. Now. Multiply C by D to make E. therefore C multiplied by itself makes A. Let A and B be square numbers. VII. For the same reason also. Since A. therefore A has to B the ratio duplicate of that which the side C has to D. and let C be the side of A.

9.Joyce Clark University . and X. Next proposition: VIII.15. VIII.14.E.10 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996.argument for the latter statement is that c2:d2 is compounded of the two ratios c2:cd and cd:d2. 2002 D.12 Previous: VIII. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in propositions VIII. but both of those are the same ratio as c:d.

as H is to K. and the cube has to the cube the triplicate ratio of that which the side has to the side. For the same reason also D multiplied by itself makes G and multiplied by G makes B. therefore F is to G as K is to B. For the same reason also C is to D as F is to G. and C multiplied by itself makes E. since A is a cube. therefore C multiplied by itself makes E and multiplied by E makes A. and multiply the numbers C and D by F to make H and K respectively. And. and D of B. since D multiplied by each of the numbers F and G makes VII. and let C be the side of A. Now. Again.17 K and B respectively.17 VII. Let A and B be cubic numbers.18 C is to D as H is to K. VII. multiply D by itself to make G. since C multiplied by the numbers E and F makes A and H respectively. I say next that A also has to B the ratio triplicate of that which C has to D. therefore E is to F as A is to H. I say that between A and B there are two mean proportional numbers. and as K is to B. therefore VII. and by D to make F.Proposition 12 Between two cubic numbers there are two mean proportional numbers. Therefore C is to D as A is to H. since C multiplied by the numbers C and D makes E and F respectively. therefore C is to D as A is to H. Multiply C by itself to make E. . But E is to F as C is to D.18 Again. and C its side. and A has to K the ratio triplicate of that which C has to D. But F is to G as C is to D. Again. since the numbers C and D multiplied by F make H and K respectively. Therefore H and K are two mean proportionals between A and B. therefore C is to D as E is to F.

therefore A has to B the ratio triplicate of that which A has to H.13 Previous: VIII.10 Therefore. and B are four numbers in proportion.Def. Between two cubic numbers there are two mean proportional numbers. K. But A is to H as C is to D. V.E.15.Joyce Clark University . and the cube has to the cube the triplicate ratio of that which the side has to the side.Since A. This proposition is used in VIII.E.11 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D. therefore A also has to B the ratio triplicate of that which C has to D.D. H. Next proposition: VIII. Q.

Then. and H to that of H. Q. E. in continued proportion. N. and F and that of G. and further G. E. then the latter are also proportional. M. E. and. and multiply the numbers A and B by L to make M and N respectively. and C multiplied by themselves make D. and K are in continued proportion. H. L. and K are continuously proportional in the ratio of B to C. and multiplied by D. and F and G. And the multitude of D. Q. ex aequali D is to E as E is to F. and E equals the multitude of E. B. and E and G. I say that D. O. so that A is to B as B is to C. O. P. and multiply the numbers B and C by O to make P and Q respectively. and C. Q. Let there be as many numbers as we please. L.14 . L. we can prove that D. if the original numbers multiplied by the products make certain numbers. therefore D. P. P. and H are continuously proportional in the ratio of A to B. Also multiply B by C to make O. then the products are proportional. and K. N. and further E. and G is to H as H is to K. N.Proposition 13 If there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion. B. and F. and E are also in the same ratio with E. and K. and K. M. and F and H. and H in the same ratio with H. and F. in manner similar to the foregoing. H. Now A is to B as B is to C. O. therefore. VII. Let A. M. and F let them make G. and each multiplied by itself makes some number. A. 5 Multiply A by B to make L.

Likewise. Then form two more sequences a2. Q. a b2. a2b.14 Previous: VIII. Next proposition: VIII. bc.E. and each multiplied by itself makes some number. if the original numbers multiplied by the products make certain numbers. 2002 D.12 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996.Joyce Clark University . The proposition says that if the terms of a continued proportion are squared or cubed. c. and. then the resulting sequences of numbers are also in continued proportion. every third term of the third sequence make up a continued proportion of the cubes of the original sequence where the ratio is triplicate of the original ratio. b. b2c. b3. then the latter are also proportional. Suppose that the original continued proportion has three terms: a. c2 and a3. b2. ab. if there are as many numbers as we please in continued proportion.Therefore.E. then the products are proportional.D. b c2. c3 Each of these are in continued proportion with the same ratio as the original sequence. The alternate terms in the second sequence form the continued proportion of the squares of the original sequence where the ratio is duplicate of the original ratio.

16. since A. Let A and B be square numbers.20 This proposition is to prove its contrapositive. Multiply C by D to make E. E. Then A. let C measure D.20 Next.E. E.Proposition 14 If a square measures a square. and. therefore C measures D.D. and let A measure B. as in VIII. And A is to E as C is to D. E. therefore A also measures E. Therefore.7 VII.11 VIII. and C measures D. then the side also measures the side. then the side also measures the side. VIII. let C and D be their sides. we can in a similar manner prove that A. Q. I say that A also measures B. and B are continuously proportional in the ratio of C to D. if a square measures a square. With the same construction. if the side measures the side. and. VII. and B are continuously proportional in the ratio of C to D. if the side measures the side. . then the square also measures the square. And A. therefore A also measures E. therefore A also measures B. and B are continuously proportional. And since C is to D as A is to E. and A measures B.Def. E. then the square also measures the square.Def. and B are continuously proportional. And. I say that C also measures D.

E.Joyce Clark University .13 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.15 Previous: VIII.Next proposition: VIII.

and G and A. . if a cubic number measures a cubic number. multiply C by D to make F. K. F. if the side measures the side. And. and B are continuously proportional in the ratio of C to D. Let the cubic number A measure the cube B. H. then the side also measures the side. so that A measures B also. therefore C also measures D. therefore A also measures H. and A VIII.Def.Proposition 15 If a cubic number measures a cubic number.7 measures B and G therefore it also measures H. Multiply C by itself to make E. multiply D by itself to make G. And. we can prove in a similar manner that A.20 Therefore. and multiply C and D by F to make H and K respectively. then the cube also measures the cube. then the cube also measures the cube. if the side measures the side. and let C be the side of A and D the side of B. H.12 the ratio of C to D. And A is to H as C is to D.11 VIII.Def.20 Next. let C measure D. and C is to D as A is to H. since A. I say that C measures D. Now it is manifest that E. VII. then the side also measures the side. and. and B are continuously proportional. K. I say that A also measures B. and B are continuously proportional in VIII. since C measures D. K. H. With the same construction. VII. and.

16 Previous: VIII.E.Joyce Clark University .14 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.Q. This proposition is used to prove its contrapositive.17.D. Next proposition: VIII. VIII.

It is unclear why papyrus was wasted to state and prove it. if the side does not measure the side. therefore neither does C measure D. VIII. if the side does not measure the side. A also measures B. VIII. If C measures D. Q. and let A not measure B.14. and. If A measures B. But C does not measure D. and.E. then neither does the square measure the square. But A does not measure B. then neither does the square measure the square.14 Therefore. This is simply the contrapositive of VIII. then C also measures D. then neither does the side measure the side.Proposition 16 If a square does not measure a square. I say that neither does A measure B. Let A and B be square numbers. Next proposition: VIII. then neither does the side measure the side. let C not measure D. therefore neither does A measure B. if a square does not measure a square.D.15 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic . and let C and D be their sides. I say that neither does C measure D.17 Previous: VIII.14 Next.

Joyce Clark University .© 1996 D.E.

E.15 Next. and D of B.D. "if it was so. This proposition is simply the contrapositive of VIII. That's logic. if a cubic number does not measure a cubic number. For if C measures D. but as it isn't. then neither does the side measure the side. VIII. it ain't.15 Therefore. therefore neither does C measure D. and.15. VIII. I say that neither does A measure B. Q.Proposition 17 If a cubic number does not measure a cubic number. then neither does the side measure the side. it would be. then C also measures D. then A also measures B. if the side does not measure the side. then neither does the cube measure the cube. let C not measure D. I say that C does not measure D." ." continued Tweedledee. and. "Contrariwise. and let C be the side of A. But A does not measure B. But C does not measure D. if the side does not measure the side. then neither does the cube measure the cube. Let the cubic number A not measure the cubic number B. therefore neither does A measure B. If A measures B.

Next proposition: VIII.Joyce Clark University .E.16 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.18 Previous: VIII.

since similar plane numbers are those which have their sides proportional. and C and D are its sides. and let the numbers C and D be the sides of A. therefore D is to F as A is to G.17 E makes G. Then. Now since C is to D as E is to F. Let A and B be two similar plane numbers.17 D makes G. G. therefore C is to E as A is to G. therefore. alternately C is to E as D is to F. and multiplied by F makes B. But it was also proved that D is to F as A is to G. and the plane number has to the plane number the ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. and E and F of B. VII. For the same reason also E multiplied by F makes B. Therefore between A and B there is one mean proportional number. that is. Now.13 And. . therefore A is to G as G is to B. of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. since A is plane.21 VII. and B are in continued proportion. Multiply D by E to make G. and A has to B the ratio duplicate of that which C has to E.Proposition 18 Between two similar plane numbers there is one mean proportional number. Therefore A.Def. that is. Again. since D multiplied by C makes A. and multiplied by VII. therefore D is to F as G is to B. therefore C is to D as E is to F. of that which C has to E or D has to F. But C is to E as D is to F. I say next that A also has to B the ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. therefore D multiplied by C makes A. since E multiplied by VII. or as D has to F. I say then that between A and B there is one mean proportional number.

Outline of the proof Assume that the similar plane numbers are cd and ef so that c:d = e:f. Then c:e = cd:de. G. This proposition generalizes VIII. the ratio of the plane numbers is the duplicate of the ratio of the sides. and d:f = de:ef. therefore the ratio of the plane numbers cd:ef is compounded of the ratios of the corresponding sides c:e and d:f. between two similar plane numbers there is one mean proportional number. alternately. Also. since cd:de = de:ef. Q. Therefore A also has to B the ratio duplicate of that which C has to E or D has to F. or.19 Previous: VIII. and the plane number has to the plane number the ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. since the ratios of the corresponding sides are the same.Def.Since A. V. and as D is to F.E. c:e = d:f. Proposition VIII. Furthermore.17 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996.E.11 from squares to similar rectangles.20 is a partial converse of this one.D. And A is to G as C is to E.9 Therefore. It is also used in the first two propositions of Book IX. 2002 D. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in several of the remaining propositions in this book beginning with the next. Next proposition: VIII.Joyce Clark University . A has to B the ratio duplicate of that which it has to G. the number de is a mean proportional between the two plane numbers cd and ef. and B are in continued proportion.

D has to G. and multiply F by G to make L.Def. and let F. K and L are similar plane numbers. And since C is to D as F is to G. since D multiplied by C makes K. But K is to M as M is to L. Therefore M is the product of D and F was proved in the theorem preceding. For the same reason also D is to G as E is to H. therefore C is to D as F is to G. VIII. alternately therefore C is to F as D is to G.17 VII. G. and K is the product of C and VII.18 VII. and L the product of F and G. Now. and D is to E as G is to H. therefore between VIII.13 . Let A and B be two similar solid numbers. Therefore K.18 K and L there is one mean proportional number M. since similar solid numbers are those which have their sides proportional. and let C. and E has to H.Def. and H be the sides of B. and A has to B the ratio triplicate of that which C has to F. since C and D are in the same ratio with F and G. and the solid number has to the solid number the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. therefore C is to F as K is to M. VII. and L are continuously proportional in the ratio of C to F. Multiply C by D to make K.Proposition 19 Between two similar solid numbers there fall two mean proportional numbers. M. Now. and multiplied by F makes M. I say that between A and B there fall two mean proportional numbers. and E be the sides of A.21 D. D.21 Now.

multiply E and H by M to make N and O respectively. V.17 Therefore C is to F as D is to G. Next. and E are its sides. and as E is to H. and B are continuously proportional in the aforesaid ratios of the sides. and C. between two similar solid numbers there fall two mean proportional numbers. Again. as D is to G.E. A to N. Since A. and the solid number has to the solid number the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. and also in the ratio of E to H. Therefore. N. VII. therefore E is to H as N is to O. since H multiplied by M makes O. therefore C is to F as D is to G. Therefore A. and as E is to H. But it was proved that A is to N as C is to F. and as A is to N. that is. O. M. as D is to G. therefore E multiplied by K makes A. as E is to H. Now. a D is to G. and as N is to O. since E and H multiplied by M make N and O respectively. But E is to H as C is to F and as D is to G. as E is to H. therefore C is to F as D is to G. therefore M is to L as O is to B. as are O to B. Therefore A also has to B the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. as A is to N. of the ratio which the number C has to F. and also E has to H. Q. and N to O. or D has to G. D.Therefore K.17 . that is. and further also multiplied by L makes B. therefore E multiplied by the product of C and D makes A. of the ratio which the number C has to F. in the ratio of D to G. But the product of C and D is K. and also E has to H.10 VII. But K is to M as C is to F. and further also multiplied by M makes N. and as E is to H. since E multiplied by K makes A. O. and B are four numbers in continued proportion. and as E is to H.D. therefore K is to M as A is to N.18 VII. Now. For the same reason also H multiplied by L makes B.Def. But M is to L as C is to F. N. and L are continuously proportional in the ratio of C to F. D has to G. therefore A has to B the ratio triplicate of that which A has to N. I say that A also has to B the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. Again. since A is a solid number.

20 Previous: VIII.Assume cde and fgh are similar solid numbers so that c:d:e = f:g:h. expressed alternately. so it is a triplicate ratio of each.18 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996. Next proposition: VIII. fde. c:f = d:g = e:h. and e:h. and fgh are in continued proportion giving two mean proportionals between cde and fgh. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in a few propositions in Books VIII and IX starting with VIII.21 is a partial converse of this one. Also.25.E. Then the numbers cde. the ratio cde:fgh is compounded of the three equal ratios of the sides c:f.Joyce Clark University . or. d:g. Proposition VIII. fge. 2002 D.

so that A is plane. therefore D is to E as A is to C. since E multiplied by F and G makes C and B respectively. therefore F is to G as C VII. then the numbers are similar plane numbers. And alternately D is to F VII. Therefore A and B are similar plane numbers. Therefore G multiplied by E makes B. the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with A and C. and E and G are its sides.Proposition 20 If one mean proportional number falls between two numbers. But C is to B as D is to E. therefore D measures C the same number of times that E measures B.D.E. that is.13 as E is to G. Since F multiplied by D makes A. I say that A and B are similar plane numbers. if one mean proportional number falls between two numbers. Again. Then F multiplied by D makes A. Let there be as many units in G as times that E measures B.20 B. Then E measures B according to the units in G. . Let one mean proportional number C fall between the two numbers A and B. then the numbers are similar plane numbers. Therefore B is plane. and multiplied by E makes C. I say next that they are also similar.17 VII. VII. Therefore. and D and F are its sides. Take D and E. Then D measures A the same number of times that E measures C. C to B. Q.17 is to B. Therefore A and B are plane numbers. for their sides are proportional.20 Again.33 VII. since D and E are the least of the numbers which have the same ratio with C and VII. therefore D is to E as F is to G. Let there be as many units in F as times that D measures A.

18. the two plane numbers a and b are similar since we can show their sides are proportional as follows. 3 by 6 and 5 by 10. c:b is the same ratio as a:c. and the number a = 18 is seen as the plane number d = 3 by f = 6. a:c = c:b (since c is a mean proportional).This is a partial converse of VIII. The variable refer to the outline of the proof below.21 Previous: VIII.Joyce Clark University . From the three proportions d:e = a:c (which follows from a = fd and c = fe). The sides of these plane numbers. the two plane numbers have proportional sides. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next two propositions and also IX. Outline of the proof Suppose two numbers a and b have a mean proportional c. 2002 D. Next proposition: VIII.2. Now since. then they can be viewed as two similar plane numbers. Then a is a plane number with sides d and f. it also reduces to the ratio d:e in lowest terms. Therefore. and the number b = 50 is seen as the plane number e = 5 by g = 10.E. The numbers a =18 and b =50 have a mean proportional c = 30. d divides c the same number of times that e divides b. It says that if two numbers have a mean proportional. therefore. Furthermore. An example might clarify the details. are proportional. Then f is 6. the result is d:e = 3:5. d:e = f:g. and alternately. call that number f. When a:c is to lowest terms. call that number g. Then b is a plane number with sides e and g. Also g is 10. Then d divides a the same number of times e divides c. Reduce the ratio a:c to lowest terms d:e.19 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996. and c:b = f:g (which follows from g = ef and b = ec). d:f = e:g. Thus.

But E and G are relatively prime.20 VII. the greater the greater and the less the less. Now. I say that A and B are similar solid numbers.21 VII. Take three numbers E. VIII. Then the extremes of them E and G are relatively prime. then. and the multitude of the numbers E. the least of those which have the same ratio with A.Proposition 21 If two mean proportional numbers fall between two numbers. Let. and that of K to M.33 or VIII. C. C. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. since E. and G are continuously proportional in the ratio of H to L. since one mean proportional number F has fallen between E and G. primes are also least. Therefore it is manifest from the theorem before this that E. ex aequali E is to G as A is to D.14 VII. therefore E and G are similar plane numbers. C.2 VIII. and G are the least of the numbers which have the same ratio with A. then the numbers are similar solid numbers. F. and D. and D. F. that is. and G equals the multitude of the numbers A. and L and M the sides of G. and D. VII. Let two mean proportional numbers C and D fall between the two numbers A and B. and the least measure those which have the same ratio with them the same number of times. therefore E measures A the same number of times that G measures D. therefore. F. F.20 .3 Now. and G. H and K be the sides of E.

Therefore A and B are solid.18 This is a partial converse of VIII. and L. and N are the sides of A. and as N is to O. Therefore. since E. and as K is to M.Let there be as many units in N as times that E measures A. But G is the product of L and M. and B. But E is to F as H is to L. D. therefore N multiplied by the product of H and K makes A. therefore H is to L as K is to M. Then G measures B according to the units in O. Therefore A and B are similar solid numbers. and H. therefore O multiplied by G makes B.D. Let there be as many units in O as times that E measures C. But E is the product of H and K. therefore N is to O as A is to C. I say that they are also similar. it is longer and more involved. therefore E measures C the same number of times that G measures B. K. Q. M. Therefore A is solid. F. K. L. but naturally. It says that if two numbers have two mean proportionals. It's proof is analogous the previous proposition dealing with plane numbers. E to F. Therefore B is solid.19.E. Again. if two mean proportional numbers fall between two numbers. . and O. therefore O multiplied by the product of L and M makes B. and M the sides of B. that is. VII. and G are the least of the numbers which have the same ratio as C. and N are its sides. Then N multiplied by E makes A. then the numbers are similar solid numbers. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in VIII. And H. then they can be viewed as two similar solid numbers. Since N and O multiplied by E make A and C.23. and O are its sides.

E.Next proposition: VIII.22 Previous: VIII.Joyce Clark University .20 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

if three numbers are in continued proportion. This proposition is used in a few propositions in this and the next book starting with VIII. and the first is square.21 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E. then the third is also square. VIII. Next proposition: VIII. and C be three numbers in continued proportion. B.D. But A is square. Therefore. then the third is also square. and the first is square. therefore C is also square.E.Joyce Clark University . therefore A and C are similar plane numbers.24.23 Previous: VIII. Since between A and C there is one mean proportional number. Q. Let A. I say that C the third is also square.Proposition 22 If three numbers are in continued proportion. and let A the first be square.20 B.

Joyce Clark University . and let A be a cube. Next proposition: VIII.E. and D be four numbers in continued proportion. therefore D is also a cube. But A is a cube. This proposition is used in several propositions in this and the next book starting with VIII. and the first is a cube.24 Previous: VIII. VIII. B. I say that D is also a cube. Q. then the fourth is also a cube. Let A.21 Therefore. C.Proposition 23 If four numbers are in continued proportion.D. and the first is a cube. Since between A and D there are two mean proportional numbers B and C.E. then the fourth is also a cube.25. therefore A and D are similar solid numbers.22 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D. if four numbers are in continued proportion.

