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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Validation of Results of Analytical Calculation of Steady State Heat


Transfer in Nuclear Fuel Element using ANSYS APDL
J. C. Odii1, E. B Agyekum2, B. K. Afornu 3, M. N. S. Ansah4
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University,
1,2,3,4

Russia, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30, 634050


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Abstract - This research studied the analytical solution of fuel element material, this is because of the important role
the steady state analysis of heat conduction in a cylindrical played by heat transfer coefficient in removing heat from
nuclear reactors
Nuclear fuel element. The fuel element used for this modelling
was Uranium Oxide fuel, the cladding material was Zircaloy-2.
The model was a simple one, considering the fact that we
1.1 Formulation of Analytical result
excluded the effect of the gas gap in between the fuel pellet
Fourier’s equation of heat conduction in cylindrical
and the cladding material, we also excluded the effect of axial
coordinate without the axial and azimuthal terms
heating, this made us to assume an infinite length fuel element.
After the analytical solution was obtained, a graph of  
1   k f R f T   Q  c p T
temperature against the radial distance was plotted and   (1)
R f R f  R f  t
compared the result with the one obtained using ANSYS APDL,
the results were the same, hence our model was validated. The
Where is the density, is the heat capacity at constant
behavior of each of the contour along the radial direction
depicts the four (4) boundary conditions and therefore pressure, is the thermal conductivity and is the
validates the results of the Analytical solution. During the volumetric heat density in thefuel pellet.
validation, it was observed that the boundary conditions
taken, in reality actually affected the thermal flux and thermal Equation (1) is the transient equation of the fuel rod
gradient at the axial direction. From the Simulation results, conduction.
there was an observation that the thermal gradient and
If the conduction equation is time independent, then we
thermal flux along the axial direction were fairly constant,
have heat equation that is in steady state with internal
except for some dents at edges due to the little flashes of heat
heating ( ), hence we the poisson equation of heat
during heat transfer along the radial direction. This is normal,
as there is no perfect heat transfer medium. With this and conduction for the pellet and laplace equation of heat for the
other results obtained from the Simulation, the research can cladding material.
say that the aim of validating Steady State Heat Transfer of
Nuclear Fuel Element was accomplished. 1 d  dT 
k f Rf Q 0 (2)

R f dR f  dR f 
Key Words: Analytical, steady, ANSYS, APDL, heat,
conduction, simulation, cladding, nuclear fuel, element,   (3)
calculations transfer, temperature, heat flux, thermal
d  R f dTcl   0
dR f  dR 
gradient.  f 

1.INTRODUCTION Where are the heat conductivity and


temperature of the fuel pellet and temperature of the
Heat removal from nuclear reactors involves the cladding.
removal of heat from the cylindrical fuel elements, this
occurs in the radial direction, through the principles of By taking boundary conditions, we can solve the steady
heat resistances by conduction. The thermal properties of state case, analytically.
fuel materials plays an important role in heat
removal in nuclear reactors. Properties such as thermal
conductivity, specific heat capacity and density
 dT f 
  0 (4)
depends on temperature. Hence materials with very bad  dR 
 f  R 0
thermal coductivity will definitely be a bad nuclear

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1050
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

 dT f   dT  QR1
2
(13)
kf    k cl  cl  (5) A2  
 dR   dR  2k cl
 f  R R1  f  R R1
2 (14)
 dT  (6) dTcl

1 QR1
kcl   cl   hTcl ( R2 )  Tcool 
 dR  dR f R f 2k cl
 f  R R2
(15)
ln R f   A3
2
T f R1   Tcl R1 
QR1
(7) Tcl  
2kcl
The boundary conditions (4), (5), (6) and (7), shows that
Applying boundary condition in (6) we have:
(a) temperature is constant at the innermost part of the fuel
pellet, hence temperature gradient is zero, (b) at the layer
 QR12   QR12  (16)
between the pellet outer diameter and the cladding inner kcl     h 
  ln R2   A3  Tcool 
diameter, the heat flux is constant or the linear heat density  2kcl R2   2k cl 
is constant, (c) at the outer boundary between the cladding 2 2 (17)
ln R2   Tcool
QR1 QR1
and the coolant, the thermal flux depends on the A3  
2hR2 2kcl
temperature difference of the cladding and the coolant, and
the heat transfer coefficient of the coolant. (18)
QR1  R2 
2 2
QR1
Tcl   ln  Tcool
Solving equation (2) 2hR2 2k cl  R f 