Joyce . therefore B is also square. and the first is square. C and D are similar plane numbers. therefore one mean proportional number falls between A and B also. then the second is also a square. and let A be square. I say that B is also square.E. Since C and D are square.E. VIII.D. And A is square.22 Therefore.18 VIII.25 Previous: VIII. Therefore one mean proportional number falls between C and D.Proposition 24 If two numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number.23 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D. The proof of this proposition is straightforeward. Q. Next proposition: VIII. then the second is also a square. And C is to D as A is to B.18 VIII. and the first is square. if two numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Let the two numbers A and B have to one another the ratio which the square number C has to the square number D.

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then.23 Therefore. if two numbers have to one another the ratio which a cubic number has to a cubic number. C and D are similar VIII. Since.19 solid numbers. and A is a cube. the four numbers A. F. VIII. Let the two numbers A and B have to one another the ratio which the cubic number C has to the cubic number D. E. . then the second is also a cube. and let A be a cube. Its proof is straightforward.Proposition 25 If two numbers have to one another the ratio which a cubic number has to a cubic number. Since as many numbers fall in continued proportion between those which have the same ratio with C and D as fall between C and D. I say that B is also a cube.D. This proposition is analogous to the previous one about squares. and the first is a cube. Q. then the second is also a cube. This proposition is used in IX. Since C and D are cubes. and the first is a cube. therefore two mean proportional numbers fall between C and D.18 VIII. therefore B is also a cube.E.10. and B are in continued proportion. therefore two mean proportional numbers E and F fall between A and B.

Joyce Clark University .Next proposition: VIII.E.24 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.26 Previous: VIII.

18 VII.10 and X. Let A and B be similar plane numbers. C. Next proposition: VIII.9. E. Take D. I say that A has to B the ratio which a square number has to a square number. similar plane numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number. and F. And since D is to F as A is to B.Cor Therefore. and D and F are square.25 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic .27 Previous: VIII. This proposition is used in propositions IX.E.Proposition 26 Similar plane numbers have to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number.D. therefore one mean proportional number C falls between A and B. VIII.2.33 or VIII.2 VIII. and B Then the extremes of them D and F are square. therefore A has to B the ratio which a square number has to a square number. the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with A. Since A and B are similar plane numbers. Q.

E.Joyce Clark University .© 1996 D.

This proposition is analogous to the previous proposition about similar plane numbers. . Take E. and H. F. Therefore. and equal with them in multitude. the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with A. E and H.D. And E is to H as A is to B. Let A and B be similar solid numbers. D.2.Cor. G. I say that A has to B the ratio which cubic number has to cubic number. C.2 VIII. similar solid numbers have to one another the ratio which a cubic number has to a cubic number.33 or VIII.19 VII. VIII. Therefore the extremes of them. and B.Proposition 27 Similar solid numbers have to one another the ratio which a cubic number has to a cubic number. therefore A also has to B the ratio which a cubic number has to a cubic number. Since A and B are similar solid numbers. are cubes. therefore two mean proportional numbers C and D fall between A and B. Q.E.

Joyce Clark University .E.26 Book VIII introduction Select from Book VIII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Next book: Book IX Previous proposition: VIII.

and he never calls them lines. In the diagram above. But their nature is irrelevant. These first two definitions are not very constructive towards a theory of numbers. Chrysippus (280–207). But. Throughout these three books on number theory Euclid exhibits numbers as lines. a Stoic philosopher. Some won't be used until Books VIII or IX. claimed that 1 is a number. Euclid could illustrate the unit as a line or as any other magnitude. just because he draws them as lines does not mean they are lines. A unit is that by virtue of which each of the things that exist is called one. and numbers would then be illustrated as multiples of that unit. and definition 1 is meant to define the unit as 1. The most important of Peano's axioms is the principle of mathematical . and so forth. 3. 1. These 23 definitions at the beginning of Book VII are the definitions for all three books VII through IX on number theory. Def. Peano's axioms for numbers are the best known. but his pronouncement was not accepted for some time. if A is the unit. A number is a multitude composed of units. 2. in particular. It is not clear what the nature of these numbers is supposed to be. separately from numbers. mathematicians did not develop foundations for number theory until the late nineteenth century. 2." derived directly from the Greek." Euclid treats the unit. This makes his proofs awkward in some cases. the unit is not divisible into smaller numbers. There is a major distinction between lines and numbers. then BE is the number 3. Euclid has no postulates to elaborate the concept of number (other than the Common Notions which are meant to apply to numbers as well as magnitudes of various kinds). but numbers are not. The numbers in definition 2 are meant to be whole positive numbers greater than 1. The word "monad. Indeed. is sometimes used instead of "unit.Definitions 1 and 2 Def. Lines are infinitely divisible. 1.

that any decreasing sequence of numbers is finite. 3. That property is known variously as the "well-ordering principle" for numbers and the "descending chain condition. Euclid does not use the principle of mathematical induction.induction which states that 1. but he does implicitly use a similar property of numbers. if a property of numbers holds for 1.E.3-5 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1997. 2003 D." We will discuss it later in more detail. 2. and whenever property holds for n then it also holds for n + 1. namely. Next definitions: VII.Joyce Clark University . then the property holds for all numbers.

Def.Def. To illustrate VII. . DE. A number is a part of a number. the third multiple of 2. For an example. But parts when it does not measure it.4 is less clear.Def. We can also use the same figure as an illustration of VII. Def. namely.Def. when it measures the greater. In all three of these definitions. at least part of the intent is evident. then 2 is represented as AB while 6 is represented by CF. Definition VII. The number 4 does not measure the number 6. the concept of "measures" is assumed to be understood. but its intent can be read from the use to which it's put in VII. take 2. the possible relations between a pair of numbers.Definitions 3 through 5 Def. In the current definitions.20 for proportions of numbers. which is a part of 6. but it is parts of 6. though. are classified.20. 5. in particular.3. The greater number is a multiple of the less when it is measured by the less.Def. 4. m and n. and DF. the term "ratio" will be used for this relation. Later in Book VII. namely.Def.5 to see that 6 is a multiple of 2. 3. There is more to these definitions than meets the eye. If u is the unit. As AB measures CF three times by CD. the less of the greater. therefore 2 is a part of 6. the one-third part since it measures 6 three times. the one-third part of 6. consider the numbers 4 and 6. These definitions are in preparation for the definition of proportion of numbers given in VII.

Def. the proper divisors of the number 12 are 1.6-10 Previous: VII. Next definitions: VII.Def. just the knowledge that "4 is parts of 6" is not enough. Clearly.Here. the proposition VII. 2002 D. This will be needed to define a proportion such as 4:6 = 6:9. one number being parts of another also carries along with it how many of what parts. Yet.Joyce Clark University . 3. and 6. A divisor of n is any whole number m (including 1) that divides n in the sense that there is another number k such that mk = n. Thus. For example.Def. namely m consists of m one-nth parts of n.E. Divisors Where Euclid would say that m is a part of n. A proper divisor of n is any divisor except n itself. 4 is represented as AC while 6 is represented as DG. AC does not measure DG. There is one more difficulty with this definition. 4. That proportion is supposed to hold since 4 is the same parts of 6 as 6 is of 9.4 has a proof to show that m is either a part or parts of n. then in all cases m would be parts of n. modern mathematicians would say that m is a proper divisor of n. namely 2 third parts.4. It seems obvious that when one number m is less than another n. 2.1-2 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1997. what is also needed is how many parts of 6 is 4. The way this definition is used in VII.

10. a product of an even and an odd number is an even-times odd number. 7. a principle that any decreasing sequence of numbers is finite. An odd number is that which is not divisible into two equal parts. 8. Suppose we say a "decade number" is one divisible by 10. Definition 6 for "even number" is clear: the number n is even if it is of the form m + m. Def. and and "undecade number' is one not divisible by 10. 6. It could be proved using. Def.22 and several propositions that follow it. the number 13.Euclid's Elements Book VII Definitions 6 through 10 Def. The numbers which are even-times even but not even-times odd are just the powers of 2: 4. An even-times even number is that which is measured by an even number according to an even number. 9. a number which is not divisible into two equal parts. The unproved statement that a number differing from an even number by 1 is an odd number ought to be proved. An even-times odd number is that which is measured by an even number according to an odd number. Def. That statment is used in proposition IX. for instance. It is easy to recognize that something has to be proved. Def. say 10. The first can be taken as a definition of odd number. A product of two even numbers is an even-times even number. An odd-times odd number is that which is measured by an odd number according to an odd number. then analogous statement is false. but an unproved statement. Note that a number like 12 is both even-times even and eventimes odd being at the same time 2 times 6 and 4 times 3. Definitions 8-10 are also clear. 8. . for instance. An even number is that which is divisible into two equal parts. since one has already been given. 16. is not within 1 of a decade number. or that which differs by a unit from an even number. that is to say not an even number. Then it is not the case that an undecade number differs by a unit from a decade number. The other statement is not a definition for odd number. and a product of of two odd numbers is an odd-times odd number. Definition 7 for "odd number" has two statements. since if we make the analogous definitions for another number.

D. and they occur in proposition IX. 2002.Def.11-14 Previous: VII.3-5 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1997.32. These are the numbers which are even-times even only. etc.32.Def. Next definitions: VII.E.Joyce Clark University .

Numbers are relatively prime if their only common divisor is 1.Def.6-10 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1997 . of course. 11. The first few prime numbers are. Those numbers that aren't prime are composite. 14.Definitions 11 through 14 Def.15-19 Previous: VII. and much of number theory is devoted to their analysis. since it has a reciprocal. For Euclid. Def. 5. 3. 9. A composite number is that which is measured by some number. The only proper divisor of a prime number is 1. 4. If the numbers aren't relatively prime. it was the unit rather than a number. 10. Def. For example. Prime numbers form a very important class of numbers. 7." For another example. 12. Def. A prime number is that which is measured by a unit alone. Numbers relatively composite are those which are measured by some number as a common measure. This situation is also phrased as "6 is prime to 35. 6. but in a different sense of the word. itself. 6 and 35 are relatively prime (although neither is a prime number in itself). 10. Next definitions: VII. 2. For modern mathematicians 1 is also a unit. 11. and 15 are relatively prime since no number (except 1) divides all three. the three numbers 6. then they're called "relatively composite.Def. for instance. 13. 8. Numbers relatively prime are those which are measured by a unit alone as a common measure. namely. The number 1 holds a special position." a term rarely used now.

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if 3 is multiplied by 6. But multiplication and proportion are defined. Figurate numbers . Def. the number so produced be called solid. For instance. 16. 15. then since 6 is 1+1+1+1+1+1. Def. when three numbers having multiplied one another make some number. Those operations are assumed to be understood. and its sides are the numbers which have multiplied one another. 18.16 which says multiplication is commutative. And. The first proposition on multiplication is VII. A square number is equal multiplied by equal. Def.Def. And. which is 6+6+6. A number is said to multiply a number when that which is multiplied is added to itself as many times as there are units in the other. and proportion is defined next in VII.20. For our example. 17. Def. Notice that Euclid doesn't define addition and subtraction. Definition 15 defines multiplication in terms of addition as a kind of composition. or a number which is contained by two equal numbers. and its sides are the numbers which have multiplied one another. And a cube is equal multiplied by equal and again by equal. that would say 3 multiplied by 6 equals 6 multiplied by 3. or a number which is contained by three equal numbers. the number so produced be called plane. 19.Definitions 15 through 19 Def. 3 multiplied by 6 is 3+3+3+3+3+3. therefore. when two numbers having multiplied one another make some number.

such as triangular numbers.Def. Plane numbers are the composite numbers. Definitions 16 through 19 deal with figurate numbers. Perhaps for the Pythagoreans. etc. Euclid does give the sum of a geometric progression. Definition 18 defines solid numbers. Euclid doesn't mention triangular numbers. they displayed numbers as figures. Plane numbers can be displayed as rectangular configurations of dots. For instance. But most of the other figurate numbers. not a number. the most important figures were the triangular numbers: 3. as a square number. Alternatively. 16 can be viewed as a plane number either with sides 2 and 8 or with sides 4 and 4. Of course.Joyce Clark University . especially 10. So. that is. 3. that is. so a prime number is not a plane number. but most in more than one way.Although Euclid never displays numbers except as lines. 10 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4. could only easily be displayed by dots. Remember that for Euclid. such as 64. Each composite number can be a plane number in at least one way. Solid numbers can be represented as a configuration of dots or cubes in three dimensions. the Pythagoreans before him evidently did. Squares and cubes are are described as certain symmetric plane and solid numbers. even though it is a product of 1 and itself. squares.35. and so forth. 15. For some reason. Next definitions: VII. For example. that is. 6. 21. for instance. in proposition IX. some numbers. a continued proportion. then it is given as a solid number with three sides 3.11-14 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1997 D. The figures were in various shapes. Each could be formed from the previous by adding a new row one unit longer. 1 is the unit. such as triangles. and 2.20 Previous: VII. these "rectangular numbers" can be displayed as a configuration of squares. Indeed.E. if 18 is presented as 3 times 3 times 2. can be simultaneously squares and cubes. a subject of interest in many ancient cultures. but without the figures.Def. he doesn't address sums of arithmetic progressions at all. Euclid defines a plane number as a number which is the product of two numbers.

5. inverse . alternate ratios. j is the same multiple of k as m is of n. these cases could be merged into one by considering 1 to be a number and not distinguishing when the first is greater or less than the second. namely 3 parts of 4. See the Guide to V.Definition 20 Def. triplicate ratios.3 through VII.6 for part.Def. as 16:12 = 28:21.Def. Actually. and multiple. for instance. but they can be understood by their use. there is a proportion as defined in this definition. and 11 is one half of 22. the proportion holds. Since the first is the same parts of the second. parts. For an example of the third case. it cannot adequately define proportionality for magnitudes. This definition VII.Def. Of course. where 12 is twice 6 and 22 is twice 11. The second case is inverse to the first. k. we'll write that symbolically as j:k = m:n. as the the third is of the fourth. and other compounded ratios appear. When four numbers. of the second that the third is of the fourth. This definition for numbers was probably the earlier one. or the same part.20 is given by cases. Definition V.Def. where 6 is one half of 12. there should be a fourth case (inverse to the third case) when the second is the same parts of the first as the fourth is of the third. An example of this is the proportion 12:6 = 22:11. Numbers are proportional when the first is the same multiple. Definitions for these concepts are not explicitly given. Various other definitions that go along with ratios and proportions were given in Book V.Def. consider 12:16 = 21:28. In the first case. but as not all magnitudes are commensurable. j. 20. that is. but once the concept of proportion has been defined. The various cases correspond to defintions VII. and n.9-10. are proportional.14. duplicate ratios.20 for proportionality of numbers is not the same as the definition of proportionality for magnitudes in Book V given in V. they have the same defintion given in Book V for duplicate and triplicate ratio in V. For an example take the proportion 6:12 = 22:11. it appears frequently beginning in proposition VII. Ratios of numbers Although the word "ratio" doesn't appear in this definition. m. Compound ratios aren't defined in Book V. In book VII ratio is restricted to the use of saying when one ratio is the same as another. In Book VIII.3. j is the same part of k as m is of n. or the same parts.

21 Previous: VII.ratios. taken separately.E.10 are in preparation for the study of numeric proportions.15-19 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1997. but all the propositions from VII.Def.11.4 through VII. taken jointly.Joyce Clark University . That these are valid for proportions of numbers could be verified individually or by showing that the two definitions of proportion are equivalent for numbers. and ex aequali. 2002 D.Def. Very soon in these books on number theory Euclid begins to rely on properties of proportion proved in Book V using the other definition of proportion. Next definition: VII. These definitions are also not repeated here in Book VII. Use of this defintion Proportions of numbers first appear in proposition VII.

respectively. Similar plane and solid numbers are those which have their sides proportional.Def.E. The numbers 18 and 8 are similar plane numbers.18 shows that the ratio of two similar plane numbers is the duplicate ratio of the corresponding sides. then the sides are proportional. When 18 is interpreted as a plane number with sides 6 and 3. consider the two numbers 240 and 810 when represented as 4 times 6 times 10 and 6 times 9 times 15.Definition 21 Def. In this example. the ratio 240:810 is triplicate of the ratio 4:6.Joyce Clark University .Def. Proposition VIII.19 shows that the ratio of two similar solid numbers is the triplicate ratio of the corresponding sides. and 8 has sides 4 and 2. 21. Proposition VIII.22 Previous: VII. Next definition: VII.20 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 2002 D. To illustrate similar solid numbers. In this example. the ratio 18:8 is duplicate of the ratio 6:4.

Def. illustrated here for the divisors of 496. They are 6. and 8128. The question of odd perfect numbers was not solved by Euclid.36 Euclid gives a construction of even perfect numbers.Definition 22 A perfect number is that which is equal to the sum of its own parts. Probably the oldest open conjecture in mathematics is that there are no ood perfect numbers. Next proposition: VII. except the last. but it is known that if there is an odd perfect number. 1 31 2 62 4 124 8 248 16 (496) The first column lists powers of 2 from 20 up through 24. 7. the number 28 is perfect because its parts (that is. 4. 2. In such a tableau. 28. In proposition IX. will equal the last. The sum of these powers of 2 is 31. and 14 sum to 28. That number 31 appears at the top of the second column. The divisors of these even perfect numbers can be listed in two columns. and its repeated doubles up through 496 appear on the second column. proper divisors) 1. which is one less than 25. The four smallest perfect numbers were known to the ancient Greek mathematicians. For example. There is no proof yet. then it has to be immensely huge. 496.21 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic . the sum of all the numbers.1 Previous: VII.

E. 2002 D.Joyce Clark University .© 1997.

that a unit alone measures AB and CD. But it also measures the whole FA. therefore E also measures FH. though it is a number. let AF. therefore it measures the remainder. VII. and CD measures BF.12 Since. then the original numbers are relatively prime. then some number E measures them. The less of two unequal numbers AB and CD being continually subtracted from the greater. which is impossible. and the less is continually subtracted in turn from the greater. E measures CD. let the number which is left never measure the one before it until a unit is left. then. But it also measures the whole BA. I say that AB and CD are relatively prime. Let CD. VII. leave FA less than itself. leave GC less than itself. if the number which is left never measures the one before it until a unit is left. leave a unit HA. . that is. Therefore no number measures the numbers AB and CD. therefore it also measures the remainder CG. then the original numbers are relatively prime. measuring DG.Proposition 1 When two unequal numbers are set out. measuring FH. But CG measures FH. measuring BF. therefore it measures the remainder AF. But AF measures DG. therefore E also measures DG. when two unequal numbers are set out.Def. and the less is continually subtracted in turn from the greater. the unit AH. therefore E also measures BF. and let GC. Therefore AB and CD are relatively prime. If AB and CD are not relatively prime. if the number which is left never measures the one before it until a unit is left.Def.12 Therefore. But it also measures the whole DC.

The proof is not difficult. Beginning with two numbers.d. also called the Euclidean algorithm. a somewhat analogous statement about magnitudes. Therefore a1 and a2 are relatively prime. then b divides their difference c . So. if some number b divides both a1 and a2. the smaller. Since there is no number b (and by "number" is meant a number greater than 1) which divides 1. measures) both c and d. If the initial two numbers are a1 (AB in the proof) and a2 (CD). Compare this proposition to X. For the hypotheses of this proposition." and the notation a | b is used to abbreviate the phrase "a divides b. there is no number that divides both a1 and a2. the algorithm stops when a remainder of 1 occurs: an-1 = mn-1 an + 1. with the final conclusion that b divides the last remainder 1. Modern terminology uses the word "divides" rather than "measures. whichever it is.Q.2. And since it divides both a2 and a3. it divides the remainder a4. is a kind of reciprocal subtraction. That can be stated algebraically as a1 = m1 a2 + a3 where m1 is the number of times that a2 was subtracted from a1. The next stage repeatedly subtracts a3 from a2 leaving a remainder a4 (CG): a2 = m2 a3 + a4. with a1 greater than a2.) The conclusion is that a1 and a2 are relatively prime.D." This proposition assumes that 1 is the result of an antenaresis process. It depends on the observation that if b divides (that is. is repeatedly subtracted from the larger. Antenaresis. (In Euclid's proof.E. This proposition is used in the proof of the next one. an is a5 which is AH. then it divides the remainder a3. And so forth. . too. then the first stage is to repeatedly subtract a2 from a1 until a remainder a3 (AF) less than a2 is found.

Def.Next proposition: VII.Joyce Clark University .E.22 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.2 Previous: VII.

therefore CF measures AB and CD. But it also measures CD. CF measures AE. which is contrary to the hypothesis. since it also measures itself. then CD is a common measure of CD and AB. Let AB and CD be the two given numbers not relatively prime. measuring DF. Since then. And it also measures EA. some number is left which measures the one before it. Therefore CF is a common measure of AB and CD. let EA. VII. therefore CF also measures DF. leave EA less than itself. therefore it also measures the whole CD. But it measures itself. therefore it measures the whole BA. if CD does not measure AB. measuring BE. If now CD measures AB. Therefore some number is left which measures the one before it. And it is manifest that it is also the greatest. leave FC less than itself. and AE measures DF. otherwise AB and CD would be relatively prime.Proposition 2 To find the greatest common measure of two given numbers not relatively prime.12 VII. It is required to find the greatest common measure of AB and CD. But CD measures BE. for no greater number than CD measures CD. For a unit is not left. therefore CF also measures BE.1 . then. and let CF measure AE. But.Def. Now let CD. when the less of the numbers AB and CD being continually subtracted from the greater.

Therefore no number which is greater than CF measures the numbers AB and CD.1 except that the final remainder an+1. therefore it measures the remainder AE. Euclid again uses antenaresis (the Euclidean algorithm) in this proposition. therefore G also measures DF. We've found GCD(884. if a number measures two numbers. But it also measures the whole BA. n). is not 1. which is greater than CF. It's usually denoted GCD(m. then some number G. The stages of the algorithm are the same as in VII. Therefore CF is the greatest common measure of AB and CD. Repeatedly subtract 170 from 357 to get the remainder 17. which divides the previous number an. Repeatedly subtract 357 from 884 to get the remainder 170. he could have merged these two propositions into one.I say next that it is also the greatest. the remainder is 357. from the larger until the smaller divides the larger. Now. Finally. The two numbers under our consideration are now 884 and 357. antenaresis The greatest common divisor of two numbers m and n is the largest number which divides both. But AE measures DF. which is impossible. And it measures the whole DC. measures the numbers AB and CD. therefore it also measures the remainder CF. you'll get the same remainder. As an illustration consider the problem of computing the greatest common divisor of 884 and 3009. If CF is not the greatest common measure of AB and CD. repeatedly subtract 884 from 3009 until the remainder is less than 884. since G measures CD. and CD measures BE. An equivalent numerical operation is to divide 884 into 3009. whichever it happens to be at the time.3009) equals 17. Corollary From this it is manifest that. that is. Had Euclid considered the unit (1) to be a number. therefore G also measures BE. this time to find the greatest common divisor of two numbers that aren't relatively prime. The Euclidean algorithm. the greater measures the less. stop since 17 divides 170. First. then it also measures their greatest common measure. a1 = m1 a2 + a3 . In this case after subtracting 884 three times. It can be found by antenaresis by repeatedly subtracting the smaller.

There needs to be an explicit axiom to cover these situations.. Therefore an+1 is a common divisor of a2 and a1. The existance of such models implies an axiom is needed to exclude such behavior. he assumes that if m < n..4). nonstandard models of number theory which satisfy the usual properties of numbers. but he didn't recognize its importance for numbers. a2 is CD. Foundations of number theory Euclid makes many implicit assumptions about numbers. Note how similar this proposition is to X. One such axiom is a descending chain condition which states that there is no infinite decreasing sequence of numbers a1 > a2 > . then m can be repeatedly subtracted from n until there is eventually a remainder less than or equal to m.. even having the same diagram and the same corollary. (In Euclid's proof a1 is AB. . Euclid shows that if any number d divides both a2 and a1. there are numbers than can be decreased by 1 infinitely many times but not ever reach 1. The last part of the proof also shows that every common divisor divides the greatest common divisor as noted in the corollary. In such models. For instance. Use of this proposition This proposition and its corollary are used in the next two propositions. a3 is AE.3.. There are.. .. There is a similar assumption that the process of antenaresis eventually reaches an end when applied to numbers.. in fact. The terminology is slightly different and X. . and a4 = an+1 is CF. He seems to have recognized that magnitudes need not have this property since the property is used as a qualifier in the definition of ratios (V.. and a1. an-1 = mn-1 an + an+1. . Therefore an+1 is the greatest common divisor.3 deals with magnitudes rather than numbers. Euclid certainly knew it needn't halt for magnitudes since its halting is used as a criterion for incommensurability (X. Euclid shows that since an+1 divides an. but do not have this property.. and an+1. . then it also divides a3.2). it also divides an-1. a2.) In the first part of the proof. an..Def. In the last part of the proof. > an > .a2 = m2 a3 + a4 .

Next proposition: VII.1 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996.E.Joyce Clark University . 2002 D.3 Previous: VII.

If D is not the greatest common measure of A. of the two numbers A and B. B. B. B. Therefore it also measures the greatest common measure of A and B. Take the greatest common measure. and C. let D not measure C. let it measure it. Now that which measures A. greater than D. Therefore D and C are not relatively prime. B. and C. First. Since A. B. therefore it measures A and B. Next. But the greatest common measure of A and B is D. and C. therefore D measures A. and C. and therefore measures D. therefore some number measures the numbers D and C. measures the numbers A.Proposition 3 To find the greatest common measure of three given numbers not relatively prime. But it measures C also. B. B.2 . Therefore D is the greatest common measure of A.2 VII. and C be the three given numbers not relatively prime. VII. Then either D measures. Let A. B. the greatest common measure of A and B.Cor.2. C. Therefore D is a common measure of A. and C. But it measures A and B also.2. and C. Therefore no number which is greater than D measures the numbers A. the greater the less. therefore E measures D. and C also measures A and B. D.Cor. B. Take their greatest common measure E. I say that it is also the greatest. VII. VII. B. then some number E. which is impossible. therefore some number measures them. and C are not relatively prime. or does not measure. B. It is required to find the greatest common measure of A. Since then E measures A. and C. I say first that C and D are not relatively prime. and C.

b). that is f | e. since E measures D. since F measures A. and c. therefore F measures E. But the greatest common measure of D and C is E. b). therefore E also measures A and B. let f be any common divisor of a. that is. in fact. The proof that this construction works is simplified if 1 is considered to be a number. This proposition is used in VII. But the greatest common measure of A and B is D.2. therefore F measures D and C. This is the same proposition as X. b. Therefore it also measures the greatest common measure of D and C. and C. c) as GCD(GCD(a. B. Q. b). f | d.Cor. Therefore E is a common measure of A. c). Also. which is impossible. In order to show that e is the greatest common divisor. . Now. and C. therefore f | GCD(d.2. greater than E. and let e = GCD(d. two numbers are relatively prime when their GCD is 1. and c. If E is not the greatest common measure of A.Cor. b). Therefore e is the greatest common divisor of a. therefore F measures D. I say next that it is also the greatest. therefore E measures A. B. therefore f | GCD(a. measures the numbers A. B.D. This proposition constructs the GCD(a. B.4. B. VII. Therefore no number which is greater than E measures the numbers A. c). B. so e. therefore it measures the greatest common measure of A and B. Since e | d. the notation a | b is typically used to indicate that a divides b.D. and C. the greater the less. Therefore E is the greatest common measure of A. b. and d | b. it follows that e | a and e | b. is a common divisor of a. and C. But it measures C also. B. A common modern notation for the greatest common divisor of two numbers a and b is GCD(a. b.Then. c). b. and D measures A and B.E. Let d = GCD(a. d | a. and C. it also measures A and B.33. as f | d and f | c. and C. then some number F. Also. Then as f | a and f | b. VII. Then.E. And it measures C also. Q. and Euclid's first case in the proof is subsumed in the second. and c. and C.

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I say that BC is either a part. then in all cases b would be parts of a. the proof will find that 4 is 2 third parts of 6. then each unit of those in BC is some part of A. Now if BC measures A. namely. But. and FC. of A. namely BE. or b is parts of a. and divide BC into the numbers equal to D. therefore each of the numbers BE.E. EF. In the case of 4 and 6. one third part. any number is either a part or parts of any number. so that BC is parts of A. EF. For instance.2 VII. except in the special case when b and a are relatively prime. A. b is a unit fraction of a. and let BC be the less. it appears . Thus. that is. Next let A and BC not be relatively prime. Therefore. since D measures A. then b is either a part of a. the less of the greater. 4 consists of 4 sixth parts of 6.4 This proposition says that if b is a smaller number than a. then BC either measures. take the greatest common measure D of A and BC. namely b consists of b of the ath parts of a. 2 third parts of 6. if not. Either A and BC are relatively prime or they are not. 2 is one part of 6.3 VII. It seems obvious that when one number b is less than another a. Let A and BC be two numbers. EF. Yet. namely. a proper fraction.D. or does not measure. and FC. For instance. Now. if BC is divided into the units in it. then BC is a part of A. First. Q. therefore D is a part of A. the less of the greater. so that BC is parts of A.Proposition 4 Any number is either a part or parts of any number.Def.Def. Then. of a. and FC is also a part of A. but 4 is parts of 6. VII. But D equals each of the numbers BE. but not a unit fraction. the proof of this proposition ignores that possibility. or parts. that is. let A and BC be relatively prime.

Therefore. 2. then b is one part of a.E.Joyce Clark University . and b does not divide a.5 Previous: VII. If b and a are relatively prime.20. 1. say c parts. then b consists of b of the ath parts of a. Otherwise they're not relatively prime. Let d be their greatest common divisor. But these parts also also parts of a. If b divides a. 3. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in VII.that a satisfactory answer to the question "How mary parts of a is b?" requires finding the least number of parts.3 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996. each part equal to d. Next proposition: VII. The proof has three cases. b consists of c parts of a. 2002 D. Then b consists of some number.

namely EH and HF. and another is the same part of another. and EH equals D. this says b/n + e/n = (b + e)/n. Use of this proposition . then the sum is also the same part of the sum that the one is of the one. and another is the same part of another. whatever part A is of BC. since BG equals A. Therefore. Therefore. I say that the sum of A and D is also the same part of the sum of BC and EF that A is of BC. And. then the sum is also the same part of the sum that the one is of the one. there are as many numbers equal to D in EF as there are in BC equal to A. For the same reason the sum of GC and HF also equals the sum of A and D. therefore the sum of BG and EH also equals the sum of A and D. the sum of BC and EF is the same multiple of the sum of A and D that BC is of A. Therefore there are as many numbers in BC and EF equal to A and D as there are in BC equal to A. namely BG and GC. This one says division distributes over addition. and another number D be the same part of another number EF that A is of BC. if a number is part of a number.D.E. therefore. and EF into the numbers equal to D. Algebraically. Therefore. Divide BC into the numbers equal to A. then a + d = (b + e)/n.Proposition 5 If a number is part of a number. the sum of A and D is the same part of the sum of BC and EF that A is of BC. D is also the same part of EF. This is the first of four propositions that deal with distributivity of division and multiplication over addition and subtraction. Then the multitude of BG and GC equals the multitude of EH and HF. if a = b/n and d = e/n. Let the number A be a part of BC. Since. As a single equation. Q.

Next proposition: VII.This proposition is used in the proofs of five of the next seven propositions.6 Previous: VII.4 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .E.

For the same reason. and HE.5 This proposition says multiplication by fractions distributes over addition. therefore the sum of AG and DH is the same part of the sum of C and F that AG is of C. Since there are as many parts of DE in F as there are parts AB is of C. Therefore.Proposition 6 If a number is parts of a number. then the sum is also the same parts of the sum that the one is of the one. and another number DE be the same parts of another number F that AB is of C. Algebraically. I say that the sum of AB and DE is also the same parts of the sum of C and F that AB is of C. and another is the same parts of another. namely DH. VII. and another is the same parts of another. Then the multitude of AG and GB equals the multitude of DH and HE.E. Q. Therefore the sum of AB and DE is the same parts of the sum of C and F that AB is of C. if a number is parts of a number. namely AG and GB. this says (m/n)b + (m/n)e = (m/n)(b + e). As an equation.9. if a = (m/n)b and d = (m/n)e then a + d = (m/n)(b + e).D. Use of this propositionVII. then the sum is also the same parts of the sum that the one is of the one. And since DH is the same part of F that AG is of C. Divide AB into the parts of C. the sum of GB and HE is the same parts of the sum of C and F that GB is of C. . and divide DE into the parts of F. therefore there are as many parts of F in DE as there are parts of C in AB. Let the number AB be parts of the number C.

5 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Next proposition: VII.Joyce Clark University .7 Previous: VII.E.

This proposition is used in the next proposition and in VII. Then the remainder GC equals the remainder FD. Let EB be the same part of CG that AE is of CF. if a number is that part of a number which a subtracted number is of a subtracted number. therefore AB is the same part of VII. I say that the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder FD that the whole AB is of the whole CD.5 GF that AE is of CF. then a .E.D. Let the number AB be that part of the number CD which AE subtracted is of CF subtracted.5 except it deals with subtraction instead of addition.d = (b . therefore the remainder EB is the same part of the remainder FD that the whole AB is of the whole CD.e)/n. and GC equals FD. Now since EB is the same part of GC that AE is of CF. then the remainder is also the same part of the remainder that the whole is of the whole. then the remainder is also the same part of the remainder that the whole is of the whole. . therefore AB is the same part of CD that it is of GF. It says division distributes over subtraction.11. Therefore GF equals CD.Proposition 7 If a number is that part of a number which a subtracted number is of a subtracted number. But AB is the same part of CD that AE is of CF. if a = b/n and d = e/n. therefore EB is the same part of FD that AE is of CF. by hypothesis. Therefore. Now since EB is the same part of CG that AE is of CF. AB is the same part of CD that AE is of CF. But. This proposition is like VII. Subtract CF from each. Algebraically. Q.

Next proposition: VII.Joyce Clark University .6 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.8 Previous: VII.

therefore HK is also greater than EL. namely GK and KH. Therefore the remainder NH is the same part of the remainder FD that the whole KH is of the whole CD. and CD is greater than CF. Now since AL is the same part of CF that GK is of CD. Let the number AB be the same parts of the number CD that AE subtracted is of CF subtracted. Make GM equal to AL. therefore GK is also greater than AL. Therefore AE is the same parts of CF that GH is of CD.7 VII. since EL is the same part of CF that KH is of CD. Again. VII. I say that the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder FD that the whole AB is of the whole CD. Make KN equal to EL. and CD is greater than CF. Then GK is the same part of CD that GM is of CF. Then the multitude of GK and KH equals the multitude of AL and LE. Therefore the remainder MK is the same part of the remainder FD that the whole GK is of the whole CD.7 . Make GH equal to AB. Therefore KN is the same part of CF that KH is of CD. Divide GH into the parts of CD. namely AL and LE. then the remainder is also the same parts of the remainder that the whole is of the whole.Proposition 8 If a number is the same parts of a number that a subtracted number is of a subtracted number. and divide AE into the parts of CF.

D.9 Previous: VII. if a number is the same parts of a number that a subtracted number is of a subtracted number. and HG equals BA. Next proposition: VII. Q. then the remainder is also the same parts of the remainder that the whole is of the whole. Therefore. This proposition says multiplication by fractions distributes over subtraction.11. if a = (m/n)b and d = (m/n)e.E.7 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.But the remainder MK was proved to be the same part of the remainder FD that the whole GK is of the whole CD.E. then a + d = (m/n)(b + e). Algebraically.Joyce Clark University . This proposition is used in VII. But the sum of MK and NH equals EB. therefore the sum of MK and NH is the same parts of DF that the whole HG is of the whole CD. therefore the remainder EB is the same parts of the remainder FD that the whole AB is of the whole CD. The sample value taken for m/n in the proof is 2/3.

and another is the same part of another. Then the multitude of BG and GC equals the multitude of EH and HF. therefore GC is the same part or parts of HF that BG is of EH. whatever part of parts the first is of the third. while the multitude of BG and GC equals the multitude of EH and HF. the same part. or the same parts. BC is the same part or parts of EF that A is of D.6 Therefore. then alternately. In this proposition. whatever part of parts the first is of the third. Euclid shows that if a = b/n.5 VII. or the same parts. then alternately. the same part. the second is of the fourth.D. Divide BC into the numbers equal to A. Now. and another is the same part of another. Since D is the same part of EF that A is of BC. VII. I say that. and if a = (m/n)d. if a number is a part of a number. therefore there are as many numbers BC equal to A as there are also in EF equal to D. therefore BC is the same part or parts of EF that A is of D. Let the number A be a part of the number BC.E. the second is of the fourth. so that. in addition. . and d = e/n. The sample value taken for 1/n in the proof is 1/2. since the numbers BG and GC equal one another. namely BG and GC. namely EH and HF. alternately. then b = (m/n)e. and the numbers EH and HF also equal one another. and and another number D be the same part of another number EF that A is of BC. and EH equals D. the sum BC is the same part or parts of the sum EF that BG is of EH. But BG equals A. and divide EF into those equal to D.Proposition 9 If a number is a part of a number. Q.

Joyce Clark University .E. This proposition is used in the proof of the next. Next proposition: VII.15 can be construed as a special case of this one.10 Previous: VII.Proposition VII.8 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

then b = (p/q)e. therefore. so that.5 VII. then alternately. and d = (m/n)e. whatever part of parts the first is of the third. and divide DE into the parts of F. namely DH and HE. therefore F is the same parts of DE as C is of AB.9 VII. Divide AB into the parts of C. and another number DE be the same parts of another number F.Proposition 10 If a number is parts of a number. VII. Since DE is the same parts of F as AB is of C.D. Now since DH is the same part of F as AG is of C. the same part. Q. alternately. whatever part of parts the first is of the third. the second is of the fourth. C is the same part or the same parts of F as AG is of DH. and another is the same parts of another. . then alternately. alternately. For the same reason. I say that. C is the same part or the same parts of F as GB is of HE. and if a = (p/q)d. the second is of the fourth. in addition. and another is the same parts of another. namely AG and GB.6 Therefore. In this proposition. or the same parts. the same part. Then the multitude of AG and GB equals the multitude of DH and HE. The sample value taken for m/n in the proof is 2/3. Let the number AB be parts of the number C. C is the same part or the same parts of F as AB is of DE.E. C is the same parts or part of F that AB is of DE. or the same parts. Euclid shows that if a = (m/n)b. if a number is parts of a number.9 VII.

E.Joyce Clark University .9 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Use of this proposition This proposition is used in VII.11 Previous: VII. Next proposition: VII.13.

Algebraically. Therefore the remainder EB is the same part or parts of FD that AB is of CD. when AB is a part or parts of CD.35. Let the whole AB be to the whole CD as AE subtracted is to CF subtracted. . VII. Q. then the remainder is to the remainder as the whole is to the whole.8 Therefore EB is to FD as AB is to CD. I say that the remainder EB is to the remainder FD as the whole AB is to the whole CD. This proposition is used in IX. then the remainder is to the remainder as the whole is to the whole.E. if a:c = e:f. if a whole is to a whole as a subtracted number is to a subtracted number.19 for general magnitudes. This proposition is the numerical analogue of proposition V.Proposition 11 If a whole is to a whole as a subtracted number is to a subtracted number. VII. when CD is a part or parts of AB.20 VII.Def. then a – e:c – f = a:c. therefore AE is the same part or parts of CF as AB is of CD. and leaves out the other two.7 VII.Def. Since AB is to CD as AE is to CF.20 Therefore.D. Note that Euclid only deals with two cases.

Next proposition: VII.12 Previous: VII.E.Joyce Clark University .10 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

+ xn) : (y1 + y2 + .. and D be as many numbers as we please in proportion. If x1:y1 = x2:y2 = ..Def.6 Therefore A is to B as the sum of A and C is to the sum of B and D.D. if any number of numbers are proportional. .. then one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the consequents. This proposition is the numerical analogue of V. Since A is to B as C is to D.Proposition 12 If any number of numbers are proportional.E. = xn:yn. so that A is to B as C is to D. Algebraically. VII. B. then one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the consequents. + yn).12. VII. C. Let A. Euclid takes n to be 2 in his proof.5 VII. therefore A is the same part or parts of B as C is of D. Therefore the sum of A and C is the same part or parts of the sum of B and D that A is of B..20 VII. I say that A is to B as the sum of A and C is to the sum of B and D.20 Therefore. then each of these ratios also equals the ratio (x1 + x2 + .. Q.Def..

E.11 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D. VII.35.15 . Next proposition: VII. and IX.20.This proposition is used in VII.Joyce Clark University .13 Previous: VII.