1 d  dT  Integrating (10), we have:


k f Rf  Q (8)

R f dR f  dR f  2

T f R f   
QR f (19)
 A4
dT f QR f A1 (9) 4k f
 
dR f 2k f k f Rf
Using the boundary condition (7)
Applying boundary condition of equation (4), we have: 2 2 2 2

QR1
ln R1  
QR1

QR1
ln R2   Tcool  
QR1
 A4 (20)
2kcl 2hR2 2kcl 4k f
A1  0
2 2 2 2
A4  
QR1
ln R1  
QR1

QR1
ln R2   Tcool 
QR1 (21)
We therefore have: 2k cl 2hR2 2k cl 4k f

dT f QR f We can obtain the fuel pellet temperature distribution thus:


 (10)
dR f 2k f
R 
2

T f R f   
2 2 2
QR f

QR1

QR1
ln  2   Tcool 
QR1 (22)
Solving (3) 4k f 2hR2 2k cl  R1  4k f

 
d  R f dTcl   0
dR f  dR 
 f 

dTcl A (11)
 2
dR f Rf

Applying boundary condition in (5) we have:

  QR1   
kf    k cl  A2  (12)
 2k  R 
 f   1

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1051
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Fuel geometrical and thermal parameters used for this system. Therefore, the research can say that while PTC-
validation exercise are as follows: MATHCAD helped we to solve the Analytical solution, ANSYS
APDL assisted with the numerical simulation result.
Table – 1: Table of parameters
Using PTC-MATHCAD worksheet we plotted the
analytical results

0.018m

1.2 Analytical Results

A graph of the temperature as a function of radius was


plotted to observe how it changes within the fuel rod both in
the pellet and the cladding, especially at the point where the
pellet and the cladding overlap. In this work, our fuel rod is
assumed to have infinite length, this is the essence of the
boundary condition imposed to ease the analytical
calculation. The resulting graph below showed a good
behavior of the model, which will be validated using ANSYS
APDL.

The PTC-MATHCAD toolbox was used to compute and plot Chart -1: Temperature versus radius at steady state for
the analytical solution it is user friendly computing Analytical solution
environment with a lot of symbolic solution which provides
an accurate analysis of result. As can be seen from the graph Numerical Simulation results for the steady state heat
below, the plotting is quite simple with simple labeling transfer using ANSYS APDL are as follows:

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1052
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Chart -2: Radial Temperature distribution contour Chart – 5: Radial thermal flux distribution graph

Chart – 3: Radial Temperature Distribution Graph Chart – 6: Radial Thermal gradient distribution contour

Chart – 4: Radial thermal flux distribution contour Chart – 7: Radial Thermal gradient distribution graph

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1053
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Chart – 8: Axial thermal flux distribution contour Chart – 11: Axial thermal gradient distribution graph

2. Conclusion:

The contour distributions and the corresponding graphical


representations obtained from the Numerical simulation,
corresponds to the boundary conditions taken in the
analytical solution. The behavior of each of the contour along
the radial direction depicts the four (4) boundary conditions
and therefore validates the results of the Analytical solution.
During the validation, it was observed that the boundary
conditions taken in reality actually affected the thermal flux
and thermal gradient at the axial direction. From the
Simulation results, the research observed that the thermal
gradient and thermal flux along the axial direction were
Chart – 9: Axial thermal flux distribution graph fairly constant, except for some dents at edges due to the
little flashes of heat during heat transfer along the radial
direction. This is normal, as there is no perfect heat transfer
medium. With this and other results obtained from the
Simulation, the research can conclude that the aim of
validating Steady State Heat Transfer of Nuclear Fuel
Element was accomplished.

References

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clad nuclear fuel rod in COMSOL”, Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, 2014

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sweden, 2004

3. Phillipp Hangi, “investigating BWR stability


with a new linear frequency-domain method and
detailed 3D Neutronics”

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1054
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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