16 for magnitudes. then they are also proportional alternately. C. and D be proportional. VII. if four numbers are proportional. Let the four numbers A.12 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic .Def.10 Therefore A is to C as B is to D. Next proposition: VII. so that A is to C as B is to D. A is the same part or parts of C as B is of D. so that A is to B as C is to D.Proposition 13 If four numbers are proportional.E.Def. Since A is to B as C is to D.D. therefore. B. This proposition is used frequently in Books VII through IX starting with the next proposition.20 Q. then they are also proportional alternately.14 Previous: VII. A is the same part or parts of B as C is of D. I say that they are also proportional alternately. It says that if a : b = c : d. VII. then a : c = b : d. This is the numerical analogue of proposition V. alternately.20 Therefore. VII. Therefore.

© 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University .

Euclid takes n to be 3 in his proof. since B is to C as E is to F. if there are any number of numbers. E. Q. and C.. But B is to E as VII.13 Again. and a simpler proof than the one given in V. which taken two and two together are in the same ratio.9 are used. Therefore.1. which taken two and two together are in the same ratio. This proposition is used occasionally in Books VIII and IX starting with VIII. . alternately A is to D as B is to E.. and others equal to them in multitude D. I say that. then they are also in the same ratio ex aequali. and xn-1:xn = yn-1:yn. The proof is straightforward.D. B. the missing analogue of proposition V. Let there be as many numbers as we please A. See.7 and V. so that A is to B as D is to E. and others equal to them in multitude.13 (V. It says that if x1:x2 = y1:y2. then x1:xn = y1:yn. VII. and F. VII.E. therefore A is to D as C is to F. Therefore. then they are also in the same ratio ex aequali. .11) A is to D. Since A is to B as D is to E. x2:x3 = y2:y3. therefore. This is the numerical analogue of V. for instance. and others equal to them in multitude. .19 where V. which taken two and two are in the same ratio. ex aequali A is to C as D is to F.11 is used: from the two proportions B : E = C : F and B : E = A : D.22 for magnitudes. Similar missing analogues of propositions from Book V are used in other proofs in book VII.Proposition 14 If there are any number of numbers. and B is to C as E is to F. alternately A is to C as D is to F. the conclusion A : D = C : F is drawn. alternately B is to E as C is to F. therefore. Note that at one point.22 for magnitudes.

13 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Next proposition: VII.E.Joyce Clark University .15 Previous: VII.

Therefore the unit A is to the number D as BC is to EF. and the numbers EK. GH. then alternately. I say that.D. And. and another number measures any other number the same number of times. GH. and the number EK equals the number D. and LF equal to D. the unit measures the third number the same number of times that the second measures the fourth. and HC equals the multitude of EK. therefore the unit BG is to the number EK as BC is to EF. since the units BG.E. Then the multitude of BG. and LF. Let the unit A measure any number BC. Therefore. then alternately. KL. and HC.12 . KL. and another number measures any other number the same number of times. But the unit BG equals the unit A. therefore there are as many numbers equal to D in EF as there are units in BC. Since the unit A measures the number BC the same number of times that D measures EF. the unit measures the number D the same number of times that BC measures EF. alternately also. if a unit number measures any number. Since one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the consequents. and HC equals the multitude of the numbers EK. Divide BC into the units in it. and as the unit HC is to the number LF. and LF. GH. therefore the unit BG is to the number EK as the unit GH is to the number KL. and LF also equal one another. Q. VII. while the multitude of the units BG. KL. GH. and divide EF into the numbers EK. and HC equal one another. and let another number D measure any other number EF the same number of times. Therefore the unit A measures the number D the same number of times that BC measures EF. KL. BG.Proposition 15 If a unit measures any number. the unit measures the third number the same number of times that the second measures the fourth.

If a number e is b times d. This proposition is used in the next proposition and a few others in Books VII and IX.14 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E. In other words. The next proposition states this commutativity more explicitly. Next proposition: VII. that is.This proposition expresses the commutativity of multiplication.9.16 Previous: VII.Joyce Clark University . 1 measures b the same number of times that b measures d. This proposition can be viewed as a special case of proposition VII. then e also is d times b. bd = db.

Again. It is used in VII. .D. Since A multiplied by B makes C.15 the same number of times that A measures C. But the unit E measures the number B the same number of times that A measures C. ab = ba. Therefore C equals D. alternately. Therefore.E. therefore A measures each of the numbers C and D the same number of times. This proposition describes the commutativity mentioned in the last proposition more explicitly. therefore the unit E measures the number B the same number of times that A measures D. Q. therefore A measures D according to the units in B. and let A multiplied by B make C. But the unit E also measures the number A according to the units in it.Proposition 16 If two numbers multiplied by one another make certain numbers. I say that C equals D. Let A and B be two numbers. if two numbers multiplied by one another make certain numbers. therefore B measures C according to the units in A. But the unit E also measures B according to the units in it. and B multiplied by A make D.18 and a few others in Book VII. then the numbers so produced equal one another. since B multiplied by A makes D. the unit E measures the number B VII. Therefore. then the numbers so produced equal one another. therefore the unit E measures A the same number of times that B measures C.

Joyce Clark University .Next proposition: VII.E.17 Previous: VII.15 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

Therefore. This proposition is used very frequently in Books VII through IX starting with the next proposition.Proposition 17 If a number multiplied by two numbers makes certain numbers. therefore B is to D as C is to E. then the numbers so produced have the same ratio as the numbers multiplied. Let the number A multiplied by the two numbers B and C make D and E. therefore B measures D according to the units in A. For the same reason the unit F is to the number A as C is to E. Therefore the unit F is to the number A as B is to D. therefore the unit F measures the number A the same number of times that B measures D. VII.D. But the unit F also measures the number A according to the units in it. Algebraically.Def. alternately B is to C as D is to E. Q.11) VII. if a number multiplied by two numbers makes certain numbers. .13 Therefore. Since A multiplied by B makes D.20 (V.Def. then the numbers so produced have the same ratio as the numbers multiplied.20 VII. I say that B is to C as D is to E. b : c = ab : ac.E.

E.18 Previous: VII.Next proposition: VII.Joyce Clark University .16 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

VII. so that order is irrelevant. but VII. Since A multiplied by C makes D.Proposition 18 If two numbers multiplied by any number make certain numbers. Let two numbers A and B multiplied by any number C make D and E. if two numbers multiplied by any number make certain numbers. Q. then the numbers so produced have the same ratio as the multipliers. Therefore the number C multiplied by the two numbers A and B makes D and E. This proposition is used in the next one and occasionally in Book VIII. For the same reason also C multiplied by B makes E. therefore C multiplied by A makes D. this one says b : c = ba : ca. then the numbers so produced have the same ratio as the multipliers.16 says multiplication is commutative. Therefore A is to B as Dis to E.E. Whereas the last proposition stated b : c = ab : ac.D.17 Therefore.16 VII. The only difference is the order of multiplication. . I say that A is to B as D is to E.

Joyce Clark University .E.Next proposition: VII.17 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.19 Previous: VII.

and let A multiplied by D make E. therefore G is to E as G is to F. B. Therefore A is to B as G is to F.11) Again. (V. I say that E equals F. VII. But C is to D as A is to B. (V. since A multiplied by C makes G. A multiplied by C makes G.9) Again. then the four numbers are proportional. therefore A is to B as G is to E. then.11) (V. Therefore G has to each of the numbers E and F the same ratio. but. Let A. then the number produced from the first and fourth equals the number produced from the second and third. and let B multiplied by C make F. B multiplied by C makes F. VII. Since.18 But further A is to B as G is to E. therefore the two numbers A and B multiplied by a certain number C make G and F. Therefore E equals F.7) . and multiplied by D makes E. C. since E equals F. let E equal F. Therefore C is to D as G is to E. so that A is to B as C is to D.Proposition 19 If four numbers are proportional. and D be four numbers in proportion. and. further. if the number produced from the first and fourth equals that produced from the second and third. therefore the number A multiplied by the two numbers C and D makes G and E. therefore G is to E as G is to F. Multiply A by C to make G. With the same construction.17 (V. I say that A is to B as C is to D.

Now it could be that Euclid considered the missing statements as being obvious.17 VII. These places are indicated by (V. Some of the propositions in Book V for magnitudes are stated in proved in Book VII for numbers. These algebraic expressions are meaningful when the variables are all numbers. therefore A is to B as C is to D. (V. Furthermore.22 and VII. but not when they are magnitudes in general. more careful attention was made to fundamental propositions like V. VII.9. V.24. if the number produced from the first and fourth equals that produced from the second and third.E. a : b = c : d if and only if ad = bc. One explanation is that the books on number theory. or when it was incorporated into the Elements by Euclid. Algebraically. and V.7. V.9.11) Therefore.20 Previous: VII. are older. but being obvious is usually not a reason for Euclid to omit a proposition. in particular. other propositions in the next three books assume properties about proportions of numbers without having proofs of those propositions. This proposition is used frequently in Books VII and IX starting with VII. and when the material in Book V was developed by Eudoxus.But G is to E as C is to D.16 is the analogue in that case.9). Twice in this proof Euclid makes conclusions about proportions for numbers that he has neither stated nor proved.13 correspond. if four numbers are proportional.11). and proposition VI. and V. Q.14 correspond. including this one.18 (V. such as V. and V. when they are lines. and G is to F as A is to B.7) in the margins. and. Next proposition: VII. V.11. the analogous justifications for magnitudes.11. They can be interpreted.7. however. then the number produced from the first and fourth equals the number produced from the second and third.16 and VII. But many of the propositions in Book V have no analogue in Book VII. then the four numbers are proportional.D. and (V. as Heath claims.18 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 .

D.Joyce Clark University .E.

Def. Q.20 VII. therefore CD measures A the same number of times that EF measures B. VII. Now CD is not parts of A. Let CD and EF be the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with A and B. namely CG and GD. therefore CG is to EH as CD is to EF. Divide CD into the parts of A. which is impossible. Since one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the consequents.D. I say that CD measures A the same number of times that EF measures B. the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them measure those which have the same ratio with them the same number of times.13 VII.4 VII. while the multitude of CG and GD equals the multitude of EH and HF. . Therefore there are as many parts of B in EF are there are parts of A in CD.12 VII. Now.13 VII. and divide EF into the parts of B. since the numbers CG and GD equal one another.Def. and the less the less.E. being less than they. If possible. Therefore EF is also the same parts of B that CD is of A. and the less the less.Proposition 20 The least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them measure those which have the same ratio with them the same number of times. therefore CG is to EH as GD is to HF. Therefore CG and EH are in the same ratio with CD and EF. and the numbers EH and HF also equal one another. the greater the greater. therefore it is a part of it. namely EH and HF. Thus the multitude of CG and GD equals the multitude of EH and HF.20 Therefore. let it be so. for by hypothesis CD and EF are the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them. the greater the greater. Therefore CD is not parts of A. And EF is the same part of B that CD is of A.

Next proposition: VII.19 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996. 2002 D. c divides a the same number of times that d divides b. first of all. assume that it doesn't.Joyce Clark University . Therefore c does divide a. namely. Use of this proposition This proposition is used frequently in Books VII through IX starting with the next proposition. therefore e = (m/n)d. and e/m = (1/n)b.This proposition says that given a ratio a:b.E. if c:d is the same ratio and the least among all those ratios with the same ratio. c divides a. a contradiction. assume that c = (m/n)a. In order to show that c divides a. Since a:b is the same ratio as c:e. Suppose a:b reduces to c:e in lowest terms. the ratio 91:132 is the same ratio as 7:11. For example. The proof goes along like this. that is to say 91:132 reduces to 7:11 in lowest terms. and d divides b. But then c/m = (1/n)a. and e divides b the same number of times. then. 13 times. therefore 7 divides 91 the same number of times that 11 divides 132. which is least among all the ratios equal to 91:132. but also.21 Previous: VII. which shows that c:e is not in lowest terms. Therefore c/m:e/m is the same ratio as a:b.

and the less the less. Therefore. the least numbers of those which have the same ratio measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times.D. that is. Therefore E measures A and B which are relatively prime. Let A and B be numbers relatively prime. VII. numbers relatively prime are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. Therefore A and B are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. Then D also measures B according to the units in E. And. I say that A and B are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. which is impossible.Def. then. there are some numbers less than A and B in the same ratio with A and B. Therefore there are no numbers less than A and B which are in the same ratio with A and B. Q. therefore C measures A the same number of times that D measures B. VII.E. since C measures A according to the units in E. If not.20 Let there be as many units in E as the times that C measures A.12 The next proposition is the converse of this one. therefore E also measures A according to the units in C.Proposition 21 Numbers relatively prime are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. Let them be C and D.16 VII. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. Since. the greater the greater. For the same reason E also measures B according to the units in D. Together they say that a ratio a:b is reduced to .

Although it appears that this proposition is pairs of numbers and their ratios. Stated in terms of three numbers a.33 with any quantity of numbers.Joyce Clark University . and c. Use of this proposition This proposition is used frequently in Books VII through IX starting with VII.22 Previous: VII. Next proposition: VII. that proposition says that of all triples with the same ratio as a.20 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E. it is used in proposition VII.24. have. and c.lowest terms if and only if a is relatively prime to b. b. b. the triple of relatively prime numbers is least.

Together they say that a ratio a:b is reduced to lowest terms if and only if a is relatively prime to b. VII. I say that A and B are relatively prime. Therefore no number measures the numbers A and B. For the same reason C multiplied by E makes B. Therefore A and B are relatively prime.15 VII. Q. This proposition is the converse of the last one.D. Therefore D and E are in the same ratio with A and B. Let A and B be the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them.E. Use of this proposition . being less than they.Def. Since C measures A according to the units in D. Thus the number C multiplied by the two numbers D and E makes A and B. then some number C measures them.17 Therefore. Let there be as many units in D as the times that C measures A. therefore C multiplied by D makes A. If they are not relatively prime. which is impossible. therefore D is to E as A is to B. and as many units in E as the times that C measures B. the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them are relatively prime.Proposition 22 The least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them are relatively prime.

VIII.21 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D. Next proposition: VII.23 Previous: VII.Joyce Clark University .E. and IX.15.2.This proposition is used in propositions VIII.3.

then any number which measures one of them is relatively prime to the remaining number. and C measures A.Proposition 23 If two numbers are relatively prime. If C and B are not relatively prime. therefore D also measures A. if two numbers are relatively prime. But it also measures B. then some number D measures C and B.E. VII. I say that C and B are also relatively prime. Therefore. . The proof of this proposition is straightforward. Q.Def. then any number which measures one of them is relatively prime to the remaining number. which is impossible. therefore D measures A and B which are relatively prime. Since D measures C. Therefore C and B are relatively prime.D.12 Therefore no number measures the numbers C and B. Let A and B be two numbers relatively prime. and let any number C measure A. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proof of the next one.

22 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.24 Previous: VII.Joyce Clark University .E.Next proposition: VII.

the greater the greater. VII. Therefore E multiplied by F makes D. and let A multiplied by B make D. Therefore E is to A as B is to F.15 VII.Def. which is impossible. and the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times. and the less the less. that is.16 VII. numbers which are relatively prime are also the least of those which have the same ratio. then some number E measures C and D. Then F also measures D according to the units in E. I say that C and D are relatively prime. Therefore no number measures the numbers C and D.19 VII.21 VII. therefore A and E are relatively prime. then their product is also relatively prime to the same. and a certain number E measures C. therefore E measures B and C which are relatively prime. Now. then the four numbers are proportional. Let the two numbers A and B [each] be relatively prime to a number C. If C and D are not relatively prime. therefore the product of E and F equals the product of A and B.12 .23 Let there be as many units in F as the times that E measures D.Proposition 24 If two numbers are relatively prime to any number. Therefore C and D are relatively prime. But it also measures C. therefore E measures B. But. Also. if the product of the extremes equal that of the means. since C and A are relatively prime.20 VII. VII.Def. But A and E are relatively prime. A multiplied by B makes D. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent.

23.E. Outline of the proof Assume that two numbers a and b are each relatively prime to a third number c. by VII.20. Then there is some number e (greater than 1) that divides both ab and c. then. 2002 D. Therefore. e is also relatively prime to a.Therefore. Then e:a = b:f.Joyce Clark University . Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next two and in IX.25 Previous: VII. by VII. Now. Since e and a are relatively prime. if two numbers are relatively prime to any number. Q. But then e divides both b and c contradicting the assumption that b and c are relatively prime.21. Let f be the number ab/e. the product ab is also relatively prime to c. Next proposition: VII. since e divides c. then their product is also relatively prime to the same. Suppose their product ab is not relatively prime to c.D. and c is relatively prime to a. e divides b. Therefore. e:a is in lowest terms. by VII. therefore.E.23 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996.15.

27 and IX. Next proposition: VII.D. then the product of one of them with itself is relatively prime to the remaining one. and let A multiplied by itself make C. if two numbers are relatively prime. Therefore the product of D and A is also relatively prime to B. Since A and B are relatively prime. But the number which is the product of D and A is C. It is used in VII. Make D equal to A. Q. therefore D and B are also relatively prime.15.Proposition 25 If two numbers are relatively prime.24 This is a special case of the previous proposition. and A equals D. then the product of one of them with itself is relatively prime to the remaining one. Therefore C and B are relatively prime.24 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 . VII. I say that B and C are relatively prime. Therefore each of the two numbers D and A is relatively prime to B.26 Previous: VII. Therefore. Let A and B be two numbers relatively prime.E.

Joyce Clark University .E.D.

D. The proof of this proposition uses proposition VII. therefore the product of A and B is also relatively prime to C. then their products are also relatively prime. then their products are also relatively prime. both to each. Therefore the product of C and D is also relatively prime to E. Let the two numbers A and B be relatively prime to the two numbers C and D. therefore E and C are VII. and let A multiplied by B make E. . Therefore E and F are relatively prime. If a and b are both relatively prime to both c and d. Now since c and d are both relatively prime to ab.Proposition 26 If two numbers are relatively prime to two numbers. therefore so is their product cd. Q. Therefore each of the numbers C and D is relatively prime to E.E. if two numbers are relatively prime to two numbers. But the product of A and B is E. I say that E and F are relatively prime.24 Therefore. Since each of the numbers A and B is relatively prime to C.24 relatively prime. This proposition is used in the proof of the next one. VII. For the same reason E and D are also relatively prime. both to each.24 twice. both to each. and let C multiplied by D make F. then so is their product ab. But the product of C and D is F.

E.25 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996.Next proposition: VII.Joyce Clark University .27 Previous: VII. 2002 D.

and multiplied by E make F. if two numbers are relatively prime. both to each. Let A and B be two relatively prime numbers. since A and B are relatively prime. if the original numbers multiplied by the products make certain numbers. therefore A and E are relatively prime. therefore C and B are relatively prime.E. And the product of A and C is D. Q. if the original numbers multiplied by the products make certain numbers. VII. and A multiplied by itself makes C. and each multiplied by itself makes a certain number. therefore the product of A and C is relatively prime to the product of B and E.Proposition 27 If two numbers are relatively prime. Since. and that D and F are relatively prime. the two numbers A and C are relatively prime to the two numbers B and E. and let B multiplied by itself make E. and each multiplied by itself makes a certain number. Therefore D and F are relatively prime. then. then their powers are also relatively prime. then. Again. Explicitly. and B multiplied by itself makes E. therefore C and E are relatively prime. Since A and B are relatively prime. and their cubes are relatively . C and B are relatively prime. Since. let A multiplied by itself make C.26 The proposition states that if two numbers are relatively prime. and.25 VII. and the product of B and E is F. and multiplied by C make D. then the latter are also relatively prime. then the latter are also relatively prime. then the products are relatively prime. and B multiplied by itself makes E. Therefore. then the products are relatively prime. it only says that their squares are relatively prime.D. and. I say that C and E are relatively prime.

Now.25 twice. so by VII.prime. Then applying VII. The proof of this proposition uses the last two propositions. Likewise. a is relatively prime to b2.26 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996. and b is relatively prime to a2. Next proposition: VII. by VII. higher powers of a and b can be shown to be relatively prime.26.25. a3 is relatively prime to b3. we first get a2 and b relatively prime.2 and VIII. a and b2 are relatively prime. Assume that a and b are relatively prime.Joyce Clark University . any powers need to be relatively prime. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in VIII. 2002 D. then we get a2 and b2 relatively prime.E.3. but the way it is used in VIII.28 Previous: VII.2. Again.

Let two relatively prime numbers AB and BC be added. Q. But it also measures BA. if the sum of two numbers is relatively prime to either of them. Therefore no number measures the numbers CA and AB. therefore D measures CA and AB which are relatively prime. If AB and BC are not relatively prime. Therefore CA and AB are relatively prime. if the sum of two numbers is relatively prime to either of them. Therefore no number measures the numbers AB and BC.Def.E.D. and. then the original numbers are also relatively prime. VII. therefore it also measures the whole CA. which is impossible. For the same reason AC and CB are also relatively prime. let CA and AB be relatively prime.12 . Therefore CA is relatively prime to each of the numbers AB and BC. Therefore AB and BC are relatively prime. I say that AB and BC are also relatively prime. Since then D measures CA and AB.Def. If CA and AB are not relatively prime. VII. then the original numbers are also relatively prime. since D measures each of the numbers AB and BC. which is impossible. But it measures AB. then their sum is also prime to each of them. Now. then some number D measures AB and BC. Therefore. I say that their sum AC is also relatively prime to each of the numbers AB and BC.Proposition 28 If two numbers are relatively prime. therefore it also measures the remainder BC. and.12 Next. if two numbers are relatively prime. then some number D measures CA and AB. then their sum is also prime to each of them. therefore D measures AB and BC which are relatively prime.

27 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.Joyce Clark University .This proposition is used in IX. Next proposition: VII.29 Previous: VII.15.

D. which is impossible.30 Previous: VII. any prime number is relatively prime to any number which it does not measure. Since C measures B. Q. Therefore A and B are relatively prime.36. This proposition is used in the next one and in propositions IX. then some number C measures them. Now. therefore C is not the same as A. Let A be a prime number.12 and IX.28 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 . Next proposition: VII. If B and A are not relatively prime. therefore it also measures A which is prime. and let it not measure B. and A does not measure B. though it is not the same as it. Therefore no number measures B and A. since C measures B and A. I say that B and A are relatively prime.Proposition 29 Any prime number is relatively prime to any number which it does not measure.E. Therefore.

D.E.Joyce Clark University .

and any prime number measures the product. then it measures A. multiplied by one another make some number. VII. and the least measure the numbers which have the same ratio the same number of times. Therefore D measures one of the numbers A or B. Let the two numbers A and B multiplied by one another make C.20 VII.D. if two numbers.29 Let as many units be in E as the times that D measures C. Since then D measures C according to the units in E. Therefore. and any prime number measures the product. then it also measures one of the original numbers. if D does not measure B.21 VII. Let it not measure A.E. that is. I say that D measures one of the numbers A or B. Therefore D is to A as B is to E. multiplied by one another make some number.Def. therefore D measures B. But D and A are relatively prime. therefore the product of D and E equals the product of A and B. A multiplied by B also makes C. therefore D multiplied by E makes C. the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. the greater the greater and the less the less. Q. VII. Similarly we can also show that. and let any prime number D measure C.19 VII. then it also measures one of the original numbers.Proposition 30 If two numbers. Now D is prime. Further.15 . relatively prime numbers are also least. therefore A and D are relatively prime.

29. c ab. that is to say. by VII.31 Previous: VII.29 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996. The form of the proof is interesting. Then. then d does divide a.14. d divides b. no composite number has this property. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in IX. This is actually a property that characterizes prime numbers. then whenever p divides a product of two numbers. Let e be the number ab/d. (For if c is a composite number. 2002 D. Then d:a = b:e.21. Euclid shows that if d doesn't divide a. so c divides the product but it doesn't divide either factor. Suppose d does not divide a. and so.This proposition states that if p is a prime number. d is relatively prime to a.) Outline of the proof Assume that a prime number d divides the product ab. then it divides at least one of them. and similarly. if d doesn't divide b. it divides either one or the other. By VII. then d does divide b. the ratio d:a is in lowest terms. Therefore. by VII.Joyce Clark University .E. Next proposition: VII.20.

Def. and B measures A. Therefore any composite number is measured by some prime number. some number measures it. since C measures B. Let a number C measure it.13 VII. then some prime number will be found which measures the number before it. He simply says that is impossible. This proposition is used in the next one and in propositions IX. therefore C also measures A. If it is not found.D. then an infinite sequence of numbers measures the number A. which is impossible in numbers. But if it is composite. if B is prime. . Therefore some prime number will be found which measures the one before it. if C is prime. some number measures it. if the investigation is continued in this way. Now. then that which was proposed is done.11. therefore some number B measures it. any composite number is measured by some prime number.Proposition 31 Any composite number is measured by some prime number. But if it is composite. Then.13 and IX. VII. which also measures A. each of which is less than the other.Def. then that which was proposed is done. Since A is composite.E. Let A be a composite number.13 Euclid does not explain why there can't be an infinite sequence of numbers where each number divides the previous. And. Some justification is required such as the principle Euclid uses elsewhere that any decreasing sequence of numbers is finite. Thus. Therefore.20. which also measures A. I say that A is measured by some prime number. Q.

Joyce Clark University .E.30 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.32 Previous: VII.Next proposition: VII.

Q.E. VII. Let A be a number. But if it is composite.Joyce Clark University . Therefore. this one really doesn't need to be stated at all.31 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D. then that which was proposed is done. then some prime number measures it. If now A is prime.E.31 After the previous proposition. any number is either prime or is measured by some prime number.33 Previous: VII. Therefore any number either is prime or is measured by some prime number.D.Proposition 32 Any number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. Next proposition: VII. I say that A either is prime or is measured by some prime number.

B. and G in the same ratio with A. B. F. Therefore E. If E. Now. VII. and G are in the same ratio with A. Therefore E.16 VII.Proposition 33 Given as many numbers as we please. B. B. B. B. and C. F. and G as the times that D measures the numbers A. Let them be H. and L. VII. and C be the given numbers. and G measure the numbers A. B.20 . F. and G are not the least of those which have the same ratio with A. Therefore H measures A the same number of times that the numbers K and L measure the numbers B and C respectively. Either A. if A.Def. B. then there are numbers less than E. and C the same number of times. to find the least of those which have the same ratio with them. B. Let there be as many units in M as the times that H measures A. VII. and C are relatively prime. and C. and C. then they are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. F. as many as we please. B.21 But. Let A. and C. take D the greatest common measure of A. if not. F. It is required to find the least of those which have the same ratio with A.3 Therefore the numbers E. K. Let there be as many units in the numbers E. B. and C respectively according to the units in D. and C respectively. and C are relatively prime or they are not. and G measure A. I say next that they are the least that are in that ratio. and C. F. Then the numbers K and L also measure the numbers B and C respectively according to the units in M.

For the same reason also E multiplied by D makes A. This proposition is unusual in that it discusses a ratio a:b:c of three (or more) numbers. Therefore E. since H measures A according to the units in M.6. Therefore E is to H as M is to D. b. It also has the proportion a:b:c = e:f:g. and C. d.Def. which is impossible. B. a:b:c = e:f:g is an alternate form of that multiple proportion. Next proposition: VII.34 Previous: VII. times. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next one and several propositions in Book VIII starting with VIII. therefore M is also greater than D. and C.19 Q.E. By the definition of proportion. B. Euclid argues that the proportion holds because e.D. B. and C. VII. that observation directly implies a:e = b:f = c:g The desired proportion. f. And it measures A.Def.15 VII. These multiterm ratios and proportions may have been left over from an earlier time. and c. Now. since H measures A according to the units in M. For the same reason M also measures the numbers B and C according to the units in the numbers K and L respectively. and C. B.32 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic . therefore M also measures A according to the units in H. therefore H multiplied by M makes A. and G which are in the same ratio with A. See V. D is the greatest common measure of A. and C. and G are the least of those which have the same ratio with A. F. F. But E is greater than H.13 for the definition of alternate ratios. Therefore M measures A. B.16 VII. Therefore the product of E and D equals the product of H and M. for by hypothesis.And. Therefore there cannot be any numbers less than E. the same number. and g measure a. respectively.

2002 D.Joyce Clark University .© 1996.E.

then A and B measure some number D less than C Let there be as many units in E as the times that A measures D. Therefore C is the least that is measured by A and B.Def. let A and B not be relatively prime.21 VII. But A and B are relatively prime. VII.Proposition 34 To find the least number which two given numbers measure. therefore B measures E as the consequent the consequent. Next. since A multiplied by B and by E makes C and D.20 And. It is required to find the least number which they measure. First.17 But B measures E.19 VII.19 . If not. VII. Let A and B be the two given numbers.15 VII. and as many units in F as the times that B measures D. Therefore the product of A and E equals the product of B and F. therefore B is to E as C is to D. primes are also least. Therefore A is to B as F is to E. VII. therefore C also measures D. Multiply A by B to make C. the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with A and B. Therefore A and B measure C. which is impossible. Then B multiplied by A makes C. the greater the greater and the less the less.33 VII. and B multiplied by F makes D. let A and B be relatively prime. Now either A and B are relatively prime or they are not. Then A multiplied by E makes D. Therefore the product of A and E equals the product of B and F. I say next that it is also the least number they measure. Take F and E. Therefore A and B do not measure any number less than C. the greater the less. and the least measure the numbers which have the same ratio the same number of times.

Summary of the proof Let a and b be the two numbers. There are two cases depending on whether they are relatively prime or not. Therefore A and B measure C. Suppose a and b are relatively prime. VII. I say next that it is also the least number that they measure. Therefore A is to B as H is to G. It is denoted LCM(a. therefore b divides . Therefore C is the least that is measured by A and B. And. Since a:b = (d/b):(d/a). If not. b) = ab/LCM(a. b). An indirect proof shows that their least common multiple is their product ab. VII. If not. Then B multiplied by F makes C.E. This proposition construct it as the product divided by the greatest common divisor: LCM(a.19 (V.11) But F and E are least. Therefore A and B do not measure any number less than C.20 same number of times. and the least measure the numbers which have the same ratio the VII. therefore C also measures D. since A multiplied by E and by G makes C and D. which is impossible. Let there be as many units in G as the times that A measures D. Then A multiplied by G makes D. Therefore F is to E as H is to G.17 The least common multiple of two numbers a and b is the smallest number that they both divide. the greater the less. therefore E is to G as C is to D. and a:b is in lowest terms (since a and b are relatively prime). and as many units in H as the times that B measures D.Multiply A by E to make C. Therefore the product of A and G equals the product of B and H. b). But A is to B as F is to E. and B multiplied by H makes D. Case 1. Q. then A and B measure some number D less than C.D. the greater the greater and the less the less. then there is a smaller number d which both a and b divide. therefore E measures G. But E measures G.

Thus. so ab divides d. therfore e divides d/a. Then there is a smaller number d which both a and b divide.) Both a and b divide c.33 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996. so c = ab/GCD(a. and f:e is in lowest terms. Then ae = bf. Case 2.E. Also. and e = b/GCD(a. Thus. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in VII. LCM(a. a contradiction. Let c denote this product.33. b) = ab/LCM(a.36 and VIII. b). but d is smaller than ab. But c = ae.d/a. Suppose that it's not the least common multiple.35 Previous: VII. (Note that f = a/GCD(a. and d is less than c. a contradiction. when a and b are relatively prime. Next proposition: VII. b). b). b:(d/a) = ab:d. Now f:e = a:b = (d/b):(d/a).4. 2002 D. their least common multiple is their product.Joyce Clark University . therefore c is a common multiple of a and b. Reduce the ratio a:b to its lowest terms f:e using the previous proposition VII. b). Suppose a and b are not relatively prime. therefore ae also divides d. But e:(d/a) = ae:d.

Therefore E cannot fail to measure CD. therefore they measure the remainder CF which is less than E. if two numbers measure any number. Outline of the proof Assume both a and b divide c. then the least number measured by them also measures the same.4. and let E be the least that they measure. Suppose that e does not divide c. measuring DF. Therefore it measures it. a contradiction. they also divide f making f a smaller common multiple than the least common multiple e. But they also measure the whole CD. then the least number measured by them also measures the same. If E does not measure CD. which is impossible. let E. Let the two numbers A and B measure any number CD.D. . since A and B measure E. Let e be their least common multiple. Thus the least common multiple also divides c. Q.E. I say that E also measures CD. and E measures DF. Since a and b both divide c and e. leave CF less than itself. where the remainder f is less than e and k is some number. therefore A and B also measure DF. Then repeatedly subtract e from c to get c = ke + f.Proposition 35 If two numbers measure any number. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the next one and in VIII. Therefore. Now.

2002 D.Joyce Clark University .36 Previous: VII.E.Next proposition: VII.34 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996.

therefore A and B measure E. and C measure some number E less than D. and C be the three given numbers. But D is the least number measured by A and B.Proposition 36 To find the least number which three given numbers measure. therefore D measures E. B.34 . therefore A. Then C either measures. Since A. It is required to find the least number which they measure. let it measure it. A. But A and B also measure D.35 VII. which is impossible. B. First. or does not measure. Therefore the least number measured by A and B also measures E. and C measure E. Next. B. D. Let A. B. and C measure. Take D the least number measured by the two numbers A and B. Therefore A. B.34 VII. B. Therefore D is the least that A. If not. the greater the less. Take E. let C not measure D. I say next that it is also the least that they measure. the least number measured by C and D. and C do not measure any number less than D. and C measure D. VII.

b).37 Previous: VII. therefore E measures F. and C measure some number F less than E. B. But E is the least number measured by C and D. B. and C do not measure any number which is less than E. b. I say next that it is also the least that they measure. b.E. Since A. But C also measures F. Q. B. and D measures E. VII.39.Joyce . A.35 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D. Next proposition: VII. and C measure F. But C also measures E. so that the least number measured by D and C also measures F. Therefore E is the least that is measured by A. If not. c)).D. therefore D measures F.Since A and B measure D.35 The least common multiple of three numbers a. therefore A and B also measure E.E. Therefore A. c) = LCM(LCM(a. But D is the least number measured by A and B. and C. B. Therefore the least number measured by A and B also measures F. therefore D and C measure F. therefore A. which is impossible. the greater the less. This proposition is used in the proof of proposition VII. and C also measure E. therefore A and B measure F. B. and c can be found as LCM(a.

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.39. Therefore. so that A has a part C which is called by the same name as B. Since B measures A according to the units in C. This proposition says that if b divides a. VII. alternately. This proposition is used in the proof of proposition VII.15 Therefore. and the unit D also measures the number C according to the units in it. Therefore. a/b). therefore 12 has a one-third part. Use of this proposition. the same part is C of A also. For example. the unit D measures the number B the same number of times as C measures A. But the unit D is a part of the number B called by the same name as it. then a has a one-bth part (namely. Q. if a number is measured by any number. whatever part the unit D is of the number B.E. therefore C is also a part of A called by the same name as B. then the number which is measured has a part called by the same name as the measuring number. 3 divides 12. I say that A has a part called by the same name as B.Proposition 37 If a number is measured by any number.D. therefore the unit D measures the number C the same number of times as B measures A. then the number which is measured has a part called by the same name as the measuring number. Let the number A be measured by any number B. Let there be as many units in C as the times that B measures A.

E.Next proposition: VII.Joyce Clark University .38 Previous: VII.36 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

This proposition is used in the proof of the next proposition. then c divides a.E. if a number has any part whatever. Therefore. and the unit D is also a part of C called by the same name as it. This proposition says that if a has a one-cth part of a. Q.15 Therefore. 12 has a onethird part. B. Therefore the unit D measures the number C the same number of times that B measures A.Proposition 38 If a number has any part whatever. therefore the part B of A is the same part of the unit D of the number C. then it is measured by a number called by the same name as the part. Therefore C measures A.D. . then it is measured by a number called by the same name as the part. and let C be a number called by the same name as the part B. 3 divides 12. VII. the unit D measures the number B the same number of times that C measures A. Use of this proposition. Since B is a part of A called by the same name as C. I say that C measures A. Let the number A have any part whatever. For example. This is a converse of the last proposition. alternately.

E.Joyce Clark University .39 Previous: VII.Next proposition: VII.37 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

and F be numbers called by the same VII. Suppose you want to find the smallest number with given parts.Proposition 39 To find the number which is the least that has given parts. B. a fourth part and a sixth part. Let D. Therefore G has parts called by the same name VII. and F are numbers called by the same name as the parts A. and C. which is impossible. and C. Therefore there is no number less than G that has the parts A. VII.6) which is 12. and F.36 name as the parts A. namely 3. and C. E. say. and C. But A. Since H has the parts A. the least number measured by D.37 as D. Q. Then take the LCM(4. and F. E. But D. Take G. B. E. there is some number H less than G which has the parts A. B. therefore H is measured by numbers called by the same name as the parts A. and C be the given parts. and C. namely . I say next that it is also the least number that has.E. B. but an example will show its intent. The number 12 has a 1/4 part. B. E. B. and C. therefore H is measured by D.38 The wording of the proposition is somewhat unclear. B. B. Let A. and a 1/6 part. and C. It is required to find the number which is the least that will have the parts A. therefore G has the parts A. E. If not. and F. B. E. and F. and C are parts called by the same name as D. And it is less than G. B.D. and C.

38 Book VII introduction Select from Book VII Select book Select topic © 1996. 2002 D.Joyce Clark University .2. Next book: Book VIII Previous proposition: VII.E.

And it wouldn't be allowed for the orders of the terms in the proportions to be permuted. It is apparent from its use that the notion of similarity assumes a specific correspondence of consecutive vertices and sides.4 says . It wouldn't be allowed. the second proportion could not be AB:BC = GH:FG. if the angles of one figure equalled the angles of the other.5 give two criteria for two triangles to be similar. C = H. Proposition VI. for instance. AB:BC = FG:GH. for instance. pentagons. for instance. corresponding angles taken in order are equal. CD:EF = HK:KL. Use of this definition Propositions VI. but in some haphazard order. and EA:AB = KL:LF. B = G. D = K. it is required that 1. and E = L. A = F.Definition 1 Similar rectilinear figures are such as have their angles severally equal and the sides about the equal angles proportional. or inverted.4 and VI. BC:CD = GH:HK. Consider. the sides about their equal angles are proportional in the same order: EA:AB = LF:FG. In order for the pentagons ABCDE and FGHKL to be similar. and 2. The words in this definition do not quite express its entire intent. that is.

Def.that condition 1 implies similarity.Joyce Clark University . Next definition: VI. 2002 D. while VI. Proposition VI.7 is a side-side-angle similarity theorem. and VI.E.5 says condition 2 implies similarity.2 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1997.6 is a side-angle-side similarity theorem. Many of the other propositions in this and later books involve similarity in one way or another.

Although Euclid doesn't address the question. and AC:DF = DF:BC. BC:EF = DE:AB. Multiplicatively. The intention can be seen in proposition VI. This isn't the actual definition that appears.Def. but an approximation of its intent. as shown to the left. Next definition: VI.3 Previous: VI.Definition 2 Two figures are reciprocally related when the sides about corresponding angles are reciprocally proportional. A literal translation is incomplete.1 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic . AB DE = BC EF = AC DF. In the figure BAC and DAE are equal angles. The conditions are that AB:DE = DF:AC. The proposition states that if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. So the two triangles are equal if and only if CA:AD = EA:AB. then the triangles are equal if and only if the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. and this definition may have been added after Euclid.Def. Euclid doesn't define the term "reciprocally proportional." but the meaning of the term is clear from its use. it would be interesting to characterize which triangles are reciprocally related.15 as illustrated here.

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as the whole line is to the greater segment. that the square on AC equal the rectangle AB by BC.Def.3 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1997 D. Of course that was before ratios were defined.11. A construction to cut a line in this manner first appeared in Book II.E. namely. proposition II. Now that the theory of ratios and proportions has been developed. An alternate construction is given in proposition VI. The line AB is cut in extreme and mean ratio at C since AB:AC = AC:CB. it is time to define this section as a ratio. so is the greater to the less.Def.Joyce Clark University .Definition 3 A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when.30. Next definition: VI. and there an equivalent condition was stated in terms of rectangles. rather than using rectangles.10 through 12 and 16). That construction was later used in Book IV in order to construct regular pentagons and 15-sided polygons (propositions IV.4 Previous: VI.

. or a highest point when many points are equally high. A triangle is chosen taken to be the base of one. by the way the term is used in the Elements.39 there are two triangular prisms. prisms. In the later books on solid geometry. this definition only suggests what "height" might mean without defining it at all. The height of the first is a perpendicular drawn between two triangular opposite faces. pyramids. we can determine its meaning. If the figure is a triangle. what is meant by "vertex" is the highest point in the figure.Definition 4 The height of any figure is the perpendicular drawn from the vertex to the base. and one side has been declared the base. If the figure is a parallelogram. the line drawn from the opposite vertex perpendicular to the base. But to define "height" in terms of "highest point" would be a circular definition. and one side has been declared the base. but the height of the other is a perpendicular drawn between the parallelogram taken as the base and the opposite parallelogram. then the height is the expected line. then the height may be taken to be a perpendicular from either of the two vertices not on the base. In proposition XI. other figures also can have bases and heights such as parallelepipeds. Still. while the base of the other is a parallelogram. Different sides of a figure may be selected as the base depending on the application. and cylinders. The only planar figures where heights are used in the Elements are triangles and parallelograms. Evidently. Indeed. cones.

Next proposition: VI.3 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1997 D.Joyce Clark University .E.1 Previous: VI.Def.

ABG. namely two bases CB and CD. if equal. and GH equal one another. less. if the base CH equals the base CL. I. and AL. whatever multiple the base CL is of the base CD. and other. equimultiples have been taken of the base CB and the triangle ACB. Therefore. AH. then the triangle ACH also equals the triangle ACL. since CB. I say that the base CB is to the base CD as the triangle ACB is to the triangle ACD. less. equal.3 Then. BG. and. Make any number of straight lines BG and GH equal to the base CB. and AGH also equal one another. Join AG.38 I. if less.38 Thus. For the same reason. I. Therefore the base CB is to the base CD as the triangle ACB is to the triangle ACD. and as the parallelogram CE is to the parallelogram CF. namely the base CH and the triangle ACH. the triangles ACB. and it has been proved that. arbitrary. whatever multiple the base CH is of the base CB. . and any number of straight lines DK and KL equal to the base CD. and.Def.Proposition 1 Triangles and parallelograms which are under the same height are to one another as their bases.5 if the base CH is in excess of the base CL. and let CE and CF be parallelograms under the same height. the triangle ACH is also that multiple of the triangle ACB. if the base CH is in excess of the base CL. Produce BD in both directions to the points H and L. the triangle ACH is also in excess of the triangle ACL. V. equimultiples of the base CD and the triangle ADC. And. AK. the triangle ACH is also in excess of the triangle ACL. there being four magnitudes. namely the base CL and the triangle ACL. and two triangles ACB and ACD. Let ACB and ACD be triangles. the triangle ACL is also that multiple of the triangle ACD. if less.

and the triangle ACB is to the triangle ACD as the parallelogram CE is to the parallelogram CF. and parallelograms on equal bases and in the same parallels are equal (I. The goal of the proof is to show that three ratios.35). In a more proper setting out of the proposition. Since triangles on equal bases and in the same parallels are equal (I. Euclid's simplified setting out is sufficient. since the parallelogram CE is double the triangle ACB. The second stage is easier. and n ACD equals the triangle ACL. So what has to be shown is that CH >=< CL when ACH >=< ACL.Next. Since. therefore V. Nonetheless. By the definition of proportion. n CD equals the line CL.38. a proper setting out does not require a more complicated proof. the triangles under the same height would not have a common side.7). and equals may be substituted in proportions (V. the ratio of the triangles ACB to ACD. But that follows from proposition I. Since the parallelograms are twice the triangles. namely the ratio of the lines CB to CD. Q. and parts have the same ratio as their equimultiples.D.Def.5. and the ratio of the parallelograms CE to CF.E. That is CB:CD = ACB:ACD = CE:CF. then. triangles and parallelograms which are under the same height are to one another as their bases. it was proved that the base CB is to CD as the triangle ACB is to the triangle ACD. and the parallelograms would not have a common base and side with the triangles. that means for any number m and any number n that m BC >=< n CD when m ABC >=< n ACD. V. . therefore also the base CB is to the base CD as the parallelogram CE is to the parallelogram FC. are all the same ratio.15 the triangle ACB is to the triangle ACD as the parallelogram CE is to the parallelogram FC. V. Note that Euclid takes both m and n to be 3 in his proof.11 Therefore. m ABC equals the triangle ACH.41 double the triangle ACD. So the first stage of the proof is complete.36). and the parallelogram FC is I. they also have the same ratio. Now m BC equals the line CH. The first stage of the proof shows that CB:CD = ACB:ACD.

is preeminent. 2002 D. Now. although he may have been one of the last to do so. It is remarkable how much mathematics has changed over the last century.E. geometry was seen as the most dependable justification for calculus. Heath's complaint would have been valid then since the theory of real numbers was still without any foundation except a geometric one.Other propositions that state fundamental proportions use the same outline for their proofs. there was a modern foundation for mathematical analysis. Next proposition: VI. synthetic geometry has receded into near oblivion while analysis. which. ultimately was based on Eudoxus' theory of proportion in Euclid's Book V. In the first half of the 19th century. than geometry. but in a modern guise.4 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996. In the beginning of the 20th century Heath could still gloat over the superiority of synthetic geometry. Heath preferred Eudoxus' theory of proportion in Euclid's Book V as a foundation.33: arcs of circles are proportional to angles on which they stand. On the method of modern analysis Heath remarked that "some American and German text-books adopt the less rigorous method of appealing to the theory of limits" for the foundation for the theory of proportion used here in geometry. and and a few times in Books XI and XIII. and Dedekind succeeded in founding the theory of real numbers on that of natural numbers and a bit of set theory. Cantor. Use of this proposition This is one of the most used propositions in the Elements.13: cylinders are proportional to their axes. or more solid. In the 17th century. It is used frequently in Book VI starting with the next proposition. based on various concepts of limits.25: parallelepipeds are proportional to their bases. the concept of limit was clarified and limits became the foundation of mathematical analysis. and XII. All the same.Joyce Clark University . It took some time to find a foundation for mathematical analysis as solid. In the later 19th century Weierstrass. this new foundation could still be called Eudoxus' since the modern definition of real number is the same as his. so that by the beginning of the 20th century. the time of the creation of differential and integral calculus. dozens of times in Book X.2 Previous: VI.Def. Proposition VI. in the 21st century. XI.

for.37 V. Let DE be drawn parallel to BC. Join DE. With the same construction. I say that BD is to AD as CE is to AE. so that BD is to AD as CE is to AE. for they are on the same base DE and in the same parallels DE and BC. one of the sides of the triangle ABC.11 I. then the line joining the points of section is parallel to the remaining side of the triangle. But equals have the same ratio to the same. then it cuts the sides of the triangle proportionally. Therefore the triangle BDE equals the triangle CDE. let the sides AB and AC of the triangle ABC be cut proportionally.1 Next. And ADE is another triangle. But the triangle BDE is to ADE as BD is to AD. being under the same height. Therefore BD is to AD also as CE is to AE. the perpendicular drawn from E to AB. the triangle CDE is to ADE as CE is to AE. therefore the triangle BDE is to the triangle ADE as the triangle CDE is to the triangle ADE. they are to one another as their bases.1 V.7 VI. if the sides of the triangle are cut proportionally. For the same reason.Proposition 2 If a straight line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle. therefore the triangle BDE is to the triangle ADE as the triangle CDE is to the triangle ADE. VI. since BD is to AD as CE is to AE.11 . and CE is to AE as the triangle CDE is to the triangle ADE. V. but BD is to AD as the triangle BDE is to the triangle ADE. and. I say that DE is parallel to BC. Join BE and CD.

and they are on the same base DE. By propositions V. Use of this theorem This proposition is frequently used in the rest of Book VI starting with the next proposition. Q. But equal triangles which are on the same base are also in the same parallels. as this one. and CE:AE = triangle CDE : triangle ADE. Therefore DE is parallel to BC. It is also used in Books XI and XII.D. then it cuts the sides of the triangle proportionally. Therefore.Therefore each of the triangles BDE and CDE has the same ratio to ADE. but in some propositions. BD:AD = CE:AE if and only if BDE:ADE = CDE:ADE. in turn.39 Euclid prefers to prove a pair of converses in two stages. Hence.7 and V. but the correspondence is not the intended one. the proofs in the two stages are almost inverses of each other.E.9 I. In this proposition we have a given triangle ABC and a line DE joining a point D on the side BC to a point E on the side AC. Therefore the triangle BDE equals the triangle CDE. if a straight line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle. . V. Note It should be noted that a proportion such as BD:AD = AE:CE is not intended.9 the latter condition is equivalent to BDE = CDE. In that case the sides are cut proportionally. if the sides of the triangle are cut proportionally. then the line joining the points of section is parallel to the remaining side of the triangle.1 we know in any case that BD:AD = triangle BDE : triangle ADE. by propositions I. By the previous proposition VI.39 is equivalent to DE || BC. and that.37 and I. so both could be proved at once. The claim is that BD:AD = CE:AE if and only if DE || BC. and.

3 Previous: VI.Joyce Clark University .E.Next proposition: VI.1 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.

With the same construction. But the angle ACE was also proved equal to the angle BAD. since DB is to DC as AB is to AC. therefore the angle BAD also equals the angle ACE.29 VI. I say that DB is to DC as AB is to AC. therefore DB is to DC as AB is to AC. VI.11 . the exterior angle BAD equals the interior angle AEC. Let ABC be a triangle.2 V. then the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. I say that the straight line AD bisects the angle BAC. therefore also AB is to AC as AB is to AE. and carry AB through to meet it at E.31 I. I. And. But the angle CAD equals the angle BAD by hypothesis. therefore the angle ACE also equals the angle AEC. Then. for AD is parallel to EC. and let the angle BAC be bisected by the straight line AD. Again. since the straight line BAE falls upon the parallels I. let DB be to DC as AB is to AC.29 AD and EC. if segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. so that the side AE also equals the side AC.6 I. But AE equals AC. one of the sides of the triangle BCE. the angle ACE equals the angle CAD. Join AD.2 V. and also DB is to DC as AB is to AE. then the straight line joining the vertex to the point of section bisects the angle of the triangle. Draw CE through C parallel to DA. one of the sides of the triangle BCE. since AD is parallel to EC.7 Next.Proposition 3 If an angle of a triangle is bisected by a straight line cutting the base. and. since the straight line AC falls upon the parallels AD and EC. therefore. proportionally DB is to DC as AB is to AE.

then the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle.Therefore AC equals AE. Therefore the straight line AD bisects the angle BAC. if an angle of a triangle is bisected by a straight line cutting the base. and the angle ACE equals the alternate angle CAD. V.D.E. Q. This proposition characterizes an angle bisector of an angle in a triangle as the line that partitions the base into parts proportional to the adjacent sides.5 I. and.9 I. therefore the angle BAD also equals the angle CAD.4 Previous: VI. Next proposition: VI.2 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .29 Therefore. The second part of the statement of the proposition is the converse of the first part of the statement. The proof relies on basic properties of triangles and parallel lines developed in Book I along with the result of the previous proposition VI. Use of this proposition This proposition is not used in the remainder of the Elements. so that the angle AEC also equals the angle ACE. if segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. then the straight line joining the vertex to the point of section bisects the angle of the triangle. But the angle AEC equals the exterior angle BAD.2.E.

will meet.22 Therefore. Then.D. since AC is parallel to a side FE of the triangle FBE. Therefore FACD is a parallelogram. since the sum of the angles ABC and ACB is less than two right angles. when produced. . Let them be produced and meet at F. and alternately BC is to CA as CE is to ED. ex aequali.17 I.Proposition 4 In equiangular triangles the sides about the equal angles are proportional where the corresponding sides are opposite the equal angles. Q.16 V.E. Let ABC and DCE be equiangular triangles having the angle ABC equal to the angle DCE.34 VI. Let BC be placed in a straight line with CE. I say that in the triangles ABC and DEC the sides about the equal angles are proportional where the corresponding sides are opposite the equal angles. therefore. Since then it was proved that AB is to BC as DC is to CE. DC is parallel to FB. Now. and BC is to CA as CE is to ED.2 V. And. Again. But FD equals AC. AC is parallel to FE. Therefore BA and ED. since the angle ACB equals the angle DEC. therefore FA equals DC.7 V. since the angle DCE equals the angle ABC.5 I. therefore BA is to AF as BC is to CE.28 I. I. and AC equals FD. BA is to AC as CD is to DE. in equiangular triangles the sides about the equal angles are proportional where the corresponding sides are opposite the equal angles. and the angle ACB equals the angle DEC. and the angle ACB equal to the angle CED. therefore BC is to CE as AC is to DE. the angle BAC equal to the angle CDE.Post. therefore the sum of the angles ABC and DEC is less than two right angles.

It also implies that triangles similar to the same triangle are similar to each other.In the enunciation of this proposition the term "equiangular triangles" refers to two triangles whose corresponding angles are equal. It is also used in Books X through XIII. also proved in detail in VI. Such positioning is common in Book VI and is easily justified. Euclid has placed the triangles in particular positions in order to employ this particular proof. This proposition implies that equiangular triangles are similar.8.21 to rectilinear figures in general. The latter statement is generalized in VI.3 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D. a fact proved in detail in the proof of proposition VI. Next proposition: VI.5 Previous: VI. its converse.E.8. This proposition is frequently used in the rest of Book VI starting with the next proposition. not to two triangles each of which is equiangular (equilateral).Joyce Clark University .

therefore DE equals GE. therefore DE is to EF as GE is to EF. I say that the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DEF where the equal angles are opposite the corresponding sides. and EF is common. and further BA is to AC as ED is to DF. Therefore in the triangles ABC and GEF the sides about the equal angles are proportional where the corresponding sides are opposite the equal angles. therefore the angle DEF equals the angle GEF. But. Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having their sides proportional. the angle BCA equals the angle EFD. Therefore the remaining angle at A equals the remaining angle at G. and the angle BAC equals the angle EDF. BC is to CA as EF is to FD. Therefore the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle GEF. Then since DE equals GE.11 V.Proposition 5 If two triangles have their sides proportional. by hypothesis. and the triangle DEF equals the triangle GEF. namely the angle ABC equals the angle DEF. I. and the base DF equals the base GF.9 I. namely those opposite the equal sides.32 VI. For the same reason DF also equals GF.4 .23 I. Therefore each of the straight lines DE and GE has the same ratio to EF. the two sides DE and EF equal the two sides GE and EF. and the remaining angles equal the remaining angles. therefore AB is to BC as GE is to EF. AB is to BC as DE to EF.8 I.4 V. Construct the angle FEG equal to the angle CBA and the angle EFG equal to the angle BCA on the straight line EF and at the points E and F on it. so that AB is to BC as DE is to EF. then the triangles are equiangular with the equal angles opposite the corresponding sides.

Next proposition: VI. For the same reason the angle ACB also equals the angle DFE. therefore the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DEF. and the angle EDF equals the angle EGF. this proposition is the converse of the previous.6 Previous: VI. therefore the angle ABC also equals the angle DEF. As in VI.2. and the angle GEF equals the angle ABC.D. Therefore. a certain order is assumed for the proportionality.12.4 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Def. then the triangles are equiangular with the equal angles opposite the corresponding sides.Joyce Clark University . Of course. if two triangles have their sides proportional.E. for instance. This proposition is used in the proof of proposition XII. that AB:BC = DE:EF while BC:CA = FD:EF. since the angle DEF equals the angle GEF. And. See the remark about VI. The next two propositions give two more characterizations corresponding to characterizations of congruent triangles. either as equiangular triangles or as triangles with proportional sides.E. the angle at A equals the angle at D.Therefore the angle DFE also equals the angle GFE.1. and further. We now have two characterizations of similar triangles. Q. It is not intended.

the triangle DEF equals the triangle DGF. by hypothesis.4 V.4 . Therefore the remaining angle at B equals the remaining angle at G. and has the angle ABC equal to the angle DEF.32 VI. therefore also ED is to DF as GD is to DF. Therefore ED equals GD. On the straight line DF and at the points D and F on it. therefore the base EF equals the base GF. But. namely those opposite the equal sides. I. Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle BAC equal to one angle EDF and the sides about the equal angles proportional. so that BA is to AC as ED is to DF. proportionally BA is to AC as GD is to DF.11 V. I say that the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DEF. and the angle DFG equal to the angle ACB. And DF is common. therefore the angle ACB also equals the angle DFE. and the angle EDF equals the angle GDF. But the angle DFG equals the angle ACB. Therefore. and the remaining angles equal the remaining angles. Therefore the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DGF. and the angle ACB equal to the angle DFE. BA is to AC also as ED is to DF. Therefore the angle DFG equals the angle DFE.23 I.9 I. construct the angle FDG equal to either of the angles BAC or EDF. then the triangles are equiangular and have those angles equal opposite the corresponding sides.Proposition 6 If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle and the sides about the equal angles proportional. and the angle DGF equals the angle DEF. therefore the two sides ED and DF equal the two sides GD and DF.

5 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic . the angle BAC also equals the angle EDF.4). by hypothesis.20. Therefore the triangle ABC is equiangular with the I.9). and several times in XII. Therefore triangles DEF and DGF are congruent. But we have assumed the proportion BA:AC = ED:DF. from which it follows that GD = ED (V.12.1. XII.4. and these two proportions together give us GD:DF = ED:DF (V. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle and the sides about the equal angles proportional. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proofs of propositions VI. This is a side-angle-side similarity theorem analogus to side-angle-side congruence theorem I.And. Here's a summary of the proof. VI. and that gives us the proportion BA:AC = GD:DF. Q.32. therefore the remaining angle at B also equals the remaining angle at E.32 triangle DEF. and the rest follows easily. Construct a triangle DGF equiangular with triangle ABC. then the triangles are equiangular and have those angles equal opposite the corresponding sides. Then triangle DGF is similar to triangle ABC ( VI.11). Therefore.E.D.7 Previous: VI. Next proposition: VI.

2002 D.© 1996.Joyce Clark University .E.

the angle BAC equal to the angle EDF. I. If the angle ABC does not equal the angle DEF. by hypothesis. so that the angle at C also equals the V. equals the remaining angle. And. I. then the triangles are equiangular and have those angles equal the sides about which are proportional. the angle ABC equals the angle DEF. and the remaining angles either both less or both not less than a right angle. I say that the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DEF. therefore the angle BGC is also less than a right angle. the angle at F. and the angle ABG equals the angle DEF.13 .32 VI. I. Therefore AB is to BG as DE is to EF.9 I. therefore AB has the same ratio to each of the straight lines BC and BG. then one of them is greater. by hypothesis. the sides about other angles proportional.Proposition 7 If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. the sides about other angles ABC and DEF proportional. first.4 V. since the angle A equals D. Let the angle ABC be greater.23 Then. so that the angle AGB adjacent to it is greater than a right angle. therefore the remaining angle AGB equals the remaining angle DFE. each of the remaining angles at C and F less than a right angle. so that AB is to BC as DE is to EF. Therefore BC equals BG. and the remaining angle. But.11 But. Therefore the triangle ABG is equiangular with the triangle DEF. DE is to EF as AB is to BC. Construct the angle ABG equal to the angle DEF on the straight line AB and at the point B on it. the angle at C is less than a right angle.5 angle BGC. namely the angle at C. Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle equal to one angle.

But the angle at A also equals the angle at D. See the note on congruence . I.D. But it is by hypothesis less than a right angle. Therefore it equals it. the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DEF. Next let each of the angles at C and F be supposed not less than a right angle. once more. therefore the remaining angle at C equals the remaining angle at F. This is a side-side-angle similarity proposition for triangles. Therefore the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DEF. Q.E. therefore the remaining angle at C equals the remaining angle at F. I say again that.5 C also equals the angle BGC. Therefore. the angle ABC is not unequal to the angle DEF. Thus in the triangle BGC the sum of two angles is not less than two right angles. so that the angle at I. But the angle at C is not less than a right angle. therefore the angle at F is also greater than a right angle. I. which is absurd. Therefore it equals it. But the angle at A also equals the angle at D. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. Therefore the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DEF.32 With the same construction. in this case too. then the triangles are equiangular and have those angles equal the sides about which are proportional. The Elements does not have the analogous side-side-angle congruence proposition for triangles. which is impossible.32 Therefore. the sides about other angles proportional. therefore neither is the angle BGC less than a right angle.And it was proved equal to the angle at F. and the remaining angles either both less or both not less than a right angle. Therefore the angle ABC is not unequal to the angle DEF. we can prove similarly that BC equals BG.17 I.

Joyce Clark University . Next proposition: VI.6 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.8 Previous: VI.E.26 for more about congruence theorems.theorems after I.

Since the right angle BDA equals the right angle ADC. which is opposite the angle at C in the triangle ABC. Therefore the triangle ABC is both equiangular to the triangle DBA and has the sides about the equal angles proportional. therefore the remaining angle at B also equals the remaining angle DAC. is to DB.32 VI. and let AD be drawn from A perpendicular to BC.Proposition 8 If in a right-angled triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the right angle to the base. I. which is opposite the right angle in the triangle ABC. I say next that the triangles DBA and DAC are also similar to one another. which is opposite the angle at B common to the two triangles. In the same manner we can prove that the triangle DAC is also similar to the triangle ABC. Therefore the triangle DBA is equiangular with the triangle ADC. Therefore the triangle ABC is similar to the triangle DBA. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC right. which is opposite the equal angle BAD in the triangle DBA. which is opposite the right angle in the triangle DBA.4 VI. and also as AC is to DA. Therefore the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DBA. I say that each of the triangles DBA and DAC is similar to the whole ABC. then the triangles adjoining the perpendicular are similar both to the whole and to one another. they are similar to one another. and moreover the angle DAB was also proved equal to the angle at C.Def. as AB. for each is right.1 I. therefore the remaining angle ACB equals the remaining angle DAB.32 . and the angle at B is common to the two triangles ABC and DBA. is to BA. Therefore each of the triangles DBA and DAC is similar to the whole ABC. and. further. Therefore BC. Since the angle BAC equals the angle BDA.

if in a right-angled triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the right angle to the base.33.Therefore BD. but Euclid's proof has the advantage of not being dependent on Eudoxus' theory of proportion in Book V. is to AD.4 the conclusions that equiangular triangles are similar and that triangles similar to the same triangle are similar to each other. which is VI. itself which is opposite the angle at B in the triangle DBA. Indeed. This proposition may be used to give an alternate proof of proposition I. Note that Euclid verbosely draws from proposition VI.D. Therefore. if in a right-angled triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the right angle to the base. is to CD. Next proposition: VI. which is opposite the angle DAC in the triangle DAC equal to the angle at B.47. these sides opposite VI. Therefore. Essentially.47. The general proposition that figures similar to the same figure are also similar to one another is proposition VI.33. Therefore the triangle DBA is similar to the triangle DAC. as AD. X.4 opposite the angle at C in the triangle DAC equal to the angle DAB. There is no reason why that proposition could not have been placed before this one. This proposition and its corollary are used in propositions VI.31. Corollary From this it is clear that. which is opposite the angle DAB in the triangle DBA.21.1 the right angles. triangles ABC and DAC are similar. Likewise.E. and also as BA is to AC. then the triangles adjoining the perpendicular are similar both to the whole and to one another.13. and often in Book XIII.9 Previous: VI. That proof is probably older than Euclid's as given in I. Q. VI. then the straight line so drawn is a mean proportional between the segments of the base.7 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic .Def. triangles ABC and DBA are equiangular since they are right triangles with a common angle. Euclid presents such a proof in the lemma for X. they are similar.

E.© 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .

It is required to cut off from AB a prescribed part. Euclid takes the case n = 3 in his proof.31 VI.E. therefore AB is triple of AF." But it is very much Euclid's manner throughout books V and VI to prove a general numerical statement with a specific numerical value. Q. or actually.3 containing with AB any angle. and make DE and EC equal to AD. and draw DF through D parallel to it. Then. But DC is double AD. proportionally.Proposition 9 To cut off a prescribed part from a given straight line. Join CB. Let the third part be that prescribed. therefore FB is also double AF. "is not at all like Euclid's manner. Let AB be the given straight line. since DF is parallel to a side CB of the triangle ABC.2 The word "part" in this proposition means submultiple. therefore. Draw a straight line AC through from A I. Simson complained that proving the general case by using a specific case. the one-third part. AD is to DC as AF is to FB. The problem here is to divide a line AB into some given number n of equal parts. Al-Nayrizi's construction . Take a point D random on AC. Therefore from the given straight line AB the prescribed third part AF has been cut off. to to find just one of these parts.F. I.

construct equal perpendiculars at A and B in opposite directions. He gives another construction to divide a line AB into n equal parts.Abu'l-Abbas al-Fadl ibn al-Nayrizi (fl.E. The diagram shows AB divided into five equal parts.10 Previous: VI. Al-Nayrizi's construction takes considerably less work than Euclid's.Joyce Clark University . and connect the points as illustrated. First.8 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D. c. The proof that this construction is valid is about the same length as that for Euclid's construction. Use of this construction This construction is used in a few propositions in Book XIII to find a third or a fifth of a line. mark off n . 897. c. d. 922) wrote a commentary on the first ten books of the Elements.1 equal parts on each of them. Next proposition: VI.

therefore DE is to EC as FG is to GB. AD is VI.E. Let AB be the given uncut straight line.2 to DE as AF is to FG. Prop.2 V. but it is a basic construction of geometry. Now. Therefore the given uncut straight line AB has been cut similarly to the given cut straight line AC.F. therefore DE is to EC as FG is to GB. and draw DHK through D parallel to AB.2 as a basis to make any conclusion about the ratio of two lines. Q. since DF is parallel to a side EG of the triangle AEG. proportionally.34 VI. proportionally. . therefore. and HK equals GB. and draw DF and EG through D and E parallel to CB. In a sense.9 cut a line into two parts whose ratio was a given numerical ratio. Both propositions rely on VI.31 I. I. Therefore DH equals FG and HK equals GB. this proposition is a generalization of the last one VI.Proposition 10 To cut a given uncut straight line similarly to a given cut straight line. DE is to EC as DH is to HK. But it was also proved that DE is to EC as FG is to GB. and AC the straight line cut at the points D and E. Use of this construction This proposition is not used later in the Elements. But DH equals FG. VI. Therefore each of the figures FH and HB is a parallelogram. Join CB. and let them be so placed as to contain any angle. since the straight line EH is parallel to a side CK of the triangle DCK.9. therefore. and AD is to DE as AF is to FG.7 Again. This proposition cuts a line into two parts whose ratio is a given ratio of two other lines.

9 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996.Joyce Clark University .E.Next proposition: VI.11 Previous: VI. 2002 D.

then their third proportional is a magnitude c such that a:b = b:c. proportionally.3 I.19. and let them be placed so as to contain any angle. The duplicate ratio for a:b is a:c.7 If a and b are two magnitudes.F. Use of this proposition This construction is used in propositions VI. therefore AB is to AC as AC is to CE.22. AB is to BD as AC is to CE. The third proportional is needed whenever a duplicate ratio is needed when the ratio itself is known. therefore. and a few propositions in Book X.E. and draw DE through D parallel to it. Therefore a third proportional CE has been found to two given straight lines AB and AC.2 V. VI. I. Q. Join BC.Proposition 11 To find a third proportional to two given straight lines. But BD equals AC. . and make BD equal to AC. Produce them to the points D and E.31 Then since BC is parallel to a side DE of the triangle ADE. It is required to find a third proportional to AB and AC. Let AB and AC be the two given straight lines. VI.

12 Previous: VI.E.Next proposition: VI.10 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Joyce Clark University .

and draw EF through E parallel to it. and C. VI. also called analytic geometry.Proposition 12 To find a fourth proportional to three given straight lines.E. Therefore a fourth proportional HF has been found to the three given straight lines A. and DH to C.31 Then since GH is parallel to a side EF of the triangle DEF. I.F. B. Descartes' geometric algebra Descartes (1591-1661) is well known for his coordinate geometry which he and Fermat developed in the 16th century. Make DG equal to A. therefore A is to B as C is to HF. B. places an x-y-coordinate system on a plane so that a curve in the plane corresponds to an equation in two variables x and y. the previous proposition is a special case of this one. Let A and B and C be the three given straight lines. V. and DH equal to C.2 But DG equals A and GE to B. The usual way this correspondence is used is to convert a problem in geometry into an algebraic problem about . Set out two straight lines DE and DF containing any angle EDF.7 Of course. therefore DG is to GE as DH is to HF. and C. Join GH. This subject. It is required to find a fourth proportional to A. Q.3 I. GE equal to B.

a. extraction of square roots. but using a method quite distinct from that in the Elements which began in Book II. were different from Euclid's.10 does that. u is the unit line. multiplication.equations. and extraction of square roots as geometric constructions on lines. and Euclid didn't represent the product of four lines. division. Descartes was equally interested is using geometry to solve algebraic problems. He represented each (positive) magnitude by a line. That required selecting a unit line.C. His idea was to take an equation in one variable and find a geometric figure which can be used to solve the equation. But Descartes was systematic and was able to use the relatively recent invention of symbolic algebra to make more connections. The idea wasn't particularly new as even Menaechmus (fl. a and b are to be multiplied. and half a dozen propositions in Book X. then the fourth proportional for b. c. a line of length 1. To subtract one line from another. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proofs of VI. Then to find the product ab of two quantities a and b. In the diagram to the right. about 350 B.22. VI. This proposition VI. which are solutions to particular cubic equations. that is. Multiplication and division. the product of three lines by a box in space. .E) had about 50 years before Euclid intersected two parabolas to find cube roots.13. Euclid represented the product of two lines by a rectangle. just extend one by the length of the other. Omar Khayyam solved all cubic equations by means of parabolas and hyperbolas. the fourth proportional. Descartes began by interpreting the algebraic operations of addition. about 1100. and ab is their product. But Descartes took the product of two lines to be another line. Furthermore. If b and c are two quantities. and b. and 1 is the quotient c/b. by means of the semicircle and right angle construction described in the next proposition VI. he only needed to find the fourth proportional of 1. Addition and subtraction were the same as Euclid's. Descartes achieved the fifth operation. subtraction. To add two lines.23. just take the remainder after cutting it off the other. This same proposition works to construct the quotient of two quantities. however.

2002 D.11 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996.13 Previous: VI.Next proposition: VI.Joyce Clark University .E.

x is the square root of ab. in the right-angled triangle ADC. X. Algebraically. and join AD and DC.F.4 to find a square equal to a given rectangle.Cor This construction of the mean proportional was used before in II.E. and describe the semicircle ADC on AC. That is the mean proportional between two lines is the side of a square equal to the rectangle contained by the two lines.27.31 VI.25. Therefore a mean proportional BD has been found to the two given straight lines AB and BC.8. the two constructions are equivalent. By proposition VI. a : x = x : b if and only if ab = x2. BD has been drawn from the right angle perpendicular to the base. I. . it is right. Thus. Let AB and BC be the two given straight lines. It is required to find a mean proportional to AB and BC.17 coming up. Q. AB and BC. When b is taken to have unit length.Proposition 13 To find a mean proportional to two given straight lines.11 III. And.28. Draw BD from the point B at right angles to the straight line AC. and X. therefore BD is a mean proportional between the segments of the base. since. this construction gives the construction for the square root of a. Since the angle ADC is an angle in a semicircle. Place them in a straight line. Use of this proposition This construction is used in the proofs of propositions VI.

12 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.14 Previous: VI.Joyce Clark University .Next proposition: VI.E.

therefore AB is to FE as BC is to FE. and BC is to FE as BG is to BF.E. while DB is to BE as the parallelogram AB is to the parallelogram FE. BG is to BF as the parallelogram BC is to the parallelogram FE. Q. in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. I say that. Next. in AB and BC.11 .11 V. let DB be to BE as BG is to BF. I say that the parallelogram AB equals the parallelogram BC.1 V. the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional.Proposition 14 In equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional.9 I. and let DB and BE be placed in a straight line. Let AB and BC be equal and equiangular parallelograms having the angles at B equal. Therefore the parallelogram AB equals the parallelogram BC. and FE is another parallelogram. therefore also AB is to FE as BC is to FE.D. Since DB is to BE as BG is to BF.31 I.14 V. Therefore in the parallelograms AB and BC the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. But AB is to FE as DB is to BE. Therefore DB is to BE as BG is to BF. Complete the parallelogram FE. that is to say. and equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. Therefore FB and BG are also in a straight line. Therefore. DB is to BE as BG is to BF. and equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. and.7 VI. VI. Then since the parallelogram AB equals the parallelogram BC.1 V.

Joyce Clark University .16.13 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D. Next proposition: VI.30. and X. VI.This proposition is used in the proofs of propositions VI.22.E.15 Previous: VI.

and ADE is to ABD as AE is to AB.14 Join BD. and ABD is another triangle. that CA is to AD as EA is to AB. Since then the triangle ABC equals the triangle ADE. are equal. let the sides of the triangles ABC and ADE be reciprocally proportional. Therefore also AC is to AD as AE is to AB. that is to say. I. Therefore in the triangles ABC and ADE the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. Next. let AE be to AB as CA is to AD. Let ABC and ADE be equal triangles having one angle equal to one angle. and in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. namely the angle BAC equal to the angle DAE. I say that in the triangles ABC and ADE the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. V. I say that the triangle ABC equals the triangle ADE. that is to say. Therefore EA is also in a straight line with AB. and those triangles which have one angle equal to one angle.Proposition 15 In equal triangles which have one angle equal to one angle the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. therefore the triangle ABC is to the triangle ABD as the triangle ADE is to the triangle ABD. VI.7 But ABC is to ABD as AC is to AD.11 . Place them so that CA is in a straight line with AD.1 V.

14 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.9 Therefore. therefore the triangle ABC is to the triangle ABD as the triangle ADE is to the triangle ABD.11 V. This proposition is used in the proof of proposition VI. in equal triangles which have one angle equal to one angle the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. while AC is to AD as the triangle ABC is to the triangle ABD.Joyce Clark University . Therefore each of the triangles ABC and ADE has the same ratio to ABD. Therefore the triangle ABC equals the triangle ADE.E. Next proposition: VI.16 Previous: VI. Q.19. and AE is to AB as the triangle ADE is to the triangle ABD. since AC is to AD as AE is to AB. and those triangles which have one angle equal to one angle. and in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional.D. VI.1 V.If BD is again joined. are equal.

then the four straight lines are proportional.7 VI. and DH is the rectangle CD by E. for E equals CH. so that AB is to CD as E is to F.14 . E. But those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. Complete the parallelograms BG and DH. therefore the rectangle AB by F equals the rectangle CD by E. CD.Proposition 16 If four straight lines are proportional. I say that the rectangle AB by F equals the rectangle CD by E. if the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the rectangle contained by the means. And BG is the rectangle AB by F. Therefore in the parallelograms BG and DH the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional.31 Then since AB is to CD as E is to F. and F be proportional.11 I. V. for AG equals F. and F equals AG. then the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the rectangle contained by the means.3 I. Draw AG and CH from the points A and C at right angles to the straight lines AB and CD. therefore AB is to CD as CH is to AG. Let the four straight lines AB. I. and make AG equal to F. and. therefore the parallelogram BG equals the parallelogram DH. and CH equal to E. while E equals CH.

let the rectangle AB by F be equal to the rectangle CD by E. It is used occasionally in Book X.14.Joyce Clark University . With the same construction. if the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the rectangle contained by the means. VI.16 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D. therefore AB is to CD as E is to F. and the rectangle AB by F is BG. and AG to F.E. therefore BG equals DH. as enunciated in the next proposition. Therefore AB is to CD as CH is to AG.17 Previous: VI. But CH equals E.E.7 This proposition is a special case of VI.Next. Q. then the four straight lines are proportional. Therefore. But in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. since the rectangle AB by F equals the rectangle CD by E. is used throughout Book X and frequently in Book XIII. then the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the rectangle contained by the means.D. for AG equals F. but the special case when the means are equal and the second figure is a square. if four straight lines are proportional. And they are equiangular.14 V. and. for CH equals E. It hardly needs such a protracted proof. and the rectangle CD by E is DH. Next proposition: VI. I say that the four straight lines are proportional. so that AB is to CD as E is to F.

I say that A is to B as B is to C. Therefore A is to B as D is to C. Let the three straight lines A and B and C be proportional. while the square on B is the rectangle B by D. and. then the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the square on the mean.16 Next. VI. for B equals D. so that A is to B as B is to C. But. . for B equals D. Make D equal to B. since the rectangle A by C equals the square on B.7 V. Therefore the rectangle A by C equals the rectangle B by D. I. therefore the rectangle A by C equals the rectangle B by D. then the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the rectangle contained by the means. if the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the square on the mean. therefore the rectangle A by C equals the square on B. Then. if the rectangle contained by the extremes equals that contained by the VI. let the rectangle A by C equal the square on B. I say that the rectangle A by C equals the square on B. But the rectangle B by D is the square on B. then the three straight lines are proportional. and B equals D.11 But. With the same construction.Proposition 17 If three straight lines are proportional.3 V. since A is to B as B is to C.16 means. then the four straight lines are proportional. therefore A is to B as D is to C. if four straight lines are proportional.

and.Joyce Clark University .E. then the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the square on the mean.18 Previous: VI.16 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D. then the three straight lines are proportional. Therefore. Q.D. Next proposition: VI.But B equals D. therefore A is to B as B is to C. if three straight lines are proportional. This is obviously a special case of the previous proposition. It is used very frequently in Books X and XIII.E. if the rectangle contained by the extremes equals the square on the mean.

32 VI. and the angle GBH equal to the angle FDE.23 Therefore the remaining angle CFD equals the angle AGB. Again. proportionally.16 V. on the straight line AB at the points A and B on it.4 V. I. It is required to describe on the straight line AB a rectilinear figure similar and similarly situated to the rectilinear figure CE.4 V. and the angle ABG equal to the angle CDF. proportionally. Construct the angle GAB equal to the angle at C. Therefore the triangle FDE is equiangular with the triangle GBH. Therefore FC is to AG as CD is to AB. construct the angle BGH equal to the angle DFE. Let AB be the given straight line and CE the given rectilinear figure. and as CD is to AB. Therefore the triangle FCD is equiangular with the triangle GAB. and as FE is to GH. on the straight line BG and at the points B and G on it.32 Therefore. Therefore.16 I. But it was also proved that FD is to GB as FC is to GA. and as ED is to HB. and as CD is to AB.23 I. and further as ED is to HB. I.Proposition 18 To describe a rectilinear figure similar and similarly situated to a given rectilinear figure on a given straight line. FD is to GB as FE is to GH. FD is to GB as FC is to GA. Therefore the remaining angle at E equals the remaining angle at H. VI.11 . Join DF.

17 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D. and the angle at E equals the angle at H.E.19 Previous: VI. and VI.F. This proposition is used in the proofs of propositions VI.E.Def. Although the figure has only four sides.And. if not from the text. and the angle DFE equals the angle BGH.1 It is evident from the diagram. Therefore AH is equiangular with CE. and the corollary is used in XII.25. Therefore the rectilinear figure AH has been described similar and similarly situated to the given rectilinear figure CE on the given straight line AB.28. Q. For the same reason the angle CDE also equals the angle ABH.17. therefore the whole angle CFE equals the whole angle AGH. and they have the sides about their equal angles proportional. Therefore the rectilinear figure AH is similar to the rectilinear figure CE. it is clear that the method applies to figures with more than four sides. Next proposition: VI. since the angle CFD equals the angle AGB.Joyce Clark University .22. that AB should correspond to CD. And the angle at C also equals the angle at A. VI. VI.

alternately. and join AG. and.Def.11 Since AB is to BC as DE is to EF. AB is to DE as BC is to EF.16 But BC is to EF as EF is to BG. Now since BC is to EF as EF is to BG. But BC is to BG as the triangle ABC is to the triangle ABG. therefore BC has to BG a ratio duplicate of that which BC has to EF.Proposition 19 Similar triangles are to one another in the duplicate ratio of the corresponding sides. Therefore the triangle ABG equals the triangle DEF. similar triangles are to one another in the duplicate ratio of the corresponding sides. VI.15 V. Let ABC and DEF be similar triangles having the angle at B equal to the angle at E. are equal.11 VI. V.7 Therefore. the first has to the third a ratio duplicate of that which it has to the second.9 VI. V. . therefore also AB is to DE as EF is to BG.Def. I say that the triangle ABC has to the triangle DEF a ratio duplicate of that which BC has to EF. and such that AB is to BC as DE is to EF. therefore the triangle ABC also has to the triangle ABG a ratio duplicate of that which BC has to EF. But those triangles which have one angle equal to one angle. therefore the triangle ABC also has to the triangle DEF a ratio duplicate of that which BC has to EF. so that BC corresponds to EF. therefore. V. Therefore in the triangles ABG and DEF the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. But the triangle ABG equals the triangle DEF.1 V.11 V. and in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. if three straight lines are proportional.11 Take a third proportional BG to BC and EF so that BC is to EF as EF is to BG.

then the first is to the third as the figure described on the first is to that which is similar and similarly described on the second.D.Joyce Clark University . and the corollary is used in the proofs of VI. This proposition is used in the proof of the next one. Corollary From this it is manifest that if three straight lines are proportional.6. Next proposition: VI.31.22.E.20 Previous: VI.18 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.Q. and X. VI.

GL.Def.6 Since then ABE and FGL are two triangles having one angle equal to one angle and the sides about the equal angles proportional. therefore the angle ABE equals the angle FGL. and into triangles equal in multitude and in the same ratio as the wholes.1 But the whole angle ABC also equals the whole angle FGH because of the similarity of the polygons. and the polygon ABCDE has to the polygon FGHKL a ratio duplicate of that which AB has to FG. VI. and let AB correspond to FG. . and into triangles equal in multitude and in the same ratio as the wholes. Join BE. Let ABCDE and FGHKL be similar polygons. therefore the remaining angle EBC equals the angle LGH.Proposition 20 Similar polygons are divided into similar triangles.1 VI. Now. CE.Def. so that it is also similar. therefore the angle BAE equals the angle GFL. VI.4 the triangle FGL. since the polygon ABCDE is similar to the polygon FGHKL. therefore the triangle ABE is equiangular with VI. and HL. and the polygon has to the polygon a ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. and AB is to AE as GF is to FL. I say that the polygons ABCDE and FGHKL are divided into similar triangles.

Join AC and FH. for they are to one another as their bases. Similarly we can prove.6 VI. ex aequali.32 V. therefore the triangle ABE is to the triangle BEC as the triangle FGL is to the triangle GLH. Also. proportionally. And.Def. LGH. and that the polygon ABCDE has to the polygon FGHKL a ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. and AB is to BC as FG is to GH. that is. and. Therefore the triangle ABM is equiangular with the triangle FGN. and BM is to MC as GN is to NH. and ABE. since the polygons are similar.22 VI. Then since the polygons are similar.22 VI.1 V. And AM is to MC as FN is to NH. AB is to BC as FG is to GH. and LHK are their consequents. the triangle ABE is to the triangle FGL as the triangle BEC is to the triangle GLH.And. But AM is to MC as the triangle ABM is to MBC. So that. that is. AM is to MC as FN is to NH. that the triangle BEC is to the triangle LGH as the triangle ECD is to the triangle LHK. therefore the angle BAC equals the angle GFH.6 I. and as AME is to EMC. and into triangles equal in multitude. therefore the triangle AMB is to BMC as ABE is to CBE. while FGL. Therefore also one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as are all the antecedents to all the consequents. EBC.1 VI. AM is to MB as FN is to NG. and ECD are antecedents. ex aequali. I say that they are also in the same ratio as the wholes. BE is to BC as GL is to GH. and the angle ABM also equals the angle FGN.16 . For the same reason also FN is to NH as the triangle FGL is to the triangle GLH. the angle ABC equals the angle FGH.12 V. Similarly we can prove that the triangle BMC is also equiangular with the triangle GNH. Therefore. BE is to AB as GL is to GF. Therefore. so that the triangle EBC is also similar to the triangle LGH.11 V. Therefore the triangle EBC is equiangular with the triangle LGH. For the same reason the triangle ECD is also similar to the triangle LHK. in such manner that the triangles are proportional.4 VI. the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle FGH. therefore AM is to MC as the triangle ABE is to the triangle EBC.11 V. V. therefore the remaining angle AMB also equals the remaining angle FNG. since the angle BAM equals the angle GFN. in addition. if BD and GK are joined. alternately. since the triangles ABE and FGL are similar. the sides about the equal angles EBC and LGH are proportional. that is AB to FG. and the angle BCA to the angle GHF. Therefore the similar polygons ABCDE and FGHKL have been divided into similar triangles. But AMB is to BMC as AM is to MC.

for similar triangles are in the duplicate ratio of the corresponding sides. And it was also proved in the case of triangles.E. and further as ECD is to LHK. and into triangles equal in multitude and in the same ratio as the wholes. therefore also one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents as the sum of the antecedents to the sum of the consequents. V. But the triangle ABE has to the triangle FGL a ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side AB has to the corresponding side FG.D.11 Q. in particular. Next proposition: VI. Therefore the triangle ABE is to the triangle FGL as the polygon ABCDE is to the polygon FGHKL. This proposition and its corollary are used occassionally in Books X. XII.Joyce Clark University . similar rectilinear figures are to one another in the duplicate ratio of the corresponding sides. generally.And since the triangle ABE is to the triangle FGL as EBC is to LGH.E. and XIII. Therefore.19 V. XII.12 VI. and the polygon has to the polygon a ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side.19 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D. similar polygons are divided into similar triangles. therefore also.8. Corollary Similarly also it can be proved in the case of quadrilaterals that they are in the duplicate ratio of the corresponding sides.1 and XII. Therefore the polygon ABCDE also has to the polygon FGHKL a ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side AB has to the corresponding side FG.21 Previous: VI.

Again.1 V. it is equiangular with it and has the sides about the equal angles proportional. I say that A is also similar to B. figures which are similar to the same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another.28. Let each of the rectilinear figures A and B be similar to C. Q. It also would have been useful in the proof of VI.29. VI. it is equiangular with it and has the sides about the equal angles proportional. VI. . Since A is similar to C.11 Therefore.Def.D.8.24. and VI.Proposition 21 Figures which are similar to the same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another. therefore A is similar to B. since B is similar to C.E. Therefore each of the figures A and B is equiangular with C and with C has the sides about the equal angles proportional. This proposition is used in the proofs of propositions VI.

Next proposition: VI.20 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.22 Previous: VI.Joyce Clark University .

Therefore. if the rectilinear figures similar and similarly described upon them are proportional. and.22 VI. so that AB is to CD as EF is to GH. V. and a third proportional P to EF and GH. But AB is to O as KAB is to LCD. therefore CD is to O as GH is to P. then the straight lines are themselves also proportional. and the similar and similarly situated rectilinear figures MF and NH be described on EF and GH.11 V. ex aequali. Let the four straight lines AB. VI. CD. and EF is to P as MF is to NH. Let the similar and similarly situated rectilinear figures KAB and LCD be described on AB and CD. EF.11 Then since AB is to CD as EF is to GH. I say that KAB is to LCD as MF is to NH. therefore KAB is to LCD also as MF is to NH. and GH be proportional.Proposition 22 If four straight lines are proportional.Cor V. Take a third proportional O to AB and CD. then the rectilinear figures similar and similarly described upon them are also proportional.11 . AB is to O as EF is to P.19.

let KAB be to LCD as MF is to NH.Next.12 VI. if the rectilinear figures similar and similarly described upon them are proportional. Q. Since then AB is to CD as EF is to QR. while QR equals GH. KAB is to LCD as MF is to NH. and. But also. and we want to conclude the corresponding sides GH and QR are equal. Therefore. therefore also MF is to SR as MF is to NH. therefore KAB is to LCD as MF is to SR.9 There is a missing step near the end of the proof. since AB is to CD as EF is to QR. and there have been described on AB and CD the similar and similarly situated figures KAB and LCD.11 V.18 Above V.E. But it is also similar and similarly situated to it. The needed demonstration is not difficult to supply. if EF is not to GH as AB is to CD. .D. therefore AB is to CD as EF is to GH. let EF be to QR as AB is to CD. if four straight lines are proportional. And. by hypothesis.4 in Book XII. and on EF and QR the similar and similarly situated figures MF and SR. I say also that AB is to CD as EF is to GH. then the rectilinear figures similar and similarly described upon them are also proportional. therefore NH equals SR. the justification of the statement that GH equals QR is missing. For. namely. Therefore MF has the same ratio to each of the figures NH and SR. VI. Just before it we have NH and SR are similar equal rectilinear figures. therefore GH equals QR. Describe the rectilinear figure SR similar and similarly situated to either of the two MF or NH on QR. then the straight lines are themselves also proportional. Use of this proposition This proposition is used in the proofs of several propositions in Book X and in XII.

21 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.Next proposition: VI.Joyce Clark University .23 Previous: VI.E.

Then the ratios of K to L and of L to M are the same as the ratios of the sides. Then DC is also in a straight line with CE. Let them be placed so that BC is in a straight line with CG.Proposition 23 Equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. I.31 a straight line K. so that K has also to M the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. But the ratio of K to M is compounded of the ratio of K to L and of that of L to M.11 VI.12 L is to M. therefore L is to M as the parallelogram CH is to the parallelogram CF.14 Complete the parallelogram DG. therefore K is to L as AC is to CH. and L is to M as the parallelogram CH is to the parallelogram CF. and BC is to CG as K is to L. and DC is to CE as L is to M. ex aequali K is V.11 Since then it was proved that K is to L as the parallelogram AC is to the parallelogram CH. therefore.22 to M as AC is to the parallelogram CF. Let AC and CF be equiangular parallelograms having the angle BCD equal to the angle ECG. VI. namely of BC to CG and of DC to CE.1 V. . Set out I. and make it so that BC is to CG as K is to L.1 V. I say that the parallelogram AC has to the parallelogram CF the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. Now since BC is to CG as the parallelogram AC is to the parallelogram CH. Again. and DC is to CE as VI. since DC is to CE as the parallelogram CH is to CF.

therefore AC also has to CF the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. Proposition XI.14 which constructed a square equal to a given rectangle. Finally. in this proposition we have the full statement about areas of rectangles and parallelograms. so they expressed this formula as a proportion. Early in this book was the proposition VI. finding a square or other shaped figure of the same area as the given rectangle or parallelogram. Analogous statements in other books Proposition VIII.35 which said two triangles on the same base and with the same height are equal." A natural generalization of the ratio of a rectangle to a square is the ratio of a rectangle to a rectangle. In Book XI there are analogous statements for volumes of parallelopipeds. equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. and ended with I. Of course. Note that his terminology for a product of ratios involves "compounding the ratios.D. Back in Book I and II the basic concept was "quadrature. We would state that proportion as saying the ratio of the area of a given rectangle to the area of a given square is the product of the ratios of the lengths of the sides of the rectangle to the length of a side of the square.But K has to M the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. That gives the generalization as stated in this proposition. Euclid and other Greek mathematicians did not use predetermined units of length or area. Such a formula depends on predetermined units of length and area so that the unit area is the area of a square whose sides have length equal to the unit length. the area of a rectangle is the product of its length and width. Therefore.1 generalizing I. That began with Proposition I. Areas of rectangles and parallelograms These areas have been treated earlier in the Elements.33 states that similar parallelepipeds are to one another in the triplicate ratio of their .35 which said that parallelograms with the same height are proportional to their bases. For instance.E." The discovery of incommensurable lines showed there were serious limitations to that version of the proposition. A broader generalization is the ratio of one parallelogram to another parallelogram having the same angles. This proposition is a generalization of the basic formula for the area of a rectangle. that is. Euclid would say that without using the words 'area' and 'length' as follows: the ratio of the a given rectangle to a given square is the product of the ratios of the sides of the rectangle to a side of the square." that is. That proposition is probably a much older version that may go back to the Pythagoreans when "all was number.5 states that plane numbers have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. Q.

24 Previous: VI. it is actually not used in the rest of the Elements.Joyce Clark University . Use of this theorem Although this is a basic proposition on areas.E.22 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996. 2002 D.corresponding sides. Next proposition: VI. That statement for parallelepipeds is analogous to this one for parallelograms.

and AC its diameter. proportionally.Proposition 24 In any parallelogram the parallelograms about the diameter are similar both to the whole and to one another. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. VI. V. proportionally. taken jointly. CF is to FA as DG is to GA. And.2 Again. BA is to AD as EA is to AG.29 . and let EG and HK be parallelograms about AC. the angle AFG equals the angle ACD. Therefore in the parallelograms ABCD and EG. For. and the whole parallelogram ABCD is equiangular with the parallelogram EG. therefore BE is to EA as DG is to GA. alternately. I say that each of the parallelograms EG and HK is similar both to the whole ABCD and to the other. and. the sides about the common angle BAD are proportional. Therefore.16 I.18 V. BE is to EA as CF is to FA.2 But it was proved that CF is to FA as BE is to EA. For the same reason the triangle ACB is also equiangular with the triangle AFE. since GF is parallel to DC. VI. since EF is parallel to a side BC of the triangle ABC. BA is to AE as DA is to AG. therefore the triangle ADC is equiangular with the triangle AGF. since FG is parallel to a side CD of the triangle ACD. and the angle DAC is common to the two triangles ADC and AGF.

Therefore.45 rectilinear areas were applied to lines. and CB is to BA as FE is to EA.E.21 V.25 Previous: VI.Def. rectilinear areas will be applied to lines but the areas will fall short of or extend beyond the end of the lines. since it was proved that DC is to CA as GF is to FA. Therefore each of the parallelograms EG and HK is similar to ABCD. But figures similar to the same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another.26 (its converse) and VI. For the same reason the parallelogram ABCD is also similar to the parallelogram KH. therefore. In the upcoming propositions VI. AC is to CB as AF is to FE. ex aequali. It is used in the proofs of VI.D. therefore the parallelogram EG is also similar to the parallelogram HK.23 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D. Therefore in the parallelograms ABCD and EG the sides about the equal angles are proportional. With this proposition Euclid returns to applications of areas.E.22 VI. Those propositions geometric solve two kinds of quadratic equations.28 and VI. DC is to CA as GF is to FA. DC is to CB as GF is to FE. Next proposition: VI. proportionally.29.29. This proposition is preporatory to them. AD is to DC as AG is to GF. And. VI. in any parallelogram the parallelograms about the diameter are similar both to the whole and to one another. and AC is to CB as AF is to FE. Therefore the parallelogram ABCD is similar to the parallelogram EG.1 Therefore.Joyce Clark University . Q. Back in proposition I.

and to CE the parallelogram CM equal to D in the angle FCE which equals the angle CBL.Cor VI. and LE with EM.16 . and D that to which it must be equal.18 V. if three straight lines are proportional. Take a mean proportional GH to BC and CF. Let ABC be the given rectilinear figure to which the figure to be constructed must be similar. Therefore.45 Then BC is in a straight line with CF. It is required to construct one figure similar to ABC and equal to D. and describe KGH similar and similarly situated to ABC on GH. I. But BC is to CF as the parallelogram BE is to the parallelogram EF. Then. Therefore also the triangle ABC is to the triangle KGH as the parallelogram BE is to the parallelogram EF. VI. Let there be applied to BC the parallelogram BE equal to the triangle ABC. alternately. and. then the first is to the third as the figure on the first is to the similar and similarly situated figure described on the second.13 VI.44 I. the triangle ABC is to the parallelogram BE as the triangle KGH is to the parallelogram EF.11 V.1 V.19. therefore BC is to CF as the triangle ABC is to the triangle KGH. since BC is to GH as GH is to CF.Proposition 25 To construct a figure similar to one given rectilinear figure and equal to another.

It is used in the proofs of propositions VI.E. but an alternate form of it.14. Therefore this figure KGH has been constructed similar to the given rectilinear figure ABC and equal to the other given figure D. (V.F. And the parallelogram EF equals D. Q. See the Guide to V.24 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996. therefore KGH also equals D.14) Note that it isn't proposition V.E.14 being invoked near the end of the proof.29 Next proposition: VI. a problem reputedly solved by Pythagoras.Joyce Clark University .28 and VI. to find a figure with the size of one figure but the shape of another.26 Previous: VI. And KGH is also similar to ABC. 1997 D.But the triangle ABC equals the parallelogram BE. therefore the triangle KGH also equals the parallelogram EF. This proposition solves a similar problem.

11 V. Therefore GA has the same ratio to each of the straight lines AK and AE. then. but. Q.31 Since. Therefore ABCD cannot fail to be about the same diameter with AF.Def. let AHC be the diameter. then it is about the same diameter with the whole. I.E. Therefore GA is to AK as GA is to AE. then it is about the same diameter with the whole. . VI. therefore DA is to AB as GA is to AK. ABCD is about the same diameter with KG.1 V.D. and having the angle DAB common with it. which is impossible. Therefore AE equals AK the less equals the greater.Proposition 26 If from a parallelogram there is taken away a parallelogram similar and similarly situated to the whole and having a common angle with it. For suppose it is not. Therefore the parallelogram ABCD is about the same diameter with the parallelogram AF. if possible. Produce GF and carry it through to H.9 Therefore. since ABCD and EG are similar. From the parallelogram ABCD let there be taken away the parallelogram AF similar and similarly situated to ABCD. Draw HK through H parallel to either of the straight lines AD or BC. VI. I say that ABCD is about the same diameter with AF.24 But also. therefore DA is to AB as GA is to AE. if from a parallelogram there is taken away a parallelogram similar and similarly situated to the whole and having a common angle with it.

27 Previous: VI.23 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D. It is used in the proofs of the next three and for a few propositions in Book X.Joyce Clark University .This proposition is the converse of VI. Next proposition: VI.E.24.

Then. of all the parallelograms applied to AB falling short by parallelogrammic figures similar and similarly situated to DB. that is. and FB is common. CB. that parallelogram is greatest which is applied to the half of the straight line and is similar to the difference. since CF equals FE.43 I. since AC also equals CB. Let there be applied to the straight line AB the parallelogram AD falling short by the parallelogrammic figure DB described on the half of AB. Therefore CG also equals KE. that is.26 I. Let there be applied to the straight line AB the parallelogram AF falling short by the parallelogrammic figure FB similar and similarly situated to DB. AD. and describe the figure. Add CF to each.36 . Therefore the whole AF equals the gnomon LMN. But CH equals CG.Proposition 27 Of all the parallelograms applied to the same straight line falling short by parallelogrammic figures similar and similarly situated to that described on the half of the straight line. Draw their diameter DB. I say that AD is greater than AF. VI. Let AB be a straight line and let it be bisected at C. Since the parallelogram DB is similar to the parallelogram FB. I say that. so that the parallelogram DB. is greater than the parallelogram AF. therefore they are about the same diameter. therefore the whole CH equals the whole KE. AD is greatest.

the part which falls short is usually a square.28 a construction is made to apply a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure to a line falling short by a parallelogrammic figure.28 Previous: VI. Q.28. VI. This proposition clarifies the limitations of the next one.E.Therefore. Next proposition: VI. And this proposition implies that can only be done if the given area is at least the square on half the line. of all the parallelograms applied to the same straight line falling short by parallelogrammic figures similar and similarly situated to that described on the half of the straight line. not just any parallelogram.D. that parallelogram is greatest which is applied to the half of the straight line and is similar to the difference. In VI. and this and the next proposition are much more easily understood in that case. since that square is the greatest rectangle that can be so applied. When that proposition is applied. This proposition implies that that construction cannot be made if the given rectilinear figure is too large. the next proposition applies a rectangle equal to a given area to a line but falling short by a square. In that case.Joyce Clark University .26 Book VI introduction Select from Book VI Select book Select topic © 1996 D.E.

if not.9 VI. If then AG equals C.Proposition 28 To apply a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure to a given straight line but falling short by a parallelogram similar to a given one. and complete the parallelogram AG. thus the given rectilinear figure must not be greater than the parallelogram described on the half of the straight line and similar to the given parallelogram. But. It is required to apply a parallelogram equal to the given rectilinear figure C to the given straight line AB but falling short by a parallelogram similar to D. Now HE equals GB. and D the given parallelogram. therefore GB is also greater than C. I.27 Bisect AB at the point E. and let C not be greater than the parallelogram described on the half of AB similar to the given parallelogram D. Let C be the given rectilinear figure. AB the given straight line. Describe EBFG similar and similarly situated to D on EB.18 . for the parallelogram AG equal to the given rectilinear figure C has been applied to the given straight line AB but falling short by a parallelogram GB similar to D. let HE be greater than C. VI. that which was proposed is done.

Let GQB be their diameter. Therefore there the parallelogr